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10 Stages of Rohingya Genocide

Written by Nora E. Rowley MD MPH
1. CLASSIFICATION: Categories to distinguish people into “us and them” by ethnicity, race, religion, or nationality. Muslims
• 2001 Anti-Muslim Violence in Burma cities including Sittwe and Kyaukpyu Rakhine State. Reports of orchestrated anti-Muslim violence in various places in Rakhine
• In several of the cases it is unlikely that the violence would have spread without being fanned and encouraged by someone in the monasteries.
• It is widely alleged that most larger monasteries in Burma have at least some monks who are in reality Military Intelligence operatives, who were used to
encourage the other monks toward communal violence.
• In each case the violence spread, and Muslim mosques, homes and shops were destroyed Muslim townspeople were hit with rocks, slashed by
machetes, beaten with sticks and burned families in their houses.
• Throughout most of the violence the Army and police, usually so quick to crush any public activity, either stood by or held back the Muslims but not the

2. SYMBOLIZATION: Labeling the classified group. The symbolization of a certain ethnicity, race or religion easily and visibly differentiates that group, and the gap
between two groups widens. “Government authorities still commonly refer to Rohingya as “Bengali,” “so-called Rohingya,” or the derogatory “kalar.”

3. DISCRIMINATION: A dominant group uses law, custom, and political power to deny the rights of other groups.
• 1982 Stripped and Denied of citizenship

• Nasaka (Border Security Force) was formed in 1992. The institution was specially designed to oppress Rohingya Muslims in Maungdaw District.

• July 2012, Myanmar’s Minister of Home Affairs told parliament that the authorities were “tightening the regulations [against Rohingya] in order to
handle travelling, birth, death, immigration, migration, marriage, construction of new religious buildings, repairing and land ownership and right to
construct building [sic] of Bengalis [Rohingya] under the law.”

4. DEHUMANIZATION: One group denies the humanity of the other group. Members of it are equated with animals, vermin, insects or diseases. Dehumanization
overcomes the normal human revulsion against murder. At this stage, hate propaganda used to vilify the victim group.
( L) Wirathu refers to Burma Muslims as “Mad dogs


Overcome revulsion against murder (R) “Mujarhid” taking Arakan land and daughter- Vilify victim group
8/24/14 3:35 PM Kevin Carroll backs leader of violent racist campaign against Rohingya Muslims |
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supposed break with extremism.
With “Tommy” now safely locked up, beginning an 18-month prison sentence for his part in a £162,000
mortgage fraud, it is perhaps time to turn our attention to Carroll – who, just like Lennon, was presented by
Quilliam as a man that had renounced his far-right, anti-Muslim past.
For anyone who is still stupid or blinkered enough to buy Quilliam’s lies, here from earlier today is Carroll
tweeting his support for Ashin Wirathu, the Buddhist monk who has inspired the ongoing genocidal
campaign against the Rohingya Muslim community in Myanmar. (The admiration is mutual – last year
Wirathu told the Times that his anti-Muslim movement “would like to be like the EDL”.)
Postscript: It’s worth noting that Carroll’s backing for the anti-Rohingya campaign is nothing new. Here
he is in November, retweeting inflammatory propaganda from an anti-Muslim racist posting as “Myanmar
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5. ORGANIZATION: Genocide is always organized, usually by the state, often using militias to provide deniability of state responsibility. Special army units or militias
are often trained and armed.
In 1991-92, the Burma’s military regime crushed opposition and repeat its 1978 Mass violence operation against Muslim Rohingyas in Rakhine State,
simultaneously promising Buddhist Rakhines that they could have the land of the Muslims in the hope that they would join in. Most Buddhists did not join in,
but the Army proceeded nonetheless and Muslim Rohingyas were driven out of their villages en masse once again, pressed into forced labour or forced toward
the border, raped and killed, many of their children murdered. Over 250,000 fled to refugee camps in Bangladesh, while others crossed the borders into Bangladesh and
India and disappeared.

6. POLARIZATION: Extremists drive the groups apart. Hate groups broadcast polarizing propaganda. Laws may forbid intermarriage or social interaction.
Extremist terrorism targets moderates, intimidating and silencing the center. Moderates from the perpetrators’ own group are most able to stop genocide, so are the first to
be arrested and killed.
(Left) August 2012 Rakhine Buddhist man forced to wear placard 'I am a traitor and slave of Kalar' and paraded around Myebon Township Rakhine States
for buying/selling groceries to “Kalars” A derogatory term for Rohingya



(M & R) Aung San Suu Kyi’s, Myanmar’s leading opposition politician, initial neutral anti-violence and respect for human rights responses to June 2012
crisis were propagated by pro-Military and anti-Muslim extremists as bias toward and support for illegal Bengali Muslims. Extremists target moderates

7. PREPARATION: National or perpetrator group leaders plan the “Final Solution” to the targeted group “question.” They often use euphemisms to cloak their
intentions, such as referring to their goals as “ethnic cleansing,” “purification,” or “counter-terrorism.” They indoctrinate the populace with fear of the victim group.
Leaders often claim that “if we don’t kill them, they will kill us.”
(L) After First June and before second October 2012 Mass Anti-Rohingya violence- National indoctrination to fear victim group
(Right) Rakhine look to Myanmar Police Force as they
congregate near Sittwe monastery before attacking a Rohingya village Organization and Preparation
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NLD and ASSK have been active in speaking out aloud for
the illegal Bengali-Muslims in Burma.
Unfortunately these Bengali-Muslims originally from Bangladesh
have been killing Burmese and Yakhine Buddhists since 1942
whenever and wherever they have had a chance and …just the
continuation of that tragic extermination of Buddhists by the
Muslims worldwide since the time of their Prophet Mohammed.
Rakhine Extremist Hla Oo’s June 9, 2013 Blog Post

8/24/14 2:15 PM Hla Oo's Blog: More Burmese and Yakhine Buddhists Killed in Malaysia
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Burmese Buddhists in Malaysia
even though NLD and ASSK have
been active in speaking out aloud
for the illegal Bengali-Muslims in
Unfortunately these Bengali-Muslims
originally from Bangladesh have been
killing Burmese and Yakhine
Buddhists since 1942 whenever and
wherever they have had a chance and
what is now happening in Malaysia is
the just the continuation of that tragic
extermination of Buddhists by the
Muslims worldwide since the time of
their Prophet Mohammed.
More Buddhist Killings In Kuantan and Sungai Besi
Malaysian newspapers reported the killing of a Burmese Buddhist at Kuantan. San Win the
Chairman of Kampong Burmese Welfare Association in KL also reported the brutal mob attack on a
group of 6 Yakhine Buddhist sleeping in an old rented-house in Sungai Besi.
“It was at about 3:30 in the early morning yesterday in Sungai Besi. Six Yakhine Buddhists
renting a little old house there. They were all close friends working together in the nearby brass-
pipe manufacturing plant.
They were sleeping when large Bengali-Muslim mob surrounded their house. After woken up by
the mob they refused to open the door. So the Bengali-Muslim mob pumped pepper spray into the
house through the gaps and holes in the planked-wall.
Finally blinded and couldn’t breathe the Yakhines had opened the door and once they were out the
Bengali-Muslims slaughtered them. Two are now missing presumably dead and one with serious
wounds is at the hospital. The rest fled and hiding somewhere safe now.”
Khin Maung Win the one in the hospital now had all his fingers chopped off by the Bengali-
Muslims. San Oo also added that since May 30 six Burmese and Yakhine Buddhists have been
confirmed killed and there are many more still missing.
Pro-Bengali NLD led by Aung San Suu Kyi opposing
one-wife and two-child policy for Bengali-Muslims.
I've been thinking about issuing an announcement concerning the Burmese
being terrorized in Malaysia, for almost a week now. But I'm thinking that
issue should be dealt slowly as we should not rush. Right now I'm
working hard to change the constitution and only after that
I'll think about poor Burmese in Malaysia.
Myanmar Military on 11 July 2013.)
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8. PERSECUTION: Victims are identified and separated out because of their ethnic or religious identity. Death lists are drawn up. Their property is often
expropriated. Sometimes they are even segregated into ghettoes, deported into concentration camps, or confined to a famine-struck region and starved.
Genocidal massacres begin. They are acts of genocide because they intentionally destroy part of a group.
July- Sept 2012-Myanmar Police Force issued Rohingya Wanted Lists, mostly educated, leaders and young men. Men arrested unless they paid high bribe.
All on third list arrested. Once arrested most have never seen again.

(L)Segragation in Sittwe Ghetto (M) June 13, 2012 Military truck dumps 18 Rohingya men, women and children’s violently wounded bodies at Rural Sittwe
Rohingya IDP Camp. Mass Killings and Mental Harm- (R) October 24-Nov, 2012 National Security Forces blocked 1000’s Kyauk Pyu deadly mass anti-
Muslim violence survivors landing in Sittwe and Maungdaw. Many sick and injured died in boats without food . Searching boats and stealing legal
documents, money and other valuables and possessions. Indirect Killing and Deliberately inflicting conditions of life calculated to bring about physical
destruction, creation of circumstances that would lead to a slow death
9. EXTERMINATION begins, and quickly becomes the mass killing legally called “genocide.” When it is sponsored by the state, the armed forces often work with militias to do
the killing.
A. Direct and Indirect Killings one or more persons B. Serious bodily or mental harm to one or more person
C. Deliberately inflicting conditions of life calculated to bring about physical destruction subjecting the group to a subsistence diet, systematic expulsion from
homes and denial of the right to medical services. Also included is the creation of circumstances that would lead to a slow death, such as lack of proper
housing, clothing and hygiene or excessive work of physical exertion reducing required medical services below a minimum.

(Left) Girl describes attacker dragging away her 1 month old sister- Killing, mental harm. (Mid-Left)Teen boy describes armed soldiers forcing them to
leave their village - Systematic expulsion from homes, Mental Harm. (Mid-Right) July 2012 Sittwe Rohingya IDP girl denied food relief died 2 days later.
(Right) June 2012 Sittwe Rakhine baby IDP leans on WFP 30kg rice bag Creation of circumstances that would lead to slow death starvation, mental harm.
D. Measures intended to prevent birth- forced birth control,
“Regional Order 1/2005” only applies to Rohingya and became a strict two-child policy in practice, whereby newly-married couples—once they satisfy the odious and abusive
process to get permission to marry are forced to sign a statement saying they will not have more than two children. this policy also effectively prohibits Rohingya from having
children out of wedlock.

10. DENIAL is the final stage that lasts throughout and always follows a genocide. It is among the surest indicators of further
genocidal massacresThe perpetrators of genocide dig up the mass graves, burn the bodies, try to cover up the evidence and intimidate the witnesses. They deny that they committed
any crimes, and often blame what happened on the victims. They block investigations of the crimes
• July 2013 NaSaKa Disbanded in face of impending sanctions for Role in 2012 Mass Violence. Myanmar Border Guard Police formed with same personnel doing same deadly
human rights violations. Impunity leading to more genocide.
• President “Thein Sein also [sic] reiterated Myanmar’s opposition to any foreign investigation of recent deadly sectarian violence.” 2012 August
investigations of the crimes.
• “Five Rohingya women brutally tortured [burned genitals] by police and forced to say Rohingya torched their homes [Village near Duchiridan housing
Jan 2014 Duchiridan Massacre survivors]” March 19, 2014
Intimidating witnesses



(L) Government claims Rohingya burned own homes. –Blames victims (M) One of many Duchiridan victims buried near Maungdaw Security Force Camp-
Mass Graves (R) Feb 27, 2014 MSF Ousted from Rakhine after revealing treated Duchiridan villagers with inflicted injuries. MSF was only healthcare for
500,000+ Rohingya in North Rakhine. Eliminate Witnesses and creation of circumstances that would lead to a slow death - reducing required medical
services below a minimum.

1 2002 May Easy Targets The Persecution of Muslims in Burma Karen Human Rights Group
2 Policies_of_Persecution_Feb_25_Fortify_Rights.pdf
3 Burma Citizenship Law [], 15 October 1982, available at:
4 See more at:
6 Policies_of_Persecution_Feb_25_Fortify_Rights.pdf
7 2002 May Easy Targets The Persecution of Muslims in Burma Karen Human Rights Group
11 Policies_of_Persecution_Feb_25_Fortify_Rights.pdf
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8/23/14 6:56 PM Conspiracy: Myanmar Authority Set Rohingya Homes on Fire at Violence-Hit Duchiradan Village to Mislead Foreign Observers ~ TSR News
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Kismat Ara (Age 4), from Duchiradan, Brutally Beaten by Myanmar Military (Photo
Credit: MYARF)
A Corpse of a Rohingya Baby Brutally Killed in Mass-Grave Found by the Forest at
the Region of Three-Mile (Photo: FB)
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