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People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria
Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research
University M’Hamed BOUGARA – Boumerdes

Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Department of Electronics
Lab Report of the Degree of
‘MASTER 02’
In Electrical and Electronic Engineering
‘Telecommunication Option’
Title:
DIPOLE ANTANNA
Presented By:
- Gassab Oussama

- Gacem BelQassim
Supervisor:
Dr. CHALLAL Mouloud

14/04/2014
Abstract

Employment of a data-acquisition system for data collection and
calculations makes experiments with antennas more convenient and less
time consuming. The determined directional patterns of the dipole
antennas of different lengths are in reasonable agreement with theory.
The enhancement of the signal by using a reflector is demonstrated, and a
variant of the dipole antenna is explored. The experiments are suitable as
laboratory works and classroom demonstrations, and are attractive for
student projects.

1

introduction:

this world contains very amazing fundamental concepts , which
occur under highly organized manner can be formulated mathematically.
Every physical concept that happens in this world can be understand it by
using mathematical formulas . the electromagnetic theory is very
important concepts in the field of physics and it is fundamental reality in
the field of communication ( antennas transmission , radar , …) .

the electromagnetic theory describes how the electric and magnetic
fields interact with itselfs and how they interact with time and space ; the
interaction with time and space contains the concept of the wave
propagation , and the concept of the relativistic between time , space , and
energy contains the concept of relativistic theory (( Einstein's relativistic
theory )) and all concepts of electromagnetic theory are described by
Maxwell equations.
the communication antennas are devices that transmit and receive
electromagnetic waves , the purpose of building antennas is to make the
theory of electromagnetic under human control in order to enhance
science and technologies and make our life easy in all different fields. To
do all this we have to build antennas with some specified parameters and
with high performance.








2

1
Theoretical Concepts
 The Hertizian dipole antenna
 The half-wave dipole antenna













3


1.1 The Hertizian dipole antenna
It is the radiation of an infinitesimal
current element

.
We will introduce very small method
to analyze the Hertizian dipole and
build all its parameters.
The general solution of Maxwell
equations is given by

1, =

4

(2,−

12

)

12

2

We have used the notation which is used by Fynman
[1]
this notation
means
1 is equivalent to (
1
,
1
,
1
) is the point where we observe the field
2 is equivalent (
2
,
2
,
2
) is the point where the source charge exist
Since we have only line current element so we have

2, −

12

= (2, −

12

)

where

=

where

1, =

4

(2,−

12

)

12

since the current is in one point and it is
infinitesimal we can write

=
(−

12

)
4

=

0
lcos ⁡( − )
4

in phasor form

=

0
l
4

So we have in spherical coordinate

=

0
l
4

By using the equations
H

s
=
1
μ

× A
s

E
s

=
η

× H
2

fig(1.1.1) : the Hertizian dipole
carrying current = (
0
) .
[1] The Feynman lectures on physics volume 2 at
chapter 21
4

The far radiation fields are given by

H
s

= j

0
l
4
sin

E
s

= η

0
l
4
sin

 The power Radiated by the Hertizian antenna
The power density is given by the expression as

=
1
2
E
s

× H
s


=

2

so we get

= η

2

0
2
l
2
32
2

2
sin
2

so the power intensity is given by
=

2
= η

2

0
2
l
2
32
2
sin
2
=
0
sin
2
where

0
= η

2

0
2
l
2
32
2

After that we obtain the directivity of the Hertizian antenna
=
4

=
3
2
sin
2

The Radiation resistance can be easy found to be

=
2

0
2
= 80

2
where =
2

1.2 Half-Wave Dipole Antenna :
The half-wave dipole antenna is just a special case of the dipole antenna,
but its important enough that it will have its own section. Note that the
"half-wave" term means that the length of this dipole antenna is equal to a
half-wavelength at the frequency of operation(L=
λ
2
), it consists of a thin
wire fed or excited at the mid-point by a voltage source connected to the
antenna via a transmission line, The magnetic vector potential at P due to
a differential length dl(= dz) of the dipole carrying a phasor current Is =
Io cos (βz) is dAz=
μ I
0
cos βz dz
4πr

e
−jβr


5









If r>>L then r’=r-zcosθ
We find Azs=
μI
0
cos (
π
2
cos θ)
2πrβ (sin θ)
2

Normalized Radiation Intensity is
D(θ, φ) =
U(r,θ,φ)
U
max

D(θ, φ)=
(cos [
π
2
cos θ])
2
(sin θ)
2








fig(1.2.2) : evaluating the
parameters at point P from half-
wave dipole antenna .
fig(1.2.1) : the half-wave dipole
carrying current .
6



2
Dipole Antenna
Characteristics
 Frequency vs Length of the dipole
 Radiation Pattern and Gain
 Feeder Line








7

2.1 Frequency vs the Length of the Dipole
in fact any dipole antenna with length l radiates fields that are only the
superposition of infinitesimal Hertizian dipoles along the line l
by using the concept of superposition of Hertizian dipole we can build
general integral form for any dipole antenna with length l
the Hertizian dipole electric field is given by
E
s

= η

0
l
4
sin

when we perform superposition the quantity

0
l is generalized to integral form sin

2

l
2

l
2

The electric field of any dipole antenna of length l is
E
s

= η

0
4
sin

sin

2

l
2

l
2

When we handle the integration we have gotten the following results
E
s

= η

0

2

where f is given
=
cos

2
−cos

2

we see that this function depend on

2

Where we can write

2
=
2

2
=

so the antenna characteristic
depends on the factor

, if we want to build antennas that behaves the
same at different frequencies the factor

must be constant

= = so the relation between length and frequency can be given
as =

which is the relation between frequency and length of dipole
antennas that have the same radiation pattern that depend on the function
When f is increased the length must be decreased to keep the same
radiation pattern
=
cos −cos

where =

8

2.2 Radiation pattern and Gain

The radiation pattern of dipole antenna of length l depends on the
function =
cos

2
−cos

2

The intensity and directivity can be obtained by using the same method
that we have done with Hertizian dipole ( except the radiation power
integral is performed numerically )
The intensity is in the form =
0

cos

2
−cos

2

2

Where
0
=

0
2

2
4

The directivity is given by
0
=
4
0

where

is performed by using
numerical method or math lab program
The total or absolute gain is given by
0
=

0

Where

is transmission losses and it equal two

= 1 − Γ
2
and

is
the losses from the conduction and dielectric materials and it relates to the
radiation resistance and loss resistance as

=

+

To understand how the radiation pattern effected when we change the
length of the antenna we have drawn some pattern as shown below.






fig(2.2.1) , elevation plane
amplitude amplitude
patterns for dipole
anttenas with different
length .
9

when the length of the dipole
antenna is increase so that >
a secondary lobes appears and
the beam solid angel is increased
and that make the directivity and
the gain decreases and results
low antenna efficiency





2.3 Feeder line
To connect the antenna to the network circuit (receiver or transmitter ) we
have to use transmission lines that operates in high frequency and
perform no losses .
 The concept of losses :
Because at high frequency the wave length of the wave that
propagate in the line is small or comparable to the line so the
voltage would not the same in the line and that will generate
another electromagnetic field that will propagate from the line
(small line antenna ) and that will reduce efficiency , but high
frequency transmission lines is designed under way where there is
no field outside these lines this method is performed under using
the concept of Amper's laws (( there is no EMF field outside the
line if the line contains adjacent concentric currents moving in
opposite direction ))

There are different kinds of transmission lines the most known ones are :



fig(2.2.2) : Amplitude pattern for
dipole antenna with l=1.25.
10

1- coaxial line
2- two-wire –line
3- parallel-plate or planar line
4-wire above conducting plan
5-microstrip line









Each kind of line has its purpose and the most used one is the
coaxial cables with large antennas . and in small antennas like microstrip
antennas ( in cell phones ) we use microstrip line.






fig(2.3.1) : different types of Feeder lines a. coaxial cable b. two wire-line
c. parallel plate or planar line d. wire above conduction plan e.
microstrip line .
11




3
Common Application of
Dipole Antenna
 Set top TV Antenna
 Shortwave Antenna
 Dipole Towers
 Collinear Dipole Arrays







12

3.1 Set-top TV antenna
The most common dipole antenna is the type used with telivisions, often
colloquially referred to as rabbit ears or bunny ears. While in most
applications the dipole elements are arranged along the same line, rabbit
ears are adjustable in length and angle. Larger dipoles are sometimes
hung in a V shape with the center near the radio equipment on the ground
or the ends on the ground with the center supported. Shorter dipoles can
be hung vertically. Some have extra elements to get better reception such
as loops (especially for UHF transmissions), which can be turnable
around a vertical axis, or a dial, which modifies the electrical properties
of the antenna at each dial position.
3.2 Short wave antenna
Horizontal wire dipole antennas are popular for use on the HFshortwave
bands, both for transmitting and shortwave listening. They are usually
constructed of two lengths of wire joined by a strain insulator in the
center at which a ladder line or coaxialfeedline is attached, with the ends
supported by buildings, towers, or trees. These are simple to put up for
temporary or field use. For transmitting antennas, it is essential that the
ends of the antenna be attached to supports through strain insulators with
a sufficiently high flashover voltage, since the antenna's high voltage
antinodes occur there.
 Dipoles versus whip antennas
Dipoles are generally more efficient than whip antennas (quarter-wave
monopoles). The total radiated power and the radiation resistance are
twice that of a quarter-wave monopole. Thus, if a whip antenna were used
with an infinite perfectly conducting ground plane, then it would be as
efficient in half-space as a dipole in free space an infinite distance from
any conductive surfaces such as the earth's surface. However, in real life
situations, if considering the antenna height, a monopole may have an
advantage at certain radiating angles, especially at low heights.
3. 3 Dipole towers
Large constructed half-wavelength dipole towers include the Warsaw
radio mast the only half-wave dipole for longwave ever built.
3.4 Collinear dipole arrays
13

Vertical dipoles can be stacked end to end to make collinear
antenna arrays, to give a higher gain than a single dipole. The radiation
pattern of the array is omnidirectional like a dipole, but the toroidal-
shaped pattern is "flattened" so more of the power is radiated in
horizontal directions and less is radiated up into the sky and down toward
the ground and wasted. Collinear arrays are a higher gain alternative to
whip antennas for fixed base station antennas for mobile two-way radios,
such as police, fire, or taxi dispatchers. [1]


















[1] wikipidea . dipole_antenna
14




4
MATLAB Program
Simulation of antenna parameters by using MATLAB
software is performed











15

lamda=input('enter the value of the wave length = ');
L=input('enter the dipole length L in terms of lamda = ');
ratio=L/lamda;
theta=pi/100:pi/100:2*pi;
if ratio<=0.1 %Check if short Dipole (Hertzian dipole)
NRI=(sin(theta)).^2; %The NRI for the hertzian dipole
polar(theta, NRI,'c+:'); %Plot polar pattern on x-y , y-x planes
title('hertzian dipole'); %figure title (hertzian dipole)
else%Check if not short Dipole (real dipole)
NRI=((cos((pi/2)*cos(theta)))./sin(theta)).^2; %The NRI for
%the real dipole

polar(theta, NRI,'c+:'); %Plot polar pattern on x-y , y-x planes
title('real dipole'); %figure title (real dipole)
end

We have written the following Matlab code:
We verify the two cases (ratio<=0.1 and ratio >0.1), the two are elevation
radiation pattern.
1- ratio<=0.1



 enter the value of the wavelength =
20
 enter the dipole length L in terms of
lamda = 1
then the following graph has been
gotten:


ratio>0.1
 enter the value of the wavelength =
10
 enter the dipole length L in terms of
lamda = 15
we have gotten the next graph:
fig(4.1) :the intensity along
elevation plane for Hertizian dipole.
fig(4.2) : the intensity along
elevation plane for half-wave
dipole.
16



The next step is to draw the Azimuth radiation pattern, we will write the
following matlab code:
The next graph is plotted:













lamda=input('enter the value of the wave length = ');
L=input('enter the dipole length L in terms of lamda = ');
ratio=L/lamda;
theta=pi/2:2*pi:130*pi;
phi=0:pi/32:2*pi;
if ratio<=0.1 %Check if short Dipole (Hertzian dipole)
NRI=(sin(theta)).^2; %The NRI for the hertzian dipole
polar(phi, NRI,'r+:'); %Plot polar pattern on x-y , y-x planes

title('hertzian dipole'); %figure title (hertzian dipole)
else%Check if not short Dipole (realdipole)
NRI=((cos((pi/2).*cos(theta)))./sin(theta)).^2; %The NRI for
%the real dipole
polar(phi,NRI,'r+:'); %Plot polar pattern on x-y , y-x planes
title('real dipole'); %figure title (real dipole)
end

fig(4.3) :the intensity along
azimuth plane which shows the
omnidirctional properties
17

2- the azimuth and elevation plane HPBWs
 Hertizian dipole
Since the intensity is given by =
0
sin
2

=

0
2
sin
2
=
1
2
sin =
2
2

4

4
= [0; 2]



The bandwidth is

= −

4

4
=

2
= 90

The Bandwidth is

= 2
The maximum directivity

=
3
2

4- the approximation of directivity
The approximation of Ω
A

2
=

2

2
so the approximation of the
directivity is given by D
0
=

Ω
A


2

2

2
=
4

≅ 1.27 ≅
3
2

 The half-wave dipole
We use the approximation in the case
3

cos ⁡(

2
)

2

1- the half bandwidth

3
=
1
2

= 0.9169
= 2.225


The Bandwidth is given by

= 1.308 = 74.95 < 90
The Bandwidth is

= 2

The maximum directivity is given by D=
16

we have found that by
using some good integration by using this expression
=
4
(,)∅

0
2
0


The approximation value is D
0
=

Ω
A


21.308
2
≅ 1.836 ≅
16


18







5
Observations









19




Observations :
5.1 Yes, it has the same response in all directions in the azimuth plane.
Because U=W
0
(sin )
2
which is independent of
U=cte when =cte because it is independent of
U=U
max
at =

2
and which represent a circle in the azimuth plane
[0, 2]

5.2 In circle path defined by
=

2

[0, 2]

5.3
=0 or = which represent a line along the axis of antenna
[0, 2]







20

Conclusion:
In radio and telecommunications a dipole antenna or doublet is the
simplest and most widely used class of antenna. It consists of two
identical conductive elements such as metal wires or rods, which are
usually bilaterally symmetrical. The driving current from the transmitter
is applied, or for receiving antennas the output signal to the receiver is
taken, between the two halves of the antenna. Each side of the feedline to
the transmitter or receiver is connected to one of the conductors. This
contrasts with a monopole antenna, which consists of a single rod or
conductor with one side of the feedline connected to it, and the other side
connected to some type of ground. A common example of a dipole is the
"rabbit ears" television antenna found on broadcast television sets.
The most common form of dipole is two straight rods or wires
oriented end to end on the same axis, with the feedline connected to the
two adjacent ends. This is the simplest type of antenna from a theoretical
point of view. Dipoles are resonant antennas, meaning that the elements
serve as resonators, with standing waves of radio current flowing back
and forth between their ends. So the length of the dipole elements is
determined by the wavelength of the radio waves used. The most
common form is the half-wave dipole, in which each of the two rod
elements is approximately 1/4 wavelength long, so the whole antenna is a
half-wavelength long.
Several different variations of the dipole are also used, such as the
folded dipole, short dipole, cage dipole, bow-tie, and batwing antenna.
Dipoles may be used as standalone antennas themselves, but they are also
employed as feed antennas (driven elements) in many more complex
antenna types, such as the Yagi antenna, parabolic antenna, reflective
array, turnstile antenna, log periodic antenna, and phased array. The
dipole was the earliest type of antenna; it was invented by German
physicist Heinrich Hertz around 1886 in his pioneering investigations of
radio waves.