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**FOR NJC INTERNAL USE ONLY 1
**

2012 H2 Physics Preliminary Examinations Suggested Solutions - Paper 2

1 (a) A systematic error is one that occurs consistently more or consistently less than the

actual reading. A random error is one that gives a scatter of readings about a mean

value.

A systematic error may be eliminated whereas a random error cannot be eliminated,

but only reduced, when using suitable experimental techniques.

(b) systematic error: wear and tear at the 0-cm mark (or end) of the metre rule

Random error: eye is not aligned directly with the normal on the marking of the metre

rule, instead eye may be positioned inconsistently at different angles to the normal for

the different readings taken. This results in readings taken to be sometimes higher

and sometimes lower than the actual value.

(c) k = F / x = mg / (x

2

-x

1

) = (0.050 x 9.81) / (0.165 – 0.15) = 32.7 Nm

-1

∆k/k = (∆m/m) + (∆x/x) = (∆m/m) + (∆x

2

+ ∆x

1

)/(x

2

– x

1

)

= (0.1/50) + (0.05 + 0.05)/(16.5-15.0) = 0.0687

∆k = 2.25 = 2 Nm

-1

(1 s.f.)

k = (33 ± 2 ) Nm

-1

2(a)

Acceleration of B = initial acceleration of A = g sin23˚ = 3.83 ms

-2

Time taken for B to reach 400 m = √{2(400) / 3.83} = 14.5s

Velocity of B at time t=14.5s = 14.5(3.83) = 55.4 ms

-1

Velocity of A at time t = 14.5s = (14.5 – 1.0) (3.83) = 51.7 ms

-1

1.0 14.5

55.4

51.7

0

v / ms

-1

t / s

A [1/2] gradient

[1/2] gradient B

[1/2] gradient

[1/2]

value

National Junior College Physics Department

FOR NJC INTERNAL USE ONLY 2

2 (b) Time taken for B to cover (700 – (3*2.0) = 694m) = √{ 2(694) / 3.83 } = 19.0 s

Distance covered by A in 19.0 s

= ½ (51.7)(13.5) + (51.7 *(19.0 – 14.5) + ½ (2*3.83)(19.0 – 14.5)

2

)

= 348.98 +310.21

= 659 m < 694 m

Hence, skier A will not win the race.

Or

Time taken for B to cover 700m = √{ 2(700) / 3.83 } = 19.1 s

Distance covered by A in 19.1 s

= ½ (51.7)(13.5) + (51.7 *(19.1 – 14.5) + ½ (2*3.83)(19.1 – 14.5)

2

)

= 348.98 +318.21

= 666 m < 700 m

Hence, skier A will not win the race as not possible for A to be 3 ski lengths ahead

of B.

Or

Time taken for B to cover 700m = √{ 2(700) / 3.83 } = 19.1 s

Time taken for A to cover 700m: 14.5 seconds to cover 348.98 m

5.0 seconds to cover (700-348.98)= 351m

Total time for A to cover 700m = 14.5 + 5.0 = 19.5 seconds

Hence skier A will not win as he takes longer to cover 700m

Or

Find time taken for A to overtake B by 3 full ski lengths , let time taken = 14.5 + t

Distance covered by A = distance covered by B + 3(2.0)

Area under graph for A = area under graph for B + 6.0

0.5 (51.7 x 13.5) + 0.5 (51.7 + 51.7 + 2gsin23˚ t) t = 0.5 (gsin23˚)(t + 14.5)

2

+ 6.0

t = 6.71 s

So distance covered by A when he overtakes B by 3 full ski lengths

= 0.5 (51.7x 13.5) + 0.5 (51.7 + 51.7 + 2gsin23˚ t) t

= 868.5 m > 700 m

This only occurs after he crosses the finishing line so A does not win the

competition

3 (a) Their weights will all be the same. [no marks]

The reading on the scales of Case B and C are:

Weight of water in the Beaker + Reaction Force to Upthrust on the wooden object.

Or

the combined weight of water/beaker and block.

The weight of the wooden object = Upthrust on the wooden object = to the weight of

the fluid displaced.

As the fluid displaced + the fluid in the beaker gives back the original Case for A, all

cases give the same reading.

National Junior College Physics Department

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3 (b) No marks given if

Forces are not properly labelled: T instead of Tension, W instead of Weight

Origin of Upthrust arrow is from the bottom surface of the solid object.

3 (c) (i) Final: X + Z

Initial X + Y

Change is (X + Y) – (X + Z) = Y - Z

Or

Considering the system as a whole, initial case: Normal contact force = weight

of beaker + block – tension

Final case: Normal contact force = weight of beaker + block

Difference is tension which is Y - Z

Upthrust

Tension

Weight

Contact Force of

water acting on

beaker due to

weight

Normal

contact force

by scale on

beaker

Reaction

Force of the

upthrust

National Junior College Physics Department

FOR NJC INTERNAL USE ONLY 4

3 (c) (ii) Balancing Forces on the solid object, we have

ma = W - N – U

Solving for a when N = 0 , we have a = (Y-Z) / m

Or

When object loses normal contact, Net force on object = Y- Z

Hence minimum a = (Y- Z) / m

4 (a) The gravitational field strength, g, at a point in a gravitational field is defined as the

gravitational force per unit mass acting on a small mass placed at that point.

(b) The forces in both field follow the inverse square law, that is the field strength is

inversely proportional to the square of the distance away from the centre of the

source mass/charge.

OR

Both the forces involved are examples of non-contact forces.

Gravitational force is attractive in nature whereas electric force can be attractive or

repulsive.

(c) (i)

(c) (ii) The change in potential per km is numerically equal to the g-field strength of

the Earth. From the graph, the field strength decreases with height and thus

the change in potential per km decreases with height.

OR The area under the g vs H graph represent the change in the

gravitational potential. Thus as H increase and g decreases, the area under

10

2.5

6 12 18

Height/ 10

6

m

Field strength/ N kg

-1

1.1

0.6

3

National Junior College Physics Department

FOR NJC INTERNAL USE ONLY 5

the graph measured from infinity to that point decreases indicating a

decreasing change in gravitational potential.

(c) (iii) Using conservation of energy:

Total energy on earth = Total energy at infinity

½ mv

2

+ (-GMm/R) = 0

GMm/R = 1/2mv

2

But GM/R

2

= 10,

Hence v = 1.1 x 10

6

ms

-1

5 (a) By conservation of energy

Work done by the electric field = gain in kinetic energy of electron = energy of the x-

ray photon

eV = hc/

min

(1.6 x 10

-19

)(80 x 10

3

) = (6.63 x 10

-34

)(3 x 10

8

)/

min

min

1.55 x 10

-11

m

(b)

(c) The number of transitions of electrons from the L-shell to the K-shell is more than

from the M-shell.

OR

There is a greater probability that the vacancy in the K-shell is filled by an electron

from the L-shell than the M-shell.

(d) Ionisation energy of K shell – Ionisation energy of L shell = energy of K

line

Ionisation energy of L shell

=[ (69.5 x 10

3

)(1.6 x 10

-19

) - (6.63 x 10

-34

)(3 x 10

8

)/ (0.0215 x 10

-9

)]/( 1.6 x 10

-19

)

= 11.7 keV

National Junior College Physics Department

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6 (a) (i) The spectrum lines observed from the emission spectra depends on the

difference in energy of any two energy levels of the element. Since different

elements will have different discrete energy levels, the emission spectra of

each element will distinct and can be used to identify the element.

(ii) n = 3 to n = 1, λ = (6.63 x 10

-34

)(3 x 10

8

)/ (13.6 – 1.51)(1.6 x 10

-19

) = 102.8 nm

n = 3 to n =2, λ = (6.63 x 10

-34

)(3 x 10

8

)/ (3.40 – 1.51)(1.6 x 10

-19

) = 657.7nm

n = 4 to n = 2, λ = (6.63 x 10

-34

)(3 x 10

8

)/ (3.40 – 0.85)(1.6 x 10

-19

) = 487.5 nm

n = 4 to n =3, λ = (6.63 x 10

-34

)(3 x 10

8

)/ (1.51 – 0.85)(1.6 x 10

-19

) = 1883 nm

Transition n = 3 to n = 2 and n = 4 to n = 2 will give rise to photons within the

visible light range.

(b) (i) The time/energy Heisenberg uncertainty principle is the source of an natural linewidth

in photons emitted from atoms when electrons change orbitals.

(ii) ∆E ∆ t ≥ h/4π

∆E ≥ (6.63 x 10

-34

)/4π( 1.6 x 10

-9

) = 3.297 x 10

-26

J = 2.06 x 10

-7

eV

7 (a) Enclose the receiver coil in a metal cage/iron shell with an open bottom.

The purpose of the open bottom is so that it can still receive magnetic

signals from objects in the ground.

(b) Magnetic field is a region in which a magnetic material, current-carrying

conductor, or a moving charge experiences a force.

(c)

Field lines should become further apart as you go further away from the coil.

National Junior College Physics Department

FOR NJC INTERNAL USE ONLY 7

7 (d) (i) By reading 3 values from the graph, we calculate the value of yx

2

[Show working + explain, 1] No half-marks are given.

x y yx

2

1.0E-02 6.3E-05 6.3E-09

2.0E-02 3.1E-05 1.3E-08

3.0E-02 2.1E-05 1.9E-08

Since yx

2

for all three values are not equal to a constant, k, the equation

2

x

k

y

cannot be true.

7(d)(ii)

B

0.00006283

0.00002094

0.00001257

0.00000898

0.00000698

(e)

National Junior College Physics Department

FOR NJC INTERNAL USE ONLY 8

Correct Values Plotted

Good Line of Best Fit

The equation

r

k

B is valid as a straight line of best fit with no anomalies is

obtained when a graph of Log

10

(B/Tesla) versus Log

10

(r/m) is plotted

7(f)(i) Show correct substitution of values for gradient. i.e.

1 2

1 2

x x

y y

Value of Gradient : -1.00

Show calculation of y-intercept using y = mx + C. Cannot read off from graph since it

does not cut [0,0]

y-intercept: -6.20

(f)(ii) Vertical intercept = - lg(k)

K = 6.3 x 10

-7

Calculation of k

National Junior College Physics Department

FOR NJC INTERNAL USE ONLY 9

For k=

2

I

o

, we have I =

1

10 4

10 3 . 6 2 2

7

7

o

k

(g) Increase the current in the coil

Accepted: Increase the number of coils / Use thicker wires so that resistance can be

decreased and current increased

(h) Iron is ferromagnetic while gold is not. We have a larger induced current

in iron compared to gold, thus the signal detected in iron is higher.

Accepted: Iron can concentrate magnetic field lines better and it responds

strongly to magnetic field/ Iron is a magnetic material while gold is not

(Student should say ferromagnetic)

Induced magnetic field or emf in iron is bigger/ Eddy currents in iron

are larger.

National Junior College Physics Department

FOR NJC INTERNAL USE ONLY 10

8

Description Points

1. Diagram

1m for the overall

feasibility of the set-up (ie

as long as it is

reasonable)

1m for feasible way to

measure extra force.

1m for feasible way to

measure that the slide is

just above the surface of

the liquid

2. Variables

Independent Variable: Perimeter of the slide (P)

Dependent Variable: Extra force (F) to just lift the slide above the liquid

surface.

Control Variables:

- The type of the liquid used must be constant.

-The material of the microscope slide

- Consistent ambient temperature to minimise the change of the physical

properties of the liquid.

1m (for correct IV and

DV)

1m (At least these 2 must

be present)

3. Measurement

i) Set up the apparatus as shown above

ii) Measure the weight (W) of the slide using a electronic balance.

iii) Use vernier calipers to measure the length (L) and micrometer screw

gauge to measure the breadth (b) of the slide and then calculate the

1m for measurement of P

1m for the calculation of

Adjustable platform

where the height can

be varied in small

increment.

Force sensor attached to

data-logger

clip to hold the

slides

Top view

Slides

Travelling

microscope

National Junior College Physics Department

FOR NJC INTERNAL USE ONLY 11

perimeter (P = 2L + 2b).

iv) Insert the slide into a beaker of water, use the adjustable platform and

traveling microscope to adjust the height of the beaker such that the base of

the slide is in line with the general level of the water. Read and record the

force (R) measured by the Newton meter. Determine F using F = R – W.

v)Repeat step ii-iv by using different slides of different sizes(and thus

weights) to collect 10 sets of P and F.

F

1m for the repeat step

4.Analysis

A table which contains values of L, b, W, P and F is recorded. A graph of

lg(F) vs lg(P) is then plotted and the gradient and y-intercepts of the graph

are determined. Then the relationship between the P and F could be

determined in the form F = kP

n

, where the constants n is the gradient and k

= 10

y-intercept

1m

5. Precaution

The risks involved in this experiment can be minimal

- Consistent efforts should be made to clear up any spillage of the liquid to

avoid causing anyone from slipping.

1m

6. Additional Details

- Preliminary readings can be taken to check the range of the weights of the

slide and the position of the travelling microscope that is feasible for this

experiment.

- The slides should be washed thoroughly with soap to remove grease and

dried before the experiment.

- Experiment should be conducted in a draught free environment.

Any reasonable detail.

2m (Any 2 reasonable

details and they must

give at least 3 details)

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