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People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria
Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research
University M’Hamed BOUGARA – Boumerdes

Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Department of Electronics
Lab Report of the Degree of
‘MASTER 02’
In Electrical and Electronic Engineering
‘Telecommunication Option’
Title:
MONOPOLE AND
VVLOOP ANTENNA
Presented By:
- Gassab Oussama

- Gacem BelQassim
Supervisor:
Dr. CHALLAL 28/04/2014
Abstract

In our lab report our purpose is to analyze two different known
antennas which they are monopole and loop antennas. Under the theory
of electromagnetic and the propagation concept , the electric field
intensity changes with the observed position point, some point have low
intensity and others with high intensity fields . this concept is described
easily by using the normalized radiation intensity and directivity pattern.
It is not practically to analyze the radiation patterns ( intensity and
directivity) by using pan and papers because this patterns contains
complicated function so that we simulate this pattern by using MATLAB
And that help us to draw the patterns by controlling all the parameters

In our lab we have handled all the parameters of the loop and
monopole antennas under different conditions .

1

Introduction:

this world contains very amazing fundamental concepts , which
occur under highly organized manner can be formulated mathematically.
Every physical concept that happens in this world can be understand it by
using mathematical formulas . the electromagnetic theory is very
important concepts in the field of physics and it is fundamental reality in
the field of communication ( antennas transmission , radar , …) .

the electromagnetic theory describes how the electric and magnetic
fields interact with itselfs and how they interact with time and space ; the
interaction with time and space contains the concept of the wave
propagation , and the concept of the relativistic between time , space , and
energy contains the concept of relativistic theory (( Einstein's relativistic
theory )) and all concepts of electromagnetic theory are described by
Maxwell equations.
the communication antennas are devices that transmit and receive
electromagnetic waves , the purpose of building antennas is to make the
theory of electromagnetic under human control in order to enhance
science and technologies and make our life easy in all different fields. To
do all this we have to build antennas with some specified parameters and
with high performance.








2

1
Theoretical Concepts
 The Monopole Antenna
 The Loop Antenna













3

1.1 The Monopole Antenna
The monopole antenna is a wire antenna over conducting plane, as we
know that the electromagnetic waves behaves as light because light is just
an electromagnetic wave at specific bandwidth frequency.
 Image theory of electromagnetic waves :
To understand the image theory we can handle the following
concept .
The electromagnetic we can model it as a light
The conducting plane as mirror

If flashlight is put near a mirror the resulting light is equal to the
light emitted from the flashlight itself plus the reflected wave from
mirror . but if we see the mirror , we realize that it is looks like
another flashlight symmetrical to our real flashlight emitting the
same amount of light without the mirror.

So the image theory help us to determine the fields radiated by source
near conducting plane, without using the concept of reflection which
contains so many mathematical calculations and theories . we just remove
the conducting plane and we add the same source symmetrical to the
other ( under some specific opposition signs) .

To analyze monopole antenna it is better to use the concept of
image theory.









image theory conversion
fig(1.1.1) : monopole
antenna over conducting
plane .
fig(1.1.2) : image theory
conversion produces half
wave dipole.
4

 The parameters of monopole antenna

Since the monopole antenna is just equivalent to half-wave dipole
antenna the electric and magnetic fields are given by

E

= jη
I
0
2πr
e
−jkr

cos

2
cos ⁡()
sin θ

H

= j
I
0
2πr
e
−jkr

cos

2
cos ⁡()
sin θ

The power density is given by

=

2
2
=
η
0
2
8
2

2

cos

2
cos ⁡()
sin θ

2

The power intensity , =

2

So we have
, =
η
0
2
8
2

cos

2
cos ⁡()
sin θ

2
, =
0

cos

2
cos ⁡()
sinθ

2

Where
0
=
η
0
2
8
2
=
15
π

0
2

The radiation resistance :
Monopole antenna is radiating in the region defined by
0 ≤ φ < 2
0 ≤ θ <
π
2


But the real half- wave dipole is radiating in the region
0 ≤ φ < 2
0 ≤ θ <


So we have

= (, )∅

0
2
0

And we have

= (, )∅

2
0
2
0

So we conclude that

=
1
2

This implies that Z
monopole
=
1
2

=
1
2
(73 + 42.5)
So we have Z
monopole
= 36.5 +21.25

5

So we can calculate the power radiated by the monopole without using
the complicated integration by only using the circuit model relation
P
rad
=
1
2

0
2
= 18.25
0
2

The antenna directivity :
, =
4(,)
P
rad
=
4π15
π

0
2

cos

2
cos ⁡()
sin θ

2
18.25
0
2
=
240
73

cos

2
cos ⁡()
sinθ

2

The maximum directivity is given by D
0
=
240
73
= 3.288
We found that D
0
= 2D
0
(halfwave)
So the monopole is more directive than half-wave dipole antenna
Because the monopole antenna is radiating only above the conducting
plane , so its energy is more concentrated in one direction.













6

1.2 The Loop Antenna
The far fields of the loop antennas are
given by

=

0

2

1

= −

0

2

1

Where J
1
is Bessel function of the first
kind with order 1 .


The power density is given by

=

2
2
=

2

0
2

2
8
2

1
2

The power intensity , =

2

So we have , =

2

0
2

2
8

1
2

The maximum value of the Bessel function of the first kind at order one is
(
1
) ≅ 0.58152 if > 1.8
We can use the approximation : for <
1
3

1

2

So
0
= (0.58152)
2

2

0
2

2
8
= 5.0725
2

0
2

2
= 5.0725
2

0
2

The radiation resistance of the loop antenna is given by

= 20
2

2
where = 2 is the circumference
So the power radiated by the antenna is given by
P
rad
=
1
2

0
2
= 40
4

2

0
2

2


fig(1.2.1) : loop antenna
located in the x,y plane.
7

The directivity of the antenna
, =
4(,)
P
rad
=
4

2

0
2

2
8

1
2

40
4

2

0
2

2

= 6
1
2

The maximum directivity is
0
= 60.58152
2
= 2.029




















8



2
Applications of
Monopole and Loop
Antennas
 Monopole broadcasting antennas
 the monopole antenna connected to the car or
airplane
 AM broadcast receiver loop antennas






9



2.1 Monopole broadcasting antennas
When it used for radio broadcasting, the radio frequency power
from the broadcasting transmitter is fed across the base insulator between
the tower and a ground system. The ideal ground system for AM
broadcasters comprises at least 120 buried copper or phosphor bronze
radial wires at least one-quarter wavelength long and a ground-screen in
the immediate vicinity of the tower. All the ground system components
are bonded together, usually by welding, brazing or using coin silver
solder to help reduce corrosion. Monopole antennas that use guy-wires
for support are called masts in some countries. In the United States, the
term “mast” is generally used to describe a pipe supporting a smaller
antenna, so both self-supporting and guy-wire supported radio antennas
are simply called monopoles if they stand alone. If multiple monopole
antennas are used in order to control the direction of Radio Frequency
(RF) propagation, they are called directional antenna arrays.
2.2 the monopole antenna connected to the car or airplane
At gigahertz frequencies the metal surface of a car roof or airplane
body makes a good ground plane, so car cell phone antennas consist of
short whips mounted on the roof, and aircraft communication antennas
frequently consist of a short conductor in an aerodynamic fairing
projecting from the fuselage; this is called a blade antenna. The quarter-
wave whip and "Rubber Ducky" antennas used with handheld radios such
as walkie-talkies and cell phones are also monopole antennas. The hand
and body of the person holding them function as a rudimentary ground
plane.
2.3 AM broadcast receiver loop antennas
AM broadcast radios (and some other receivers used at low frequencies)
typically use small loop antennas, tuned using a variable capacitor which
tracks the frequency the receiver is tuned to. In older (and physically
larger) AM radios, this might consist of dozens of turns of wire in a loop
on the back side of the radio. However modern AM radios usually use a
10

loop antenna wound around a ferrite rod to increase its inductance
without requiring such a large size. The resulting coil is called a loopstick
antenna, a ferrite rod antenna, a ferrod antenna, or a ferrite antenna.
The term loopstick refers to the underlying loop antenna and the stick
shape of the ferrite rod.
As with all small loops, loopstick antennas are most practical at lower
frequencies such as the medium-wave (AM broadcast band - 520–
1610 kHz) and long-wave (50–500 kHz) bands, using ferrite materials
which are not too lossy at these frequencies. A multiband receiver may
contain tap points along the winding in order to tune the loopstick
antenna at widely different frequencies.
As with all small loop antennas, loopstick antennas are largely immune to
locally generated (within the near field) electrical noise, as they are
coupled directly to the magnetic field. Loopstick antennas are also used in
radio direction-finding (RDF) applications. [1]













[1] Wikipedia
11




3
MATLAB Program
 The Radiation Pattern for monopole antenna
 The Radiation pattern for loop antenna
 Analyzing the parameters









12



3.1 the Radiation Pattern for monopole antenna
To plot the radiation pattern in y-z and x,y plane we have written the
following program.










If the monopole dipole is length =

4
(quarter wave
monopole dipole)
We have got the following results







% This program will perform pattern for Short and monopole Antenna
% you need just to insert the the values of lambda and the length of the
% monopole antenna.
clc ;
L=input('enter your monopole length L= ');
lambda=input('enter the value of wave length Lambda= ');
R=L/lambda;
B=2*pi/lambda ;
theta=-pi/2:pi/100:pi/2;
phi=0:pi/100:2*pi;
if R<=0.1 %check if it is short dipole
NRI=(sin(theta)).^2; %the formula of the short dipole
else
NRI=((cos(B*L.*cos(theta))-cos(B*L))./sin(theta)).^2; % the formula of
monopole dipole
end
subplot(1,2,1),polar(theta,NRI,'R.:');
title(' the graph in the y-z plane ');
subplot(1,2,2), polar(phi,phi./phi, '.r');
title(' the graph in the x-y plane');
grid;

fig(3.1.1) : the graph of
the normalized radiation
intensity of the monopole
antenna in the
elevation(left side
graph)and azimuth
plane(right side graph).
13



 If the ≥ then minor lobes will occur
To see that lets take = 8 = 2
So we got the following results









Some remarks:
We know that the general expression NRI of the dipole antenna of
length =
cos

2
−cos

2

2
for monopole antenna

2 so NRI for monopole antenna is
given by =
cos −cos

2
.






fig(3.1.2) : the graph of
the normalized radition
intensity of the monopole
antenna when the length
of the antenna is larger
than the wave length.
14


3.2 The radiation pattern for loop antenna
To plot the radiation pattern in y-z and x,y plane we have written the
following program









If we take the values = 4 = 1 we have gotten the
following pattern










% this unfinished program will perfrom the pattern for loop antenna by
% giving the radius of the loop and the wavelwngth yo work with
clc;
lambda=input('enter the value of wave length lambda= ');
a=input('enter the value of raduis a= ') ;
B=2*pi/lambda ;
theta=0:pi/100:pi ;
phi=0:pi/100:2*pi ;
E=besselj(1,B*a.*sin(theta));
subplot(1,2,1), polar(theta,E,'.r');
title('the pattern for loop antenna in the y,z plane');
subplot(1,2,2),polar(phi,phi./phi,'.r');
title('the pattern for loop antenna in the x,y');
grid;

fig(3.1.1) : the graph of
the normalized radiation
intensity of the loop
antenna in the azimuth
plane and the elevation
plane for=4 and a=1.
15


If we take the values = 1 = 1 we have
gotten the following pattern









We see that the elevation plane pattern it has been changed to
another form where minor lopes are generated, this happen under the
property of Bessel function.
When we take the values = 1 = 3 we have
the following pattern








fig(3.1.1) : the graph of
the normalized radiation
intensity of the loop
antenna in the azimuth
plane and the elevation
plane for=1 and a=1.
fig(3.1.1) : the graph of
the normalized radiation
intensity of the loop
antenna in the azimuth
plane and the elevation
plane for=1 and a=3 we
remark that many minor
lopes have been
occurred.
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The side lopes are generated when the dimension of the antenna is
more larger than the wave length of the operating frequency.
3.3 Analyzing the parameters
- The monopole dipole:
 Finding the azimuth and elevation plane HPBWs
The azimuth HPBW: since NRI is independent from and the monopole
antenna is radiating above the conduction plane so
HPBW

=
The elevation HPBW =
1
2

cos

2
cos ⁡()
sinθ

2
=
1
2
by using the
approximation that
cos

2
cos ⁡()
sin θ

3
() we found that

3
=
1
2

= 0.9169
= 2.225

but the monopole antenna is radiating
only over the conducting plane so 2.225 is replace by
π
2

So HPBW

=
π
2
− 0.9169 = 0.6538 rad = 73.46
0


The maximum directivity as proved before in section (1.1)
, =
4(,)
P
rad
=
4π15
π

0
2

cos

2
cos ⁡()
sin θ

2
18.25
0
2
=
240
73

cos

2
cos ⁡()
sinθ

2

The maximum directivity is given by D
0
=
240
73
= 3.288
- Finding the directivity by using the approximation
The beam solid angle is approximated as
Ω
A
≈ 22HPBW

2
= 22x06538
2
= 3.42
Where the directivity is given by D
0
=
4
Ω
A
=
4
3.42
= 3.67







17

- The loop antenna
Finding the azimuth and elevation plane HPBWs
The azimuth HPBW: since NRI is independent from
HPBW

= 2
The elevation HPBW =
1
2

1
=
0.58152
2
for > 1.8

By using the Bessel function table we have gotten = 0.6
=
0.6

so the beam width depend of the factor which is
obvious result
HPBW

= −2arcsin⁡(
0.6

)
The directivity is calculated in section 1.2 and it have been found to be
, =
4(,)
P
rad
=
4

2

0
2

2
8

1
2

40
4

2

0
2

2

= 6
1
2

The maximum directivity is
0
= 60.58152
2
= 2.029
- Since the number of lobes changes rapidly as the factor changes
The approximation of theHPBW

is such long and needs many
mathematical calculation and background concerning the Bessel
function
















18




4
Observations
 The response of the monopole and loop antennas
in the azimuth plane
 The maximum response for both antennas
 The minimum response for both antennas








19

4.1 The response of monopole and loop antennas in azimuth plane

Since the NRI is independent from for both antennas so the
normalized radiation intensity is always constant when we move in the
azimuth plane so the response is the same in all direction for both
antennas so they are classified as omnidirectional antennas in the
azimuth plane


4.2 The maximum response for both antennas

- The quarter wave monopole antenna
It has its maximum at =

2

- The loop antenna
(
1
) ≅ 0.58152 if > 1.8 the maximum value it
occur at = 1.8 sin =
1.8

= arcsin
1.8

4.3 The minimum response for both antenna

- The quarter wave monopole antenna
It has its maximum at
= 0

- The loop antenna

1
= 0 =
1
= arcsin

1

for n in
integer
By using the table of Bessel function we can determine are the
position where the radiation is zero (minimum )






20

Conclusion


The electromagnetic that is radiated from any source it depend on
the characteristic of that source ( dimensions ,geometry and also its
direction ). Because the electromagnetic induces under the concept of
independent superposition. And since the Radiation is related to the
wave length of the radiated wave , also the ratio of the wave length to
dimension of the source effects on the radiation pattern.

So we have studied the monopole and loop antenna and we have
found that the radiation pattern depends on the characteristic of the
antenna dimension and direction and also it depend on the wave
length of the radiating wave .