You are on page 1of 6

1

2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 1
MECH466: Automatic Control MECH466: Automatic Control
Dr. Ryozo Nagamune Dr. Ryozo Nagamune
Department of Mechanical Engineering Department of Mechanical Engineering
University of British Columbia University of British Columbia
Lecture 2 Lecture 2
Laplace transform Laplace transform
2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 2
About laboratory About laboratory
Each Lab group consists of about 4 students. Each Lab group consists of about 4 students.
By Jan. 9 (Fri): By Jan. 9 (Fri): Register both the course and the lab. Register both the course and the lab.
By Jan. 12 (Mon) By Jan. 12 (Mon): The instructor will decide the : The instructor will decide the
groups, and post tentative groups on Vista. groups, and post tentative groups on Vista.
By Jan. 13 (Tue): By Jan. 13 (Tue): Contact the instructor in case of Contact the instructor in case of
inconvenience. inconvenience.
By Jan. 16 (Fri): By Jan. 16 (Fri): Lab groups will be finalized and Lab groups will be finalized and
posted on Vista. posted on Vista.
Jan. 19 (Mon): Jan. 19 (Mon): Lab starts. See the schedule Lab starts. See the schedule
MECH466_LabSchedule_0809.pdf MECH466_LabSchedule_0809.pdf
2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 3
Course roadmap Course roadmap
Laplace transform Laplace transform
Transfer function Transfer function
Models for systems Models for systems
• •electrical electrical
• •mechanical mechanical
• •electromechanical electromechanical
Linearization Linearization
Modeling Modeling Analysis Analysis Design Design
Time response Time response
• •Transient Transient
• •Steady state Steady state
Frequency response Frequency response
• •Bode plot Bode plot
Stability Stability
• •Routh Routh- -Hurwitz Hurwitz
• •Nyquist Nyquist
Design specs Design specs
Root locus Root locus
Frequency domain Frequency domain
PID & Lead PID & Lead- -lag lag
Design examples Design examples
Matlab Matlab simulations & laboratories simulations & laboratories
2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 4
Laplace transform Laplace transform
One of most important math tools in the course! One of most important math tools in the course!
Definition: For a function Definition: For a function f(t f(t) ( ) (f(t f(t)=0 for t<0), )=0 for t<0),
We denote Laplace transform of We denote Laplace transform of f(t f(t) by ) by F(s F(s). ).
f(t f(t ) )
t t
0 0
F(s F(s) )
(s: complex variable)
2
2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 5
Advantages of s Advantages of s- -domain domain
We can transform an ordinary differential We can transform an ordinary differential
equation into an algebraic equation which is equation into an algebraic equation which is
easy to solve. easy to solve. (Next lecture) (Next lecture)
It is easy to analyze and design interconnected It is easy to analyze and design interconnected
(series, feedback etc.) systems. (series, feedback etc.) systems. (Throughout the (Throughout the
course) course)
Frequency domain information of signals can be Frequency domain information of signals can be
dealt with. dealt with. (Lectures for frequency responses: (Lectures for frequency responses:
after midterm) after midterm)
2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 6
Examples of Laplace transform Examples of Laplace transform
Unit step function Unit step function
Unit ramp function Unit ramp function
f(t f(t ) )
t t
0 0
1 1
f(t f(t ) )
t t
0 0
(Memorize this!)
(Integration by parts)
2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 7
Integration by parts Integration by parts
Formula Formula
Why? Why?
2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 8
Ex. of Laplace transform (cont Ex. of Laplace transform (cont’ ’d) d)
Unit impulse function Unit impulse function
Exponential function Exponential function
f(t f(t ) )
t t
0 0
f(t f(t ) )
t t
0 0
1 1
(Memorize this!)
Width = 0 Width = 0
Height = Height = inf inf
Area = 1 Area = 1
3
2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 9
Examples of Laplace transform (cont Examples of Laplace transform (cont’ ’d) d)
Sine function Sine function
Cosine function Cosine function
(Memorize these!)
Remark: Remark: Instead of computing Laplace Instead of computing Laplace
transform for each function, and/or transform for each function, and/or
memorizing complicated Laplace transform, memorizing complicated Laplace transform,
use the use the Laplace transform table Laplace transform table ! !
2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 10
Laplace transform table Laplace transform table
(Table 2.1 of the textbook) (Table 2.1 of the textbook)
Inverse Laplace Inverse Laplace
Transform Transform
( (u(t u(t) is often omitted.) ) is often omitted.)
2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 11
Properties of Laplace transform Properties of Laplace transform
1. 1. Linearity Linearity
Ex. Ex.
Proof. Proof.
2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 12
Properties of Laplace transform Properties of Laplace transform
2.Time delay 2.Time delay
Ex. Ex.
Proof. Proof.
f(t f(t) )
0 0 T T
f(t f(t- -T) T)
t t- -domain domain
s s- -domain domain
4
2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 13
Properties of Laplace transform Properties of Laplace transform
3. 3. Differentiation Differentiation
Ex. Ex.
Proof. Proof.
t t- -domain domain
s s- -domain domain
2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 14
Properties of Laplace transform Properties of Laplace transform
4. 4. Integration Integration
Proof. Proof.
t t- -domain domain
s s- -domain domain
2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 15
Properties of Laplace transform Properties of Laplace transform
5. 5. Final value theorem Final value theorem
Ex. Ex.
if all the poles of if all the poles of sF(s sF(s) are in ) are in
the left half plane the left half plane (LHP) (LHP)
Poles of Poles of sF(s sF(s) are in LHP ) are in LHP, so final value , so final value thm thmapplies. applies.
Ex. Ex.
Some poles of Some poles of sF(s sF(s) are not in LHP ) are not in LHP, so final value , so final value
thm thmdoes NOT apply. does NOT apply.
2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 16
Properties of Laplace transform Properties of Laplace transform
6. 6. Initial value theorem Initial value theorem
Ex. Ex.
Remark: In this theorem, it does not matter if Remark: In this theorem, it does not matter if
pole location is in LHS or not. pole location is in LHS or not.
if the limits exist. if the limits exist.
Ex. Ex.
5
2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 17
Properties of Laplace transform Properties of Laplace transform
7. 7. Convolution Convolution
IMPORTANT REMARK IMPORTANT REMARK
Convolution Convolution
2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 18
Properties of Laplace transform Properties of Laplace transform
8. 8. Frequency shift theorem Frequency shift theorem
Ex. Ex.
Proof. Proof.
t t- -domain domain
s s- -domain domain
2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 19
Exercise 1 Exercise 1
2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 20
Exercise 2 Exercise 2
6
2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 21
Exercise 3 Exercise 3
2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 22
Summary & Exercises Summary & Exercises
Laplace transform (Important math tool!) Laplace transform (Important math tool!)
Definition Definition
Laplace transform table Laplace transform table
Detailed Detailed Laplace Laplace transform table is posted on Vista. transform table is posted on Vista.
Properties of Laplace transform Properties of Laplace transform
Next Next
Solution to Solution to ODEs ODEs via Laplace transform via Laplace transform
Exercises Exercises
Read Sections 2 Read Sections 2- -1,2 1,2- -2 up to page 34. 2 up to page 34.
By using the definition of the By using the definition of the Laplace Laplace transform, solve transform, solve
Problems 1 & 2 in page 94. Problems 1 & 2 in page 94.