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School of Engineering, Discipline of Mechanical Engineering

Super Eta Engine
Analysis and Report
Dynamics II
Joel Forbes – Harper 3146568
Super Eta Engine 2
This report is concerned with the BMW Super Eta engine. It ais to deterine if using the original
Eta connecting rods o!er the connecting rods produced for the ".#i series BMW engine has any
significant changes to the Super Eta$s running. The iportance of the choice of conrod in the Super
Eta, while seeingly negligi%le, could potentially affect the engines o!erall power output and
lifespan. This report aied to in!estigate the e&tent of ipact that using the shorter original eta
conrods has on the Super Eta, o!er the con!entionally preferred ".#i conrod.
Through 'ineatic and 'inetic analysis of the Super Eta with !aried conrod length, the report
confired con!entional wisdo that the original eta conrod of length ()* cause greater loading
on the +ournal %earing, the gudgeon pin and the cylinder wall, as well as resulting in a greater piston
acceleration, while the longer rod resulted in saller loading.
Although there is a nota%le difference %etween the conrods in ters of the resulting acceleration of
the piston, as well as the loadings on the gudgeon pin and +ournal %earing, the difference is negligi%le.
The difference in conrod length will result in no noticea%le increases of wear on parts or increases in
perforance. It is this report$s recoendation that the use of the original Eta conrods is accepta%le
and e!en prefera%le in ters of cost and a!aila%ility.
There is a significant difference %etween the conrods in ters of the resulting acceleration of the
piston, as well as the loadings on the gudgeon pin and +ournal %earing. The ipact of using the
original eta conrod is such that it will ad!ersely affect the engine$s running through increased wear on
the piston, conrod and cran'shaft, increasing the li'elihood of engine failure. It is this report$s
recoendation that the ".#i conrod is a ore accepta%le and ore !ia%le option, e!en with liited
a!alia%lilty of the parts. negligi%le.
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Super Eta Engine 3
,i!en the worlds e!er shrin'ing supply of petroleu fuel products, it is of particular iportance that
the engineering of autoo%iles reflect a need to conser!e fuel. The trend in the industry has %een
toward fuel efficiency since the early (-.*$s, and has intensified since then as the glo%e %ecoes
ore conscious of its ecological footprint. It is especially iportant to note howe!er, that the
challenge of designing efficient engines coes not +ust fro lowering consuption and waste, %ut
also fro ensuring an accepta%le and copetiti!e le!el of power output can %e o%tained fro the
engine. This pro%le is particularly apparent in the design of the Super Eta engine.
The Super Eta is an offshoot of the Eta engine ade %y BMW in the eighties, which focused on fuel
efficiency. While the Eta engine achie!ed fuel efficiency, with this cae a trade off of outright power.
As such, the Super Eta aied to aintain the original Eta$s efficiency while producing significantly
ore power, effecti!ely %alancing the drop in fuel consuption with a %oosted power output. In the
Super eta, there is a choice to %e ade on the type of conrod used/ a ()* long one fro the
original Eta, or a longer ()# conrod fro the ".#i engine. While %oth conrods wor' in the engine,
there is liited 'nowledge on the o!erall effects the use of conrod has on the Super Eta. To a!oid
negating the effort put into %alancing the fuel econoy with power output, it is therefore iportant to
fully e&plore the effects that the choice of conrod has on the engine$s perforance and longe!ity.
The pro%le in particular concerns itself with deterining the loadings on iportant coponents of
the engine, as well as the resulting acceleration of the piston associated with each conrod. The data
recorded for %oth conrods ust then %e copared to highlight any significant differences, and the
effects of these differences e!aluated in order to 0uantitati!ely conclude if there are any nota%le
ad!erse ipacts fro using a particular conrod.
This will %e achie!ed through pro%les of 'ineatics associated with idealised rigid %odies, as well
as the 'inetics of a echanical syste. 1ro here, a coputer siulation will %e %uilt to odel
profiles of significant properties of the syste for ease of coparison.
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Super Eta Engine 4
Analysis o" t#e system
Analysis of the syste was perfored largely using odel %ased representations of the coponents.
The cran'2conrod2piston asse%ly was pro!ided as a detailed diagra of a single piston and conrod
attached to the cran'shaft, seen in figure (.
1or the purposes of further analysis, the a%o!e diagra was siplified to a uch ore copact
odel, pictured in 1igure ". This allowed for a uch clearer approach to calculation and o%ser!ation
of the syste. 3alue sy%ols and 'ey geoetrical points are consistent in
figures ( and ".
Two !alues, 4 5theta6 and 7 5phi6 ha!e %een added to trac' the angular
displaceent of %oth the conrod and cran'throw.
It can %e o%ser!ed through siple trigonoetric relation that8
It was stipulated that all analysis was to %e ta'en at the a&iu designed
re!olution rate, 9*** R:M. 1or all calculation purposes this was
con!erted into radians per second, and interpreted as the angular
!elocity of the cran'shaft AB, denoted ;
= 9***
& ">
& (
?* sec

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Figure 1 !etaile" "iagra# of engine asse#$ly% along with relevant infor#ation for
varie" conro"&
Figure ' ("ealise" syste# use"
in )ine#atic analysis
Super Eta Engine 5
= 9)).*).)
This eans that the syste undergoes a single cycle after a specific tie, denoted as @T$, where T is8
T= ( < fre0uency = (< 59***<?*6
T =*.**.#9(A".
Simplifcations of the model
• Bo & displaceent of the piston
• Rigid %odies
• Energy ass, oentu all conser!ed
• 1rictionless piston o!eents
• Bo energy loss due to heat at +oints
• Bo forces due to co%ustion
• Assue 4 * ;
It was at this point that 'ineatics was introduced to deterine 'ey !alues for the syste.
Determination of Piston properties
1ro figure one, and fro the e0uation for the !elocity of a rigid lin'8
Siilarly, the !elocity of point C could %e e&presses as8
Dsing our pre!ious assuption that there is no o!eent of the piston in the & direction, we can put
all of 3c$s i coponents e0ual to Eero, put 7 in ters of 4 and use our assuption that 4 = ;
To get the angular acceleration of lin' BC 5the conrod6, the deri!ati!e of ;
was ta'en8
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Super Eta Engine 6
Boting that the piston o!es only up and down, we can consider the G coponents of 3c to %e the
!elocity of the piston, then su% in the e0uation for ;

A siilar e&pression for the acceleration of the piston can %e o%tained %y differentiating 3c.
As can %e seen, the !alues R, ,
an" t are the sa#e for $oth conro"s use"% $ut the
results of all the a$ove vary with -&
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