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2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 1
MECH466: Automatic Control MECH466: Automatic Control
Dr. Ryozo Nagamune Dr. Ryozo Nagamune
Department of Mechanical Engineering Department of Mechanical Engineering
University of British Columbia University of British Columbia
Lecture 3 Lecture 3
Solution to Solution to ODEs ODEs via Laplace transform via Laplace transform
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About laboratory About laboratory
Each Lab group consists of about 4 students. Each Lab group consists of about 4 students.
By Jan. 12 (Mon) By Jan. 12 (Mon): The instructor will decide the : The instructor will decide the
groups, and post tentative groups on Vista. groups, and post tentative groups on Vista.
By Jan. 13 (Tue): By Jan. 13 (Tue): Contact the instructor in case of Contact the instructor in case of
inconvenience. inconvenience.
By Jan. 16 (Fri): By Jan. 16 (Fri): Lab groups will be finalized and Lab groups will be finalized and
posted on Vista. posted on Vista.
Lab groups can be modified during this week. Lab groups can be modified during this week.
Please check it regularly. Please check it regularly.
Jan. 19 (Mon): Jan. 19 (Mon): Lab starts. See the files Lab starts. See the files
MECH466_LabInfo_0809.pdf MECH466_LabInfo_0809.pdf
MECH466_LabSchedule_0809.pdf MECH466_LabSchedule_0809.pdf
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Course roadmap Course roadmap
Laplace transform Laplace transform
Transfer function Transfer function
Models for systems Models for systems
• •electrical electrical
• •mechanical mechanical
• •electromechanical electromechanical
Linearization Linearization
Modeling Modeling Analysis Analysis Design Design
Time response Time response
• •Transient Transient
• •Steady state Steady state
Frequency response Frequency response
• •Bode plot Bode plot
Stability Stability
• •Routh Routh- -Hurwitz Hurwitz
• •Nyquist Nyquist
Design specs Design specs
Root locus Root locus
Frequency domain Frequency domain
PID & Lead PID & Lead- -lag lag
Design examples Design examples
Matlab Matlab simulations & laboratories simulations & laboratories
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Laplace transform (review) Laplace transform (review)
One of most important math tools in the course! One of most important math tools in the course!
Definition: For a function Definition: For a function f(t f(t) ( ) (f(t f(t)=0 for t<0), )=0 for t<0),
We denote Laplace transform of We denote Laplace transform of f(t f(t) by ) by F(s F(s). ).
f(t f(t ) )
t t
0 0
F(s F(s) )
(s: complex variable)
2
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Laplace transform table (review) Laplace transform table (review)
Inverse Laplace Inverse Laplace
Transform Transform
( (u(t u(t) is often omitted.) ) is often omitted.)
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Advantages of s Advantages of s- -domain (review) domain (review)
We can transform an ordinary differential We can transform an ordinary differential
equation into an algebraic equation which is equation into an algebraic equation which is
easy to solve. easy to solve. (This lecture) (This lecture)
It is easy to analyze and design interconnected It is easy to analyze and design interconnected
(series, feedback etc.) systems. (Throughout the (series, feedback etc.) systems. (Throughout the
course) course)
Frequency domain information of signals can be Frequency domain information of signals can be
dealt with. (Lectures for frequency responses: dealt with. (Lectures for frequency responses:
after midterm) after midterm)
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An advantage of Laplace transform An advantage of Laplace transform
We can transform an ordinary differential We can transform an ordinary differential
equation (ODE) into an algebraic equation (AE). equation (ODE) into an algebraic equation (AE).
ODE ODE
AE AE
Partial fraction Partial fraction
expansion expansion
Solution to ODE Solution to ODE
t t- -domain domain s s- -domain domain
1 1
2 2
3 3
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Example 1 (distinct roots) Example 1 (distinct roots)
ODE with initial conditions (ICs) ODE with initial conditions (ICs)
1. 1. Laplace transform Laplace transform
distinct roots distinct roots
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Properties of Laplace transform Properties of Laplace transform
Differentiation (review) Differentiation (review)
t t- -domain domain
s s- -domain domain
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2. 2. Partial fraction expansion Partial fraction expansion
Multiply both sides by s & let s go to zero: Multiply both sides by s & let s go to zero:
Similarly, Similarly,
unknowns unknowns
Example 1 (cont Example 1 (cont’ ’d) d)
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3. 3. Inverse Laplace transform Inverse Laplace transform
Example 1 (cont Example 1 (cont’ ’d) d)
If we are interested in only the final value of If we are interested in only the final value of y(t y(t), apply ), apply
Final Value Theorem: Final Value Theorem:
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Example 2 (repeated roots) Example 2 (repeated roots)
ODE with initial conditions (ICs) ODE with initial conditions (ICs)
1. 1. Laplace transform Laplace transform
Repeated roots Repeated roots
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2. 2. Partial fraction expansion Partial fraction expansion
To obtain A: To obtain A:
To obtain B: To obtain B:
unknowns unknowns
Example 2 (cont Example 2 (cont’ ’d) d)
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2. 2. Partial fraction expansion Partial fraction expansion
To obtain C: To obtain C:
unknowns unknowns
Example 2 (cont Example 2 (cont’ ’d) d)
Take derivative Take derivative
Let s go to Let s go to - -2. 2.
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3. 3. Inverse Laplace transform Inverse Laplace transform
Example 2 (cont Example 2 (cont’ ’d) d)
If we are interested in only the final value of If we are interested in only the final value of y(t y(t), apply ), apply
Final Value Theorem: Final Value Theorem:
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Properties of Laplace transform Properties of Laplace transform
8. 8. Frequency shift theorem (review) Frequency shift theorem (review)
Ex. Ex.
Proof. Proof.
t t- -domain domain
s s- -domain domain
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Example 3 (complex roots) Example 3 (complex roots)
ODE with zero initial conditions (ICs) ODE with zero initial conditions (ICs)
1. 1. Laplace transform Laplace transform
Complex roots Complex roots
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2. 2. Partial fraction expansion Partial fraction expansion
To obtain A, B & C: To obtain A, B & C:
unknowns unknowns
Example 3 (cont Example 3 (cont’ ’d) d)
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3. 3. Inverse Laplace transform Inverse Laplace transform
Example 3 (cont Example 3 (cont’ ’d) d)
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Example: Newton Example: Newton’ ’s law s law
We want to know the trajectory of We want to know the trajectory of x(t x(t). By Laplace transform, ). By Laplace transform,
M M
(Total response) (Total response) = = (Forced response) (Forced response) + + (Initial condition response) (Initial condition response)
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Ex: Mechanical accelerometer Ex: Mechanical accelerometer
Taken from Taken from Dorf Dorf & Bishop book & Bishop book
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Ex: Accelerometer (cont Ex: Accelerometer (cont’ ’d) d)
We would like to know how We would like to know how y(t y(t) moves ) moves when unit when unit
step step f(t f(t) is applied with zero ICs. ) is applied with zero ICs.
By Newton By Newton’ ’s law s law
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Ex: Mechanical accelerometer (cont Ex: Mechanical accelerometer (cont’ ’d) d)
Suppose that b/M=3, k/M=2 and Ms=1. Suppose that b/M=3, k/M=2 and Ms=1.
Partial fraction expansion Partial fraction expansion
Inverse Laplace transform Inverse Laplace transform
0 2 4 6 8 10
-0.5
-0.4
-0.3
-0.2
-0.1
0
Time[sec]
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
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Summary & Exercises Summary & Exercises
Solution procedure to Solution procedure to ODEs ODEs
1. 1. Laplace transform Laplace transform
2. 2. Partial fraction expansion Partial fraction expansion
3. 3. Inverse Laplace transform Inverse Laplace transform
Next, modeling of physical systems using Next, modeling of physical systems using
Laplace transform Laplace transform
Exercises Exercises
Read Sections 2 Read Sections 2- -2 up to page 42. 2 up to page 42.
Solve Problems 3 & 4 in page 94 (or page 28). Solve Problems 3 & 4 in page 94 (or page 28).