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People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria

Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research

University M’Hamed BOUGARA – Boumerdes

Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Department of Electronics

Lab Report of the Degree of

‘MASTER 02’

In Electrical and Electronic Engineering

‘Telecommunication Option’

Title:

MONOPOLE AND

VVLOOP ANTENNA

Presented By:

- Gassab Oussama

- Gacem BelQassim

Supervisor:

Dr. CHALLAL 28/04/2014

Abstract

In our lab report our purpose is to analyze two different known

antennas which they are monopole and loop antennas. Under the theory

of electromagnetic and the propagation concept , the electric field

intensity changes with the observed position point, some point have low

intensity and others with high intensity fields . this concept is described

easily by using the normalized radiation intensity and directivity pattern.

It is not practically to analyze the radiation patterns ( intensity and

directivity) by using pan and papers because this patterns contains

complicated function so that we simulate this pattern by using MATLAB

And that help us to draw the patterns by controlling all the parameters

In our lab we have handled all the parameters of the loop and

monopole antennas under different conditions .

1

Introduction:

this world contains very amazing fundamental concepts , which

occur under highly organized manner can be formulated mathematically.

Every physical concept that happens in this world can be understand it by

using mathematical formulas . the electromagnetic theory is very

important concepts in the field of physics and it is fundamental reality in

the field of communication ( antennas transmission , radar , …) .

the electromagnetic theory describes how the electric and magnetic

fields interact with itselfs and how they interact with time and space ; the

interaction with time and space contains the concept of the wave

propagation , and the concept of the relativistic between time , space , and

energy contains the concept of relativistic theory (( Einstein's relativistic

theory )) and all concepts of electromagnetic theory are described by

Maxwell equations.

the communication antennas are devices that transmit and receive

electromagnetic waves , the purpose of building antennas is to make the

theory of electromagnetic under human control in order to enhance

science and technologies and make our life easy in all different fields. To

do all this we have to build antennas with some specified parameters and

with high performance.

2

1

Theoretical Concepts

The Monopole Antenna

The Loop Antenna

3

1.1 The Monopole Antenna

The monopole antenna is a wire antenna over conducting plane, as we

know that the electromagnetic waves behaves as light because light is just

an electromagnetic wave at specific bandwidth frequency.

Image theory of electromagnetic waves :

To understand the image theory we can handle the following

concept .

The electromagnetic we can model it as a light

The conducting plane as mirror

If flashlight is put near a mirror the resulting light is equal to the

light emitted from the flashlight itself plus the reflected wave from

mirror . but if we see the mirror , we realize that it is looks like

another flashlight symmetrical to our real flashlight emitting the

same amount of light without the mirror.

So the image theory help us to determine the fields radiated by source

near conducting plane, without using the concept of reflection which

contains so many mathematical calculations and theories . we just remove

the conducting plane and we add the same source symmetrical to the

other ( under some specific opposition signs) .

To analyze monopole antenna it is better to use the concept of

image theory.

image theory conversion

fig(1.1.1) : monopole

antenna over conducting

plane .

fig(1.1.2) : image theory

conversion produces half

wave dipole.

4

The parameters of monopole antenna

Since the monopole antenna is just equivalent to half-wave dipole

antenna the electric and magnetic fields are given by

E

= jη

I

0

2πr

e

−jkr

cos

2

cos ()

sin θ

H

= j

I

0

2πr

e

−jkr

cos

2

cos ()

sin θ

The power density is given by

=

2

2

=

η

0

2

8

2

2

cos

2

cos ()

sin θ

2

The power intensity , =

2

So we have

, =

η

0

2

8

2

cos

2

cos ()

sin θ

2

, =

0

cos

2

cos ()

sinθ

2

Where

0

=

η

0

2

8

2

=

15

π

0

2

The radiation resistance :

Monopole antenna is radiating in the region defined by

0 ≤ φ < 2

0 ≤ θ <

π

2

But the real half- wave dipole is radiating in the region

0 ≤ φ < 2

0 ≤ θ <

So we have

= (, )∅

0

2

0

And we have

= (, )∅

2

0

2

0

So we conclude that

=

1

2

**This implies that Z
**

monopole

=

1

2

=

1

2

(73 + 42.5)

So we have Z

monopole

= 36.5 +21.25

5

So we can calculate the power radiated by the monopole without using

the complicated integration by only using the circuit model relation

P

rad

=

1

2

0

2

= 18.25

0

2

The antenna directivity :

, =

4(,)

P

rad

=

4π15

π

0

2

cos

2

cos ()

sin θ

2

18.25

0

2

=

240

73

cos

2

cos ()

sinθ

2

The maximum directivity is given by D

0

=

240

73

= 3.288

We found that D

0

= 2D

0

(halfwave)

So the monopole is more directive than half-wave dipole antenna

Because the monopole antenna is radiating only above the conducting

plane , so its energy is more concentrated in one direction.

6

1.2 The Loop Antenna

The far fields of the loop antennas are

given by

=

0

2

−

1

= −

0

2

−

1

Where J

1

is Bessel function of the first

kind with order 1 .

The power density is given by

=

2

2

=

2

0

2

2

8

2

1

2

The power intensity , =

2

So we have , =

2

0

2

2

8

1

2

The maximum value of the Bessel function of the first kind at order one is

(

1

) ≅ 0.58152 if > 1.8

We can use the approximation : for <

1

3

1

≅

2

So

0

= (0.58152)

2

2

0

2

2

8

= 5.0725

2

0

2

2

= 5.0725

2

0

2

The radiation resistance of the loop antenna is given by

= 20

2

2

where = 2 is the circumference

So the power radiated by the antenna is given by

P

rad

=

1

2

0

2

= 40

4

2

0

2

2

fig(1.2.1) : loop antenna

located in the x,y plane.

7

The directivity of the antenna

, =

4(,)

P

rad

=

4

2

0

2

2

8

1

2

40

4

2

0

2

2

= 6

1

2

The maximum directivity is

0

= 60.58152

2

= 2.029

8

2

Applications of

Monopole and Loop

Antennas

Monopole broadcasting antennas

the monopole antenna connected to the car or

airplane

AM broadcast receiver loop antennas

9

2.1 Monopole broadcasting antennas

When it used for radio broadcasting, the radio frequency power

from the broadcasting transmitter is fed across the base insulator between

the tower and a ground system. The ideal ground system for AM

broadcasters comprises at least 120 buried copper or phosphor bronze

radial wires at least one-quarter wavelength long and a ground-screen in

the immediate vicinity of the tower. All the ground system components

are bonded together, usually by welding, brazing or using coin silver

solder to help reduce corrosion. Monopole antennas that use guy-wires

for support are called masts in some countries. In the United States, the

term “mast” is generally used to describe a pipe supporting a smaller

antenna, so both self-supporting and guy-wire supported radio antennas

are simply called monopoles if they stand alone. If multiple monopole

antennas are used in order to control the direction of Radio Frequency

(RF) propagation, they are called directional antenna arrays.

2.2 the monopole antenna connected to the car or airplane

At gigahertz frequencies the metal surface of a car roof or airplane

body makes a good ground plane, so car cell phone antennas consist of

short whips mounted on the roof, and aircraft communication antennas

frequently consist of a short conductor in an aerodynamic fairing

projecting from the fuselage; this is called a blade antenna. The quarter-

wave whip and "Rubber Ducky" antennas used with handheld radios such

as walkie-talkies and cell phones are also monopole antennas. The hand

and body of the person holding them function as a rudimentary ground

plane.

2.3 AM broadcast receiver loop antennas

AM broadcast radios (and some other receivers used at low frequencies)

typically use small loop antennas, tuned using a variable capacitor which

tracks the frequency the receiver is tuned to. In older (and physically

larger) AM radios, this might consist of dozens of turns of wire in a loop

on the back side of the radio. However modern AM radios usually use a

10

loop antenna wound around a ferrite rod to increase its inductance

without requiring such a large size. The resulting coil is called a loopstick

antenna, a ferrite rod antenna, a ferrod antenna, or a ferrite antenna.

The term loopstick refers to the underlying loop antenna and the stick

shape of the ferrite rod.

As with all small loops, loopstick antennas are most practical at lower

frequencies such as the medium-wave (AM broadcast band - 520–

1610 kHz) and long-wave (50–500 kHz) bands, using ferrite materials

which are not too lossy at these frequencies. A multiband receiver may

contain tap points along the winding in order to tune the loopstick

antenna at widely different frequencies.

As with all small loop antennas, loopstick antennas are largely immune to

locally generated (within the near field) electrical noise, as they are

coupled directly to the magnetic field. Loopstick antennas are also used in

radio direction-finding (RDF) applications. [1]

[1] Wikipedia

11

3

MATLAB Program

The Radiation Pattern for monopole antenna

The Radiation pattern for loop antenna

Analyzing the parameters

12

3.1 the Radiation Pattern for monopole antenna

To plot the radiation pattern in y-z and x,y plane we have written the

following program.

If the monopole dipole is length =

4

(quarter wave

monopole dipole)

We have got the following results

% This program will perform pattern for Short and monopole Antenna

% you need just to insert the the values of lambda and the length of the

% monopole antenna.

clc ;

L=input('enter your monopole length L= ');

lambda=input('enter the value of wave length Lambda= ');

R=L/lambda;

B=2*pi/lambda ;

theta=-pi/2:pi/100:pi/2;

phi=0:pi/100:2*pi;

if R<=0.1 %check if it is short dipole

NRI=(sin(theta)).^2; %the formula of the short dipole

else

NRI=((cos(B*L.*cos(theta))-cos(B*L))./sin(theta)).^2; % the formula of

monopole dipole

end

subplot(1,2,1),polar(theta,NRI,'R.:');

title(' the graph in the y-z plane ');

subplot(1,2,2), polar(phi,phi./phi, '.r');

title(' the graph in the x-y plane');

grid;

fig(3.1.1) : the graph of

the normalized radiation

intensity of the monopole

antenna in the

elevation(left side

graph)and azimuth

plane(right side graph).

13

If the ≥ then minor lobes will occur

To see that lets take = 8 = 2

So we got the following results

Some remarks:

We know that the general expression NRI of the dipole antenna of

length =

cos

2

−cos

2

2

for monopole antenna

**2 so NRI for monopole antenna is
**

given by =

cos −cos

2

.

fig(3.1.2) : the graph of

the normalized radition

intensity of the monopole

antenna when the length

of the antenna is larger

than the wave length.

14

3.2 The radiation pattern for loop antenna

To plot the radiation pattern in y-z and x,y plane we have written the

following program

If we take the values = 4 = 1 we have gotten the

following pattern

% this unfinished program will perfrom the pattern for loop antenna by

% giving the radius of the loop and the wavelwngth yo work with

clc;

lambda=input('enter the value of wave length lambda= ');

a=input('enter the value of raduis a= ') ;

B=2*pi/lambda ;

theta=0:pi/100:pi ;

phi=0:pi/100:2*pi ;

E=besselj(1,B*a.*sin(theta));

subplot(1,2,1), polar(theta,E,'.r');

title('the pattern for loop antenna in the y,z plane');

subplot(1,2,2),polar(phi,phi./phi,'.r');

title('the pattern for loop antenna in the x,y');

grid;

fig(3.1.1) : the graph of

the normalized radiation

intensity of the loop

antenna in the azimuth

plane and the elevation

plane for=4 and a=1.

15

If we take the values = 1 = 1 we have

gotten the following pattern

We see that the elevation plane pattern it has been changed to

another form where minor lopes are generated, this happen under the

property of Bessel function.

When we take the values = 1 = 3 we have

the following pattern

fig(3.1.1) : the graph of

the normalized radiation

intensity of the loop

antenna in the azimuth

plane and the elevation

plane for=1 and a=1.

fig(3.1.1) : the graph of

the normalized radiation

intensity of the loop

antenna in the azimuth

plane and the elevation

plane for=1 and a=3 we

remark that many minor

lopes have been

occurred.

16

The side lopes are generated when the dimension of the antenna is

more larger than the wave length of the operating frequency.

3.3 Analyzing the parameters

- The monopole dipole:

Finding the azimuth and elevation plane HPBWs

The azimuth HPBW: since NRI is independent from and the monopole

antenna is radiating above the conduction plane so

HPBW

=

The elevation HPBW =

1

2

cos

2

cos ()

sinθ

2

=

1

2

by using the

approximation that

cos

2

cos ()

sin θ

≅

3

() we found that

3

=

1

2

= 0.9169

= 2.225

but the monopole antenna is radiating

only over the conducting plane so 2.225 is replace by

π

2

So HPBW

=

π

2

− 0.9169 = 0.6538 rad = 73.46

0

The maximum directivity as proved before in section (1.1)

, =

4(,)

P

rad

=

4π15

π

0

2

cos

2

cos ()

sin θ

2

18.25

0

2

=

240

73

cos

2

cos ()

sinθ

2

The maximum directivity is given by D

0

=

240

73

= 3.288

- Finding the directivity by using the approximation

The beam solid angle is approximated as

Ω

A

≈ 22HPBW

2

= 22x06538

2

= 3.42

Where the directivity is given by D

0

=

4

Ω

A

=

4

3.42

= 3.67

17

- The loop antenna

Finding the azimuth and elevation plane HPBWs

The azimuth HPBW: since NRI is independent from

HPBW

= 2

The elevation HPBW =

1

2

1

=

0.58152

2

for > 1.8

By using the Bessel function table we have gotten = 0.6

=

0.6

**so the beam width depend of the factor which is
**

obvious result

HPBW

= −2arcsin(

0.6

)

The directivity is calculated in section 1.2 and it have been found to be

, =

4(,)

P

rad

=

4

2

0

2

2

8

1

2

40

4

2

0

2

2

= 6

1

2

The maximum directivity is

0

= 60.58152

2

= 2.029

- Since the number of lobes changes rapidly as the factor changes

The approximation of theHPBW

**is such long and needs many
**

mathematical calculation and background concerning the Bessel

function

18

4

Observations

The response of the monopole and loop antennas

in the azimuth plane

The maximum response for both antennas

The minimum response for both antennas

19

4.1 The response of monopole and loop antennas in azimuth plane

Since the NRI is independent from for both antennas so the

normalized radiation intensity is always constant when we move in the

azimuth plane so the response is the same in all direction for both

antennas so they are classified as omnidirectional antennas in the

azimuth plane

4.2 The maximum response for both antennas

- The quarter wave monopole antenna

It has its maximum at =

2

- The loop antenna

(

1

) ≅ 0.58152 if > 1.8 the maximum value it

occur at = 1.8 sin =

1.8

= arcsin

1.8

**4.3 The minimum response for both antenna
**

- The quarter wave monopole antenna

It has its maximum at

= 0

- The loop antenna

1

= 0 =

1

= arcsin

1

for n in

integer

By using the table of Bessel function we can determine are the

position where the radiation is zero (minimum )

20

Conclusion

The electromagnetic that is radiated from any source it depend on

the characteristic of that source ( dimensions ,geometry and also its

direction ). Because the electromagnetic induces under the concept of

independent superposition. And since the Radiation is related to the

wave length of the radiated wave , also the ratio of the wave length to

dimension of the source effects on the radiation pattern.

So we have studied the monopole and loop antenna and we have

found that the radiation pattern depends on the characteristic of the

antenna dimension and direction and also it depend on the wave

length of the radiating wave .

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