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This means "is", "am", or "are" (depending on the situation), though the meaning in English is a
lot broader than in Japanese. Some other words ( 「いる」 and 「ある」) also mean "is",
depending on the situation.
• Example: わたしはマイクです。 I am Mike.
• Example: これはペンです。 This is a pen.
This means "too", "and", or "also".
• Example: かれはサッカーがすきです。わたしもサッカーがすきです。 He likes soccer.
I like soccer, too.
• Example: けんはケーキもクッキーもた!した。 Ken ate both cake and cookies.
This means "at" or "in", and is used when spei!"ing where something happens.
• Example: "#は$%です&$'んき(&し!す。 Emi studies math at school.
This means "to", and is used when desribing a destination.
• Example: +",は-ーマ)いき!した。 Rieko went to Rome.
This is a general use preposition. #t an mean "in", "at", "to", "!or", and other general
prepositional phrases, depending on the ontext.
• Example: あ./)0'123456い。 Please give the book to that person.
• Example: 7)89が:;!す。 In winter, it snows.
This denotes the ob$et o! an ation.
• Example: あ.<が='>た。 That cat ate the ish.
This means "%on&t "ou ' (" or "Shall we ' (". #t&s an in)itation.
• Example: ケーキ'た!@んかA !on"t #ou have some cake$
• Example: 2いが'B!@んかA !on"t #ou %shall we& watch a movie$
This denotes a topi.
• Example: CDはEしいです。 'he is happ#.
This means "there is". #t is used !or non*li)ing things (use 「がい!す」 !or li)ing things).
• Example: F42.G)HーIがあ;!す。 There is a ball on the desk.
• Example: はこ.J)KLMンNがあ;!すか。 Is there a present in the bo($
This means "there is" or "is" and is used !or li)ing things.
• Example: あOこ.P.Q)8,RもS/がい!す。 There are two children under the
tree over there.
• Example: き(&しF)TJUVがい!すか。 Is Mr. Tanaka in the classroom$)
This is a partile used to lin+ nouns in a omplete list.
• Example: サXYはLZ[W)ん\んWX]^ッ_`かaし!した。 The salad was
made rom lettuce, carrot, and radish.
This is a polite )olitional phrase, meaning "#&ll" or "let&s".
• Example: >!し(&。 *et"s eat+
This is a polite )olitional phrase used !or suggestions.
• >!し(&か。 How about we eat$
This is used to lin+ )erb opulas, ending in "3" or "で", to "456い", ma+ing it into a re,uest.
• Example: b0cではdし3456い。 Please speak in ,apanese.
• Example: CWいe3456い。 Please go with him.
This is used to lin+ )erb opulas to "もいいです" meaning "it&s enough" or "it&s good". #t an be
used as a re,uest !or permission.
• Example: fgし3もいいです。 -an I cook$
This is used to lin+ opulas to " はいけ!@ん", meaning "it&s not good". #t is used to sold or
otherwise disappro)e.
• Example: サーXー.hiきはいけ!@ん。 'arah"s handwriting is not great #et.
-hrase meaning "!rom".
• Example: こ.jkはサンl@かaサンmXン_[n)いき!す。 This train goes rom
'an ,ose to 'an .rancisco.
いる, when used a!ter the 3 !orm o! a )erb, indiates that an ation is ongoing (progressi)e
tense, mar+ed in English b" "ing",) or in a ertain state.
• Example: oは pんでい!す。# am reading.
• Example: qrがsい3い!す。 The door is open.
• Example: tはuvし3い!す。 # am married.
• Example: ,wはxe3い!す。 The hildren are running.
#t means to go somewhere or to go do something.
• Example: oはyz){4。I go swimming.
• Example: Cは|}){eた。He went to stud#.
• Example: CDは~•){4。'he"s going to Tok#o.
This means "please don&t do", used in plae o! a "*te" !orm o! a )erb.
• Example: こ.;ん€'>dいで456い。Please don"t eat this apple.
• Example: O.0'p!dいで456い。Please don"t read that book
#t means to li+e doing something.
• Example: oはr•‚'ƒる.が„きです。I like watching anime.
• Example: CDは…&.がすきです。'he likes singing.
#t means to be good at something.
• Example: CDは…&.が\(&†です。'he"s good at singing.
• Example: あdたはy‡.がGhですか( /re #ou good at swimming$
#t means to be bad at something.
• Example: oはˆる.が*たです。I"m bad at dancing.
• Example: Cは|}する.がQhです。He"s bad at stud#ing.
#t means that someone hasn&t done something "et.
• Example: oは!5‰Š3い!@ん。I haven"t decided #et.
• Example: Cは!5‹e3い!@ん。He hasn"t returned #et.
#t means that something is more (interesting.expensi) than something else.
• Example: こ.0.Œ&があ.Ž••;•い。This book is more e(pensive than that
• Example: ‘i’.“が$%•;”か。*ibrar# is 0uieter than school.
#t means the best !rom something or the most (new.old.expensi)
• Example: あ.‘i’.dかでこ.0がい•–ん。This book is the best book in that
• Example: こ.—˜,.Jでクッキーがい•–ん„きです。.rom these sweets I like
cookies the most.
This means a plan or an intent o! doing something.
• Example: oは™š'ƒ){4Fも;です。I"m going to go see a movie.
• Example: あdたは›'|}するFも;ですか( !hat are #ou going to stud#$
?4/ ?)dる[edit]
#t means to beome ( #! used with 1na ad$eti)es it&s ad$/)dる, !or 1i ad$eti)es
it&s ad$/4dる.
• Example: あ.Dœはきれい)deた。That woman became beautiul.
• Example: こ.•žkはŸ4deた。。This bic#cle became old.
V stem + たいです[edit]
0reates the polite &want to do& !orm o! a )erb
Example * # want to eat some a+e * tは ケーキ' >たい です。* 1o+u*wa +2+i*o tabetai
?た; …?た;する[edit]
#t ma+es a list o! ati)ities or attributes. #t means something li+e "this and that.sometimes this
and sometimes some parts this in other parts that". %ith nouns or *na ad$eti)es it
beomes "?5eた; 3?5eた;する".
• Example: boは0'pんた;—˜,'>た;した。2esterda# I was reading a
book and eating sweets.
• Example: あ.™šは¡¢かeた;F!adかeた;する。That movie is interesting in
some parts and boring in other parts.
• Example: CDは£¤5eた;きれい5eた;する。'he"s nice and beautiul.
#t indiates that something has (or hasn&t e)er) happened in the past.
• Example: oは~•*{eたこWがある。I"ve been to Tok#o.
• Example: oはOれ'•いたこWがdい。I"ve never heard o this.
This is a partile used to lin+ nouns in an inomplete list.
• Example: <¥¦¥§が¨©ª)い!す。 There are cats and dogs and monke#s
%among other things& at the 3oo.
#t aents the sentene&s ontent or so!tens a re,uest or an order. #t ma" be also said as "'.で
す". %ith *na ad$eti)es and nouns it beomes "'d.です".
• Example: oは«¬しいんです。I"m bus# right now.
• Example: oは«O&\Jd.です。I"m cleaning right now.
• Example: -•[はするんですかA 4o #ou pla# tennis$ %at all, not right now&
#t means "too muh" or "too (big.small.expensi)".
• Example: ®T6んは>すzる。Mr. 2amada eats too much.
• Example: oは>©'¯いすzた。I bought too much ood.
• Example: こ._°±は²きすzる。This shirt is too big.
#t means "it&s better" or "it would be better", it ma" be also used to sa" that something should (or
shouldn&t) be done.
• Example: あdたはこ.0'¯&Œ&がいい。2ou should bu# this book.
• Example: oはあ.ケーキ'>dかeたŒ&がいい。I shouldn"t eat that cake.
#t means "beause" or "so". The ause is more impartial (li+e beause a building is red or tall)
than with "かa" or "5かa" where it&s more sub$eti)e (li+e beause "ou thin+ an apple tastes
good). %ith nouns and *na ad$eti)es it beomes "d.で".
• Example: こ.0は•い.で¯わdい。I"m not bu#ing this book, because it"s e(pensive.
• Example: あ.™š'ƒた.で³.™š'ƒ•&。I"ve seen this movie so let"s watch a
dierent one.
• Example: CDは´µd.で¶dい。'he isn"t coming because she"s sick.
#t means that something has to be done (lit: it&s bad not to do it).
• Example: あdたは¸¹'ºわad4•·いけdい。2ou have to inish #our homework.
%It"s not good or #ou to not inish #our homework.&
#t means something li+e "isn&t it.aren&t "ou.aren&t" or "right(". #t&s used when the spea+er
isn&t sure about something or in rhetorial ,uestions.
• Example: あdたは»¼!で‹るでし(A 4ou&ll ome ba+ be!ore 5 o&lo+, right(
• Example: これは0でし(( #t&s a boo+, isn&t it(
• Example: あ.¾Iは¿À\·dいでし(( That building isn&t normal, is it(
• Example: CはyÁdいでし(( 6e an&t swim, an he(
#t means "be!ore doing (something)" or "ago" (li+e 7 da"s ago).
• Example: >るÂ)h'Ãe3Q6い。Please wash #our hands beore eating.
• Example: oはļÂ)‹eた。I came back an hour ago.
#t means to do something a!ter doing something else.
• Example: Å23かaÆe3456い。Please speak ater thinking.
• Example: oはh'Ãe3かa>Ç'した。I had a meal ater washing m# hands.