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Sr. No. Particulars
1 Communication-Overview
2 Introduction
3 Nature
4 Function
5 Scope
6 Cross Cultural Communication
7 Networs in Communication
! Case Stud"
Communication in Organization - Its Function, Nature and Scope
Definition and its meaning
It is derived $rom t%e word &communis'
(%is in )atin means common* It stands $or t%e common activit" o$ %uman
+ein,s o$ conve"in, opinions $eelin,s or in$ormation etc*
Communication is a process o$ passin, in$ormation and understandin, $rom
one person to anot%er* ---- Keith Davis
Communication is an" +e%avior t%at results in an e.c%an,e o$ meanin,
The American Management Association
Communication is t%e process +" w%ic% in$ormation is passed +etween
individuals and/or or,ani0ations +" means o$ previousl" a,reed s"m+ols*
Organization :
 (%e o+1ective approac% su,,ests t%at an or,ani0ation is a p%"sical2
concrete t%in,2 t%at it is tan,i+le and actuall" %olds people2
relations%ips2 and ,oals* 3container view o$ or,ani0ation4
 5 su+1ective approac% loos at an or,ani0ation as activities t%at people
do* Or,ani0ation consists o$ t%e actions2 interactions2 and transactions
in w%ic% people en,a,e* Or,ani0ation is created and maintained
t%rou,% t%e continuall" c%an,in, contacts people %ave wit% one
anot%er and does not separatel" $rom t%e people w%ose +e%avior
constitutes t%e or,ani0ation*
Communication in Organization - Its Function, Nature and Scope
Organizational Communication:
Communication used to promote a product2 service2 or or,ani0ation6 rela"
in$ormation wit%in t%e +usiness6 or deal wit% le,al and similar issues* It is also
a means o$ rel"in, +etween a suppl" c%ain2 $or e.ample t%e consumer and
5t its most +asic level2 t%e purpose o$ communication in t%e worplace is to
provide emplo"ees wit% t%e in$ormation t%e" need to do t%eir 1o+s* 7usiness
Communication encompasses a variet" o$ topics2 includin, 8aretin,2
7randin,2 Customer relations2 Consumer +e%avior2 5dvertisin,2 9u+lic
relations2 Corporate communication2 Communit" en,a,ement2 :esearc% ;
8easurement2 :eputation mana,ement2 Interpersonal communication2
<mplo"ee en,a,ement2 Online communication2 and <vent mana,ement**
7usiness is conducted t%rou,% various c%annels o$ communication2 includin,
t%e Internet2 9rint 39u+lications42 :adio2 (elevision2 5m+ient media2 Outdoor2
and =ord o$ mout%*
Definition of Organizational Communication:
5 pro,ram t%at $ocuses on ,eneral communication processes and d"namics
wit%in or,ani0ations* Includes instruction in t%e development and
maintenance o$ interpersonal ,roup relations wit%in or,ani0ations6 decision-
main, and con$lict mana,ement6 t%e use o$ s"m+ols to create and maintain
or,ani0ational ima,es2 missions2 and values6 power and politics wit%in
or,ani0ations6 %uman interaction wit% computer tec%nolo,"6 and %ow
communications sociali0es and supports emplo"ees and team mem+ers*
Need of Communication
S%are our ideas and opinions
9rovide $eed+ac to ot%ers
>et in$ormation $rom ot%ers
>ain power and in$luence
?evelop social relations%ips
Communication in Organization - Its Function, Nature and Scope
8aintain sel$-e.pression and our culture
Ot%er ideas one ma" %ave t%ou,%t o$
Common was of communication
Spoen =ords

@isual Ima,es
=ritten words

7od" )an,ua,e
!"ere are two tpes of #usiness communication in an organization:
Internal Communication
<.ternal Communication
!pes of $usiness Communication
One-wa" and two-wa"
Formal and In$ormal
@er+al and Non-ver+al
=ritten and Oral
Intrapersonal and Interpersonal
@ertical and Aori0ontal
Communication in Organization - Its Function, Nature and Scope
Process of Communication:
Nature of Communication

It is a process

(%e term process %as +een de$ined as an identi$ia+le $low o$ interrelated
events movin, over time towards some ,oal or an end* In ot%er words
communication is a process in w%ic% t%ere are some identi$ia+le interrelated
evens w%ic% are initiated +" t%e sender* (%is is $ollowed +" encodin,
messa,es2 t%rou,% some c%annel till t%e receiver receives t%e messa,e and
ends t%e process wit% t%e $eed+ac*

Communication in Organization - Its Function, Nature and Scope
Decoding Destination
Shanon-Weaver Model
It is ine%ita#le

Communication is essential a p%"sical2 social ; ps"c%olo,ical e.ercise* I$ an
individual is provided all p%"sical com$orts2 +ut is not allowed to read2 write2
spea and or listen2 %e will +ecome mentall" de$icient*

&eaning #ased

Communication is meanin, +ased* 5s %as +een ver" succinctl" said +" a
specialist2' (%e most immediate need o$ communication is to +e a+le to re$er
to t%in,s in t%e real world i*e* to +e a+le to name t%in,s2 states2 events ;
attri+utes +" usin, words'* In addition we must +e a+le to lin words
to,et%er so as to create meanin,$ul sentences ; lan,ua,e* Aence2 t%ere is a
need to +e clear %eaded a+out w%at we want to sa"*

Communication could #e intentional and unintentional

Communication taes place even w%en we do not plan it and w%en we are not
conscious o$ it6 we ma" communicate somet%in, t%at we %ad not intended to
Communication is sstematic

<ver" components o$ communication is a$$ected +" t%e ot%er* (%e one w%o
sends t%e messa,e itsel$ as well as t%e receiver o$ t%e messa,e6 all are
interrelated and a$$ected +" eac% ot%er*

' two-wa traffic

(%ere is no communication2 unless t%e messa,e send +" t%e sender is not
+een received +" t%e receiver* Since t%e communication is an e.c%an,e o$
views2 opinions ; directions* It involves +ot% parties* George Terry has
rightly said remarked,” simply talking or writing without regard to the
recipients’ response, is conducive to creating a gross misunderstanding.”

Communication is a social process

Auman +ein, is a social animal* Ae cannot live in isolation* Communication is
a process w%ic% %elps %uman +ein, to interact and sociali0e main, it a social

' dnamic process

?"namics means &ever c%an,in,' Communication is not constant or one time
event* It is a d"namic and ever c%an,in, all t%e time*

Communication in Organization - Its Function, Nature and Scope
Continuous process

It is a Continuous process* 8ore o$ten t%an not2 it is repeated to ac%ieve
desired results* It is an on,oin, process in w%ic% one interaction is $ollowed
+" anot%er*

Communication in%ol%es interaction and transaction

9articipants o$ communication o$ e.ercise e.c%an,e ideas and in$ormation
+esides in$luencin, eac% ot%er in t%e process* (%e" s%are and e.c%an,e
t%ou,%ts and meanin,s*

It is spiraling process

Communication +etween t%e receiver and sender usuall" does not start at t%e
same level nor does it ,row at t%e same rate* (%is is due to t%e di$$erence in
t%e a+ilities o$ t%e sender as well as t%e receiver* 8oreover2 noise and time
%ave an impact on it* 5s a result2 communication taes a spiral sta,e +e$ore it
,ets completed and reac%es t%e receiver at t%e same level and space*

It is conte(tual

Communication %appens wit% re$erence to a conte.t* (%e same words would
mean di$$erent t%in,s i$ t%e" are said in di$$erent conte.t* Aence2 meanin,
di$$er in di$$erent situation*

Needs proper understanding

(%ere ma" +e numerous media o$ communication +ut t%e main purpose o$
conve"in, t%e messa,e is to create a proper understandin, o$ t%e messa,e in
t%e mind o$ t%e ot%er part"* For t%is purpose2 it s%ould +e clear and concisel"

)eads ac"ie%ement of t"e organizational o#*ecti%e

<$$ective communication does t%is +" creatin, a sense o$ o+1ect orientation in
t%e or,ani0ation*

It s"ares t"oug"ts and ideas, w"ic" produce response

Communication in Organization - Its Function, Nature and Scope
(%ou,%ts and ideas2 w%ic% do not produce a response2 do not come under t%e
purview o$ communication

It is t"e life #lood of t"e #usiness

No +usiness or,ani0ation and no civili0ed societ" can e.ist2 survive and ,row
wit%out t%e e.istence o$ an e$$ective communication networ* (%rou,%
communication2 people worin, in an or,ani0ation ,et activated and involved
in per$ormin, a variet" o$ roles $or ac%ievin, or,ani0ational ,oals* @arious
mode o$ communication are used $or people outside to e.pose t%em to t%e
e.istence2 products2 pro$it and pro,ress o$ t%e or,ani0ation*

Functions of Communication:
One outline o$ t%e $unctions o$ Communication $ollows w%at mi,%t +e t%ou,%t
o$ as a r%etorical approac% and is as $ollowsB
?ownward Communication
Cpward Communication
Aori0ontal Communication
It consists o$ $acts and $i,ures and data arran,e in a pattern w%ic% are use$ul
$or di$$erent purposes2 e,* )ist o$ names2 address and telep%one num+ers o$
In$ormation is ver" necessar" in an or,ani0ation as it reduces uncertaint"
a+out t%e situation or t%e environment* It %elps an emplo"ee to ,et
acclimati0ed to t%e rules2 re,ulations2 norms and culture o$ an or,ani0ation
In$ormation ma" +e ,iven orall" or in writin,* In$ormation circulated orall"
cannot +e used $or $uture re$erences* =%ereas written in$ormation can +e
used $or $uture re$erences lie emails2 $a.2 reports2 notices etc*
In$ormation $lows at all levels in an or,ani0ation $rom ?ownward to upward
and vice versa* It also circulated %ori0ontall" at all levels
Communication in Organization - Its Function, Nature and Scope
?ownward movin,B It is t%at in$ormation t%at moves $rom t%e Superiors to
t%e Su+ordinates* It is t%at in$ormation2 w%ic% %as to +e implemented +" t%e
su+ordinates in an or,ani0ation*
Cpward 8ovin,- It is t%at in$ormation t%at moves $orm t%e Su+ordinates to
t%e Superiors* It is in t%e $orm o$ pro,ress report2 minutes o$ committee
meetin,2 in$ormation ; data reDuested etc*
Aori0ontal or sidewa"s movin, E It is t%at in$ormation w%ic% is usuall" $lows in
+etween su+ordinates and peers* It is liel" to +e oral and in$ormal*
=ritten in$ormation moves %ori0ontall" in $orms o$ copies o$ reports and
ot%er documents
(%ere is a lot In$ormation movin, out o$ an or,ani0ation to t%e e.ternal
pu+lic and also t%ere is alot o$ in$ormation t%at moves into an or,ani0ation
$rom t%e e.ternal environment* (%is c"cle is ver" necessar" $or t%e ,rowt% o$
an or,ani0ation as a w%ole and as well as t%e e.ternal environment
<.amples o$ In$ormation movin, out o$ an or,ani0ation to t%e e.ternal
environment are as $ollowsB
 5dmission notices
 :ecruitment notices
 5nnual reports
 9rospectus
 7roac%ers
 9rice list
 Catalo,ues o$ products
<.amples o$ in$ormation movin, into an or,ani0ation $rom t%e e.ternal
 :ailwa"/airlines time ta+le
 9opulation $i,ures
 ?emo,rap%ic details
 Catalo,ues and price list o$ products
(%ere is a lot o$ in$ormation and nowled,e t%at circulated wit%in2 outside2
in-+etween an or,ani0ation* It ultimatel" depends on t%e or,ani0ation and its
emplo"eeFs to ,asp t%e correct and t%e ri,%t reDuired in$ormation
It means main, e$$orts to c%an,e t%e attitudes and +e%avior o$ ot%ers*
Communication in Organization - Its Function, Nature and Scope
It reDuires sills and a+ilit" to use t%e s"m+ols o$ communication in an
e$$ective manner
(%e persuader needs nowled,e o$ t%e +ac,round and t%e present attitudes/
views o$ t%e people in order to use t%e ri,%t appeals and reasons*
It means usin, +est ar,uments to win over and convince ot%ers*
(%ree $actors o$ 9ersuasion
Source credi#ilit
9eople +elieve w%at a said or written +" a respected person*
+motional appeal
9eople %ave 3 t"pes o$ needs
Social , ego are emotional needs
I$ t%e persuader o$$ers satis$action o$ t%ese needs2 people respond $avora+l"
:easona+le lo,ic
9eople must +e s%own %ow t%e" will +ene$it +" acceptin, t%e proposal ideas2
views or actions
Downward Communication
Communication t%at $lows $rom t%e %i,%er %ierarc%" to lower %ierarc%" is
called downward communication*
Communication in Organization - Its Function, Nature and Scope
Instructions and orders
 Instructions means directions
 <,* &Instructions are on t%e +o.'
 It also means order
 <,* &8" instructions are to issue onl" two +oos at a time'
 Orders is $ormal
 It is assi,nment o$ tas
 <,* O$$ice orders
+ducation and !raining
 <ducation is a development o$ t%e ,eneral and special a+ilities o$ mind*
 (rainin, is practical education or practices2 usuall" under supervision2 in
some sill*
 Oral communication E lectures and discussion2 Aandouts and notes2
?emonstrations and actual wor e.perience2 Films
 <ducational communication is done $or t%e +uildin, up ,oodwill and pu+lic
On t"e -o# !raining
 It is an e$$ort to +uild up emplo"ees lo"alt" to t%e compan"
 8ost on t%e 1o+ trainin, is oral and is supplemented +" instruction
+oolets2 polic" statement2 pamplets and emplo"ee manuals
 8otivation means providin, people wit% a motive2 an incentive2 an inner
ur,e to mae e$$ort to t%eir +est*
 8ana,ers constantl" t" to improve per$ormance in t%e wor place +"
motivatin, t%e sta$$*
 Communication is t%e critical element in motivation o$ emplo"ees
 :eco,nition
 5ppreciation o$ ,ood wor
 Sense o$ support
 8otivation reDuires re,ular and care$ul communication w%ic% mana,ers
and supervisors need to do sill$ull"*
.aising &orale
Communication in Organization - Its Function, Nature and Scope
 8oral is t%e individual and collective spirit and moral condition o$
emplo"ees wit% re,ards to discipline and con$idence
 :aisin, moral cannot +e done +" sin,le communication6 it is a$$ected +"
all communication and +" t%e manner and st"le o$ communication*
 Communication ma" +e stepped up i$ t%e morale ,oes down or is liel" to
,o down
 Notices ; Circulars
 In$ormal tea meetin,s
 Special morale +oostin, communication must +e well-coordinated and
care$ull" planned
<*,* Con$erences and s%ort meetin,s
 5dvice ma" +e ,iven on matters related to wor or on personal matters*
 5dvice is most e$$ective i$ it is oral2 $ace to $ace2 in$ormal and
 It is +est to use oral communication $or advice
 It is an or,ani0ed and special $orm o$ advice
 Communication $or counselin, is mostl" oral +ut t%ere ma" also +e printed
material $or t%e purpose o$ ,ivin, t%e reDuired in$ormation*
 It can +e success$ul onl" i$ t%ere is two wa" communication*
 =arnin, means ur,in, or advisin, some one to +e care$ul6 it is intended to
caution some o$ possi+le dan,er*
 It is also an aut%oritative or $ormal notice o$ somet%in, un$avora+le
 =arnin, is an important reDuirement o$ communication sill to +e a+le to
,ive a warnin, wit%out +ein, insulted*
 5ppreciation o$ a ,ood e$$ort2 wor and ac%ievement o$ emplo"ees +"
supervisors and mana,ers is important $or creatin, ,ood attitude amon,
 It can +e e.pressed orall"2 in writin, and +" non-ver+al met%ods*
 )etter o$ appreciation
 5wardin, certi$icate at $unction
 9romotion
Communication in Organization - Its Function, Nature and Scope
 Invitation to a special meetin,

0pward Communication
Communication wit%in t%e or,ani0ation t%at passes $rom a lower %ierarc%" to
%i,%er %ierarc%" is called upward communication* For e.ample su+ordinates
passin, on in$ormation to t%eir seniors will +e considered as upward
1orizontal Communication
Communication wit%in peer ,roups can +e termed as %ori0ontal
communication* 7itc%in, and ,ossipin, ma" not +e t%e onl" $orm o$
in$ormation e.c%an,e*
O#*ecti%es of Downward Communication
 Instruction
 Orders
 <ducation and trainin,
 On t%e 1o+ trainin,
 8otivation
 :aisin, morale
 5dvice
 Counselin,
 =arnin, and notice
 5ppreciation
O#*ecti%es of 0pward Communication
:eDuests are made +" t%e sta$$ $or various inds o$ permission or $avours*
(%ere ma" +e reDuests $or leave2 $or permission to report late or leave earl"
on a particular da"2 permission to attend a class2 a reDuest to +e sponsored
$or special trainin, course2 or $or an increase in salar"*
5pplication is a written reDuest ,ivin, $ull details o$ t%e matter and
supported wit% reasons2 w%enever necessar"*
Communication in Organization - Its Function, Nature and Scope
5ppeal is t%e earnest reDuest made $or a %elp or a support w%ic% doesnot
$all under our privile,es* Suc% reDuest can +e made to t%e %i,%er aut%orit"2
suc% appeal needs power o$ persuasion*
?emand is put up t%rou,% an emplo"ee union6 and it %as to +e supported +"
,ood ar,uments6 demands are usuall" collective and in writin,* :eDuests
and appeal $or +etter services ma" turn into demand i$ mana,ement is
:epresentation is alwa"s in writin,2 an emplo"ee w%o $eels t%at %e %as not
+een ,iven w%at %e deserves2 %e can mae a representation* <.ampleB
Complaints are made w%en t%ere are $aults in t%e s"stem or in t%e ,oods
supplied or services rendered* 5 complaint ma" +e oral or written* =it%in
an or,ani0ation2 minor complaints ma" +e ad1usted +" oral communication*
I$ t%e complaint is o$ serious nature can +e ad1usted +" written as
circulations as well as constant re$erences*
Su,,estions can +e made +" an" emplo"ee or customer* Su,,estions $rom
emplo"ees at all levels are ,reatl" welcomed +" modern mana,ements*
8uc% +i, or,ani0ation encoura,es t%is as it ,ives emplo"ee morale*
O#*ecti%es of 1orizontal Communication
 +(c"ange of information
5+out activities2 processes and pro,ress amon, %eads o$ departments or
ot%er peer ,roups is essential $or t%e or,ani0ationFs wor* Some in$ormation
is conve"ed $ormall" +" sendin, copies o$ relevant documents lie letters
and reports*
 Discussion
Communication in Organization - Its Function, Nature and Scope
O$ plans and pro+lems2 reviews o$ pro1ects and decisions reDuire $ormal
lateral communication in meetin,s*
 Coordination
Is t%e most important o+1ective o$ lateral communications* ?epartments
%eads ma" meet periodicall" to discuss eac% department contri+ution
towards t%e main ,oal*
 Conflict resolution
Is an important $unction o$ lateral communication* 8em+ers o$ a
departments meet to sort out e.istin, or potential con$licts +" discussion*
 Pro#lem sol%ing
Csuall" reDuires %ori0ontal communication amon, all t%ose w%o are
concerned wit% t%e pro+lem and a$$ected +" it* <,B 7rainstormin,*
 'd%ice
8a" +e ased $or and ,iven in a $riendl" in$ormal wa" +etween persons o$
eDual status*
 Social and emotional support
5mon, peers is provided t%rou,% lateral communication*
Scope of Communication:
Scope &eans:
'n Opportunit
Or,ani0ational Communication %as unlimited scope w%ic% can +e understood
under two +road %eadin,s
Internal Communication:
8essa,es t%at move wit%in t%e or,ani0ation amon, its mem+ers2 is internal
+(ternal Communication:
8essa,es e.c%an,e wit% t%ose outside t%e or,ani0ation is e.ternal
Communication in Organization - Its Function, Nature and Scope
3. Internal Communication
Communication wit%in an or,ani0ation is called &Internal Communication'*
It includes all communication wit%in an or,ani0ation* It ma" +e in$ormal or a
$ormal $unction or department providin, communication in various $orms to
<$$ective internal communication is a vital mean o$ addressin, or,ani0ational
concerns* >ood communication ma" %elp to increase 1o+ satis$action2 sa$et"2
productivit"2 and pro$its and decrease ,rievances and turnover*
&edia of Internal Communication
1* Notice 7oards
2* 8eetin,s
3* 9u+lic 5ddress S"stems
4* Intercom
5* Aouse Gournals
6* <mails
7* Newsletters
4. +(ternal Communication
Communication wit% people outside t%e compan" is called &e.ternal
communication'* Supervisors communicate wit% sources outside t%e
or,ani0ation2 suc% as vendors and customers*
Communication in Organization - Its Function, Nature and Scope
+ffecti%e +(ternal Communication leads to #etter
o Sales volume
o 9u+lic credi+ilit"
o Operational e$$icienc"
o Compan" pro$its
It s"ould impro%e
o Overall per$ormance
o 9u+lic ,oodwill
o Corporate ima,e
0ltimatel, it "elps to ac"ie%e
o Or,ani0ational ,oals
o Customer satis$action
+(pansion Of Scope of Communication:
Communication is classi$ied accordin, to t%e num+er o$ persons 3recei%ers4
to w%om t%e messa,e is addressed
Following are some more !pes:
Intrapersonal communication
Communication in Organization - Its Function, Nature and Scope
(%is involves to onesel$ in oneFs own mind
Interpersonal communication
(%is is an e.c%an,e o$ messa,es +etween two persons*
5roup communication
(%is can +e %eld amon, small or lar,e ,roups2 lie an or,ani0ation2 clu+ or
classroom2 in w%ic% all individuals retain t%eir individual identities*
&ass communication
It is a pu+lic communication*
&eta Communication
SpeaerFs c%oice o$ words unintentionall" communicates somet%in, more t%an
t%e actual words state*
Communication can also +e classi$ied on t%e +asis o$ t%e medium emploed
6er#al Communication
6ocal Communication
Non 6er#al Communication
<"e contact
Facial e.pression
9osture and ,estures
5ppearance o$ people and documents
Communication in Organization - Its Function, Nature and Scope
$enefits of +ffecti%e Communication in Organization
It is said t%at e$$ective communication can +e viewed as t%e li$e+lood o$ a
success$ul or,ani0ation* (%is stems $rom t%e idea o$ c%an,in, emplo"ee
+e%avior* )iewise2 e$$ective +ene$its communication can dramaticall" %elp
an or,ani0ation t%rou,% a,ain t%is same c%an,e in t%e emplo"ee +e%avior*
Sta7e "older .esponse
Pro#lem Sol%ing
<$$ective communication durin, pro+lem solvin, reDuires t%at individuals and
teams now %ow to process lar,e amounts o$ in$ormation w%ile $ocusin, t%eir
nowled,e2 e.perience2 and e.pertise on t%e ri,%t issue at t%e ri,%t time*
(%e critical t%inin, processes tau,%t in 5ction 8ana,ementFs pro,rams
ena+le teams to $ocus t%eir nowled,e and resources to accuratel" identi$"
t%e root cause o$ pro+lems2 develop innovative solutions2 determine t%e +est
course o$ action2 and prevent $uture pro+lems $rom developin,*
Decision &a7ing
Flow o$ communication wit% in t%e or,ani0ation s%ould +e e$$ective +ecause
$low o$ ri,%t and accurate in$ormation alwa"s %elps t%e decision main,
process in all levels o$ mana,ement* I$ an or,ani0ation taes t%e decision $or
introducin, in new +rand o$ product or esta+lis%in, new +ranc%es in di$$erent
new locations even in t%e period o$ recession t%at means or,ani0ation %as
t%at coura,e +ecause o$ e$$ective $low o$ communication to t%e or,ani0ation*
<$$icienc" and e$$ectiveness in internal communication s"stem maes t%e
or,ani0ation to move in ri,%t pat% towards t%e main ,oal* <.ternal data and
in$ormation ma" not +e directl" $low to t%e top mana,ement* Conditions o$
marets2 status o$ t%e products2 sales2 c%an,in, prices c%an,in, $as%ions and
pre$erences o$ customers2 polic" o$ competitive $irms2 c%an,in, >overnment
policies re,ardin, all t%ese $actors s%ould +e moved $rom t%e ,rass route
level sta$$ to t%e top mana,ement* (o ensure t%e accurac"2 relevanc" and
Communication in Organization - Its Function, Nature and Scope
reDuired volume o$ in$ormation or,ani0ation s%ould %ave e$$ective internal
communication s"stem*
Professional Image
<$$ective Communication assist individuals not onl" to survive2 +ut also to
$louris% wit%in t%e corporate environment2 en%ancin, t%eir personal
reputation and t%at o$ t%eir compan"Fs in t%e process*
<$$ective communication is essential $or an" +usiness or or,ani0ation to
prosper* It cuts out on wasted time and provides +ot% customers and
emplo"ees wit% t%e necessar" tools to succeed and $ind satis$action* =%en
communication is not e$$ective2 t%e end result is an increase in production
time and a decrease in t%e +ottom line* In order to avoid t%is outcome2
e$$ective communication must +e in place*
<$$ective communication w%ic% %elps create trust and con$idence are t%e
e"s to transparenc" and or,ani0ational survival*
$usiness .elations"ip
(%e importance o$ eepin, t%e lines o$ communication wit% oneFs +usiness
partner cannot +e overemp%asi0ed* 7ot% our domestic partners%ips and
especiall" our $orei,n partners%ips are premised e.tensivel" o$ t%e de,ree
and Dualit" o$ t%e relations%ip t%at t%e parties %ave assumed* 5 relations%ip
can onl" survive i$ t%e parties involved maintain a line o$ communications*
(%is concept +ecomes even more relevant w%en t%e partners%ip entails an
international a,reement w%ere t%e en%anced distance +etween t%e partners
will e.acer+ate t%e need to eep in touc%* 5n e.ecutive can onl" eep on top
o$ t%in,s i$ t%e" are in contact wit% t%eir partners +ecause ot%erwise2 %ow
are t%e" ,oin, to now w%atFs ,oin, onH
/or7 flow
<$$ective communication is essential $or t%e smoot% $unctionin, o$ a compan"
and toda"2 walls t%at prevent in$ormation $low $rom top-down6 +ottom-up or
Communication in Organization - Its Function, Nature and Scope
department-to-department in or,ani0ations %as all disappeared* =it% walls
,one and e$$ective communication in place2 in$ormation permeates t%e
5ll t%e a+ove mentioned $actors will surel" +ene$it t%e or,ani0ational worin,
i$ t%e communication is e$$ective*
Cross Cultural Communication:
In simple words it is de$ined as 8iscommunication
9arties en,a,ed in ne,otiations or an" ot%er $orm o$ communication is $rom
di$$erent cultural +ac,round
8ore and more Or,ani0ation are $acin, t%e c%allen,e o$ +rid,in, cultural ,aps
in interpersonal relations%ips as cultural diversit" in t%e worplace is
increasin, an as or,ani0ations arte e.tendin, t%eir ,lo+al reac%
(%e ,reater t%e di$$erence +etween t%e culture2 ,reater is t%e ris o$
7usiness e.ecutives and students wis%in, to +e d"namic and e$$ective pla"ers
in t%e ,lo+al econom" o$ t%e 21st centur" must acDuaint t%emselves wit% t%e
cultural parameter o$ di$$erent countries*
Cross cultural communication is a+out dealin, wit% people $rom ot%er
cultures in a wa" t%at minimi0es misunderstandin,s and ma.imi0es "our
Communication in Organization - Its Function, Nature and Scope
potential to create stron, cross cultural relations%ips* (%e a+ove tips s%ould
+e seen as a startin, point to ,reater cross cultural awareness*
!ips to Impro%e Cross Cultural Communication
Slow Down
<ven w%en <n,lis% is t%e common lan,ua,e in a cross cultural situation2 t%is
does not mean "ou s%ould spea at normal speed* Slow down2 spea clearl"
and ensure "our pronunciation is intelli,i+le*
Separate 8uestions
(r" not to as dou+le Duestions suc% as2 &?o "ou want to carr" on or s%all we
stop %ereH' In a cross cultural situation onl" t%e $irst or second Duestion ma"
%ave +een compre%ended* )et "our listener answer one Duestion at a time*
'%oid Negati%e 8uestions
8an" cross cultural communication misunderstandin,s %ave +een caused +"
t%e use o$ ne,ative Duestions and answers* In <n,lis% we answer I"esF i$ t%e
answer is a$$irmative and InoF i$ it is ne,ative* In ot%er cultures a I"esF or
InoF ma" onl" +e indicatin, w%et%er t%e Duestioner is ri,%t or wron,* For
e.ample2 t%e response to &5re "ou not comin,H' ma" +e I"esF2 meanin, IJes2
I am not comin,*F
!a7e !urns
Cross cultural communication is en%anced t%rou,% tain, turns to tal2
main, a point and t%en listenin, to t%e response*
/rite it Down
I$ "ou are unsure w%et%er somet%in, %as +een understood write it down and
c%ec* (%is can +e use$ul w%en usin, lar,e $i,ures* For e.ample2 a +illion in
t%e CS5 is 12KKK2KKK2KKK2KKK w%ile in t%e CL it is 12KKK2KKK2KKK*
$e Supporti%e
<$$ective cross cultural communication is in essence a+out +ein, com$orta+le*
>ivin, encoura,ement to t%ose wit% wea <n,lis% ,ives t%em con$idence2
support and a trust in "ou*
C"ec7 &eanings
Communication in Organization - Its Function, Nature and Scope
=%en communicatin, across cultures never assume t%e ot%er part" %as
understood* 7e an active listener* Summari0e w%at %as +een said in order to
veri$" it* (%is is a ver" e$$ective wa" o$ ensurin, accurate cross cultural
communication %as taen place*
'%oid Slang
<ven t%e most well educated $orei,ner will not %ave a complete nowled,e o$
slan,2 idioms and sa"in,s* (%e dan,er is t%at t%e words will +e understood
+ut t%e meanin, missed*
/atc" t"e "umors
In man" cultures +usiness is taen ver" seriousl"* 9ro$essionalism and protocol
are constantl" o+served* 8an" cultures will not appreciate t%e use o$ %umor
and 1oes in t%e +usiness conte.t* =%en usin, %umor t%in w%et%er it will +e
understood in t%e ot%er culture* For e.ample2 7ritis% sarcasm usuall" %as a
ne,ative e$$ect a+road*
&aintain +ti2uette
8an" cultures %ave certain etiDuette w%en communicatin,* It is alwa"s a
,ood idea to undertae some cross cultural awareness trainin, or at least do
some researc% on t%e tar,et culture*
Networ7s in organization Communication
Networs are anot%er aspect o$ direction and $low o$ communication* 7avelas
%as s%own t%at communication patterns2 or networs2 in$luence ,roups in
several important wa"s* Communication networs ma" a$$ect t%e ,roupMs
completion o$ t%e assi,ned tas on time2 t%e position o$ t%e de $acto leader
in t%e ,roup2 or t%e" ma" a$$ect t%e ,roup mem+ersM satis$action $rom
occup"in, certain positions in t%e networ* 5lt%ou,% t%ese $indin,s are +ased
on la+orator" e.periments2 t%e" %ave important implications $or t%e
d"namics o$ communication in $ormal or,ani0ations*
 Centrali0ed Networ
 ?e-centrali0ed Networ
Centralized Networ7
• (%e C%ain
Communication in Organization - Its Function, Nature and Scope
In t%is t"pe one person passes t%e in$ormation to ot%ers down t%e line o$
%ierarc%"2 w%o t%en passes it $urt%er down t%eir own c%ain o$ aut%orit"* It
allows onl" vertical movement2 up and down* (%e C%ain can readil" +e seen
to represent t%e %ierarc%ical pattern t%at c%aracteri0es strictl" $ormal
in$ormation $low2 N$rom t%e top down2N in militar" and some t"pes o$ +usiness
• (%e =%eel
In t%e w%eel pattern2 t%e person w%o occupies t%e centrali0ed position or t%e
%u+ o$ t%e w%eel co-ordinates all t%e in$ormation* 5ll ot%er communicate
onl" wit% t%e central person and not wit% t%e ot%ers* (%e central person
solves pro+lems and mae decisions* (%e =%eel can +e compared wit% a
t"pical autocratic or,ani0ation2 meanin, one-man rule and limited emplo"ee
Communication in Organization - Its Function, Nature and Scope
• (%e J networ
(%e J networ is a variation o$ t%e c%ain6 it includes an e.ample o$ $ormal
communication wit%in a %ierarc%" suc% as t%e police $orce or civil $orce*
8essa,es move verticall" +etween su+-ordinates and superiors in t%e
De-centralized Networ7
• (%e Circle
(%is ind o$ networ allows eac% mem+er o$ t%e ,roup to interact wit%
t%ose on eac% side +ut not wit% t%e ot%ers2 mem+ers receive in$ormation
$rom t%e side*
Communication in Organization - Its Function, Nature and Scope
• (%e 5ll C%annels Networ
In t%is pattern2 s"stem allows ever" one to communicate wit% ever"one else
in t%e ,roup* It wors +est in t%e small ,roups* It is t%e least structured and2
i$ t%e ,roup is too lar,e2 tass can +e dela"ed +ecause o$ too muc%
unstructured communication* (%e 5ll-C%annel networ2 w%ic% is an
ela+oration o$ 7avelasMs Circle used +" >uet0ow2 is analo,ous to t%e $ree-
$low o$ communication in a ,roup t%at encoura,es all o$ its mem+ers to
+ecome involved in ,roup decision processes* (%e 5ll-C%annel networ ma"
also +e compared to some o$ t%e in$ormal communication networs*
Case Stud: Foreigners9 !rip
&:in2 w%" donFt "ou ,ive me some super w%ite ideasH' ased 5s%o2 A:
&Super w%ite or +lac idea2 donFt call me :in* I am :inee and call me t%at
wa"* Aow man" times I %ave to tell "ouH' 5+out t%ree mont%s a,o2 :inee %ad
1oined as <.ecutive 5ssistant to t%e ?irector* 875 $rom Stan$ord Cniversit"2
s%e was on %er :otation 8ana,ement (rainin, 9ro,ramme 3:8(94* Aer current
compan" +elon,ed to S8< and an emplo"ee o$ t%at standin, was pri0ed catc%
$or t%em*
&O% nameH ?oes it matterH Finall" w%at matters are ideas'
&7" t%e wa" w%at is t%at "ou want $rom meH'
&(%ose phirangis2 need to +e taen to somew%ere $or outin,* =%" donFt "ou
su,,est some +etter placeH' 5s%o was re$errin, to a dele,ation o$ $orei,n
clients* (%e" were in India $or t%e pro1ect review and t%e" were to remain
Communication in Organization - Its Function, Nature and Scope
t%ere $or ne.t $ortni,%t*
&Simple* 15t% 5u,ust2 Independence ?a"2 is on Frida"* So our weeend is $or
t%ree da"s* =%" donFt "ou or,anise t%eir trip to 8"sore/Oot" on t%ese da"sH'
&O% ,reatO I was t%inin, o$ t%e same place +ut linin, it to I? da" is a ,reat
idea* 5n"wa"2 "ou alwa"s t%in o$ %olida"s* Suc% ideas can occur to "ou onl"* I
donFt now w%et%er "ou are salt o$ t%e eart% +ut certainl"2 "ou are t%e salt o$
t%e compan"'
&5nd "ou alwa"s a+out worO'
&5n"wa" "ours was ,reat idea* Now itsel$ I will o+tain t%e approval $rom t%e
?irector' said 5s%o and le$t $or t%e ?irectorFs ca+in*
5$ter some time 5s%o returned $rom ?irectorFs ca+in* &)oo :inee2 ?irector
%as told "ou to arran,e t%eir %olida"s $or 3 da"s on 15t%2 16t% and 17t%
5u,ust* I %ave o+tained ?irectorFs approval* Ae %as ,iven ver+al sanction to
me and I will send a mail to "ou*'
&(%at means $inall" it %as come on m" %ead* Aerea$ter I will never su,,est
"ou an"t%in,*'
On 3:t" 'ugust
&Ai :inee2 %ave t%e $orei,nerFs dele,ation reac%ed 8"soreH 5re "ou in touc%
wit% t%emH Aave "ou received an" news $rom t%emH' Dueried 5s%o*
&I donFt %ave to receive an" news $rom t%em +ut I can tell "ou a+out t%emH'
:inee replied*
&=%at "ou mean +" I don’t have to receive any news from them but I can tell
you about them?' ased perple.ed 5s%o*
&Simple* I now a+out t%em because I am with them*'
&I am with them2 w%at "ou mean +" t%atH 7" t%e wa" w%" "ou were needed
to +e wit% t%emH'
&I needed to +e wit% t%em +ecause w%en I arran,ed t%is trip $or t%ose
$orei,ners2 t%e" told me to accompan"* (%e" wanted some local person to
accompan" t%em* Since t%e" reDuested2 I o+li,ed t%em'*
&7ut t%en "ou were not to ,o wit% t%em' said 5s%o and %un, up curtl"*
Communication in Organization - Its Function, Nature and Scope
On 3;t" 'ugust morning
5s%o called :inee in %is o$$ice and e.pressed %is surprise over :ineeFs visit
8"sore/Oot" &I %ad told "ou to do travel and accommodation arran,ement
+ut I never t%ou,%t t%at lie a +ird "ou too will $l" wit% t%em*'
&7ut 5s%o2 w%en "ou wrote mail to me $or arran,in, t%e trip o$ t%ose
$orei,ners2 "ou %ad not mentioned t%at I s%ould not accompan" t%em*
8oreover2 I %ave mana,ed it wit%in t%e +ud,et t%at "ou %ad mentioned* (%en
w%at is t%e pro+lemH' :inee was e.pressin, %er $rustration &m" visit was
durin, weeend* =%at I do durin, weeend is purel" m" +usiness* It is reall"
surprisin, t%at "ou are callin, in Duestion m" inte,rit"'*
&I$ I %ad not written t%at "ou s%ould not accompan" t%ose $orei,n di,nitaries2
but then neither I had written that you can accompany them* I discovered +"
c%ance t%at "ou were accompan"in, t%em* =%" "ou did not tell to me t%at
earlierH (%is is suppression o$ material $actsO Jou new on w%ic% side o$ t%e
+read was +uttered and cleverl" "ou are passin, o$$ "our usurpation as "our
inte,rit"H' continued 5s%o2 &Jou %ave en1o"ed t%e trip at compan"Fs
e.penses* For t%is misconduct2 I need to issue "ou s%ow cause notice*'
&I did not tell "ou +ecause I do not report to "ou* I was a +i, %elp to t%ose
$orei,n dele,ates* Now I need to raise a complaint a,ainst "ou* ?is,ustin,O
=%at ind o$ %ell I am inH (%ese t%in,s would never %appen in m" previous
(%e %eated e.c%an,e continued $or some time and :inee le$t wit% complete
determination to retaliate*
On 3<t" 'ugust morning
8ano%ar2 ?irector o$ t%e compan"2 resumed %is o$$ice as usual* On c%ecin,
%is sc%edule $or t%e da"2 %e opened %is mail* =%en %e was peein, over t%e
su+1ect %eadin, o$ eac% mail2 %e startled to $ind one o$ t%e su+1ects %eadin,
as &?ra$t o$ S%ow Cause Notice'* Ae was a+out to open t%at mail t%inin,
w%at must %ave +een stored in it w%en %is train o$ t%ou,%ts was interrupted
+ecause o$ :ineeFs sudden entr" &(%ere are some important mails $or "ou and
one is $rom me too'*
&From "ouH' Dueried 8ano%ar*
7e$ore :inee could spea an"t%in,2 %e %ad rested %is e"es on %er mail wit%
su+1ect %eadin, &>rievance a,ainst A:'*
Communication in Organization - Its Function, Nature and Scope
Read the above case study carefully and bring out the various issues involved
in it
Case 'nalsis
a4(%ere are perception di$$erences +etween 5s%o and :inee*
+4=%en 5s%o wrote mail to :inee2 %e did not speci$" w%o will ,ive admin
support to t%e $orei,n dele,ates* O$ t%e 7 CFs o$ Communication2 one ICF is
ICompletenessF* 5s%oFs communication was incomplete* (%is incomplete
communication %as created con$lict* From t%e initial tas con$lict 2 it
switc%ed to relations%ip con$lict*
c4:inee did not deem it $it to in$orm an"one i$ s%e wanted to accompan"
$orei,n dele,ates* (%is %as ,iven credence to communication ,ap*
d4:ineeFs remar at t%e end &!hat "ind of hell I am in? These things would
never happen in my previous company' s%ows %er mental non-ali,nment wit%
%er current compan"*
e4Once a person 1oins a new compan"2 %e/s%e needs to learn and de-learn
somet%in,* :inee is "et to come to terms to wit% t%e culture o$ t%e new
compan"* Aer %an,over o$ t%e wor st"le o$ previous compan" %as put %er
personal credi+ilit" into Duestion*
$4(%e instances lie t%ese sow seeds o$ discord and vitiate t%e or,anisationFs
,4In a compan" w%ere emplo"ee empowerment is practised and promoted2
:ineeFs proactive approac% would not %ave attracted wrat% $rom A: :at%er it
mi,%t %ave attracted appreciation* Aowever2 t%is was not t%e case o$ %er
current compan"*
%49ossi+l" :inee mi,%t l"e low a$ter t%is incident +ut s%e will remain put o$$
$or a lon, time*
i4(%e incident is t%e +est ,rist $or t%e ,rapevine* (%e incident ma" +e
interpreted di$$erentl" +" di$$erent emplo"ees in t%eir in$ormal c%at and
discussion and t%at will create a $urt%er distortion o$ t%e realit"*
'ction !ools
a4?evise a standard $orm $or o+tainin, approval $or outstation visits*
Communication in Organization - Its Function, Nature and Scope
Standardisation o$ process alwa"s %elps in avoidin, con$usion*
+4Strive $or process centred wor st"le over person centred wor st"le*
c4Clari$" +oundaries o$ emplo"ee empowerment*
d4<mplo"ee motivation cannot +e decoupled $rom or,anisationFs culture*
8otivation stems $rom or,anisationFs culture* 8ana,ement must tae
proactive approac% in s%apin, t%e or,anisationFs culture rat%er t%an allowin,
it to tae %a"wire s%ape on its own*
e4=%ile trainin, sta$$ on communication2 mana,ement must ,ive emp%asis on
or,anisational communication rat%er t%an smaller aspect lie tone2 st"le2
+od" lan,ua,e etc*
Welingkar Notes for Business Communication
Organiation Behaviour by !s"athapa
Communication in Organization - Its Function, Nature and Scope