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**2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 1
**

MECH466: Automatic Control MECH466: Automatic Control

Dr. Ryozo Nagamune Dr. Ryozo Nagamune

Department of Mechanical Engineering Department of Mechanical Engineering

University of British Columbia University of British Columbia

Lecture 3 Lecture 3

Solution to Solution to ODEs ODEs via Laplace transform via Laplace transform

2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 2

About laboratory About laboratory

Each Lab group consists of about 4 students. Each Lab group consists of about 4 students.

By Jan. 12 (Mon) By Jan. 12 (Mon): The instructor will decide the : The instructor will decide the

groups, and post tentative groups on Vista. groups, and post tentative groups on Vista.

By Jan. 13 (Tue): By Jan. 13 (Tue): Contact the instructor in case of Contact the instructor in case of

inconvenience. inconvenience.

By Jan. 16 (Fri): By Jan. 16 (Fri): Lab groups will be finalized and Lab groups will be finalized and

posted on Vista. posted on Vista.

Lab groups can be modified during this week. Lab groups can be modified during this week.

Please check it regularly. Please check it regularly.

Jan. 19 (Mon): Jan. 19 (Mon): Lab starts. See the files Lab starts. See the files

MECH466_LabInfo_0809.pdf MECH466_LabInfo_0809.pdf

MECH466_LabSchedule_0809.pdf MECH466_LabSchedule_0809.pdf

2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 3

Course roadmap Course roadmap

Laplace transform Laplace transform

Transfer function Transfer function

Models for systems Models for systems

• •electrical electrical

• •mechanical mechanical

• •electromechanical electromechanical

Linearization Linearization

Modeling Modeling Analysis Analysis Design Design

Time response Time response

• •Transient Transient

• •Steady state Steady state

Frequency response Frequency response

• •Bode plot Bode plot

Stability Stability

• •Routh Routh- -Hurwitz Hurwitz

• •Nyquist Nyquist

Design specs Design specs

Root locus Root locus

Frequency domain Frequency domain

PID & Lead PID & Lead- -lag lag

Design examples Design examples

Matlab Matlab simulations & laboratories simulations & laboratories

2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 4

Laplace transform (review) Laplace transform (review)

One of most important math tools in the course! One of most important math tools in the course!

Definition: For a function Definition: For a function f(t f(t) ( ) (f(t f(t)=0 for t<0), )=0 for t<0),

We denote Laplace transform of We denote Laplace transform of f(t f(t) by ) by F(s F(s). ).

f(t f(t ) )

t t

0 0

F(s F(s) )

(s: complex variable)

2

2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 5

Laplace transform table (review) Laplace transform table (review)

Inverse Laplace Inverse Laplace

Transform Transform

( (u(t u(t) is often omitted.) ) is often omitted.)

2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 6

Advantages of s Advantages of s- -domain (review) domain (review)

We can transform an ordinary differential We can transform an ordinary differential

equation into an algebraic equation which is equation into an algebraic equation which is

easy to solve. easy to solve. (This lecture) (This lecture)

It is easy to analyze and design interconnected It is easy to analyze and design interconnected

(series, feedback etc.) systems. (Throughout the (series, feedback etc.) systems. (Throughout the

course) course)

Frequency domain information of signals can be Frequency domain information of signals can be

dealt with. (Lectures for frequency responses: dealt with. (Lectures for frequency responses:

after midterm) after midterm)

2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 7

An advantage of Laplace transform An advantage of Laplace transform

We can transform an ordinary differential We can transform an ordinary differential

equation (ODE) into an algebraic equation (AE). equation (ODE) into an algebraic equation (AE).

ODE ODE

AE AE

Partial fraction Partial fraction

expansion expansion

Solution to ODE Solution to ODE

t t- -domain domain s s- -domain domain

1 1

2 2

3 3

2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 8

Example 1 (distinct roots) Example 1 (distinct roots)

ODE with initial conditions (ICs) ODE with initial conditions (ICs)

1. 1. Laplace transform Laplace transform

distinct roots distinct roots

3

2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 9

Properties of Laplace transform Properties of Laplace transform

Differentiation (review) Differentiation (review)

t t- -domain domain

s s- -domain domain

2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 10

2. 2. Partial fraction expansion Partial fraction expansion

Multiply both sides by s & let s go to zero: Multiply both sides by s & let s go to zero:

Similarly, Similarly,

unknowns unknowns

Example 1 (cont Example 1 (cont’ ’d) d)

2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 11

3. 3. Inverse Laplace transform Inverse Laplace transform

Example 1 (cont Example 1 (cont’ ’d) d)

If we are interested in only the final value of If we are interested in only the final value of y(t y(t), apply ), apply

Final Value Theorem: Final Value Theorem:

2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 12

Example 2 (repeated roots) Example 2 (repeated roots)

ODE with initial conditions (ICs) ODE with initial conditions (ICs)

1. 1. Laplace transform Laplace transform

Repeated roots Repeated roots

4

2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 13

2. 2. Partial fraction expansion Partial fraction expansion

To obtain A: To obtain A:

To obtain B: To obtain B:

unknowns unknowns

Example 2 (cont Example 2 (cont’ ’d) d)

2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 14

2. 2. Partial fraction expansion Partial fraction expansion

To obtain C: To obtain C:

unknowns unknowns

Example 2 (cont Example 2 (cont’ ’d) d)

Take derivative Take derivative

Let s go to Let s go to - -2. 2.

2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 15

3. 3. Inverse Laplace transform Inverse Laplace transform

Example 2 (cont Example 2 (cont’ ’d) d)

If we are interested in only the final value of If we are interested in only the final value of y(t y(t), apply ), apply

Final Value Theorem: Final Value Theorem:

2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 16

Properties of Laplace transform Properties of Laplace transform

8. 8. Frequency shift theorem (review) Frequency shift theorem (review)

Ex. Ex.

Proof. Proof.

t t- -domain domain

s s- -domain domain

5

2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 17

Example 3 (complex roots) Example 3 (complex roots)

ODE with zero initial conditions (ICs) ODE with zero initial conditions (ICs)

1. 1. Laplace transform Laplace transform

Complex roots Complex roots

2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 18

2. 2. Partial fraction expansion Partial fraction expansion

To obtain A, B & C: To obtain A, B & C:

unknowns unknowns

Example 3 (cont Example 3 (cont’ ’d) d)

2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 19

3. 3. Inverse Laplace transform Inverse Laplace transform

Example 3 (cont Example 3 (cont’ ’d) d)

2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 20

Example: Newton Example: Newton’ ’s law s law

We want to know the trajectory of We want to know the trajectory of x(t x(t). By Laplace transform, ). By Laplace transform,

M M

(Total response) (Total response) = = (Forced response) (Forced response) + + (Initial condition response) (Initial condition response)

6

2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 21

Ex: Mechanical accelerometer Ex: Mechanical accelerometer

Taken from Taken from Dorf Dorf & Bishop book & Bishop book

2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 22

Ex: Accelerometer (cont Ex: Accelerometer (cont’ ’d) d)

We would like to know how We would like to know how y(t y(t) moves ) moves when unit when unit

step step f(t f(t) is applied with zero ICs. ) is applied with zero ICs.

By Newton By Newton’ ’s law s law

2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 23

Ex: Mechanical accelerometer (cont Ex: Mechanical accelerometer (cont’ ’d) d)

Suppose that b/M=3, k/M=2 and Ms=1. Suppose that b/M=3, k/M=2 and Ms=1.

Partial fraction expansion Partial fraction expansion

Inverse Laplace transform Inverse Laplace transform

0 2 4 6 8 10

-0.5

-0.4

-0.3

-0.2

-0.1

0

Time[sec]

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

2008/09 MECH466 : Automatic Control 24

Summary & Exercises Summary & Exercises

Solution procedure to Solution procedure to ODEs ODEs

1. 1. Laplace transform Laplace transform

2. 2. Partial fraction expansion Partial fraction expansion

3. 3. Inverse Laplace transform Inverse Laplace transform

Next, modeling of physical systems using Next, modeling of physical systems using

Laplace transform Laplace transform

Exercises Exercises

Read Sections 2 Read Sections 2- -2 up to page 42. 2 up to page 42.

Solve Problems 3 & 4 in page 94 (or page 28). Solve Problems 3 & 4 in page 94 (or page 28).

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