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People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria
Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research
University M’Hamed BOUGARA – Boumerdes
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Department of Electronics
Lab Report of the Degree of
‘MASTER 02’
In Electrical and Electronic Engineering
‘Telecommunication Option’
Title:
Helical Antenna
Presented By:
 Gassab Oussama
 Gacem BelQassim
Supervisor:
Dr. CHALLAL Mouloud
27/05/2014
Abstract
Our purpose is to represent the concepts of helical antenna and how
it relates to wire and loop antennas by representing its different modes
and their characteristics .
To understand the realities about helical antenna we have to formulate its
formulas and its equations and studying the change of the equations when
the parameters changes relative to each other.
To see how the pattern changes when the parameter changes we have
used MATLAB program as pattern simulator
1
introduction:
this world contains very amazing fundamental concepts , which
occur under highly organized manner can be formulated mathematically.
Every physical concept that happens in this world can be understand it by
using mathematical formulas . the electromagnetic theory is very
important concepts in the field of physics and it is fundamental reality in
the field of communication ( antennas transmission , radar , …) .
the electromagnetic theory describes how the electric and magnetic
fields interact with itselfs and how they interact with time and space ; the
interaction with time and space contains the concept of the wave
propagation , and the concept of the relativistic between time , space , and
energy contains the concept of relativistic theory (( Einstein's relativistic
theory )) and all concepts of electromagnetic theory are described by
Maxwell equations.
the communication antennas are devices that transmit and receive
electromagnetic waves , the purpose of building antennas is to make the
theory of electromagnetic under human control in order to enhance
science and technologies and make our life easy in all different fields. To
do all this we have to build antennas with some specified parameters and
with high performance.
2
1
Theoretical Concepts
Analysis of helix
Normal mode helix
3
The rigorous analysis of a helix is extremely complicated. Therefore,
radiation properties of the helix, such as gain, farfield pattern, axial ratio,
and input impedance have been investigated using experimental methods,
approximate analytical techniques, and numerical analyses. Basic
radiation properties of helical antennas are reviewed below
The geometry of a conventional helix is shown in Figure . The parameters
that describe a helix are summarized below.
D = diameter of helix
S = spacing between turns
N = number of turns
C = circumference of helix = pD
A = total axial length = NS
a = pitch angle
1.1Analysis of Helix
Unlike the dipole and loop antennas, the helix has a complicated
geometry. There
are no exact solutions that describe the behavior of a helix. However,
using experimental methods and approximate analytical or numerical
techniques, it is possible to study the radiation properties of this antenna
with sufficient accuracy. This section briefly discusses the analysis of
normalmode and axialmode helices.
1.2 NormalMode Helix
The analysis of a normalmode helix is based on a uniform current
distribution
over the length of the helix. Furthermore, the helix may be modeled as a
series of small loop and short dipole antennas as shown in Figure 2.4. The
length of the short dipole is the same as the spacing between turns of the
helix, while the diameter of the loop is the same as the helix diameter.
Since the helix dimensions are much smaller than wavelength, the far
field pattern is independent of the number of turns. It is possible to
calculate the total farfield of the normalmode helix by combining the
fields of a small loop and a short dipole connected in series. Doing so, the
result for the electric field is expressed
fig(1.1.1) : Helix antenna .
4
=
0
−
4
−
2
2
2
the polarization of this mode is elliptical with an axial ratio given by
=


=
2
2
2
The normalmode helix will be circularly polarized if the condition
AR = 1 is satisfied. this condition is satisfied if the diameter of the helix
and the spacing between the turns are related as = 2
It is noted that the polarization of this mode is the same in all directions
except along the zaxis where the field is zero. It is also seen from above
equation that the maximum radiation occurs at = 90 ; that is, in a plane
normal to the helix axis.
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2
Discussing The
Concepts
The primary modes of operation
The advantage of helix antenna
The concepts when AR=0
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2.1 The primary modes of operation
2.1.1 Normal Mode
For a helical antenna with dimensions much smaller than
wavelength (NL << l) , the current may be assumed to be of uniform
magnitude and with a constant phase along the helix . The maximum
radiation occurs in the plane perpendicular to the helix axis, as shown in
Figure 2.1.1.. This mode of operation is referred to as the “normal mode”.
In general, the radiation field of this mode is elliptically polarized in all
directions. But, under particular conditions, the radiation field can be
circularly polarized. Because of its small size compared to the
wavelength, the normalmode helix has low efficiency and narrow
bandwidth.
2.1.2 Axial Mode
When the circumference of a helix is of the order of one
wavelength, it radiates with the maximum power density in the direction
of its axis, as seen in Figure 2.1.2. This radiation mode is referred to as
“axial mode”. The radiation field of this mode is nearly circularly
polarized about the axis. The sense of polarization is related to the sense
of the helix winding.
fig(2.1.1) : Helix antenna
pattern at Normal mode C≪ .
fig(2.1.2) : Helix antenna
pattern at Axial mode C≅ .
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2.2 The advantage of helix antenna
The helical antenna it is the superposition of loop antenna and wire
antenna so it has the following main advantages
1 it has high gain and directivity under the concept of adding the
directivities of loop and wire antennas
2 we can produce elliptical and circular polarization without using and
phase shift device
3 the helical antenna has high efficiency when it works under the
transmission mode because the wire segment antenna capture the electric
field component and loop segment antenna capture the magnetic field
component
2.3 The concepts when AR=0
= 0
=


=
2
2
2
= 0 = 0
The electric field will be in the from
=
0
2
−
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which is linear polarization electric field in the
direction which is like the loop antenna equation
For loop antenna the electric field is given by
=
0
−
2
1
≅
2
0
2
−
2
So that is mean when AR=0 the helical antenna become a superpositions
of loop antennas because S=0 means all the loops of helical antenna are
superposed and all the wire antennas are null because they have zero
lengths
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2
MATLAB Program
Simulation of antenna parameters by using MATLAB
software is performed
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We have wrote the following program
The results as given below
clc;
N=input('Enter the number of turns = ');
D=input('Enter the value of the diameter = ');
S=input('Enter the Spacing value = ');
lamda=input('Enter the value of wave length = ');
theta=pi/100:pi/100:pi;
k=2.*pi./lamda;
L=N.*S;
C=pi.*D;
Ln=N*sqrt(S.^2+C.^2);
alpha=atand(S./C);
E=sin(theta);
psi=k.*S.*cos(theta);
AFn=(1/N.*sin(0.5.*N.*psi))./sin(0.5.*psi);
U=(E.*AFn).^2;
figure(1)
polar(theta,U),title('The power pattern')
grid;
if L < lamda
U2=10.*log(U);
figure(2)
polar(theta,U2),title('The normalized radiation power pattern (in
dB) ')
grid;
end
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When we zoom the last figure we have gotten
we observe side lobes in the pattern
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Conclusion
Since the electromagnetic waves consists from electric and
magnetic fields components and each component carries a part of energy ,
to capture the electric energy we have to use conducting wire antenna , to
capture magnetic energy we have to use loop antenna . the best why is to
capture all the coming energy. Since the helical antenna contains loops
and wires antennas superposed on each other so the helical antenna has
the ability to collect both electric and magnetic energies and yields high
performance and high polarization efficiency.
The helical antenna have different modes and each mode corresponds to
new polarization, so we can obtain all the different polarization (linear,
circular, elliptical) by changing only the parameters of helical antenna.