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**Revision of dB, dBW, dBm, dBV, etc.
**

Q. Define the terms dB, dBW, dBm, dBi, and Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR).

Q. Why do we use the dB scale? When do we use dB, dBW or dB?

Q. Find the gain in dB if a 10 mW signal is inserted into a transmission line and the measured power some distance away

is 5 mW? Repeat if the output is 20mW. Answer -3dB, +3dB

N

dB

=10 Log(5/10)= 10(-0.3)= -3 dB

Generally doubling power means 3 dB and halving power is -3 dB

Q. A network has an input of 5mW and a gain of +9dB. What power level in mW would be expect to measure at the

output port? Answer 40mW

Given that each 3dB is doubling power then 9dB corresponds to 2 * 2 * 2 = 8 times

So if the input is 5mW then output = 8 * 5 = 40 mW.

Alternatively using the formulae 9 dB = 10 log

10

( Output/ 5 mW)

Q. Fill the following table of approximate power ratios for various dB levels.

Decibels ± 1 ±2 ±3 ±4 ±5 ±6 ±7 ±8 ±9 ±10

Losses 0.8 0.63 0.5 0.4 0.32 0.25 0.2 0.16 0.125 0.1

Gains 1.25 1.6 2 2.5 3.2 4.0 5.0 6.3 8.0 10

You can use the calculator to work out the numbers in the table using

dB = 10 log(Power Gain ) where Power Gain = Output Power / Input Power

For + 2dB Power Gain = 10 ^( 2 /10) = 1.59

For -2 dB Power Gain = 10^(-2/10) = 0.63

Q. An antenna has an output of 10 W. What is its output in dBW and dBm? Repeat for 20W. Ans: 10 dBW and 40 dBm

Answer Power (dBW) = 10 log (Power/1W) = 10 log10 = 10 dBW = 10 +30 dBm = 40 dBm

Alternatively Power (dBm) = 10 log (Power in mW/1mW)= 10 log (10000mW/1mW)= 40 dBm

Q. Prove that Power in dBm = Power in dBW + 30

Power (dBm) = 10 log (Power in mW/1mW)

= 10 log (1000 * Power in W/1) using log (x * y) = log (x) + log (y) high school math

= 10 log (1000) + 10 log (power in W/1)

= 30 + Power in dBW

Q. Fill following table with dBW and dBm values

Decibels 1W 100mW 10mW 1mW 0.1mW 0.01mW 0.001mW 0.0001mW

dBW 0 -10 -20 -30dBW -40 -50 -60 -70

dBm 30 20 10 0dBm -10 -20 -30 -40

Using the formulae 100mW in dBW = 10 log

10

( 0.1 W/ 1W) = - 10 dBW

Using the formulae 100mW in dBm = 10 log

10

( 100 mW/ 1mW) = 20 dBm

Q. Fill in the missing values in the figures below

Tutorial Wireless Basics

Exercise 1a: Output = - 6 dBm + 19 dB = 13 dBm = 10 ^ (13/10) = 20 mW

Alternatively – 6Bm = - 0.25 W

Gain of 19 dB = 10 * 2 * 2 * 2 = 80 power ratio

Output = 0.25 * 80 = 20 mW

Exercise 1b: Overall gain = -2 - 4 + 35 = 29 dB and Input = 1W = 0 dBW

Output = 0 dBW + 29 dB = 29 dBW

Alternatively: Gain of 29 dB = 10 * 10 * 2 * 2 * 2 = 800 power ratio

Output = 1W * 800 = 800 W = 10 log (800/1) = 29 dBW

Exercise 1c: Overall gain = -28 + 12 = -16 dB and Output = 40 mW = 16 dBm

Input = 16 dBW – (-16 dB) = 32 dBm

Exercise 1c: Overall gain = 32 - 6 = 26 dB and Output = -19 dBm

Input = -19 dBm – (26 dB) = -45 dBm = -75 dBW = 10 ^ (-75/10) = 31.6 * 10 ^ (-9) Watts

Q. Voltage Ratio Gain: If an antenna has a 20 dBi voltage ratio gain, what voltage ratio does the gain represent? = 10

Answer: For a voltage ratio, N

dB

= 20 = 20 log(V2/V1) = V2/V1 = 10

20/20

= 10

1

=10

Q. Fill following table with Power Ratio values

SNR +10dB +9dB +7dB +6dB +2dB +1 dB

Power Ratio 10 8.0 5 4 1.6 1.25

Q. What is the output of the ideal combiner (same as an adder)? Answer: +7.76 dBm

Answer: 6 dBm = 10 ^ 0.6 mW = 4 mW and 3 dBm = 2 mW

Combiner adds the signal power = 4 + 2 = 6 mW = 7.76 dBm

Tutorial Wireless Basics

Shannon and Nyquist Theorem

Shannon Channel Capacity C=B log

2

(1+SNR) where B is Bandwidth, SNR is Signal to Noise as a Power Ratio

Nyquist Bandwidth C=2B log

2

M where M= No. of discrete signal or voltage levels.

Hint: log

x

a = log

y

a / log

y

x

Q. The spectrum of a channel is between 30 MHz and 40 MHz and SNR

dB

=24 dB. Find the maximum channel capacity.

Based on Nyquist’s formula how many signalling levels are required? Answer: 80Mbps, M=16

Bandwidth = 40MHz - 30 MHz = 10 MHz

SNR

dB

=24dB=10 log

10

(SNR) => SNR=251 (Power Raio)

Using Shannon C=B log

2

(1+SNR)= 10

7

*log

2

(1+251)=80 Mbps

Now C=2B log

2

M => 8*10

7

=2*(10

7

)*log

2

M => 4=log

2

M => M=16

Q. Sydney University and UTS are linked by a microwave radio system with the following parameters.

Analogue bandwidth = 12 MHz

Signal to Noise Ratio = 100,000

Length of the channel = 4.6 km

Velocity of propagation of the signal = 2.9 x 10

8

ms

-1

(a). What is the maximum possible data rate that the channel will support? Answer=200Mbps

The maximum possible data rate is provided by the Shannon Limit:

B

max

= Wlog

2

(1 + S/N) = (12x10

6

)log

2

(1+100,000) ≈ ≈≈ ≈ 200 Mb/s (199.3 in fact!)

Source Coding

Q. Explain how digitized speech using PCM has a data rate of 64 kbps. Is this data rate used in all telecommunication

networks?

Answer

The bandwidth of human voice has been standardized at 4 kHz by the ITU.

An analogue speech signal has to be sampled, quantized, and digitized to convert it to a digital signal.

Nyquist Theorem states that a signal needs to be sampled at two times the highest frequency to be able to

reproduce at the receiver. So speech has to be sampled at 2*4000 = 8000 times a second.

Representing voice samples by an 8 bit pattern as in PCM provides sufficient quality for conversation.

Thus data rate = 8000 samples/sec * 8 bits/sample = 64 kbps.

In PSTN, a data rate of 64 kbps is the standard speech data rate.

In mobile communication, to efficiently use the available bandwidth, 64 kpbs

Q. Explain how digitized speech using PCM has a data rate of 64 kbps.

Answer

Q. A digitized TV broadcast is to be transmitted at 30 picture frames per second. The source uses a matrix of 480 x 600

pixels, where each pixel is a combination of 3 colours (red, green, blue) and each colour can have 10 intensity values.

a) How many possible values can each pixel take and how many bits are required to represent each pixel.

b) Find the source rate R in bps.

c) Can this TV broadcast be transmitted over a wireless channel with 4.5 MHz bandwidth and a 35-dB signal-to-noise

ratio.

Answer

a. Each pixel can take on (10*10*10=) 1000 values and can therefore be represented by 10 bits

2^5=32 2^6=64: 2^8=256 2^10= 1024

b Source Rate = (30 pictures/s) (480 * 600 pixels/picture)* 10 bits/pixel = 86.4*10

6

bps

c. We use the formula: C = B log

2

(1 + SNR)

B = 4.5 * 10

6

MHz = bandwidth, and SNR

dB

= 35

= 10 log

10

(SNR), hence SNR = 10

35/10

= 10

3.5

,

C = 4.5 * 10

6

log

2

(1 + 10

3.5

) = 4.5 * 10

6

* log

2

(3163) = (4.5 * 10

6

* 11.63) = 52.335 * 10

6

bps

NO, It cannot be transmitted.

Protocols

Q. What is protocol layering? Draw a diagram to illustrate this concept.

Tutorial Wireless Basics

Q. Protocols are often implemented in layers or stacks. Why is this so?

Q. List the major disadvantages with the layered approach to protocols.

Q. What is the 7-layer ISO Reference Model? List the names of each layer (in order from highest layer to lowest layer)

and give a single sentence explanation of the function of each layer

Fragmentation and Reassembly

Q. What is fragmentation in an IP network? Why is it performed? Where is it performed? How is it performed?

Q. What are the pros and cons of intermediate reassembly of an internet fragmented datagram versus reassembly at the

final destination?

Transmission Basics

Q. Distinguish between the terms transmission time, propagation delay and processing delay?

Q. Two wireless nodes connected by a 3km point-to-point link and a data rate of 10 Mbps.

(a) How long after one node begins sending a 1000 byte packet will it be completely received by the other?

(b) What is the round trip delay if the size of the ACK packet is 100 bytes. Draw a timing diagram to illustrate the situation.

Q. Find the round-trip delay of data sent between a satellite and the earth for LEO, MEO, and GEO satellites assuming

the speed of light is 3 × 10

8

m/s. If the maximum acceptable delay for a voice system is 30 milliseconds, which of these

satellite systems would be acceptable for two-way voice communication? Assume the following: GEO: geostationary

orbit, ca. 36000 km above earth surface; LEO (Low Earth Orbit): ca. 500 - 1500 km; MEO (Medium Earth Orbit) or ICO

(Intermediate Circular Orbit): ca. 6000 - 20000 km.

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