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In the words of Drucker,” man, of all resources available to men, can grow and develop.” A human
Being himself determines what he contributes. If he is motivated, he will work for an organization
more efficiently and effectively. Management has been defined as achieving objectives through
people and through the use of resources. Selecting the most suitable resources is important- the
right plans, the right machinery and equipment, the right tools- but selecting the right people to do
each task is of overiding importance. The most efficient machinery in the world will not produce at a
maximum unless the people who operate the machinery know how to make it perform at its best,
and, most importantly, are motivated to make their equipment produce efficiently. If the skill and
the will are properly applied, wonderful things can happen:
 Human Beings help in transforming the lifeless factors of production into useful products.
 They are capable of enlargement, i.e., capable of producing an output that is greater than
the sum of inputs. Once they are motivated, even common men can do uncommon things.
 They can help an organization achieve results quickly, efficiently and effectively.
Among the various factors of production which are used in an organization, human factor is the
most important. This is because the efficient use of physical resources(i, e. Land, machinery and
materials) ultimately depends on how the human factor is put to use on various operations. An
organisation has a good chance to survive and prosper if it consists of right people. Broadly
speaking, staffing id concerned with the management of human beings in an organization.


Staffing is the process of matching the jobs with capable
people. It is concerned with the selection ,placement, growth
and development of people in an organisation. It involves the
determination of what personnel are needed, in what
quantity and of what quality. It is development- oriented as it
tries to maintain and develop employees through
appropriate training and compensation programmes. The
main features of staffing may be stated thus:
1. Staffing involves people: Staffing is difficult because it deals with people. Unlike the other
managerial functions such as planning, organising and controlling that may be totally
objective and performed almost mechanically, staffing function is difficult to perform.
Where right kind of people are not selected, many problems may crop up later on.

2. Staffing is development-oriented: Staffing is not simply hiring people. It aims at
developing people through training. It also aims at maintaining people through appropriate
compensation policies.
 Staffing: It is the
process of attracting,
developing and
evaluating individuals
at work

3. Staffing is continuous: People join and leave organisation for a number of reasons. To
meet the growing needs of an organisation, new hands have to be hired from time to time.
Staffing , thus, is a continuous activity. It is an integral part of of the management process
and is performed by every manager on continuous basis.

4. Staffing is a three-step process: Staffing, basically, involves three things:
 Hiring the right kind of people to fill vacancies.
 Developing their skills through training, and
 Maintaining them by creating favourable conditions of work.
Stated precisely, the purpose of staffing is to ensure that the right number and right
type of people are working on the right jobs at the right time and place.

Nothing is more important to a firm than the qualities and abilities of the people it employs.
People are indispensable in the generation of goods and services. It is the people who
operate machines, design new products and deliver services. Only an organisation that
consists of the right kind of people can hope to survive and flourish in the present-day
competitive environment.
Staffing helps an organisation in the following ways:
1. Key to other managerial functions: An organisation having the right kind of people can
translate its plans into results easily. It can organise its facilities and resources properly. It
can keep its activities on the right track and achieve the objectives smoothly(without any
resistance from employees).
2. Design a sound organisation: Staffing is useful in designing a sound organisation. Proper
recruitment and selection practices enable the organisation to attract talented people into
its fold. Jobs are, thus, put in the hands of the best brains, paving the way for aright kind of
work atmosphere and culture. People are now more willing to work sincerely and show
3. Motivation to do outstanding work: Where the vacanci4es in an organisation are filled
with the right kind of people ,it is possible to achieve objectives smoothly. The talents of
people are put to good use, their contributions are taken note of and rewarded properly. As
we all know, human beings are capable of enlargement i .e, capable of producing an output
that is greater than the sum of inputs. Once they are motivated, even common men can do
uncommon things. According to Koontz and O’Donnell, the effective managing of an
organisation is one the best assurances of successful operations and growth.


Important advantages advantages of line and staff organisation may be listed thus:
Planned specialisation: As business grows the pure line organisation may overburden the line
managers with complex problems, and the need for staff assistance would be felt acutely. The
primary advantage of line and staff organisation is that it uses the expertise of specialist, i.e., it can
bring expert knowledge to bear upon managerial and operational problems. Line executives can,
then .plan effectively and be responsible for proper execution while the staff specialists assist as and
when needed.
Scientific actions: The actions of a line manager can become more scientific by means of
concentrated and skilful examination of business problems. Expert advice definitely helps line
Definiteness: In a line-staff organisation, authority and responsibility are fixed. The unity of
command principle is honoured as each individual reports to only one superior, while specialised
help is available as and when needed. In addition, accountability is definite. Only line executives are
accountable for the results of their divisions or departments. Undivided responsibility compels line
executives to enforce discipline strictly. Control and coordination are effective.
Office Purchasing Personnel Legal
Sales Production Finance
Quality Control Maintenance
Supervisor Supervisor Supervisor Supervisor Supervisor
Training ground for development people: As everyone is expected to concentrate on one area,
one’s training needs can be expressed easily. Line managers can improve their problem solving
dilutes the authority of the supervisor and can depreciate his status in the eyes of his subordinates. I
f the functional structure is used extensively, the line manager may , in course of time, become little
more than a figurehead.
Lack of coordination: As pointed out by drucker, “Every functional manager considers his function
the most important one, tries to build it up and is prone to subordinate the welfare of the other
functions if not the entire business, to the interests of his unit”. Every functional managers considers
his function the most important one and develops a narrow dimension of the organisation. He
becomes so enamoured with his own speciality that he forgets the organisation’s overall goals. In his
anxiety to achieve departmental goals, he may try to subordinate the welfare of the other functions.
The functional organisation promotes empire building tendencies on the part of functional
Delayed decisions: In the functional organisation, the decision-making process is slowed down to a
‘feeble walk’. Experts rarely agree on what should be done, and action is painfully slow. When a
decision needs to be reached among a group of specialists, a compromise may be necessary and
considerable time may br lost in reaching it.
Divided responsibility: If everything goals well, each expert tries to steal the credit. However, if
something goes wrong, all try to disown responsibility. Mutual recrimination and shifting of blame
takes place.
Managerial vacuum: Emphasis on functional skill makes man unfit for top managrment post
requiring a broad perspective on the organisations activities.Functional structure does not prepare
people for tomorrow,for it has no position in which a functional head can learn and prepare to
handle complexities inherent in the chief executives position. In course of time,a chronic shortage of
top management generalists may be left.