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4 Kirchhoff’s Laws

I. Introduction

In this lab exercise, you will learn –

• how to read schematic diagrams of electronic networks,

• how to draw and use network graphs,

• how to transform schematics into actual component connections,

• correct ways to layout a breadboard connection of a network,

• how to connect the DMM to network components, and

• the verification of KCL and KVL.

II. Experiment Procedure

Four resistive networks N

1

through N

4

are shown on the following pages. Each network is accompanied with its

oriented graph, a simplified connection diagram, and a photo of its suggested breadboard layout. Your job in this

lab experiment is to fill out the three tables included with each network with the following data: (where ‘x’ denotes

the network number; eg, x = 1 for network 1, x = 2 for network 2, etc.)

(a) Table x.1 (variable map) – measure and record

i. the value of each network element,

ii. the voltage across each network element with node polarities, and

iii. the current through each voltage source with node polarities.

(b) Table x.1 (variable map) – calculate and record

i. the current through each resistor using Ohm’s law, and

ii. the power dissipated by each element.

(c) Table x.2 (KCL) – calculate and record

i. the total current into each node,

ii. the total current out of each node, and

iii. verification of KCL at each node.

(d) Table x.3 (KVL) – calculate and record

i. the total clockwise voltage drop around each circuit,

ii. the total counter clockwise voltage drop around each circuit, and

iii. verification of KVL for each circuit.

III. Lab Report

The report for this lab experiment must be word-processed and contain the following items –

• Title Page.

• Introduction.

• Procedure.

• Results.

• Discussions.

(a) Comment with respect to accuracy versus convenience on the application of Ohm’s law to determine

element current.

• Conclusion. Provide detailed comments and discussions on the items listed below for each resistor network.

(a) Does the total power dissipated equal the total power supplied? Explain why or why not.

(b) Are the network laws KCL and KVL verified? Explain any discrepancies.

• Appendix.

• References.

IV. Resistor Networks

Network N

1

v

1

v

2

e

V1

e

R1

(a) (b)

R

1

1K

2 1

(c)

V1 R

1

1K

1

2

10V

Agilent E3620A

V1 V2

N

1

G

1

Figure 1.1

(a) Network N

1

(b) Graph G

1

of N

1

(c) Component connections

Figure 1.2

Breadboard layout of N

1

Table 1.1

Voltage, current, and power map for N

1

Element

Specified

value

Measured

value

Element voltage Element current

Element

power (W)

Nodes

Measured

value (V)

Nodes

Calculated

value (A)

+ − + −

R

1

1KΩ

V1 10V 1 2

Table 1.2

Kirchhoff current law

Node

Total current

into (I

in

) (A)

Total current

out of (I

out

) (A)

KCL

(I

in

– I

out

) (A)

1

2

Table 1.3

Kirchhoff voltage law

Circuit

Total cw voltage

drop (V

cw

) (V)

Total ccw voltage

drop (V

ccw

) (V)

KVL

(V

cw

– V

ccw

) (V)

V1, R

1

Network N

2

Agilent E3620A

V1 V2

R

1

R

2

R

3

1

2 3

4

V1

R

1

1K

1

4

2

3

R

2

R

3

2K

3K

9V

e

V1

v

1

v

2

v

3

v

4

e

R1

e

R2

e

R3

(a) (b)

(c)

N

2

G

2

Figure 2.1

(a) Network N

2

(b) Graph G

2

of N

2

(c) Component connections

Figure 2.2

Breadboard layout of N

2

Table 2.1

Voltage, current, and power map for N

2

Element

Specified

value

Measured

value

Element voltage Element current

Element

power (W)

Nodes

Measured

value (V)

Nodes

Calculated

value (A)

+ − + −

R

1

1KΩ

R

2

2KΩ

R

3

3KΩ

V1 9V 1 4

Table 2.2

Kirchhoff current law

Node

Total current

into (I

in

) (A)

Total current

out of (I

out

) (A)

KCL

(I

in

– I

out

) (A)

1

2

3

4

Table 2.3

Kirchhoff voltage law

Circuit

Total cw voltage

drop (V

cw

) (V)

Total ccw voltage

drop (V

ccw

) (V)

KVL

(V

cw

– V

ccw

) (V)

V1, R

1

,

R

2

, R

3

Network N

3

R

1

R

2

R

3

R

4

R

5

R

6

V1

1 2 3

4 5 6

3.9K 1.2K

12K 9.1K

4.7K 2.2K

15V

e

R1

e

V1

e

R2

e

R3

e

R4

e

R5

e

R6

v

1

v

2 v

3

v

4 v

5

v

6

Agilent E3620A

V1 V2

(a) (b)

N

3

G

3

R

1

R

2

R

3

R

4

R

5

R

6

1

2

3 4

5

6

(c)

Figure 3.1

(a) Network N

3

(b) Graph G

3

of N

3

(c) Component connections

Figure 3.2

Breadboard layout of N

3

Table 3.1

Voltage, current, and power map for N

3

Element

Specified

value

Measured

value

Element voltage Element current

Element

power (W)

Nodes

Measured

value (V)

Nodes

Calculated

value (A)

+ − + −

R

1

3.9KΩ

R

2

1.2KΩ

R

3

9.1KΩ

R

4

2.2KΩ

R

5

12KΩ

R

6

4.7KΩ

V1 15V 1 6

Table 3.2

Kirchhoff current law

Node

Total current

into (I

in

) (A)

Total current

out of (I

out

) (A)

KCL

(I

in

– I

out

) (A)

1

2

3

4

5

6

Table 3.3

Kirchhoff voltage law

Circuit

Total cw voltage

drop (V

cw

) (V)

Total ccw voltage

drop (V

ccw

) (V)

KVL

(V

cw

– V

ccw

) (V)

V1, R

1

,

R

5

, R

6

R

5

, R

2

,

R

3

, R

4

V1, R

1

,

R

2

, R

3

,

R

4

, R

6

Network N

4

V1

V2 R

1

R

2

R

3

R

4

R

5

R

6

R

7

1

2

3

4

5

6

5V

10V 220K

82K 47K

150K

12K

4.7K

3.3K

v

1

v

2

v

3

v

4

v

5

v

6

e

R1

e

R2

e

R3

e

V1

e

V2

e

R4

e

R5

e

R6

e

R7

(a) (b)

Agilent E3620A

V1 V2

1

3

2

6

4 5

R

1

R

2

R

3

R

4

R

5

R

6

R

7

(c)

N

4

G

4

Figure 4.1

(a) Network N

4

(b) Graph G

4

of N

4

(c) Component connections

Figure 4.2

Breadboard layout of N

4

Table 4.1

Voltage, current, and power map for N

4

Element

Specified

value

Measured

value

Element voltage Element current

Element

power (W)

Nodes

Measured

value (V)

Nodes

Calculated

value (A)

+ − + −

R

1

220KΩ

R

2

82KΩ

R

3

47KΩ

R

4

150KΩ

R

5

12KΩ

R

6

3.3KΩ

R

7

4.7KΩ

V1 5V 1 3

V2 10V 2 5

Table 4.2

Kirchhoff current law

Node

Total current

into (I

in

) (A)

Total current

out of (I

out

) (A)

KCL

(I

in

– I

out

) (A)

1

2

3

4

5

6

Table 4.3

Kirchhoff voltage law

Circuit

Total cw voltage

drop (V

cw

) (V)

Total ccw voltage

drop (V

ccw

) (V)

KVL

(V

cw

– V

ccw

) (V)

R

1

, R

2

,

V2, R

6

V2, R

3

,

R

4

, R

5

R

2

, V1, R

3

R

6

, R

5

, R

7

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