Lecture No 7
Title:
Reactivity Feedbacks
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 1
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, School of Engineering Sciences
KTH
Spring 2011
Outline of the Lecture
• Reactivity units
• Reactivity feedback
– Mathematical description
• Reactivity coefficients
– Temperature coefficient of reactivity
• Moderator
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 2
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
• Moderator
• Fuel
– Power coefficient of reactivity
– Pressure coefficient of reactivity
– Void coefficient of reactivity
• Prediction of reactivity coefficients
Units of Reactivity (1)
• Reactivity is a dimensionless number
• However, the value of radioactivity is often a small
decimal value
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 3
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
• In order to make this value easier to express, artificial
units are defined
Units of Reactivity (2)
• By definition, the value for reactivity is in units of ∆k/k
• Alternative units for reactivity are % ∆k/k and pcm
(percent millirho)
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 4
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
• The conversion between these units are as follows
1 ∆k/k = 100% ∆k/k = 10
5
pcm
1% ∆k/k = 0.01 ∆k/k
1 pcm = 10
5
∆k/k
Units of Reactivity (3)
• Example:
Calculate the reactivity in the reactor core when k
eff
is equal to
1.002 and 0.998
• Solution:
the reactivity is as follows:
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 5
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
the reactivity is as follows:
ρ = (k
eff
1)/k
eff
= (1.0021)/1.002=0.001996 ∆k/k =0.1996% ∆k/k
= 199.6 pcm
ρ = (k
eff
1)/k
eff
= (0.9981)/0.998= 0.002 ∆k/k = 0.2% ∆k/k =
200 pcm
Units of Reactivity (4)
• Other units often used in reactor analyses are dollars ($)
and cents
• One dollar (1$) reactivity is equivalent to the effective
delayed neutron fraction β
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 6
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
• One cent (1c) reactivity is equal to onehundredth of a
dollar
Reactivity feedback (1)
• So far we assumed that reactivity was either constant or
a given function of time:
ρ = ρ
0
= constant
ρ = ρ(t)
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 7
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
• However, reactivity depends also on other factors
– Temperatures in moderator and fuel
– Reactor power
– Void fraction distribution
– Poison distributions
– …
Reactivity feedback (2)
• The reactivity dependence on various parameters is
caused by macroscopic cross sections, that are
dependent of atomic number densities
( ) ( ) ( ) t t N t , , , r r r σ = Σ
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 8
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
• Clearly N(r,t) depends on reactor power since:
– Material densities depend on temperature T, which in turn
depends on power
– Concentration of certain nuclei is changing (buildup of poisons)
– Even microscopic cross section, which is averaged over all
neutron energies – will depend on location and time
Reactivity feedback (3)
• Full solution of temperature distribution in a reactor and
determination of reactivity change due to that would be a
formidable task
• That would involve solving many partial differential
equations
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 9
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
equations
• To avoid this, a “lumped parameter” approach is applied
Reactivity feedback (4)
• If the socalled nonnuclear parameters z
k
in the
feedback equations varies only slightly (a reasonable
assumption in many situations), the reactivity can be
written as
k
K
k
k C
z t
∑
=
+ + =
1
0
) ( α ρ ρ ρ
Assumption that reactivity
is a liner function of z
k
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 10
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
• Examples of nonnuclear parameters are fuel
temperature, T
F
, moderator temperature T
M
, void fraction
α, reactor power P, etc.
• α
k
are socalled reactivity coefficients for parameter z
k
k =1
Reactivity feedback (5)
• In general, the reactivity change can be represented as a
sum of two contributions:
– One which is externally controlled – for instance due to control
rod movement
– Another which results from inherent feedbacks that are caused
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 11
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
– Another which results from inherent feedbacks that are caused
by change in nonnuclear parameters in a reactor
here P denotes reactor power
( ) ( ) ( ) P t t
f ext
δρ δρ δρ + =
Reactivity feedback (6)
• Reactivity change can be sketched on a block diagram
describing a nuclear reactor with feedback
power
Neutron kinetics
External reactivity
Net
reactivity
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 12
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
Neutron kinetics
Feedback mechanisms
( ) t
ext
δρ ( ) t δρ
f
δρ
( ) P
f
δρ
Reactivity Coefficients and
Reactivity Defects (1)
• The amount of reactivity in a reactor core determines the
time change of the neutron population and thus the
reactor power
• The reactivity can be affected by several factors
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 13
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
• The reactivity can be affected by several factors
– Fuel depletion
– Temperature
– Pressure
– Poisons
– Control rod insertion
– Etc…
Reactivity Coefficients and
Reactivity Defects (2)
• Reactivity coefficients are used to quantify the effect of
variation in parameters on the reactivity of the core
• Reactivity coefficients correspond to the amount that the
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 14
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
• Reactivity coefficients correspond to the amount that the
reactivity will change for a given unit change in the
parameter
• For instance the increase in moderator temperature will
cause (most often) a decrease in the reactivity of the
core
Reactivity Coefficients and
Reactivity Defects (3)
• The amount of reactivity change per degree change in
moderator temperature is the moderator temperature
coefficient
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 15
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
• Typical units for moderator temperature coefficient are
pcm/K
• Reactivity coefficients are typically symbolized by α
x
,
where x represents some variable parameter that affects
reactivity (e.g. Temperature)
Reactivity Coefficients and
Reactivity Defects (4)
• The reactivity coefficient can be expressed as a partial
derivative of reactivity against the given parameter
• For example: the temperature coefficient of reactivity is
as follows
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 16
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
as follows
The last approximation is used for convenience (which
will be clear soon) and is valid since the effective
multiplication factor k is close to 1
T
k
k T
k
k k
k
T T
T
∂
∂
≈
∂
∂
=

¹

\

−
∂
∂
=
∂
∂
=
1 1 1
2
ρ
α
Reactivity Coefficients and
Reactivity Defects (5)
• We can further develop this equation by recalling the six
factor formula to calculate the effective multiplication
factor: k = k
∞
*P
FNL
*P
TNL
from which we get
P P k k ln ln ln ln + + =
P
FNL
, P
TNL
– probability of nonleakage of
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 17
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
• Differentiating both sides of this equation leads to the
following expression for the temperature reactivity
coefficient
T
P
P T
P
P T
k
k T
k
k
TNL
TNL
FNL
FNL
T
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
=
∂
∂
≈
∞
∞
1 1 1 1
α
TNL FNL
P P k k ln ln ln ln + + =
∞
P
FNL
, P
TNL
– probability of nonleakage of
fast and thermal neutrons, respectively
Reactivity Coefficients and
Reactivity Defects (6)
• In a similar way, using the four factor formula, we can
find
f  thermal
p  resonance escape
probability
ε  fastfission
T
p
p T T
f
f T T
k
k ∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
=
∂
∂
∞
∞
1 1 1 1 1 ε
ε
η
η
η – reproduction
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 18
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
• It can be seen now that the temperature reactivity
coefficient can be found from known dependence of all
factors in the six factor formula on the temperature
• The same procedure can be used to calculate the other
reactivity coefficients, e.g. void or/and pressure
f  thermal
utilization factor
ε  fastfission
factor
η – reproduction
factor
Reactivity Coefficients and
Reactivity Defects (7)
• Reactivity defect (∆ρ) is the total reactivity change
caused by a variation in the given parameter
• Reactivity defect is determined by multiplying the change
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 19
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
• Reactivity defect is determined by multiplying the change
in the parameter (∆x) by the average value of the
reactivity coefficient for that parameter, α
x
:
∆ρ = α
x
∆x
Reactivity Coefficients and
Reactivity Defects (8)
• Example:
the moderator coefficient for a reactor is 16 pcm/K. Calculate
the reactivity defect that results from a temperature decrease of
2.5 K.
• Solution:
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 20
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
• Solution:
∆ρ = α
T
∆T = (16 pcm/K)*(2.5 K) = 40 pcm
thus the reactivity addition due to the temperature
decrease was positive because of the negative
temperature coefficient
Reactivity Coefficients and
Reactivity Defects (9)
• The reactivity increase can be expressed in a simplified
linear form as a function of various parameters:
( ) ... ,... , , , = +
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
= δα
α
ρ
δ
ρ
δ
ρ
α δρ
F
F
M
M
F M
T
T
T
T
p T T
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 21
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
– where are the moderator, fuel, void fraction,
etc, reactivity coefficients
... + + +
∂ ∂ ∂
δα α δ α δ α
α
VF F
F
T M
M
T
F M
T T
T T
... , , ,
VF
F
T
M
T
α α α
Moderator Temperature Coefficient (1)
• The change in reactivity per degree change in
temperature is called the temperature coefficient of
reactivity
• Because different materials in the reactor have different
temperatures during reactor operation, several different
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 22
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
temperatures during reactor operation, several different
temperature coefficients are used
• Usually the two dominant temperature coefficients are
the moderator temperature coefficient and the fuel
temperature coefficient
Moderator Temperature Coefficient (2)
• the change in reactivity per degree change in moderator
temperature is called the moderator temperature
coefficient (also delayed temperature coefficient)
• The magnitude and sign (+ or ) of the moderator
temperature coefficient is primarily a function of
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 23
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
temperature coefficient is primarily a function of
moderatortofuel ratio:
– If a reactor is undermoderated it will have a negative moderator
temperature coefficient
• Negative moderator temperature coefficient is desirable
because of its selfregulating effect
Moderator Temperature Coefficient (3)
• An important parameter in reactor design is a moderator
tofuel ratio N
M
/N
F
• Increasing the amount of moderator in a reactor causes
an increase of absorption in moderator and decrease of
the thermal utilization factor f, thus k will decrease
C a P a M a F a
F a
f
, , , ,
,
Σ + Σ + Σ + Σ
Σ
=
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 24
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
the thermal utilization factor f, thus k will decrease
• At the same time, increasing the amount of moderator
causes decreasing the slowing down time and loss of
neutrons due to resonance absorption is smaller; that is
the resonance escape probability p increases and so k
does
In summary, if N
M
/N
F
increases, f decreases and p increases
Moderator Temperature Coefficient (4)
• The two competing effects result in an optimum point at
which k will be the highest as a function of N
M
/N
F
• If ratio N
M
/N
F
is below this point then reactor is under
moderated
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 25
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
• If ratio N
M
/N
F
is above this point then reactor is over
moderated
• Reactors are designed to be undermoderated to have a
negative moderator temperature coefficient
Moderator Temperature Coefficient (5)
k ~f × p
Under
moderated
Over
moderated
reactivity
increases with
increasing
temperature
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 26
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
Resonance escape
probability, p
Thermal utilization
factor, f
Moderator/fuel ratio
N
M
/N
F
decreases with
increasing temperature
reactivity
decreases
with
increasing
temperature
Moderator Temperature Coefficient (6)
Moderator
0
5
10
15
Example: moderator
temperature coefficient for
a BWR reactor
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 27
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
Moderator
temperature
coefficient,
pcm/K
Moderator
temperature,
°C
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
15
20
25
30
Moderator Temperature Coefficient (7)
• As shown in figure, the moderator temperature
coefficient is about 5 to 10 pcm/K at room temperature,
but it changes to about 25 pcm/K for operating
temperature (286 ºC)
• At the end of cycle the coefficient can be slightly positive,
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 28
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
• At the end of cycle the coefficient can be slightly positive,
about +5 pcm/K
– This is because the moderator/fuel ratio increases due to fuel
depletion, and the reactor core can be slightly overmoderated
Calculation of Moderator Coefficient (1)
• Of all six factors in the six factor formula, only p
(resonance escape probability) and f (thermal utilization
factor) indicate a significant dependence on the
temperature – as already shown before
• Thus, the temperature reactivity coefficient for moderator
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 29
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
• Thus, the temperature reactivity coefficient for moderator
is:
M M
M
TNL
TNL M
FNL
FNL M M M M
M
T
T
p
p T
f
f
T
P
P T
P
P T T
p
p T
f
f T
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
≈
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
=
1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 ε
ε
η
η
α
Calculation of Moderator Coefficient (2)
• The thermal utilization factor can be written
as
• If now with increased moderator temperature its density
C a P a M a F a
F a
f
, , , ,
,
Σ + Σ + Σ + Σ
Σ
=
Σ
a,M
T
M
f
T
M
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 30
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
• If now with increased moderator temperature its density
decreases, the macroscopic cross section of moderator
will also decrease, since
• It means that the thermal utilization factor will increase
with increasing moderator temperature (assuming that all
other parameters are not dependent on the temperature)
M a
M
A M
M a
M
N
,
3
,
10
σ
ρ
= Σ
Calculation of Moderator Coefficient (3)
• The resonance escape probability is calculated as
• Where I is the socalled resonance integral, which can be written in
general form as
(
(
¸
(
¸
Σ ⋅ + Σ ⋅
⋅
− =
F F s F M M s M
F F
V V
I V N
p
, ,
exp
ξ ξ
(heterogeneous reactors)
(
¸
(
¸
Σ ⋅
⋅
− =
s
F
I N
p
ξ
exp
(homogeneous reactors)
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 31
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
general form as
here S
F
is fuel surface area (m
2
) and M
F
is its mass (kg) in a unit fuel cell
• N
F
is the number of fuel nuclei per unit reactor volume
F
F
M
S
b a I + =
Umetal UO
2
a 2.95 4.45
b 81.5 84.5
[barns]
Calculation of Moderator Coefficient (4)
• ξ
M
and ξ
F
are the average logarithmic energy
decrements for moderator and fuel, respectively,
calculated as
( )
1
1
ln
2
1
1
2
+
− −
+ =
A
A
A
A
ξ
A – mass number (total
number of protons and
neutrons in nucleus)
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 32
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
• V
F
and V
M
are volume fractions of fuel and moderator,
respectively
• To find the influence of the moderator temperature on
the resonance escape probability it is necessary to
analyze all parameters individually
neutrons in nucleus)
Calculation of Moderator Coefficient (5)
• We can see that p will increase with decreasing N
F
• That confirms why p increases with increasing N /N ratio
Σ
s,M
T
M
p
T
M
(
(
¸
(
¸
Σ ⋅ + Σ ⋅
⋅
− =
F F s F M M s M
F F
V V
I V N
p
, ,
exp
ξ ξ
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 33
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
• That confirms why p increases with increasing N
M
/N
F
ratio
• Increase of moderator temperature will not change N
F
, but it will
make Σ
s,M
smaller since the density of the moderator decreases with
temperature
• The net result is that p is decreasing with increasing moderator
temperature
Calculation of Moderator Coefficient (6)
• In summary p decreases and f increases with the
moderator temperature
• To get a negative moderator coefficient of reactivity we
need the following
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 34
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
• As we already know, it will hold for undermoderated
reactors
0
1 1
<
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
≈
3 2 1 3 2 1
negative
M
positive
M
M
T
T
p
p T
f
f
α
Calculation of Moderator Coefficient (7)
• As an example, consider partial reactivity coefficient
• In a homogeneous reactor
M
T
f
f ∂
∂ 1
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 35
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
• And
M a F a
F a
f
, ,
,
Σ + Σ
Σ
=
( )
M
M a
M a M
M a
M a M
F a
F a M a F a
M a
M
T
f
T T T
f
f ∂
Σ ∂
Σ
−
− =


¹

\

∂
Σ ∂
Σ
−
∂
Σ ∂
Σ Σ + Σ
Σ
=
∂
∂
,
,
,
,
,
, , ,
,
1 1 1 1
This is 0 since it doesn’t depend on T
M
Calculation of Moderator Coefficient (8)
• Further it can be shown that
• And the partial reactivity coefficient becomes
M F j
T T
N
N T
j
j
j
j
j a
j a
, ,
1 1 1
,
,
=
∂
∂
=
∂
∂
=
∂
Σ ∂
Σ
ρ
ρ
( ) f f ρ ∂ − ∂ 1 1
 
∂ρ 1
is the thermal
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 36
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
• Here ρ
M
is the moderator density
• Since , the partial reactivity coefficient is positive
( )
( )
M
M
M M
f
T
f
T
f
f
β
ρ
ρ
− =
∂
∂ −
− =
∂
∂
1
1 1
0 <
∂
∂
T
M
ρ
where
p
M
M
M
T

¹

\

∂
∂
− =
ρ
ρ
β
1
expansion
coefficient for
moderator
Fuel Temperature Coefficient (1)
• Another temperature coefficient – the fuel temperature
coefficient – has a greater effect than the moderator
temperature coefficient for some reactors
• The fuel temperature coefficient is the change in
reactivity per degree change in the fuel temperature
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 37
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
reactivity per degree change in the fuel temperature
• The coefficient is also called the prompt temperature
coefficient because an increase in reactor power
causes an immediate change in fuel temperature
Fuel Temperature Coefficient (2)
• A negative fuel temperature coefficient is more important
than a negative moderator temperature coefficient
– fuel temperature immediately increases following an increase in
reactor power
– The time for heat to be transferred to moderator is measured in
seconds
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 38
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
• When large positive reactivity is inserted,
– moderator temperature cannot prevent rise for several seconds,
– fuel temperature coefficient starts adding negative reactivity
immediately
Fuel Temperature Coefficient (3)
• Another name applied to the fuel temperature coefficient
of reactivity is the fuel Doppler reactivity coefficient
• The name is applied because in typical low enrichment,
light water moderated, thermal reactors the fuel
temperature coefficient of reactivity is negative and is the
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 39
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
temperature coefficient of reactivity is negative and is the
result of the Doppler effect, also called Doppler
broadening
Low temperature
High temperature
C
r
o
s
s
s
e
c
t
i
o
n
Neutron
energy
The area under resonance is
unchanged, but the peak is
reduced with increasing
temperature
Fuel Temperature Coefficient (4)
• Fuel temperature coefficient can be obtained as
• Since and
F F
TNL
TNL F
FNL
FNL F F F F
F
T
T
p
p T
P
P T
P
P T T
p
p T
f
f T ∂
∂
≈
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
=
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ε
ε
η
η
α
( )
(
¸
(
¸
Σ ⋅
⋅
− =
s
F F
T I N
p
ξ
exp
( ) [ ] 300 1 ) 300 ( ) ( − + =
F F
T K I T I β
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 40
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
• Then
• But
• Thus
¸ ¸
Σ ⋅
s
ξ
( )
F
s
F
F s
F
s
F
F F F
F
T
T
K I N
I
T
N I N
T
p
T T
p
p
2
) 300 (
ln
1 β
ξ ξ ξ
α
Σ
− =
∂
∂
Σ
− =


¹

\

Σ
−
∂
∂
=
∂
∂
=
∂
∂
≈
( )
(
¸
(
¸
Σ ⋅
⋅
− =
s
F
K I N
K p
ξ
300
exp ) 300 (
( )
[ ] ) 300 ( ln
300
K p
K I N
s
F
=
Σ ⋅
⋅
−
ξ
[ ] ) 300 ( ln
2
K p
T
F
F
T
β
α =
Fuel Temperature Coefficient (5)
• The parameter β is a function of properties and is given
approximately by:
F F
r
B
A
ρ
β + =
r
F
– fuel rod radius [m]
ρ
F
– fuel density, [kg/m
3
]
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 41
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
• The constants A and B are given as
Fuel A × 10
2
B
U  metal 0.48 0.128
UO
2
0.61 0.094
Th  metal 0.85 0.268
ThO
2
0.97 0.240
Pressure Coefficient (1)
• The reactivity in a reactor core can be affected by the
system pressure
• The pressure coefficient of reactivity is defined as the
change in reactivity per unit change in pressure
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 42
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
• The pressure coefficient of reactivity for the reactor is the
result of the effect of pressure on the density of the
moderator
• This coefficient is small and seldom a major factor in
PWRs, however it plays an important role in BWRs
Pressure Coefficient (2)
• In systems with boiling conditions, such as boiling water
reactors (BWR), the pressure coefficient becomes an
important factor due to the larger density changes that
occur when the vapor phase of water undergoes a
pressure change
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 43
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
• Void will collapse if pressure suddenly increases
• Example is a pressure waves reaching reactor vessel
after closure of the Main Steam Isolation Valve (MSIV)
after turbine trip.
Pressure Coefficient (3)
• Pressure reactivity coefficient can be found as
• For twophase mixture with void fraction α, the coefficient
can be expressed using the chain rule as follows:
P
P
∂
∂
=
ρ
α P  pressure
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 44
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
• Here:
P P
M
M
P
∂
∂
∂
∂
=
∂
∂
=
ρ
ρ
ρ ρ
α
M
ρ
ρ
∂
∂
partial derivative of reactivity against moderator density
P
M
∂
∂ρ
partial derivative of moderator density against pressure
Pressure Coefficient (4)
• The first partial derivative ( ) describes the effect of
the moderator density on the reactivity
• It can be found in a similar manner as for the moderator
temperature coefficients:
M
ρ
ρ
∂
∂
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 45
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
• As already discussed, for decreasing density the first
term is positive, whereas the second one is negative
M M
P
p
p
f
f ρ ρ
α
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
≈
1 1
Pressure Coefficient (5)
• The second partial derivative ( ) describes the effect
of the pressure on the moderator density
• It can be found from the expression for the density of
twophase mixture
P
M
∂
∂ρ
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 46
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
• Thus
( ) ( )
g l l l g M
ρ ρ α ρ ρ α αρ ρ − − = − + = 1
( )
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦


¹

\

∂
∂
−
∂
∂
+ −
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
=
∂
∂
P P P P P
g
l
g l
l M
ρ
ρ
α ρ ρ
α ρ ρ
Pressure Coefficient (6)
• The partial derivatives of moderator density against
pressure can be found from the thermodynamic
functions
• The remaining partial derivative describes the void
change due to pressure and can be found from the void
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 47
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
change due to pressure and can be found from the void
fraction correlation
• For example, if HEM is used, then
1
1
1
−
(
(
¸
(
¸

¹

\

−
+ =
x
x
f
g
ρ
ρ
α
and
fg
f M
i
i i
x
−
=
i
M
– moderator enthalpy
i
f
– saturation enthalpy
i
fg
– latent heat
Void Coefficient (1)
• In BWRs the change of density may be due to the
change of void fraction
• For that purpose the void reactivity coefficient is defined
as
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 48
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
α
ρ
α
∂
∂
=
V
void fraction
reactivity
Void Coefficient (2)
• The void coefficient of reactivity is usually defined as the
change in reactivity in pcm per percent change in void
volume
• The void coefficient is significant in water moderated
reactors that operate at near saturated conditions
(BWRs)
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 49
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
reactors that operate at near saturated conditions
(BWRs)
• Since steam density is much lower than that of water, an
increase in the steam content in the core will decrease
the number of neutrons reaching the thermal energies,
decreasing the number of fissions and thus the reactor
power
Void Coefficient (3)
• Using the chain rule, the void coefficient can be found as
• The first derivative is the same as discussed in the case
α
ρ
ρ
ρ
α
ρ
α
∂
∂
∂
∂
=
∂
∂
=
M
M
V
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 50
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
• The first derivative is the same as discussed in the case
of the pressure coefficient
• The second derivative can be obtained from the
expression for the twophase mixture density
( ) ( )
g l l l g M
ρ ρ α ρ ρ α αρ ρ − − = − + = 1
l g
M
ρ ρ
α
ρ
− =
∂
∂
Typical values of reactivity
coefficients
Type of coefficient BWR PWR HTGR LMFBR
Fuel Doppler (pcm/K) 4 to 1 4 to 1 7 0.6 to 
2.5
Coolant void 200 to  0 0 12 to
Reactor Dynamics and Stability 
Lecture 8
Slide No 51
Lecture 7 Lecture 7
Henryk Anglart
Nuclear Reactor Technology Division
Department of Physics, KTH
Coolant void
(pcm/%void)
200 to 
100
0 0 12 to
+20
Moderator (pcm/K) 50 to 8 50 to 8 +1.0
Expansion (pcm/K) ~0 ~0 ~0 0.92