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**2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 1
**

MECH466: Automatic Control MECH466: Automatic Control

Dr. Ryozo Nagamune Dr. Ryozo Nagamune

Department of Mechanical Engineering Department of Mechanical Engineering

University of British Columbia University of British Columbia

Lecture 2 Lecture 2

Laplace transform Laplace transform

2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 2

About laboratory About laboratory

Each Lab group consists of about 4 students. Each Lab group consists of about 4 students.

By Jan. 9 (Fri): By Jan. 9 (Fri): Register both the course and the lab. Register both the course and the lab.

By Jan. 12 (Mon) By Jan. 12 (Mon): The instructor will decide the : The instructor will decide the

groups, and post tentative groups on Vista. groups, and post tentative groups on Vista.

By Jan. 13 (Tue): By Jan. 13 (Tue): Contact the instructor in case of Contact the instructor in case of

inconvenience. inconvenience.

By Jan. 16 (Fri): By Jan. 16 (Fri): Lab groups will be finalized and Lab groups will be finalized and

posted on Vista. posted on Vista.

Jan. 19 (Mon): Jan. 19 (Mon): Lab starts. See the schedule Lab starts. See the schedule

MECH466_LabSchedule_0809.pdf MECH466_LabSchedule_0809.pdf

2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 3

Course roadmap Course roadmap

Laplace transform Laplace transform

Transfer function Transfer function

Models for systems Models for systems

• •electrical electrical

• •mechanical mechanical

• •electromechanical electromechanical

Linearization Linearization

Modeling Modeling Analysis Analysis Design Design

Time response Time response

• •Transient Transient

• •Steady state Steady state

Frequency response Frequency response

• •Bode plot Bode plot

Stability Stability

• •Routh Routh- -Hurwitz Hurwitz

• •Nyquist Nyquist

Design specs Design specs

Root locus Root locus

Frequency domain Frequency domain

PID & Lead PID & Lead- -lag lag

Design examples Design examples

Matlab Matlab simulations & laboratories simulations & laboratories

2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 4

Laplace transform Laplace transform

One of most important math tools in the course! One of most important math tools in the course!

Definition: For a function Definition: For a function f(t f(t) ( ) (f(t f(t)=0 for t<0), )=0 for t<0),

We denote Laplace transform of We denote Laplace transform of f(t f(t) by ) by F(s F(s). ).

f(t f(t ) )

t t

0 0

F(s F(s) )

(s: complex variable)

2

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Advantages of s Advantages of s- -domain domain

We can transform an ordinary differential We can transform an ordinary differential

equation into an algebraic equation which is equation into an algebraic equation which is

easy to solve. easy to solve. (Next lecture) (Next lecture)

It is easy to analyze and design interconnected It is easy to analyze and design interconnected

(series, feedback etc.) systems. (series, feedback etc.) systems. (Throughout the (Throughout the

course) course)

Frequency domain information of signals can be Frequency domain information of signals can be

dealt with. dealt with. (Lectures for frequency responses: (Lectures for frequency responses:

after midterm) after midterm)

2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 6

Examples of Laplace transform Examples of Laplace transform

Unit step function Unit step function

Unit ramp function Unit ramp function

f(t f(t ) )

t t

0 0

1 1

f(t f(t ) )

t t

0 0

(Memorize this!)

(Integration by parts)

2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 7

Integration by parts Integration by parts

Formula Formula

Why? Why?

2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 8

Ex. of Laplace transform (cont Ex. of Laplace transform (cont’ ’d) d)

Unit impulse function Unit impulse function

Exponential function Exponential function

f(t f(t ) )

t t

0 0

f(t f(t ) )

t t

0 0

1 1

(Memorize this!)

Width = 0 Width = 0

Height = Height = inf inf

Area = 1 Area = 1

3

2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 9

Examples of Laplace transform (cont Examples of Laplace transform (cont’ ’d) d)

Sine function Sine function

Cosine function Cosine function

(Memorize these!)

Remark: Remark: Instead of computing Laplace Instead of computing Laplace

transform for each function, and/or transform for each function, and/or

memorizing complicated Laplace transform, memorizing complicated Laplace transform,

use the use the Laplace transform table Laplace transform table ! !

2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 10

Laplace transform table Laplace transform table

(Table 2.1 of the textbook) (Table 2.1 of the textbook)

Inverse Laplace Inverse Laplace

Transform Transform

( (u(t u(t) is often omitted.) ) is often omitted.)

2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 11

Properties of Laplace transform Properties of Laplace transform

1. 1. Linearity Linearity

Ex. Ex.

Proof. Proof.

2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 12

Properties of Laplace transform Properties of Laplace transform

2.Time delay 2.Time delay

Ex. Ex.

Proof. Proof.

f(t f(t) )

0 0 T T

f(t f(t- -T) T)

t t- -domain domain

s s- -domain domain

4

2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 13

Properties of Laplace transform Properties of Laplace transform

3. 3. Differentiation Differentiation

Ex. Ex.

Proof. Proof.

t t- -domain domain

s s- -domain domain

2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 14

Properties of Laplace transform Properties of Laplace transform

4. 4. Integration Integration

Proof. Proof.

t t- -domain domain

s s- -domain domain

2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 15

Properties of Laplace transform Properties of Laplace transform

5. 5. Final value theorem Final value theorem

Ex. Ex.

if all the poles of if all the poles of sF(s sF(s) are in ) are in

the left half plane the left half plane (LHP) (LHP)

Poles of Poles of sF(s sF(s) are in LHP ) are in LHP, so final value , so final value thm thmapplies. applies.

Ex. Ex.

Some poles of Some poles of sF(s sF(s) are not in LHP ) are not in LHP, so final value , so final value

thm thmdoes NOT apply. does NOT apply.

2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 16

Properties of Laplace transform Properties of Laplace transform

6. 6. Initial value theorem Initial value theorem

Ex. Ex.

Remark: In this theorem, it does not matter if Remark: In this theorem, it does not matter if

pole location is in LHS or not. pole location is in LHS or not.

if the limits exist. if the limits exist.

Ex. Ex.

5

2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 17

Properties of Laplace transform Properties of Laplace transform

7. 7. Convolution Convolution

IMPORTANT REMARK IMPORTANT REMARK

Convolution Convolution

2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 18

Properties of Laplace transform Properties of Laplace transform

8. 8. Frequency shift theorem Frequency shift theorem

Ex. Ex.

Proof. Proof.

t t- -domain domain

s s- -domain domain

2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 19

Exercise 1 Exercise 1

2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 20

Exercise 2 Exercise 2

6

2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 21

Exercise 3 Exercise 3

2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 22

Summary & Exercises Summary & Exercises

Laplace transform (Important math tool!) Laplace transform (Important math tool!)

Definition Definition

Laplace transform table Laplace transform table

Detailed Detailed Laplace Laplace transform table is posted on Vista. transform table is posted on Vista.

Properties of Laplace transform Properties of Laplace transform

Next Next

Solution to Solution to ODEs ODEs via Laplace transform via Laplace transform

Exercises Exercises

Read Sections 2 Read Sections 2- -1,2 1,2- -2 up to page 34. 2 up to page 34.

By using the definition of the By using the definition of the Laplace Laplace transform, solve transform, solve

Problems 1 & 2 in page 94. Problems 1 & 2 in page 94.

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