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Physics

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1. In the top picture (below), Kent Budgett is pulling upon a rope that is attached to a wall. In
the bottom picture, the Kent is pulling upon a rope that is attached to an elephant. In each
case, the force scale reads 500 Newton. Kent is pulling ...


a. with more force when the rope is attached to the wall.
b. with more force when the rope is attached to the elephant.
c. the same force in each case.

2. Many people are familiar with the fact that a rifle recoils when fired. This recoil is the result
of action-reaction force pairs. A gunpowder explosion creates hot gases that expand outward
allowing the rifle to push forward on the bullet. Consistent with Newton's third law of
motion, the bullet pushes backwards upon the rifle. The acceleration of the recoiling rifle is
...
a. greater than the acceleration of the bullet.
b. smaller than the acceleration of the bullet.
c. the same size as the acceleration of the bullet.

3. The standard metric unit for mass is _____ and the standard metric unit for weight is _____.

4. An object's mass refers to _____ and an object's weight refers to _____. Fill in each blank.
a. the amount of space it takes up
b. the force of gravitational attraction to Earth
c. how dense an object is
d. the amount of stuff present in the object

5. Complete the following table showing the relationship between mass and weight.


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6. When a person diets, is their goal to lose mass or to lose weight? Explain.

7. Construct free-body diagrams for the various situations described below
a. A book is at rest on a tabletop. Diagram the forces acting on the book.
b. A girl is suspended motionless from the ceiling by two ropes. Diagram the forces
acting on the combination of girl and bar.
c. An egg is free-falling from a nest in a tree. Neglect air resistance. Diagram the
forces acting on the egg as it is falling.
d. A flying squirrel is gliding (no wing flaps) from a tree to the ground at constant
velocity. Consider air resistance. Diagram the forces acting on the squirrel.
e. A rightward force is applied to a book in order to move it across a desk with a
rightward acceleration. Consider frictional forces. Neglect air resistance. Diagram the
forces acting on the book.
f. A rightward force is applied to a book in order to move it across a desk at constant
velocity. Consider frictional forces. Neglect air resistance. Diagram the forces acting on
the book.
g. A college student rests a backpack upon his shoulder. The pack is suspended
motionless by one strap from one shoulder. Diagram the vertical forces acting on the
backpack.
h. A skydiver is descending with a constant velocity. Consider air resistance.
Diagram the forces acting upon the skydiver.
i. A force is applied to the right to drag a sled across loosely packed snow with a
rightward acceleration. Diagram the forces acting upon the sled.
j. A football is moving upwards towards its peak after having been booted by the
punter. Diagram the forces acting upon the football as it rises upward towards its peak.
k. A car is coasting to the right and slowing down. Diagram the forces acting upon
the car.

8. Free-body diagrams for four situations are shown below. For each situation, determine the
net force acting upon the object.

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9. Free-body diagrams for four situations are shown below. The net force is known for each
situation. However, the magnitudes of a few of the individual forces are not known. Analyze
each situation individually and determine the magnitude of the unknown forces.


10. A motorboat traveling 5 m/s, East encounters a current traveling 2.5 m/s, South.
a. What is the resultant velocity of the motor boat?
b. If the width of the river is 80 meters wide, then how much time does it take the boat to
travel shore to shore?
c. What distance downstream does the boat reach the opposite shore?

11. A car is pulled with a force of 10,000 N. The car's mass is 1267 kg. But, the car covers
394.6m in 15 seconds.
(a) What is expected acceleration of the car from the 10,000 N force?
(b) What is the actual acceleration of the car from the observed data of x and t?
(c) What is the difference in accelerations?
(d) What force caused this difference in acceleration?
(e) What is the magnitude and direction of the force that caused the difference in
acceleration?












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12. The Elephant and the Feather
a) Without Air Resistance
Suppose that an elephant and a feather are dropped off a very tall building
from the same height at the same time. Suppose also that air resistance could
be eliminated such that neither the elephant nor the feather would experience
any air drag during the course of their fall. Which object - the elephant or the
feather - will hit the ground first? Many people are surprised by the fact that
in the absence of air resistance, the elephant and the feather strike the ground
at the same time. Why is this so? Test your understanding by identifying the
following statements as being either True (T) or False (F).
1. The elephant and the feather each have the same force of gravity.
2. The elephant has more mass, yet they both experience the same
force of gravity.
3. The elephant experiences a greater force of gravity, yet both the
elephant and the feather have the same mass.
4. On earth, all objects (whether an elephant or a feather) have the
same force of gravity.
5. The elephant weighs more than the feather, yet they each have the
same mass.
6. The elephant clearly has more mass than the feather, yet they each weigh the same.
7. The elephant clearly has more mass than the feather, yet the amount of gravity (force) is
the same for each.
8. The elephant has the greater acceleration, yet the amount of gravity is the same for each.

b) With Air Resistance
Now consider the realistic situation that both feather and elephant encounter air resistance. Which
object- the elephant or the feather - will hit the ground first? Most people are not surprised by the
fact that the elephant strikes the ground before the feather. But why does the elephant fall faster?
Test your understanding by identifying the following statements as being either True (T) or False
(F).
1. The elephant encounters a smaller force of air resistance and therefore falls faster.
2. The elephant has the greater acceleration of gravity and therefore falls faster.
3. Both elephant and feather have the same force of gravity, yet the acceleration of gravity is
greatest for the elephant.
4. Both elephant and feather have the same force of gravity, yet the feather experiences a
greater air resistance.
5. Each object experiences the same amount of air resistance, yet the elephant experiences
the greatest force of gravity.
6. Each object experiences the same amount of air resistance, yet the feather experiences the
greatest force of gravity.
7. The feather weighs more, and therefore will not accelerate as rapidly as the elephant.
8. Both elephant and feather weigh the same amount, yet the greater mass of the feather
leads to a smaller acceleration.
9. The elephant experiences less air resistance and reaches a larger terminal velocity.
10. The feather experiences more air resistance and thus reaches a smaller terminal velocity.
11. The elephant and the feather encounter the same amount of air resistance, yet the
elephant has a greater terminal velocity.