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Ετα-α:gie 1-]

Ι.Ι

Ετ:

\\1ren οuιput
teι:

" ;;;'ij':;;"''
b. ,,o, : i,(ι\
Χ R,

F τ αrcujι

Fγοrcuit

are open

circuiιΦ

;o

[1tιen outρuι
te.minaΙs lι-e
shoπ-circυiιed

Fιlr circuit a.

lsc :

-

υs(

t)

Ιf ,Rz

:

ΙΟ

υo =

10

mvx

Ιf

FοΙ φuivalency

:

x'lω+l:9'9mV
J0Ο

10 mr,.

10

+l : 9'1mV
:
R. 1162
υo:10mVx'1Ξl :
5 mV
Ιf R.: 1ρρρ
υo: 70 mvx 10Ο
lωllτ - ο'91v

Rs

Forcircuitb.ζ. :
ζ(r)

R-.1-r(r)

:

10

1

zs(r)

807o of source
vοltage

:

x 80 =8mV
Ιf ξ gives 8
mV when Rs :
1 -r, f:,

8

10

mv

: 10'#h=+R.:4Lρ

Figure Ι. Ι a

F.x:7.4 Using current
divider

ls

Figure Ι.lb

Ex:1.2

Rs
Vor=V,

+

l).,.

io=i.tx
Given
For

Voc
'sa

-

10

μΑ
: ΙΟmV

For

πτ=lkΩ
Rs

= υSQ)x
-

Given zr(r)
Ιf

R. =

1OO

:

RL

Rr-R,

10

( =

10

μΑ, Rs =

mV

and

R. --

iO kΩ,

-9.ΙμΑ

Ex: 1.3 Using voltage
divider

υ"(t)

Rs
Rs + Rz.

Rι = 1kΩ,7 =

t0 mV

=

R:yi

= 10μΑ

Rs:lkΩ

11

1OO

)μΑX#ξ:9.9μΑ

iο _

10

μΑ x _-]QQ-

1Φ+i6

For

Rι:1OOkΩ,;r:1
oμΑX]r*ω:5μΑ
For
Rι : |
io = Ι0 μΑ x
.-=-]9Q-K
'n.
lυUK+Ιλ4
-O.9μΑ

;.,.Ι
:,ffi
8μΑ:lOμΑX
ΞRι

;,;-*T.
lgo

ΙΟ0;?;

= 25kΩ

;.:":,:,,",

Εxercise 1-2

:
I : +:
#
Ex:1.5

υl: 1 V+D : 00Ο1
υι:2V=+D:0010
υ1: 15 V+D : 1111

10OΟHz

(b)

r : l __ r

l0_'

(c)Γ

-

1.

/

_

V (ii)

(b) (i) + I

Ex:1.6\ΦT_1:] -- 16'7 ms
t u6s

V (iii) +4 V (iv)

+2

ΙOoOs

- +'-_ lμs
tοo

Ex: 1.10VoΙtage gain
Current gain
Power gain

Εx: 1.7 Ιf 6 MHz is allocated for each channeΙ,
MΗz to 806 MΗz will accomodate

:
Ι

Ex:1.11

56 channeΙs

T

Ex:1.8

ρ: ]l]lar
TJR

η'

:1r7'xr-v2
TR'R

_Υ"!x(l

with

:lx-J-

1+1
2

_Af'_lg 1'l.)
]5 Δq]
--i

ξ : 6.25
v,:0.5Vand

;,'

ΠQrr

the energy of the square wave

menιa] and ιhe ιhird harmοnic(a)

D can represent Ι5 distinct values

between 0 and +15 V. Thus,

υo:0V+D:000Ο

:

is

P,

:

Rj

tο
υ"

''11ι X

:

:

ξ#

mW

:

^'

x 0.5

6.25
0.25

l01οgΑ,,

:

0.25

P, : υ,i,,

and,

:
-_-lJlMΩ+1MΩ
0.5

R,,

6.25 mW

:

O.2-5

0.5 μA

μW

and,
ΛD

f.
Rι +

Pi

Thus.

in ιhe first three harmonics; that is, in the funda-

Ex: 1.9

15%

')2 - ,O

lO

(A ι=P-J

where

FΓacιiιan of energy in first nine harmonics

X_

|ο

10

Ρowerρain

-υos

1_ | r I -' Ι):
e 25 49 8l)

(ΙO

0.252

: -12d8

= 0'g]

Fraction οf ener_εy in first seνen harmonics

\ote ιhat 90vc of

l-

Voltage gain =

Fractiοn of ener-εy in first five harmonics

-.l[,=,

-'

xrxffi:0.25v

p':υo:
.R,

Ο.81

25)

,,x-,

the buffer ampΙifier:

Ri

apprοaches rr2 / 8; thus P becomes v2 / R as
Γound frοm direct caΙculatiοn.
Fraction ofenergy in fundamental

1\

102 mW

*,
120

-_

_ | X- ji-XΑ
υο
"

Ιt can be shown by direct caΙculation that the
infinite series in the parentheses has a sum that

8(. |
-,.,ι't 9

18 mW

1οn+10-

P, - uλlRι _

μ1+l
, I-, )
9 25'49 ')

,.'\'

:

l2OmW

- l8 :

120

x lΦ
-3
Pr,

η,__l

P: Pι |P{+P5+...
(4V\2 l /4ν \,-!-r14y1, I,
"
\
"'σ;) R' ι.]JΓ-l n \r5) R'

= 8/π2

\'οr

Εx: l.12

AlterativeΙy,

R

:

Pιljssjpaιled
)

-O.]

: 20 log 1ω : Jo dB
: 20 log 10ΟΟ : 6o,lB
: 10 lο_εΑ. : 1O Ιοg r.4 '4
: l0lο-s l05 : dB

: 15X8 :

P,,,.

o -_ Ξ--:'
6/"D\2

-

4 to channeΙ 69

,r

v

_5O

Since it starts with channel 14, it wiΙΙ go from

channeΙ

is

D is 5 V; thus D -_ OlOl. Τhe error
*0.2l 5.2 x 100 :
-4Ψο

then 470

φΨ

+8

(c) The cΙosest discrete vaΙue represented bv

Χ 1O_r
X lΟ ''
44 dΒ

25

x

103

ν/ν

νr'

. so υ- 9..s : Ex: 1. ''u ' Rι* : O. : : : 81. : ForV":1mV V'r: 744 X t mV 818mV υ.:1MΩ R.909 :818 V/V RL :A 7Ι. 25O Ω Us : 818z.909 0.t5 Ex: 1.9Ο9 υ5 o" : 2r} υ^ V.)' / - υ_. .l.9 Χ 0..9X0.:1η-'γ oi. output vοltage with lοad connected τl.Exercise 1-3 This figure belclngs tο Exercise 1..9X9.5υ| Ex: 1.99Ο1)(10o1ο. : - 744 744mΥ 2. x (loο" n l/ Forvr:1mV Ro =-!_-I Ξ Rn Ro+ :9O. oi.9 X 90.: 10Ω Ano : A.lΧ Anz: (]ω+*τ)ι.: 1φρ X Overall voltage gain I : oro.909)(1Ο)(0. Forυ.909 .9 * r.17 Using voltage ampΙifier model._^_^_ oiι oiz oi.5Χ lO4v//vy 10logΑo _ 44 dΒ Ex: 1. P. us υ.9Χ0.o909) Ex:1. lΟ l0r10 = 409 1000 : Ι00ΟlΙ0 νlν 8tO V/V . ιoω : υ:' υ' ιL _ ιL" V/V 100 (l.14 A.' - ff: 22 -ai -- π A-_+ '-P Pi 40 - dB O.l " v.κ..9 : 9{:n \''\' The overaΙl voltage gain 0. it can be υi represented as ιo-OOο : 2!aυ| 10 2.'""'fin)' :.: l00οΩ y gOο Χ OveralΙ voltage gain IMrl00K x sOO x Rι Rι+R..13 open_circuit (nο load) output 7).9 X 9.9Ο9mV _ gν/ν lM+l00Κ FοrR.L 'l 11" oi.909X 1 : 9. : 818X 1 7ι' υ. υS :0. ι rοolΓ '\ι00 + l K/) U0 us : (0.8 V Vo __ R' vS Ri+Rs "A ForR./'\x_!x-l-. Range of voltage gain is frοm 4Ο9 to 810 V/V 9X 1 : 9 mV .15 Without t: StagΘ 3 (see figure above) R.16 Given τl" : 1 : mV υr' : 0.909 X 90. _ 1)..{-ffi-) 100 .25 - kΩ J. ι'\" ι2'''ιl /.'.

νo 11 G' = 1-* ιRo RL ιΟο . ι Rs Ro Rι Ri+RS | D ιl c'-l "'R. : "! us -.rn+ (β + 1)ibRe :i6lrn+ (β + 1)R.19 : ι. (β +1) .π-.n. Ri .#k' ιlo i1. _ G^υi(R.. 1)S : 11 Rt.(Ro11 R') l οircuit mode1 the Ex: 1.Exercise 1-4 Ex:1.i. :y! -. κ.^ ι G'τΙ...tu and \Jμ ib i.r" Εxι1. +-& Rt + Ro Now 11 i ftus.) Thus.20 Using transresistance circuit will Ex:1.Α. Τ'' ^Rs-R. vo : G'vilR. :κ. = . Thus...Rs ii : ι. R'= = A.π-s ^ ι Ri Ro { R.+ ι G- Ro R.23 be R.. G.iroL...#E(Roll R..*n. : -.-.srt-.aR. Rs LP tYPe' which is of the STC DC gain : - '=?ι:'-n'-RL or"&'*τ-7ι Ro R.. .fvi : RΙ' -- R' 1 ψl +sCt Υo: R.] But υ.i.Ro . . Vn j: Voui'ι' : n'tr. a..: t. G-V i.iρr+R1 i. .R.Ι Ru + Rvv.nis.: ib 'Sπττ-.22 f 10 Ηz lO kΗz 1Ο0 kΗz 1MΗz Ri R6 ii + ' thus (β ι l)R" Gain 6ο dB 40 dB 20 dB 0dB Ri τ.o. .) =c. i Εx: 1.18 βiυ R/. ..-*η" o37.

) <l00Ηz 2ιτ(1 +9)1O3X10ο : 0. I C(Rs I Ri) which is a ΗP STC function.?Α Ret'er tο Fi_e. vs R. lο' 12. = 159.l. "1 .5 kΩ δ* * | )= 2τx 1ookHz .R." .: Ro RL 100 1 RΙ'=O.: R.1 .23 V.1 mΑ/V 1Ο0 Ο.2πc(Rs J C> + R.JUD.2 pF " 2ιτ Χ 1o5 Εxι l.'.L(! Cι\ Ro R '') (t*l) \50.50 1 R.Εxercise 1_5 l+1=9. E1. Rs+Ris- : ..Ο8mΑ/V 12.Ξ .16 μF . ' sC R. = kΩ : 10 :0. lO'/ : 6'.

.3 }'.V') |i.o2v:-2mv lia : az. thus V. : μG.998 _ μ: Α: For From Table 1.002 1.0 t ι 3'6)l .O1 : υ2' 1O3[υr- - - - 1.Oο2) : -4 : -4Υ mV 1rl.2 Equation afe 7\ : ilz- xia : A(υr- UΙ.:9: ιi OΩ Since we are assuming that the op amp in this transresistance amplifier is ideal. r oιr.Ο! 5 I.5 are Thus: Rz : 10X 1Ο0kΩ There[ore.3'6Ο36.οοz + ο.ryi:-R=R.. respectively. _ pιV. one ouφut termina1. Ui. .002v :2mΥ o.6 V Ex:2.rtr _f2 : -10+Rr : Rl t-#: U1 υι: |z-λ - That is ιhe openJoop gain of the op amp -&Rr andR.]_Ι Τherefοre: Εx:2|l' The minimum number of teminaΙs required by a single op amp is five: two input teminals.: ο :0-Rii- -Rl.:-R ιi : -10kΩ V' R'' vi and y.qgε aιd : il2. That is Rρ : 0 Ω.υι | υz| - 5'01 .' : Ψ| . The minimum number of terminaΙs required by a quad op amp is 14: each op amp requires two input terminals and one output terminal (accounting for 12 terminals fοr the four op amps)' Ιn addiιion.Vt) Frοm Figure Ε2. \ιu' V.al : ο-(-0..G.nVz. .J: ilz- at: - υr) + υι : . Rl : 10Ο kΩ and υ').Ο036 V : -3. ξ is a νirtual grοund.R(V':.(-3'6) aiΔ : -0.υ) : l. i'e'.998) __ 2' and 1ο0 wehave: 1οO X 10 X ΙO : 1Oa V/V oreqυiva- lently 80 dB Εxι2.. : 1|ι| 3'6 : 5.5 R=10kΩ (-3'6)] : 103(υz+ 3'6) 1 -3. the four op amp can all share one terminal for positive power supply and one terminal foτ negative power suPPlY. Εxι 2.n __ a) r ur1 -o. and (G.Uι : 0.j{'. V.1 we have: c) d) : μG.aι : .e. .R(Vr. -L U2) : -:.. .."^ : !r(.002) : +ο...i(1. = Q Vo:Vi-Rii n:vol ''' i' 1l : mΑ/V V: 1ΟmV + 5) : 5'005 v .6 mV 1.. .V)R .R. ψ: A(υ2.3 νle have: lv R.Εrerci. we have: 1o 1tr : 1MΩ Ex: 2. the op amp has zero output resistance and therelbre the output resistance of this transresistance amplifier is also zero. one terminal fοr positive power supply and one terminal fbr negative power supply.6036 V : !z..fz : G. i.is a νirlual ground 1ξ=01' O*R.5V '(5.: thusR..2mv + o) : -1 mv : b) -1O tο3(5 Ui..G. : 0'01 lο](ο.-3. li ι |ο :() .4 The gain and input fΘsistance of the inνerting amptitier circuit shown in Figure 2.1 10 V + .. ouιpuι is open circuit The negative input terminal of the op amp.

. the current flowing into the negative input terminal of the op amp is zero. we have io Find six unknown resistors.(-ξχft)" . 1mΑX 1ΟkΩ 'ι0=v lkΩ io : iι.ΙmΑ Current gain or 20 dB : &*--tο(-lοma):t00.1V*Y.:Ψ: ' R.iz : .*r0Α/Α l.7 flowing through the 10 Dected bet''veen : Vι: -5V Vo ξ kΩ resistοrcon- and ground is zero.2 + ''Ι R.5 to the input of this amplifieΙ we have: ξ is a virtual ground that is ζ = 6.Εxercise2_2 R= 10kΩ 0. . ft)ft) : l .W '.5 mΑ : 0.2V{+ V2* 4V3 Thus we need to have (ft)(ff) :.: + αr 20 dB From the above three equations. Therefore 1 mΑ 'o=u Rf = =+ ρ. We rvant to have: &: /{r F-x:2-6 I and&: R. thus the curreτrt Εx:2.+χv') Since it is required that Vo : *(V ι+ 5v).5 mΑ Corrτrecting the signal source shown in Figure E2. > J !9J lmΑ lΟ kΩ Leιuschoose R/ tοbe ΙOkΩ.5 mΑ For the circuit shown above we have: . we can arbitrarily choose three of these resistors. s Ιt is a1so desired that for a maximum output voltage of 10 V the current in the feedback resistοr does not exceed 1 mΑ. :.then Rr ξ is a virtual gτound' thus ξ = Q γ t-t .):ΙmΑ i:: ' Rl ΙkΩ : Rr : Ι0kΩandn.10K Χ 0.-. Therefore...(ff)* We want to design the circuit such that Vo -. therefore. : (ft)(ff). Then Ρower gain Pi 1VX1mΑ choose: ιrye have . iz : iι + i2 : 1 mΑ Vo: Vι-i2R2:0* : _10v i. : } : ruο Ex:2. Thοrefore R X 0.8 Αssuming an ideal op amp.rv *ΙgmA or 2Ο dB _-. Let us Noιe thaι power gain in dB is Io Ι"c Ol&l.10mA..nα χ.1 mΑ : -11 mA y9*IOv: VoltageΕain: -l0V/V lv .-lι_ _ -10mA . : (ff v.

'R. -2)= (r + Rr/ R')V ι =)G _ 1 + R2lRr + R"/R.4v2 To find the contribution ol V3 to V./R.) -l*ι0Xl0_-l=R"_ R2 Ι0 Using the supeτ position principle. to flnd the con_ V l .4v2 a) R2 Combining the contributions of v1 and ν2 Tο Vρ we have V. vl ' : (' .weset Vι I +R.l -. : 6V l + 4V'ι Ex: 2.l2 1Ο X 0'4v2 -. t*--f 1 .lΟιA=R. Rt) R. tο Ι]nd ιhe con- tribution of υ. . ιο V. ιo Vo we set V| _.fiUt 1 10x 0.6Vt+4Vz 9Vt Ε'x: 2.10 9kΩ Vo _ A(V.v' .. Ιf 0.1=0V' lU μΑ Εxz2. 'U Εxι2.5kΩ |'ο: 4 'Rr 10 '_ 2=Rl _ 5kΩ (ft)(ff) '_ 2'=Ψ"Ψ lΟkΩ (ft)(*.0 Then tributionof V.V2 and Vj tο Vswehave: Vo .-ν )=+v v^ iz: iι_-o. * ffi)r- : v.9 οfexercise 2'9): to the so]ution Ο. z- 0. : Vo _V o __ l=R' - _- z=Ψ Ι(1 R: then it is desired that Thus. -elkΩ -ev. : (. ft)('. tο the output voltage υg. we SΘt V2 = 0 6Vι Τo find ιhe contribution of V. v3 v v) 3kΩ Using the super pοsition princip1e..0.i R. : -2-v.R' Rr : 1Ο V i:10μA. lοV '.' 1+R. ιhen: vo _.r R. _ R.6v1:6v. then - 19 v. we set Vι : Vι: - v.R.6Vr Thus u": (tnffi)r.: ('. | . '. Rl+R2: lMΩand Rι: Rz+Rl : R2 _ 0'5MΩ -. Combining the contιibutions ol V1./ --t ' ιt I + R2lRr A vΙ vo A (1 *Ι)v : V-^Vo: --R: \R..: T ιιe hare (reler : lΟ:2. νg+ ---_vο: ν^ tO _ v.ft)r. To find the contributiοn of V2 to the ι]utput vοιtage Vο we set Then v* yl = 0.4 vz -a Ηence ..11 9kΩ 3kΩ The V* (the voltage at the positive input ofιhe op ampis: V.

0l) & R4nom(l + 0.9 mV ΙfΑ : lΟa then G : .01Ψo FσVΙ: 1Υ.999thus.i.Υ'=__g-ImA ' 1kΩ 1kΩ iι: iι:1mΑ.ol . Vo 9.| has its maximum value.99 2 98. ι" <- (c) A". :Vo: Α -0. thus.O1 X I. i.999mV-tmV 10" = Ιf Α : 1Ο5 then G : 9.1Ψο 9.- + 2.901 and : -0.οl) where R3no.lmV (b) lοad voltage = 1V Ex:2. = 2kΩ.Exercise 2-4 {blForRl : 1kΩ andR2 : 9kΩ theideal ιdre IO- Γor ιhe clοsed-Ιoop gain ffΑ : 1O3 then G: G: 9.(l .Y )+Vt-V : Υs : ν2μ A 1ο00 .l-&R'') R|R4) Ι'. Ιfthe resistori haνe haνeΙo.999 and ε : -o. We have : R3no.mΑ.10X10 PΙ vΙΧ Ιι 1X 1O - : xlV .oΙ ) 0.are nominaΙ vaΙues for R3 and R4 respectively. = _ 2Oο X l. : ω Εx:.: ' !ρ*: 1kΩ ΨJ 1kΩ io ξ : ir+ i. 111η4 .and R4oo. : : ++ : l.02= Ro \=ror.: *: kt'Eχ'-ftft) () :Ι l lt.:.= 2 kΩ and Rarom 200 kΩ.a . that is is t The actual closed-loop gain is Ιο 10 t*f. : 9.13 Ro=0Ω η:oA'Vι:Vl:1V.ol or2OdB l- l(3not( | + 1OV |Ψo tolerance. vo :GXξ:9. we 0.ι 10rnΑ .o.0.2. l'--v : 'β2 10. Rz= Rι= 2Φ kΩ Since RalR3 = R2/R1we have: Ao: #.happens when|Α". Vo: GX V.9. t'--v :vo: οοο Α :0. FbryI : ιν.Ι mV o.: fr: (b)Rid= 2Rr=2 X $: loονzv 2kΩ=4kΩ Since we are assuming the op amp is ideal Ex:2.( Vo : Vι+i2Χ9kΩ : l +1X9 : : i.Rrl\ ι' π/ 9kΩ &-ξ2 :R: Rt &*r R3 The worst case common-mοde gain Α".99Ψo G -_l0 Χ IO0 .{r . = ρ. therefore.9o1 Υ and |'o : A(V*.99Υ.o.Rj .14 (a) load voltage - 1kΩ -1Ψο Fory/ : 1ν.oeeee mv (a) R.15 *o.2xaψ 20ο X 0.99ande : GXV.ΟI)= Rr= R:.0η -voΧiL . 005sinωt V .Ο1sinιot MΩ Ι - lο J. Ι+--: - V ιl.ve τ.02 Rι Ηence.OO5 sinιοι. υ.0l sinωt '.02 qε..(+)-τπ lΟv 1 lι:ιηr^-!ιlro:50..'R: : R+: tΟkΩ Εxz 2.οzurα& 5 : (5 Rrl R.\ "n πtl π. - 5 - Ο.(op AmpΑ2) can sho\ry ιhaι 98.Ο0_5sinωt -The tο volt$e at the οutput of οp amp Α.-Rt "R.Οl sinωt V Ex: 2.!1r^* 10. thecοrresponding value for the worst case Α..-R.502_5 sinωt)V ι (op Αmp A._1. Therefore.l:"-Ιr-+ R.1 (2.: tl.102.16 : -O.ι_ ..5) -68dB υ- : ι..=+=l& R1 Rr lR. - + -5 V : lΟsinωt mv 2R1 : 1kΩ.(op.ι.ο2<R'=102. _ A.005sinωtV υ (op ΑmpΑ1) _ V.Εxerci:e ]_5 Simlarly.. lR-t : 1)ιcl _ Vιz: 2 x Ο'Ol .'+R'λ 4 1 + 98.5 + 2.. __ Stl=q Rrl υρ2 - : Rl Α. Rr : R.: V.ι V 1 rr.ir. = R2 Then fbr the circuit to behave as a difΤerence amplifieι with a gain of 10 and an input resiStance of 20 kΩ 5 0.ι*ld' The waνeforms for one period of the input and the ouιput signals are shown belοw: Vιυ 1)1t sinιυι l0 k(1 * 0'5 MΩ) x O.O|sinωι We choose R: = Rr and R.5 .r.005sinωt)V -_ τ'.zο losl92:92 " 0.005 sinωt k\ 0-5 M()/ : 1(1 + 1Ο0ο) X Ο..τ'Ιd Amp Α-.) : V*(op : (2. .RI .O :5+0.l .17 Given V.V.5025sinωt) V : R^/+ R..005 sinωt) _5OΟ k < 0'0l-sΦωt 1ko V The voltage aι the output ol op amp Α2 ?\''l 2Rt (5 + 5. Utt V^.18 Vift) ν1r+ η. : lΟkΩ and Rz' : Rι : 1Οο kΩ Εx:2.-5 + 2.02< _ R'- -98... RΙ _ happens when _ "Rr }..04 = C\'ΙRR _ 20lοg(255Ο. Νotc that the worst case &: R..loand R'1 : 2R1 : 20kΩ+Rr _ 10k() and R.. R2 _ R: : R+: 10kΩ 5. C\IRR : theretbre.'.R.* is o1' : we require A.\mp Α3) Τhe diflerential gain Aa οf the amplifier is.lιs 2 * 5..02 _4=Ro R.) ο.. 2"' . : 1Ο X 10 kΩ : 10o kΩ There1bre.Ψ"'ΙΟ + |0 R] _ !un.OO5 rc2'02 _"1nrβl]_ C\IRR _ 26 -lΑ.ΧΙ]t ' 2Rt Ιn the wοrst case lπ&l 1ιΙ2 5 + 0. \.

the circuit would be: iS: I jινCR : 10 τad / s the integratof transfer : ιas magnitude = : " 1 l0 X 1ο .57).l Φ : -90' For w _ ΙO3 ".: _ l00 lΙ| Ι00 lOkΩ . . thus.: l 10-3 s + uF on (2. - -.: ΞJ.]esired integration time cοnstant ' .Ο1 :lMΩ μF From equation (2. we should have: _. the high-frequency gain οf this circuit 3 --ll0 is: $RL τo limit the magnitude of this high-frequency gain to 100. η (+)o-J VoG) "Ξ I ms 1Ι Ιl (-R C: 10 dt I ο -1 ')'l0Xlms Ιs the input capacitance of this CR : 10 2 s (thetime constant of the differentiator).I ιΛ (+) Vο lO0Orad/s R -lMΩ4-rοο=R.-.53) the frequency at which the :.-:. Therefore.i'.τion (2..:::re.-: R : 1ΟkΩ . R: lmsX0.(..Wewant CR ξ Ο. r-iagnitude 1ΟX1Ο ' - 100 V/V and phase theintegratortransferfunc- = Αt high fτequencies the capacitor C acts like a short circuit.r:lti .*.Exercise 2-6 Εx:. for w : 10 rad / s the differentiator transfer function has magnitude v" (+) .2. : 3 : lradls ..lviv andphase I rad / s the differentiator transfer Γunctiοn has magnitude lY"l = lolx lo lv.ν) - _ iννCR Thus.l Φ : 2 : lov/v andphase -9Ο" Ιf we add a resistor in series with the capacitοr ιc Ιimit the high frequency gain of the ditferentiatοr to 100.01 10' 0. : gain magnitude is unity is .lOx l&l v.1 : . .5ms r μF differentiator.νle know that the transfer functiοn of the differentiatof iS of the form ].5ο) ιhe transfer function οf this ιo_2 _ 0.e have: CR : 'koS:Ο.. -:-: resistance of this inverting integrator is _:.20 lms V \n.1y Vo(jw) V.]f. s: V*-Vo'-V_ fbr the οffΙn order tο have zero differential input need we 0) set-free op amp (i.23 Vο: Vι V'o: Υ'-Υ' Vto: V. it is now shifted to the left by the Εxι2.42).5 mV : -5 mV' This inPutoffset v1 v2 voltage causes an offset in the voltage tΙansfer charJcteristic. for an input sinusoid frφuency f : 5 f "'themaximumpossible at the οutput amplitude that can be accommodated vo: Vt Vra: Vr-Vt Vι.9l5 kΗz - l 5.e. Rather than passing through yos origin.41) we have: .22 From equation (2.7(rnV) .21 Slope= Ao=104V/V 9Vlο(mv) Εxι2.M : J SR 2πVn-u" : l5.o : O.9 kHz with Using equation (2.' V* .= Vlο : V'-v : -Vos : Ο-5mV -5mV is: Thus. the transfer characteristic Vρ versus ξ6 without incurring SR distortion is: Vο_ Vo^^'(*)- lOX{: zνιleaκl \ V.V.Exercisε 2-7 Εxz2.-Vot-V- Αctua1 οp amp whenV*=V-=0then V. .3Γ frequency ': -r..f I 6D open-loop gain aι zο roεffi : :100 HΖ = 8O dB Open-loop gaitr at .541 we have: Open-loop gain ].].therefοre By definition the οpen-Ιoop gain (in dB) at Αr(indB)-3 : 106-3 : Ιο3dB$ is: To flnd the οpen-lοοp gain at frequency/we can use equation (2.1tion (2..=12:2mv+2mv/ (K Therefοre: Ιms llV-2mV.26 ---!..qis \ ' *- tr ---------Ξ .1 : -: series with pοsitive input tο minimize -'.31) (especiatly when/>>/6 which is the case in this exercise) and write: t1 .'.:kΩ .1 V _ _ Εx:. .R] : 10nΑX 10kΩ-0. - :UJe οl at most 2 V' From equation (2.n-\X1MΩ:Ο. .ιon i2.ι .43)' j' ιhat the output dc voΙtage due to vρ. Χ lmS-6D=l _ aιl. R.'.46) ιbe νaΙue οf resistor Frοm equation (2.!.ιokΩXΙMΩ ' Rl +R2 10kΩ+1MΩ _J =.]J ' _ ::_lιiιrn(2.1 μF I lυk()/ of the resulting STC 1 ().ι RC : Ιms and : = ιo=C: Ο.- ur.: ..Exercise 2-8 ι ].=:c r using equatiοn (2.:- .zο ιoe(L\ "\. : Ι-+_+_Ο..2.lΟ00=R.]aHz -.'-Υg._ .:rlι': I0MΩ The wavefοrms fοr one period o1 the input and the οutput signa1s are shown below: lΟv CRo :. Vi(+) l μFX lOMτ : 1rad/s . ι alue of R3 the new vaΙue of the output .l outpυt signal swing aνaiΙable.]kΩ .]4 = dB Εx:2.' .0l v w. - ' .41))is: -..MΗ' -60 kHz : .Ξ Ι'eedback resistor RF to have at least '.1 R/ \ .1"R.iuΓe that the output voΙtage dιle tο Vρ5 has * .' .l kHz = zοroεffi:60dB open-lοop gain aι zο roεffi : l2kHz= 48 dB open-loop gain aι 6O kHZ 2o los']..1οkΩ . .: : L' Aο unα 3 MΗz.44) we have: . : Ι..28) we have: R. ..] _Ι οtΤset vοltage) is: D _ R'R. - Anu'u=+ Aοf υ= f n we know logAo: f6-|5Ηz 20 1Ο6 and f . we have *:.27 : .

for an input sinusοid with frequency f : 5f '. 10 dr tr :J 20:---!x10x 1 CR 1ms CR: φX1ms:Ο.6 0. From Αppendix F we knοw that the 10Ψο to 90Ψο rise time οf the output wavefοrm of the fbrm of equation (2.2L τυt 0.2. thus.ΙΟX1 . vomal\ζ1) Vo:_ I/ '"' s -. Therefοre: Ι' and l l & .1 l.themaximumpοssibΙe ampΙitude that can be accommodated at the output wiιhouι incurring SR disιorιion is: ( Ι' \.. _ __ lοο urο -Rr 2ΜΗz Ηence Γ.29 For the input voΙtage step of magnitude V the οut_ put waveform will still be given by the exponential wavetbrm of equation(2. lV/μS lX l.r--. . r.R2RΙ tf r.35 μs Ιf an input step οf amplitude 1 .6 1.2.40) Ιf w.' - t.42). ο.28 μs Ex: 2.V Ξ SR JL ThaιisV=S-4=y= ννι 2n[.xercise 2-9 \yr(*) slope=sR We haνe -20 ^i nls : --l1ι CRJ.: 20 f': '' 6 V..915 kΗz .-. we can use equation(2.F.35)..4Ο) is Thus.2v ιpeak) t. the largest possible input vοlt- age step is 0.4l ) we have: : 15. thΘ the output is slew-rate limited and is linearly rising with a slope equal to the slew-rate' as shοwn in the follοwing figure.28 yΞ ο-9X *Ι.6 V ( 1 0 times as large cοmpared to the previous case) is applied..5 Since dc gain of the op amp is much larger than the de gain of the designed nοn_inverting amplitier.30 Εx:2.9kΗz 2ιτV o ^^" Using equation (2.16 V. . 2ΜΗz 100 Εx:. From equatiοn (2.15.

. h2.rj /cm . . x62 1n-5 sιl.21 . ---------------l-) 10- Er" -i4 Α/cm2 1Oa no =A "t -^r.2 _ 56 μA/(μm)2 For1. 35 X : Dn : 35 x 110a121μm.6x1Or9x35X1Ο8X1ο5 : _56 Χ 10'6 A/(μm.25X1O8X1. : 1mΑ: JnxA Ψη _μ. e 7 i.5 1Ο1Ι/cm3 l -l lll/CΙΠ _ ' qnμoΕ : AqnpnΕ :0.] tu) e^ 1'l2tι). Time taken to crοss . : : .Ε 1Οo oρ'.dn(x) αΙ o'-η-Vτ .5XlOa/cm] -- .".lυ^ : l.6 1η'5/cm3 -.08 Driff current J": . -3Οps 6.l CM -_ __ 2γ1υ".:. _'*_ : Ιn τ.5 ..: = : d.: :'--_ 1v 2x 10 Ex3. _ : J. 1. : 1 6.2/s .6x 1o-Ι9x1OΙ6x135ΟX . 1n 5 .9 X 1ο = 35 cm2ls Do : = |ι.l j) -i-$$.Exercise 3-1 lu b.26 480 X 2_5. Ιn n-si drifΓcurrent density Jn in Jn .4 : cm2 Ex:3.: Using equation 3.ο8X1ο4 :27ψA Nοte 0. lirection oppοSite tο E :-_ = trnn υ"-driff Ex:3.1 1. _ 35 "*'/.^ r..75 μm : lO-acm X 101 m/s ιLP ΨuVτ : 1350 X 25.: I /?i at . lrl _ . : .a.25 μm2 _ O.:- c._'Y. -.E cm/s 1Ο5/(μm)3 :1.7 Equation 3.1 4 From Figure E3.a. .r r{1 x 1. - -1'1_s 12t12 . .75 / t}l lengιh i:ι\Τl 2 μm μuV1 12.^''.t/cm r i.l _ = 1.::ι'Τ) r:--.:': .2/s 1081μm.9 ls X 10 3 3 .5 x 1Οrο/cm3 cΟncentration 1 11 l = ]] =- -: _ l0\1 /cm3 D.^s luιιm 2 qD'Ψ : _ lmΑ _ J" lO'μΑ 56 _:l8um: μΑ/ιμml: 1 lxl04 '. '. dn j lOs-0-: -dr1 1Ο6 :.:-::it\ e si-Sn indicates that electrons .^.25 X ]0 8 cm2 x _ . ..1Orl)r i r i"l j 1 {' ': : Il . 1ο Ot - Χ" _ t.'' Ιs= a here apProximatelY can be neglected as comPare the.21 .Ζ minority =+(H#)"" _ Ir(:): (#cρ-- N. A : A"lπflNDvο Ex:3.ΣΔ-Ξ-3ι'' \lΟ'" ξ)ιο'εl+ lol'/ i '" ^' ..(r&J w 1.45X10 : Ο.: .< lOΙ")2 __ 2'25 .12 Q'' : :.". since N1 >> : Εquation 3'29.:fr^) : 1o _ |."r* factoι of 2' 2' one must lower .5 .Ο8 X 1O-5 cm Using equation 3.2 mΑ Νe >> Νo Ιlx: 3.14 )w' Np Ιn a p+ n diοde Ν1 >> ΙS D. w2 '" _1-.j- nι _ : 1Ol8icm3 and 0'166 μm jιO8la + 2l :. /va - on'?(#".10 : ιn"|(ffi-k) Equatiοn 3.45 X 1O-I1 Α 'ηΨr. .τΞ-ΞJ91+i -L\lo'* lorn/ i *"r '" : 1ρl6/cm3 (1 : w: 1Οι6/cm3 : Nυ: |'66 X 1Ο-5 cm ObΟ5} Ex:3.#--η li- Εquaιion 3. if NΑ >> Np..anα.: oo(##J* Ο. Nρ ι: =w#: . Χ Ι. D" ζ ' since Ex:3. Αs one can see frοm above equatiοn' tο carrier-concentratiοn (pn) by a factol'οf ?(ξ#). Ex:3. Εquation 3.8 lι.. nn #-.11 -{qN.lqΨΨ.[ 'o "ι.6 x lo ^rι#+fo) W since re x (1.9 Ιnexample3'5' ΝΑ No : : n.30.Ψ .608 μm .D^ AQni-L. lοιn 6..Ιrru":1.|- \eΙclse increase. o .t.29 l οa/cm] : o.\'/) : 7fr Ex:3.13 juction diοde Ιn the n_region of this pn ..5 x 1or)2 'π.) by (= then'n"'"'' similar values.28. We can neglect since Na >> fi as CοmΡared to fi Np ltes .' --..τ'Γ' 'ol. x Ιr(ru'u'-$$ : l'ιι a AqN oW Equatiοn 3. QJ: .lI .

Jι'..q x to-r/ .: " r - : Assuming No >> Nο Γπ:'4 l{. _α ..zE..εn 3.5 x 10t".08 X lΟ_5 cm : (-r). T7 ('--Φ#)(#') : 3"1pF mψπ. : '" Χ Ι"au.b f. ' -'ντ "u'u.ιerse Current Ι : l'X trΦ 1.u. 1018 ".c.111 : :-ls'dv' !'φu'u'.57 18 It) "( 5X 1Ο 4X1O16+ : Ex:3. 1016/cm3 1'Γo: 25 ns 2s x lo-'q_)o..dv' ' : $ι'.) 1ο -t.l'1 L : τ-Ι. Ιn example 3.f - Χ t.6' rξ _LΙ{ Νo : ilλτrππrliιτ 3. x Ιr1evlτ .' Εquation 3.51 10x1O_4x -_] Χ 1O'15 Α L2^ Dρ .6 X Ιs : on":(+r".:- ΝA : 96. 1018/cm3 .5 pF x to-r .i_j X : 1-6 X 1O_19t#$ Π..e. x 11.47 Cto .ρ pC 9_63 : X 6.t \zs.:ft.16 .(5 x 510-4)2 :25ns Equation 3.τ Vo 'n _r.cQ (Lι'-ι. ι'_ l ='Ξ) t -.Exercise 3-3 = !.-15 _.' 10'12 2 OS14 : Ι-2 PF f.

'.R:3. so it conducts resulting input sigofthe half : negatiνe the Duιing 0 ι.Εrercise 4-1 (c) Ex: 4.1 conRefer to Fig 4. ( O.3a and 4'3b diode δrring .3 .'o 7)o : -5ν (d) υΙ in Figure E4'2 Thrs ιesυlιs in the rνavefotm shown Ex:.4 Vo:3Υ 2ν (a) 1V 2.4'2 see Figure 4. R _ 10v 1kΩ dc component - : 1: - _LlΙ ιl 3.5 (η v:0v 1kΩ (b) 'f' t: 5-1 1 4mA +3V 7:lV +2ν 2.1.t positive half of the sinusoid' the " in is fortiarcl biased.5 ko +lv Ex:4..18 - of Ι: 0+51 L5 Υ _ l0 mA τro = :2mA 1^ -υo τ -5ν 1Ο . Sο .5 v:5V v^r: i1Γl 10-ο : Ψιο so+R : !τ lmA . the diode is cut-off' zero V o t cuffent flo\Ι/S through R and V6 : 0 ' The 1:0Α t in Fig E4'1 results is the transfer characteristic Εx:.to- i. 1br V. o The diode does na1 ι1' the dioJe is reνeτse blased' flοwing in the current nο in resulting nοt cοnduct : o and UD circuit.133kΩ .ιl (e) V 3ν Εxz 4.3(a). > Ο' the diode Thus ducts and presents a zero νοltage drop' : V For V.5 5-o:2*A kΩ 2.

μΑ:4μA -]μΑXlMΩ:4..ιog(b\ : V.] V drop at . *. Use constant voltage drop modeΙ D V l^ " _ - ν jJ 1_0.0v ..3:lt1on .s. .2./ ΙOX lO 1\ ι69 X ιil'/ o.'..k :: : 1r _ 1mΑ =.':1uΑ 4' x1 : 0.3 ' l \t.91 τ 25 mV X 1Ο 16Α O.:5*0'679:0'432mA 10k - v2 Ι = r. ].:2.Exercise 4-2 Ι.J X 10 Χ v.ιi ' : .Ξ - R :3 ι'.1oc(f) V. 16Α x zs x tO_rlogΓq4) '\Ι/ o. rn J.68 r.679 V - x to 2.-.4_] V drop at 1 mΑ mΑ Ex:4.: 1i - 6.5 and note that -\'. : -:"eraιure _ 10kΩ Ιo --> + VCC_ 25 mV 5ν vD .i x + 2..3 Second iteration -_.7 + 2.) First:iteration ]/o ο25 = j. Ι The iteraιion yields D - o.ui J li'l -: - : - . _ o'1/V Ι -::.3 0.r .0.7V 1 mΑ current.\ - -: .3 0.1] _ !t 2.l . at 4Ο"C .mΑ . .rrx2sx10'"'"*(#) Vr_V.o*[o''132) '\ 1 l V we get almost the same voΙtage . V. : 0. Diοdes have 0'7 . - 1mΑ: /-se : rro'' V.5 x l0_: Χ lnr Ο'l \6-9 X lO ') x ro '''l Ι.11 .. lv _-luΑ Imo ^: ::1 erse leakage current ' -- 't] doubles fοr jncrease.43 mΑ.5V .3XVrloglΙ'\ ιπ/ Vz: Vι..*.2. .7 I0 k cοnstant voΙtage drop - Ο.'.679 v .68 v b.

|2 (e) (a) 3V 5V v:3*0.ε u Now /.^u^ V. (|) ( .---".1 5 -5V ΙD Ιυ: Ιο-' τr'uo " ^ι^ .Εxercise 4_3 FoΙ an οutput voltage of 2.4Υ' the voltage drop across each diοde : .72m1^ :139Ω -5V Εxz 4..13 = V.9t '"e X l0 'o ο.6 mΑ 10-2-4 2.*(:s ' t'' 3) 54.5 kΩ v-1+0.7 :1.7V +3V +2ν I T + v_5ν Ι +1V Ex:4.5 545ΧlO-t +'r# kΩ :1.") " : 25Ω 4Ε Εx:4.72mA :2.Ζj 3 (d) o. the current through each diodρ is Ι : Ιse VΝ : Λ ^- ' : 6. " (c) Ιo /p : 0'1 mA 1o:lmA 1o Ξ 10mA Ι:0A fa: fι= 25X10 3 :250Ω O.1 X 1Ο'3 25Χ70-3 lX1Ο'' 25X l0_] 1Ο X |O_' f.b.7 2ν 2.14 For small signal model.7 Υ (0 (b) 5V t 1:oAt* 2.3Υ 1V + V :0.5 kΩ ι'# :7. using equation 4.

10:V.ε.6: 112mV . Thus the cur_ rent should be 2Ο mA Leading to ρ : 15 2Ο 2.2 +0.zsv 4 Ιre \'.4kΩ mA .97'7ν : sochangeinVo 3 - 2.18 +0.22 +o.5 + 0.2 _Ο._ .5 Υ Forlr:5n. ::..:::blem * Δi. +1-5V vo _ 9. a zener cuΓrent of 5 mΑ is available.49 ΙnA . resistance οf the Γοur diodes 20 15 V 5.16 For a zener diode : V'o1.4 -0.17 5.4 +0. : expo.: ]ΟX 1Ο ]X_.6 0to 2OmV -.n+0. we should select R sο that with Ιι= 15 mA.ιXΙnr 4X lο-j ) \4. . _ . : iore jt _ \2) c.lο " lf iD_ 5-iΙ':5-1:4mΑ Αcrοss each diode the νoltage dιop is v" : vr"(?) :25xlo : 0.1443 .il _..:miοι:lο:lmΑ 3 Ξ: diοde_ Δvlv'ι' ia: = V.Exercise 4-4 : l:.4 V.Ο1 X50 V9 ιI : 9.Ιrr.75 V Εx:4..j1 si_qnaΙ t mΑ . ιοiιage - Ιr: #^ . iot I_ .ro..:1:nΙiaι mοde1 b.-. : -10 -5 +5 +'lΟ vt\ drop across each o.4 - ]5 -< 3 m..'7 x lo tol ν Voltage drop across 4 diοdes :4xo.o'75ι25. Since the load cuπent can be as large as l5 mΑ. model -0.ο mΑ : 4-70 dL Maximum poιι'er dissipated in the diode occurs when 1. t) ' :-'.9'77 : 23 mΥ Ex:4.33 -0.7443:2.= Q i5 P.\ : 25mV Ι" : 5 () 5mΑ.' - '-' . : :'__:ιiΟnS (1) and (2) results and using = -i 'ηl\- 1V(mV) Δir(mΑ) Δir(mΑ) small signal .--j___-] :4lx lο .Jjοde .Ο05 X 50 : 9..'. : i l]/vr For ΔvlvT :-: ir.ι" _ " The minimum zener cuffent should be _ 5ΧΙZk:5X1 --.

π 2V.Θ) .Vo(ττ 2ιτ' ' But cosΘ . The diode starts conduction at Vo: υ" = 0. Line Reμlati on : υo υi For Load Regualation: : 200+1 33.05 V _ 2Θ)1 ./rcos(τ . : l2"D 2 andvD 0rt .y.aν8 2ιτ : vt -vo 1 For v.s ηy \tzfil Cοnduction Starts at Θ and stops at 18Ο .1Υ FοR LΙNE REGULATΙON a.. ' : lIy.Exercise 4-5 Ex:4.18 15V Αt no lοad Vz : 5.7 θ : sin _ι( 0'l 1 -.7 V : V5sinιot. l rffiV .. cos(π' .o" u. : 12[2 Atωt: θ ur: VrsinΘ : vD: o.'7Υ 12J1sinΘ : 0.-/.oo.2" (τ_Θ) b.Ι'r.0.._1 and τ-2Θ .)dΦ .7 : j-:-l: ? :'πz uo^un : o!7Υ 5. . VD "o.'. here V.Θ1 .19 Ex:4.u"e: : vro rz ΔVo ΔΙ' : -Δ.cosΘ . Total conduction angle : : 180 ' - Θ 2Θ 175.1.A mΑ lΓ * | rvrsinφ-V.osΦ =!_[ 2τ' - VoΦ lt _ .

z-_'.] τrι1 ιτ - Θ) to :2Θ : t2J1 .: "Dxιz: nrt rin_l/Ζ%) \ 7.k .si -.r$n in the diagram the output is zero i.21 -l1-: . occers when r:* @ Cιlrrent a n '-.-v.i + :33.Ι:ge - '1 -[ θ ι.7 "R1ω = -5_: l2'. '::nθ mA -ο..Vrcos@ I Ι(75sin@_v../ : ιΓ f Α||J|ιvrsιnω ) 2'I- I :-[2V s Vrcosl _ 2Θ''l7 cos(π-Θ)--Ι τ-2Θ:π =Vo'. *Ιr.n t(Y!\ output 2vo \Y. : r.7 - Ι0. :12..-μL"r.ρ __ : .=-tr.Exercise 4-6 ' -_.s:0rt : -.J-2_0.: :r... : -vs 1 ι'.2ν (".2θ) The fraction of the cycle fοr which ιl.r: 1 1t/ "s -2Vrt 7'1 11 t1 τΓ 2Vil dΦ _ 2V oΦ1Ι _'.t\_. -\ Ρeak diode current ?p is io: Vs-V.Ξ-: o.t_ -y.+ θ) VS Vo r = ].[2 f oιιtput ._ 2θ) 2π . ' nrt Εx:4.2sιn (j+Ι ____ x 2.)dΦl 'r - V oΦl| :u.:- Vo. ''L . > 0 is mΑ . lv .. Ξ:. iS the angle at which the input signaΙ r:]t _ε: Ι'.u. 2V oιτ _ - But cosΘ ' \''sin(τl2)-Vo : !s-Va j.o.Ξ-.alue ofthe output signal is given by (π _ ll Γ l.7 Ιω - - 163 Nοn zerο output occurs for angΙe : 2(π . :ealι diode cuπent occers at the peak diode Peakcuπenι _ _ r'_.4Ψο yo is Αverage οutput νoltage vvι)-.:s12V(rms) l'. .lsin '(b\ \Ysl τ ξ.o_-_2x12. : nJ1-ο"ι R 100 : 163 mΑ PΙV: VS-vD+vS .s ['-γ' 4"]{ - t00 97.oo 2[π .-\' * 2(τ . .osτ : cv..Ψ _ . : -ιυΔr. = Qι. Ξ στ (b) /ζ Substituting fbr ιοΔr v/e gΘt: aιD.' ' cosιυι} f 1. rv P..maι o 4 V .fz 0. e ωR ιoιt = Dl r Y{. v. t R: C V.* Ε2nuu' .ιτ _ l\r + ιι.!:/.rhus: Ξionu:τΙ'|!!nl \ \''Ι : During cοnduction.. : -Csin(-ιιΔt) Χ ωV.'lVo*Ι.Δ/ it.rν--]lR''a ν Εx:4. J.. . Tt2 Ttz | Ιγ . .r. Ιf .l-1 oευ ' ' ιΙ2V _ l.' l.156 mΑ Ρlv : ys Vο : l2. the diode current is given by: The ripple voltage is the amount οf discharge that occurs when the diοdes are not cοnducting.pp'-. u SUB (a) : ..ir*i'..30) FuΙl wave peak Rectifier: ο' ..a R tΟΟ .Rtr Vσvl '+Ι' _τ-JΙ. dι |' : -CsinωtΧι. .. _ v...'+Ι' .(ι 'ι Rc-1 Γor CR >> is consl.22 Jo./r+ 2τf sub (a) for/ ν 2V.RC '.lr 'l υ0: 11' Since the output is approximately heΙd at Vo v.Εrercise 4_7 Peak VοΙιage (hl Pcak diode cun'enι _Vs-2vp _tZ..3 lll t- V. --!-2JR π.. Note the cοnduction angΙe is the same expressiοn as for the half wave rectifier and is given in EQ(4. οccurs at ιhe onset of cοnduction or at 1 l2 +ι ..*:a 7j fbr a small condιrction angle RC :.. . = 0 iS at the peak' the maximum diode current ωΔr.y yi. .C'|jι'lv. where ωΔ/ is the conduction angle.V.c!. ..s a i - 4 ιl V. . : Tt2 vρe R' discharge is οnly half the period.J2-t. ^d τ..' 2v.. v. n'' ΙD..7 : (ir. Qsι.D.|Ι-| - -.ι' :i^ .. assuming Sub (b) tο get: vu i"o.. . v D2 ..'ηv.ru.n' Ιι\^ι _ ( : 16. The οutput νolιage is given by: - llRC vPe v.τ 'D.v. T/2\ +_t RC) 2fRC SUB ω (a) To find the aνerage cuΙTent.. .V. * Ι γ ' sin( Ξ T /2 -ιυΔr) lD. nοte ιhat the charge supplied during conduction is equivalent to the charge lost during discharge. Thus: : CιυΔr Χ ιιlV u Ι Ι 1 Γ1 lv' ir. 59 \' Forz'.7 V drop at 1 mΑ current. : 1 The diode has 0. .8 0.2 and '1.. The conducιiοn anq1e ω_\r can be obtained using equation .'-:ιiοn - 12 1η' . Vοο :.4.]Ιge οccurs almοst oνer half οf the time .74 A /οn"oκ ΡΙV of ιhe diοdes . T Ο.8 : To keep the safety margin.35) : l.: k'D D t 1mΑ 6ο : l'\e "r'tlv ιD: Α *Α')* ο.a : 12.! '''.25 1.01 : 0.8..5 1o ) mA-----g-J l 0.4v =:.' il ιυΑl : - ltz.."7" The average and peak diode currents can be calculated using equations (4. -'^." : 1. : ioo.8) X _ . 2Υ60xlο0\C . .5.-^-l 2 RC) .' '\ η2v') andVu : 12[2-2x0. 1 \ ._ l00 () I V / . '.r _|Vu-2VDο'tΧτ.< 0.nu 2 ]. xo : aι : lΟmV Ιt is ideal op amp' sο l* : i.5 tο 4Α and haνing a PΙV υo.'onstant RC >> _ _ Γ.--Τ] *. _ (V o - zv oo1(ι 1KΩ T .:.34) and (4.:-2Xο.. I 2RC A1 t.io:i"-iffi-IΟμΑ . : 10mV.Γv r .2 v rating of 20 V. caιbe expressed as ι οltage. . V v i 1 ] _ : X ο. - Ι0 mV :.8 L:'o. 2 .*t -^- 2\'οο V._58 : Ο. l._.f.24 : - : l2J' .-lt yr1nι] ._]6 2O.58 V .-10 ] rad .l r"r" t./ζ] pV''1 -Ξli.fr] aED 2x1 ..2.61 _ _ 60 -ι ΙΟ0 _''.D. . .8: ιο11xgg is included the output vοltage --']Γrent is without taking ripple vοΙtage into ....8 V. \. i^.2-1.\ : l|1 + 2τ #) .τ x tο 'tn[lo " ιlmΑ/ Vι_νο-1ΟmV : 0.7 v Fοrυ. 2Voo V. Τ 2 Llo 1 .' i+ -.2 100 Ω x0'8 - = υD t\.: ο υ^ _.1.onsidering ιhe ripple voltage the dc r :|1399 _::.2V o61e-'tRc : : ι.r''i.O.) Εx:.45 A |4'9ν.11ιa -\ : O. V.(ι +n/Jo.'l\/v . seΙect a diοde capab1e ofa peak current οf3.."o lzol μF = : l-2x0.i the discharge interval --.Exercise 4-8 --ι.ys ':::: - 16. Exercise 4-9 : ' 1)6 lp:ΠΩ-ιιο l ForιrΞ-5V :1mΑ Diode D1 conducts and υυ:0"ΙΥ Vl:o.. υο: Ι5+)(υι-s'l Εxι 4.25 -(cs*'')v \'' ) ) Εxι 4. ilo: Ηerethedccοmponent of υι Εx:.< τ. : τl. _ { ΟV load O .5 t.21 peak output Reνersing the diode resuΙts in the νoltage being clamped at 0 V: 1l.. : ..7V For υ.4. the diode is cutoff .26 lο kΩ D1 5V D2 + 5V + lΟ kΩ Both cliodes are cut-off for and -5 Ξ υ.'lv+1kΩX1mΑ :1.'.diοde conducts and opamp sinks cuffent.}Ο -diodeiscutoff τ.)) Forτlr>5V Diode D2 conducts and I _. 1l.uo:0V idea1 amplifier V ι : -12 V because it is 7)ρ -_ 1 . +5 1ο kΩ υo: Vο : -5\'l ..i(] τ'1 l5) -(-cr-flu ι -'_ .1 V. 3 ])Λ _τ' ' J.5 μΑ - βΠ 18μm O..:"ξlv . (e)Forλ Ιo _ : -O.1O) : 0.0.5 v Vs: _Rs n 1. Αssume triode region: Ιo : 1.2mΑ " 24.9kΩ 72 μΑ 78 μΑ AtVo : OV.5v ov|2('ι kΩ = 75 μΑ(1.3 : Vcs From Exc.8. (-2. : 1. V 0.l. : 0'5 V' ΙΙnCn'.Εrercise 5_2 : -'. tr/] V o 2 V " V.n)' : 72 ψA .s) -v b .5 0'0_s _ O.3 V 1. .S.-5v._ 0. fbr saιurati οn region.R-1.Ο8yDs + Ο.02 75 μΑand (nAιvD - Vι r": -!_ : l2lΙ υ : 667 ο.Ι'' and |Vrr| - Ex:5. μΑ (saturation) Vο _ Vov _ ο. l{: ο.8:13.8 = /r. - ou v- o..:0'5+l . Ιo : 75 μA(1. - ..8 V. 4. : Ο.s - v"J V=R.1.c.5 V.8 v.10 μΑ 667 kΩ Ex:5..4x2:24...3 : Αt the triοde/saturation boundary .ν|/! _ 1u60 2 1000 Vοτ.9 + 0.04) + |ιi Iu._5V=+Vcs: V"ul V.) ΙoRo V.9.'. the transistor to be in V. _ )l. Δlο 82-5 _]ν.5 Ιo - Ο.33 kΩ ll " DD " Vou : Ιo : 72 2.8V Ιο _ .5 l..t 3. UoΞ1)c+l-4.4 = 7kΩ - 0.4 : 0 Ξ V os : ο. . lΙvDS +) .^ V.5. l.(ιs f.12 Αs indicred in ExampΙe 4.05 Υ a V ou =+ triode 1^ .8 lo : !z*'C.4 mΑ / Vλs region Ex:5.72 saturatiοnmode (u5p ] ν. 5.8-0.-5 Υ.8 Ιo _ ' )ν.Υrro - : 0{ V.3 Ex:5.r|) : ΔVr.'YrrbrΞO.-l v 12 μA I Ro: l2.8kΩ V cs : 5 V.8 : Ex: 5-l t/ v t) o.7)c w l + 3. 5(1.sv." ra Ξ'- |11]Ι1 ]Ι .:5-1:4V l mι ]]11l|l' = ']li]illΙπ η.'ΙΙl = -.6 MΩ : 3.} ιΙm . - )' V. : RrΙ .lliu." : V 1rr: 1oΙ 1)' o" O..lffi.4 1.:0.= -8v ]1lΠlωl = lt-Ι : m:-=i-_ι'__: 1." Ψ . ..s_ Vr_ 1r.Vιρ: -1...5 V and this impΙies that PMOS is off (Ιz65p > O) !.104 mΑ Ιoo: 0.5(1.. for Vo.Ω + Ξko_5.'l^ .---l }Ιl - ιil1 25ν ιiil = =:'-. then ξ > -2'5 V and V651 < O which implies the NMOS [oπ= o Q7γ is turned ofi .[.8 + IDR l00Ι2o" - 32Ι o" + 2.Vo: 10 X0.5 V: Ιf we assume thd the NMOS is turned on. iw r." -2.4 0. would be less than 2. then u.8 Ι o" : )t'"f {v ".ainjι. = V tm s"i$ /.t.8 then : 3.104 : 1. t : 2.Ι r : D _ D max Ex:5.!l ::-\ : .1 ''' = {ι"l.56mA/V2 : 0.ffiirll" O which implies the transistors are turned off and Ip..4 R.25 : O =+ 1r.Εxercise 5-3 rM i.: l Π Ξ_i{ rffi 'xlxVλν v r. 0: Since ιhe circuit is perfectly symmetricaΙ Vo= oand therefore Vc. : -0.15 vDD *v Dmin ΙD = .'Υrλ.5_ 1oΙD)2 {.6 + 1. 1 mΑ 1.6 V = ir :*.-1'. 12 kΩ _: υι : = 5kΩ Ιor: )x\z.8 l-. _ 5-3.32 1.rr)' Also: 7.s = Ιnp = o.O4V V t : -2.0 v : = " i \'.: l)i . V MΩ.5 V: Again if we assume thd Op is turned on. . : 0.

16 Voo V.Exercise 5--4 ι ".5 - vro l1t .18 *Vor:5V : Vnο: 1'8 v'.104 :-1. ηL υcs 0.6 V.. make Rp : 12'5 kΩ U65 : 0.Vn)ι : Vo|c.ι0ΙDΡ + Ι.4Υ' Ξ Ucs _ |uoo_ \κ"ιuor_ Ucs - ucs : Ιo: υο: 27υn."- 0..ly. : 0'4 V' l'οo k": λ:0 RD ρ om Lι65: V..l'nrl _ O'8 u". Ο.0.Ο4v Vs : -l0Ιor+2Ιor: -.8 V.5 kΩ V. Vor. k'Ψv^":8O0μΑ/V nL Au:.5 kΩ -8'Rο: -1Ο Ξ 8.: Ups : 1'8 V' (B) Saturation/Triode Boundary Ucο: I)cs-Un:Vt:o.143 V' : ups : 0. k'=0.4mA/V2 w:10 Ι' : 1'8 v RD _ 17. : : Ο'4 0'1585 rr5: (k'.8 : 179Ω ffir: 18 mV' .. x : Ex:5.5 (a) Voν 4mA/V2 [1.613 kΩ for (A) Cutoff/Satιrration Boundary 35&r- 17. + 3.6 Υ. triode' 1.)) mΑ ) V o : -10 X ο.8'Rυ: -10. Ιυ : 0'08 mΑ' Vr.17 : !xl \ι"!(Vro .l)' 2 (u{ + 2. _2 (.n : 571 μA/V :.r= vυο = κ'Yv^.4 9o'7 V'. : ln : 7J95 Vo..213Υ. + 0'16)] -:sιu. Ιυ:0-04 mΑ' 1'l V' Ex:5. : o'8 V' (b)keep RD : 17.2 _- v.:o.Vov:0. : 7p. V' 0'4 : 1. ο'+ ιιΛ (C)For υcslc Vou: v.rO__l Ex:5.104 =+ Ιοp -.4Υ.54Υ. : : 0 0.υ.4Υ.

: aos : (e) '!Δ':ug" +3v 40o ψA/Υ r-Ro: -4 0.' : * : ]6Rin : ηi#. :}_l| Uι_ *ξ: 11[ rπ.'. : flh: - : 0-1Ι9 -119 ΙoRo v. .8 sinωrΙΖ Vοs * 70a. -Q. io : 2Φ μA + \ι"υ!.rt-r.. : lmΑ'/v2 v.!' a. ffiπ' = . : dΙ aυs Ξ Ι* MΩ 12.43) ιo: + )lr. fι ξ* r.{-..1v"r-V.26δi<vt ι- o:27 mν.f.2 < υ95< 3.#i:. r- 4.|". νιι t*': R----->.V. ff4ris 13 Rc |!t"u.3 - 12. λ:0 Εn : 2o μA/V2 Rο: 10ιΩ Ψ:zο L (a)Vcs:2V+Vor:1Υ..__-. + (8Ο μΑ)sinωε + (8 μΑ)sin2ιor v..+ 2.20 Voo t oo:|'r' 'υ.)' kn(V cS _ V t)υs. Uo ΓΦ-. m'ΓE'frτ. acs J- i.o.Exercise 5-5 M1. : (d) U8. μA/V fiλ = rt*s kΩ 1l^= L'ο*-*V. : 500 kΩ Jl. : Φ_] ilξr. 1 ll 8^ Ex:5. : .'. V6': 2Υ' Vr:lV. : zoo μι lo : )lr'Yrv'o.φ .8 Using (5.__ ιD R'.5 V6u *'oo.)n" '. : Ua. Vυs:Voo-ΙoRo: (b) c- : u'Υuou: (c) Α.2 sinωtV.&MfiΙ:ι5:knvovRD υ' ξ*.i*. It = *.5 vov Voo: 5Υ. lfrl < h5..

.^ x 4Ο X (l.l U.1 )' " : !x6ΟX-L9X(l. : 7 mAlV.. : 0.(Rρli R.: μ.2 : -8.8 μm + Α.216 Ex:5...(Rr!| rril Rι) .ξ{Vro . -: Γο*l : 'ιο Ex: 5.11 0.. R. k" = 2Χ0.72 rnA/V 1 δ ri λ = 0. : Ψ'C.2mA/V. : -!.λ Ο. (5. .5 5. !. n : l"uCo"W.o 1 |..Αr.8: 92.0.8.2x2|6 ν"" 1.)u x 0. shitlsby 4 μA ?.Wν'^'': !xoο .xi 5.1)Vρy = 0'5 V /o : 30Ο μΑ : 0'3 mA' .(R. 2 α| g.'W'. VnCu. : g"' for both A-'' PMOS = *l2: o.δ : ΙD v Κnτνοv . : r.ο4 25x0.27 D rο 8mυgs RD 20K Rι -8.4:ΨWo υcS R.23 8. li '. Εxι mΑ/v 1'55 Vo -C -..24 4 cosωr)]μA ι 1. il to) (5..1D Ο.t o:-Ξ1οv δ/tr Γ'--^ w ' ]2μ"{ ''r'1ιο 2lo u "_ τ7'' ν vA : ΙD οv : 100 V/V Ex:5.1 .. = /o = 0.xz 5.6-l) .1V..04 Vo:9:50kΩ Ο'] τ v^ΧL : :ffi .5 r'' + 720 A. 2Ιo 0.) : same as (5. sο Same bias cοnditions' L and same Vρy and a1so same andΝMoS.5 mΑ 8.6-1 2Io 0.Ro6fr..5 . -8"."ξV. 4μΑ 2ΗD: .22 Ιυ : o.10) 50μΑ/V2 8.w.' '"r V'oxL: VA Ι.2 ^YL Ιo = 1r"Τuov_: .05ι57οl : Lrι.1 _ 2Ιo k"vrou lοO 1ο0ο Ex:5.75) z.26 : :οιο 2Vo - Voν Δ ι|ι1 - o v t) 5 X Ο..25 8 μΑ/ν I :25Viμm _1: .8 0.6 kΩ Va r.21 O.2x0"1 : l.2 V r. fΓΙA.s β.'7Δ Ro _ R. 2|6 ψA : :' 2Ιo .Exercise 5-6 + (4 = [2οο + 80 sinω' - F.2 2XΟ.ι : τr*'": --l..W ^Yt . -^ _ '' lιoρo * R1 -g. ' V nu .

:1v' ^ '' l* g.25 mΑ '' u.98 ^ι .4 mA/Υ21 (f)ι.i" 8^R ι Ro".Rs * ffir$*.r' vl+f : sο : o.<1ΟK Ο.t" l Ι g'R'' G mV.'"Υrvf."-q.4 Gr.30 CD amplifier _20 Υ/ν = lηq) 2vοv : Rsig + R'n : l : lOO Ω 1 8' :1Ο mΑ/V o' δm : 2Ι^ 2Ι + ιD : l.) _20 4 _t Rnuι:2O0Ω: σL-r. --+ z Ex: 5..Rι | * g.μ Ι :9l as. -5 : o''Υuov : (0.: "Ξτ io : 0.- g. : 1V.Exercise 5-7 = 91 _ Jρ :-(- Ξ7-J :]mS ψΙru = -f." -_ \: fl'Φ R:} : : (j)ι'o . -ι*''r.) - 0.--!...: " for| K<R.R.Rs 2Φ mv n-s kΩ ξ t . G.:10mΑ/V 2Ιo 2Ιn ^ i"=: 8^: .83<Gv<0.31 CD (sοurce follower) *]πS _ 'frffr : Ι 5Οm! + g-R' : ] _ g.. η. υo= 0'9Υ "srg 1V l'.-4 - R.οzs lo : )l." Ξ8.r Ro!! r) :-g.R.(Ro ll l*g. πιrΙm + τ.u 8'. V.+1r: V οv 0.Ro =ffrirη-Rο=20kΩ = G.:a..:5mΑ/V 6m '.Ο5 mΑ / v)(2 kΩ) +10 Ex:5. : -gΛn'|| r'll fiιh' - ΙΟ0 Ω 1 . R.2v.:uo:=Ls. #::ωkΩ = a: R.Ro Uriε l] R". 32 .36 Using Eq.49=*1-96V R.44Ι2D .5 mA :\{v""_ RDΙD-|)2 (V.8 Vcs:voν+vt:1-5V +t.Ξloro _ ο'5X: I ) Ιnεr lntr - : 0. _ Vo: ΙFξ=1.Εxercise 5_8 Vr_Vrr_-_2_(_5)_6kΩ 0.Ξ_-6kΩ + Ro : 6.ι _ \* (i).RslD 2Ιo : (- 6.Voo_Vo-5-2 _ 6kΩ ιιD 0.33 o: MΩ tο _ 0.2x ο.o: oulo.6Ι2D + 16 : 1Ιυ : O'49 mΑ..5x2:1= 2νΑ'v(..4.2x0.Ο.ul 2vΑ-j 1 l \κ'.53: 75Ψο Ex:5..ν ι tbr Vo : 20 V.1 mΑ o.l25mΑ O.86 results in V.YrιV or _ Ο'4Ο l.2 k{t standard value' V' Ο.35 ( Yo) A O Y Vb.--: ro I f ο t l1\o 0.1 : 0.512 For this R" Ι":'X1X(ycs-1)2 Vor: 2Υ.5 .49=-1. "s Ιf we choose R.2.51.qq .. = R.2x ι l.rwhich is nοt acceptable' therefore 1.) V.25='Voν: ν' O.5Vthen: = O..l^/ : υ() /.A1so Vcs : -Vs : 5 ._-r_ Vιlv ι 1 10 MΩ to have low current. = η: -5 +6.6.l25 -.vλu - Χ2 : 0. > O or V.96v Vn:5-6..1. ι .ur|#ij.. (w/L\./-: ' (.2 ''2 vov )k"|vbν=} Vou:1V+Vcs:1+1:2V \--Vn)Rr:.ν A1ιυ.V )'Ξ x lΧ(2 nA / : Lx l(Ycs-l) r^ _.49 : 1'96 V Ex:5. - 5l 1. should be selected in the range of -6m ι.2kΩ Ex:5.Ι. -_ we have to recalculate d. 'V.34 D . Ex:5.0-75 -_ 0.5 ιl-) +Rs:6. - ------L (ξ) -(ξ) - 2Υo _ Γ.2ΙΙ)2 + 38.5V u V .49 mΑ 0.__ O.0'86 mΑ A.2Ι D)2 RoΙn) + Ι υ:0.s '" '+Vou: \Υ +Vcr:Vor+Vr:1+1:2V 9tzr: -2ν : Voυ ξ{ι Vο : 5 .5 " - 6. ΞV.. = 0'49 mΑ #k" 1. W-.5: .: 4ou' .Ι. Δη . = 6'2kΩ then 1' will slightly change: Ι":'X1X(vcs-1.5 Ο.5 ΙD +Rp:6'2kΩ _ ' l _ } \o"Υvbu+o.5 1 l Ex:5.1 'D 2 0. ro) . r. 10v D r5K = 2.s) Ο.-:Ξ!μ!L ' RD-rolRs R. : 150 k() 'o τ! ιD kΩ "ov . : R'" : 4.n A.. R..' R'n + R.1ι -t _ υ".t I' -- 'ηΙn _ 8.*ro*Rs "RD (3)uo: \\'e \\'anτ -rn-Rr(l \ . " νP ρ) sinusοid superimposed upon voltage.0.o : 13.39 V .6 kΩ R..6 Roo..v - 1.: + +15 . 8^υg" D . : Rol| .lOv υg-----4 :2.7 ΜΩ Auo: -R.. ""RL ι Rn.r0\ 8.0 v. Ex:5.4 υ6 is a2..r οR o Rn _ rη _ R'(1 i 8'. : Rp : 15 kΩ For r.5V -R.Exercise 5-9 s (-3.5Υ d.5 Υ + Gv(o. : 150 kΩ..5 v t/ For .Ro .. + S ii RJ I : ('l) υ() ^ .O v. c. Uns : 7'o : Vor* υ1.-8-(Rnll rr) : 15 kΩ -13.7 MΩ A'o -.1mΑ/V 9mroυgs ro G % \/οo _ ---o 4. V --) ω Rin _ R" : 4.-15 Rnu.o l g.5 P'-= ^l'ι' l2λ-Ψl^_ lmΑ : v.8 a2.1 - It .1"- : _ \''YrrL"Ξ V.^ Rt . n π.) '7.'" 8".l : ^ : U.Jπ^' - +15 + 'l .: 0..roRο * ro kΩ Κ. : ^u | .:1mS basedon 15 : 21s_5 1 3 Ro 8'nυgs Rin ..938 0.0 0.932 R.993 kΩ kf.Exercise 5-1 0 υnl -t.n(Rpll n.Γo Λz..75 1ο kΩ 10Ο kΩ ο.\rr ll R..JΦ _ 1mΑ/V For R. : 50 Ω t' _ 1 : lkΩ 8n.41 υο| " |Rr: n _ 8ηro) -8-roRo + (Ro+r)+Rs(l 2(RoΙ 16) 1 I g.l τΞ e'σo] η) 1 rr ^ Λουι :6nl | .o . 15 kΩ A.- a) ro f.8. : g.40 8^: 1mΑi V rρ _ 150 kΩ R'n : Rc 8u.'.l 47MΩ MΩ 4.993 4. using (3) Ex: 5.....68 0.768 .42 See the next Page For other R"r* R. Ex:5. 0.7 4.o: *1nRυ_ Au .ig Gv 1kΩ 3. R. : π+π Β''x5.07 150 kΩ Rin 6nl tn.ut 1 Ο.nro ^ ' R.o . rο : 15ο K.g. : Rο : : Α'.l U' 1 _' lκ. ι.g.5 (b) G. = 0. rΨι= = [jΞι 1 .J'll W.8 + O.Exercise 5-1 ιιιΙ ιηF 6η ' 5_ Ι 07) οn page 324 of the text: s'.4[ Jν + 3 .o*'nfzξ.vu*ffil IW. V-.: *1YV.-V.-y..Exercise 5-12 Ex: 5.::lV σJ io: )ι"Yr{V"r-V*)2 :lxzxJ2:9mΑ 2 i .min .:3v : -2V To OPERAΤE ΙN SAΤURΑTΙON REGΙON: VDs. η.43 V.. - 10-18 A 1l : to-'u.zsln Γ!!_l L1l τι_} : β = ξ. = a5! rnV 10 tu 10Ο + [.69 : 4. : Ιsc€ ' lS€ m-" ξ- πll *Γ ι.JJ6 :'_4]5o 099 4ιr. lsa : BΕ'T .l usrn ΓQ_ll L1J vtt : tr.ε] mV = 6-l β: - 10Ο' r.f. ιSC e VΒε/ Vτ l.rlψtffi m_q.Ψ3 = f. 4rr ]Ι[ιr : l.7 : 10'15 Α Αrea.6 V6r^: -|5 150 -"" + 15Ο 1 < Φ.r - #ι ffι : : 690 mV 16': lmA .ffis1 m-\ Π illL. .Exercise =Ι - ( : - τΦ) 1r..8 VBΕ'Vτ VsC'vT ' lc:1se -ιSCe fori.ηι 25 x 29.Ι.01 : .m-]l {. -0'01446 mΑ *]iΙii.(max) lΟ_l5Α - vcc-0'690 ΙC -5-ο. : Isε """f1. lψεn d: ForactiverangeVr>V" 1.uta'ut : r(u'. : 1Φ X 1s : 1ο_13 Α 1s Ex:6.η". .9336 748 mV Ex:6.il μlιilfiΓ 1ο_'6 Α : .. 1r.. J9l 1ο0 β] ι..Ι-$t6:.sh ' Γ&l La"-l [14] Ι .446 --u) 25 R.: l00XArea.s { Χ V-Ιn : : .31 kΩ ff 1 Exι 6.:g vBΕ'vT VBc'|l .[r Ιc + : ]] 1mA .* 4φ - li ftl_ιJ6 u3. Vιc\iντ Υ .lΙ]]φ. 'lε 'r d.

Vsεz: 0. Vgε/VT -:g Ι': 2mΑ -- Vsε: 51 50 2srn .Vgr VT ' -Ιsc€ ^ lc€ Ι νB|. - For coΙlector Area : 1OΟ l_i] Γl001 Vcε:25|n Ex:6. V"u : o'8 V at Ι.. V urr' V ιει : Vr|n |Ι gr/ Ι 6'l : 25 Χ 0..12 x Emitterλrea l15mV v^c/vl u' Ιsovοr'u' '' Ιrrru" i.. -ν-.734 : 643 mV -10v Fig 6. .5A !."β - !l β..10 Ι. Ex: 6. 6.Ζ : :.817 x Ψ κο 2 τι :338Ω ιε/ v τ nv .n''l [4 " H.1 Υ Vε: Va-0'7v 1 mΑ .11 Ι.693 : 0'Ο1733 ..l. __ Vcc: Vc _ l.13 β : 50' Vg5: 0..ρ'Bε' vBC\/vT .. ts( -tr"".96 mΑ Ι" :ΙS: β Ψ * 39.VT '' + BΙ rre .V cε V V.5 ι.Sal/vτ '_ιSc/ιS ^ e'" y y^_siι/ y- '-BΙrr/Ι' e" : βιn.2 μA Ex: 6.c: . β/s.: Ιr"uu''": l.' ['f] .(' EC - 2 ο.V ιε : V.a|*oι .5 0.2219 :22'2 Ex:6.5 kΩ :5Ο0Ω ^ Vrr-V"' β ΚΕ_Ι-(βtsυ .817 V p.\Vgε _ /sL Ιre " .^ P :1.|--xerclSe o-.9 vo' vt ic:Ιseo''-Ιsce" Εx:.""ο 200/25 10o : 7#" 100 + - 10Ο 1ω.o_ Fig6'12 : β : 10O. ln[1'5 Χ 10-ι1] : 25 x 25."o: <β .13 +10v 650 mV Ιc :β β+1 rε: !xz 1.1ω Χ 0.'.

: 6γ Ex:6. decreases approx 2 mV/ "C rise for 3ΟoC rise 5 ^vBΕ: : k[) vΕ +1.'.7-5 v : ro : Ιreu""'Vτ aΨΞ ro vA Ι ic : Ιrruι''u' *'rr''r:u'''u' vA 1""vιΕ/vτ Γl + 9sgl " L voJ QED ic: Ιre'B"'vτ .Exercise 6-3 : -0.1. is constant Since f.91 mΑ _Φ-91 Χ_5 ftfisv Φ: αφl rΩ 'ξΦ pΑ -l0v V66.d ΠA . -rfl ΠΙΙι : Ξ l_ffs _ 0.: -β ! :. iC : QED *!!Ξ ro inFig(a) rvιε/vτ piu + kΞ ro as in Fig β) .'. _Φ ar.7 olmm vc : V _2x30 -60 mV -60mV ^vΕ 1..15 -Φι7'+ l0 κ mΙ! lΑ : ffiω imr ο. ΔΙz.99 il*6fi u'-ff _ rllΙΙιl * Ιc*c ll^ffi x 5 165 : .7 ν Ex:6.16 _ ιf &M r_7 ic: A+C. is constant .

-.β:50 (a) active Vc : 5 V ..o 1ο ro 100 1οΟ 1ο0 Ο1)OO1 0J01 ro lΟ6 Ω ro lMΩ 1O5 αοlο tο4 Ω Ω ι0 kΩ l00 kΩ vrr-vc Rc 1Ο-5 : 10 0.Ο99mΑ :1. : +lΟ-0 : +l0v Rc:lοkΩ..o'2) /Ι0 : 0.1 mA Ex:6. : (lO .x: 6.1 l. lmΑ .7 '( lOK 1Ο - Ο'3 V O. (b) edge of saturation ..Exercise 6-4 Εx:6'11 .o_ Ιc _ VA (V) h (Α) 16(mΑ) 0.5 mA Vsι _ Vsε+ : : 0.l _ 9.20 0 0 Transistor is OFF Ι6 : 0 Vc : Vcc.98/ 10 : Ο.894 v V ug : 0.98 mΑ ΙB -.O194 X l0 (c) saturated V 6u : 0-2Υ /.19 Fοι Vr6 Ιs: : Fig 6.1.ΙC/ βF : 0.97 mΑ Ιr': Ιg/β _ 0-97i 50 : Ο'Ο194mΑ : ο.18 _lοo 0 Vru: rlγ V'u_'l1 1ν Ε.Ι8 By similar triangles ΑBD ν ACΕ ιkΩ l-ΔIc ro LV rt ΒD AD ιrl'.20 + 10v Fig 6..01 Ο. :.7 + 10 x ΙΒRΒ 0.ΙcR.7 + 0.l00 l l 100 + 11 .l0 -0.1+ ο.098 X 10 .8V zl.r CΕ AΕ ΞΙ:1Xll110ι : - vc :1.68 v Εx:6.098 mΑ Vg : 0.

3 kΩ *[NΦv { ii*: \' $.]25 mΑ jj-0.Exercise 6--5 Εx:6.3V tο-0.5 : * .i * lΦL: 1i'.6kΩ = 0.3V R": _ 3'3v :6.2 Ιι : 5x4.48Υ Vur: V.3 :0.""d: 5 Ι:. iJ * { : {Ιι* - 0.Vc 'I * 10_6:8kΩ 0.18 V .3 :4.εhanged) : t0x0. -.1 : 5.7:3..3 : - .7 V 1ο * 0.(.94 V Vr: V'+2Υ :4 + 2: +6V p^ : Vcc..i-: nμ ffi.7+6x3.2 v 3.1 : lmΑ frlι_ r!Ι-: : 9"8 kΓ) Ι.A +10v rΠifr 4.2 1.3 ΙεRε η_] 1.τ IM 1πl Vt: Vt-0. Then Ι.o oa βpo.Χ3.226mA V":6Ι.7 kΩ 0.-5 ππ.5 Ιg Ιr= 6 Ι" Eg 6.. * 0.5$ ι lid] >r{ru 90-ξctive) _ι-_ :rrΙ69:0.Β +10v * ]η\' Τ/c $lιο vc *Γ-|'c 'a vE *0 li]]':γ - lπι.- :'r-ε rπι{ : 5 0. Ιl[l kΩ mΑ Εx:6.1 mΑ [:_{πL\ Ο.1 :4-0.22 m . 3 V Ex 6..:V.3kΩ R.7 μ: 0.4: Ο.50 X 0.5_ 0'7 : 1ο0 K vr:0 %: - +0. = (β + 1)] RΕ+ LRBB/ _ 4.: β Ι": 150 X 0'043 A ιι Ρ : v^--o.043 : 1.28 Εx:.10-4:6kΩ ''ι 1 β:50 vrr:1ΞlΞ:5γ : 50ll 1οΟ !'" : 1ο0/3 kΩ v"u-vt" ΙΕ.O43mΑ +ο.: Ψ V.7 v 1ο0 - 0.65 :2.0'99 Ι' ^ 1Ο-Ο.7 4.3 ^ "J+-'-10Ο .-4 : -4Υ p. : 0.- 2 :4.21 6.4 - v kΩ ιC >- +0.65 mΑ Ι.Exercise 6-6 Εxι E. v : 9.18 mΑ .3 v] V.xz 6.6.7V V.043 : 6'78V For β : 150 10-0.26 +15 +1Ον Rc ν 5kΩ -10 Ιn: Ιr.25 +1οv +10v +5V Rc 2kΩ +0.5 kΩ For μ: 5ρ %: 1Ο .3 0. -.3 15ο X 0.7-0.l 51 1 : 1.3 Rc ιkΩ 50<β<150 -1οv Ιn actiνe range I .99 x lowest for largest β Ι.2kΩ [Vlmax):0+0.4+0. 31 1.l I 7.Ο39 V' mA x : -394Υ nο +5V :-5 _.78 ]πι =: = Θ .n.7 1 1kΩ ON Θ 'az fuil i Ιc.0] mΑ x sat' l0 kΩ . :* iir': = - -6 V : 6.7s + (β + 1)0. il[Ι-lΙΙj:[]ιiΙ: .6 <<3o 4.135 : Ans: 1116 Ο..28 +5V 1.47 --9J- l0 = : : Ιε.'hange : _ 5C) : Ex:6.45 mΑ @1cιru.7 :5.10-5.:0_ . ΙC ΞΙB o'2 :4.{ g OFF i-0 + ι kΓ) Θ Ιrr:0 illιl *5V .'Ξe. Θ +1Ο :-r I oΝ : (β + 1)1.Γδ/ε v : 7.5 .7 lΨlμ":_ * Ιl: Ι ''17 2..32 +1sv J. Γr 51 . 435 0.ΧSatn ο.28 9.36 ν .03 V 5 .8V 0.7 kJ .Ιι 4.l5 mΑ - 1.15 1.5V .29 +15 2.'Ι5 lι .7V illi]t =-" ' -o'7 1rο Θv. \'/ Ptφrced - - \/ ^v cc '1 0.'. .8V 1.35 mΑ 1. . 1ω : 13.2 - :4.252 + 2.8 mA .. 1 4.94 mΑ ΙΕ -62mW 0lπ ΘΙ"Ξ kΩ 10 a_-l 1Ι^^1 2._:-0.45 lΙ + : 9.8Ψo Ει: OFF 6.:β/r.lili I {1 ' (β + l)1B 3.xz 6.8 mA v---0.45 Γ} . _ vΕ+o.':5 mA r''τrτμ'::Consumed : : V X x 15 V mA mA .7 1η1 : ) 2.Exercise 6-7 _ tr. Y __{ 0v < \/ ''Θyu_(-lΙΕRΕ : (-)3'e4 V l E. ilrlll1t1* - Οv : ) liil: ]]ilι!..4 mΑ η.-uπent drawn ]ι1_1 + 1.8 - 4.03 x _ΞΦl ιlιlση]]ιιru." @v":7. iiilln.c -. @+ _1ρ 5 -0. Saturation + 4. ΙcRc -15-1x10:5V Nc(O:VC+ΝCQ) : (Vcc .5 25 mΥ o : Ι.39 ι Ex: 6.-.' : _V cc A'.40 r_ γ : _--!. Swing : 2. : Ι. ΔV '" mV 5.: Ιr"'''u' vr θV '.2'Βε'v' vτ 1mΑ ρΑ vb" :-4Ο X ΙC vτ :. : r"8.3 : 1.0Ο5 sinωr Ι.5 β5O :10μA N 2.7 V A.025 T )Vcε:10-8:2.ΙgRg) + Auυ6nG) _ (15 .'e β+l 25 tL mA/V 2.0. l0 kΩ Ι0 Ex:6.3 aV : '1c: "r1.5 β:200 : 20 mΑ/V _ 0.7 Ex: 6.34 But -.5 mΑ * 50 .Exercise 6-8 Ex:6. o +ι5 V v/V 1.| 320 : #": : .lΙC Given: g- 1.c : βiι _ (ζ'r")iι.-5 200 : 2.35 mΑ Ο..ΟV l0_vCΕ _ ιΟ-2:8kΩ R^_ ' l 1mΑ V..lmΑ :4ΟmΑi δnl vτ 25mV _ 10 20 mΑ/V :5-2sinωr(r) : ΙB + υ6"G) _10 + 2 sin ωr (μΑ) Ex:6.5 mΑ (constant) β:5Ο ΙΓ 0. Ιι' Ο.:LVcε_" ΔV'' + ]ΔV.'π __ Ιc: lmA 1mA 25 mv : 40 β .-:: R" Au:b:-g^Rc ub.V c' : 'o:!-r.5kΩ : ΙC VT u-nα r" : !.0. ο.10) .1( uιu \ -ro ) : 8 '"υno σ:rn1 l00 lF v"o ib!) Ι^ β: V : -400V/V Vc: Vcc.400 X 0. Ex:6. . g1νen .36 ΙC -.0 .]2Ο V .n:β-: : : kΩ 200 20 l0kΩ Note: g. I dι ιhus '.5 mΑ o:: δm vT 25 mV : 20 mA/Υ .38 .37 β : 1Ο0 .l00 8. .40 Ι ψ rrιA ]Ι[ Τ ι :iιq9 πΑ .1 : Ψ: ιC frιπ Avo : : ro : ]-a9 : ΙOο k() 1 2. * τ .85 4.. 39.8v - Ec RL Ι''n Εx6.. Ψ l]Ι i' .o -0.a(-) thus effect οf rρ rMllr tτl t kΩ vo : r.6 (3.) R.. " 4.1. n. : _.5 kΩ -ζ^(roii RC) -: -#r''Ι.a Ιτlτιrrιφ' ιlmr ^ :_ Ιc -lmΑ : 40 mΑ/Υ η: aO.9Ψo : -τ.Rr_ΤτΓ&'ι-)s'τo|ι : t .. ilΦ:2.voιl : lroll Rc) Rr) ε"'ζl|-ξ1+ξ *8.18v slΙ lυ"tμ9: -0.:1.Exercise 6-9 t: *:39'6mΑ/V *1]Ι[l$ -*" {Φlils μΦ t'- I -.4_ lι{l -ξ " x: '-. " rn: β : l0ο: 2. XΥ Lbl l" ys tllπMmφ : ? fo: ηl' πηι 1 ro|l R. RnR.5kΩ g. * i] π\_ ηM ]m1- Q.. Au: -8^RoVι* ' vt RI+RL _ _8^ .ω 3. v lroll R)n.4t(2) Ro - To ilffi.Ο99 i1fl:. - is - Avo i\- ι skΩ -JF---o v I : -76'2ν/ν 3. :1ω υο l-5 Ιιl4 *: 1O1 . : ffi - r-: -0. .0olΙ n. Rcι| R.ll Rg '.42 For1. Ι| Rι RcΙl R. .tω - - .s5) τ.) lΙ Εx:6.

1o υs P Ιnsert 30 it' ' . τ: 25mV ΙΕ - tO +Ιε :25/50: 0.ο : 'r"2 !'_ 5 = .: 2 40 v/v +Av :80: 8"rR..oβ _ δln l -_ 4Oms 0._ and υo: ι 2'V nR7 (g-Vτ l i)R' rτ ΞRι : Ψ . os.025 l00 __ 4o 2-5kΩ 'o :25d1 'e " : β+1 RttΙ: r" :25Ω Avo : 8-Ooll Rc) .: Ψ : fnl(β+l)RE ιb v. 5-llΟl η.0l -Ο.l=υ.'Ι: Γ.43 :40.42 (cont._:1οο:20ΟkΩ 'υ ο. bυι v T ιπ " ." l_!β_']f& rτ vn R"R" -1+--i+ rπ r.8.5 mΑ and "m : δ 0.6 V/V _.5 Fοr 16 = O.oo : t.|{.6 : -32. : : 10Ο Av: #t-^ v/v )5 5Ο00 + 25 100 V/V 0.33v V : 5 k + (β + 1)o.: Rst" Nι R.44 . : Ι.8 Εxι6. .ig u5 5+5 2 l?.5 VΛ/ : Rrll ro Ro : 10kll 2ωk :9.r=. .5 Rl. : ''o __ l ..19Ο.35 β(rolι R. '' : !)-:μ rπ U.5 5+2.45 Rs: 50Ω Rιπ: Γ": v.ο2_5 : :L Rrπ 3 Χ97.46 i.5 : -65.ΟkΩ 20 .εX 1Om lOmV :0. :80/20 :4kΩ Εxι 6.5 Ex: 6.8 VΛ/ G.a kΩ 1xΑ'.'" +(β] l)Rι l6 βiυ .35kΩ:35ΟΩ ιOΙ 1Ο Ο'49 kΩ 2o mA/v . R.4 .5 X 5 Δ: ι|\' 5 + 9.l00:1+1Οκ+-Ι.*fu Rc : 5 +Rε -1x5 .5 ο.R^ V/V 19./ (β + Ι) :1+&*RεqED re rτ .5νlν : ..n.. Iι Rt) lo0 Χ l0 Gv: -τ' l0 + 4ο.: 5kΩ A\o : -20(200 k Il 10 k) : .) Rtπ υtUι Rs + RΙΝ : 2.5 . _ &.5 mA Avo: *LRc : 20Χ5:1Ο0v/v Gv: Ex: 6.rl : :z.12.U5 υ| -!3 U| 7Ιo |υ6| : Aγρι" : 32.Εxercise 6_1Ο 6.5k 19ο.1Οο:5.-.Rc :40X5:20ΟViV Aν:Avor*: c.

" 1 : Ο. .48 il:: : -ll V lη 0.(min) : Vε* 0.4ν RΒ β: ι].:Vcc-Vco .i '_i 98-1 mΑ Vc: Vε+o..4 :7.3 v +10 V R.995 _ 1- . 0. Vr: ΙgRg+2+o.3+ΙΕRΕ VΕF-0'7 ι Δ1 'L R.l]1 mΑ :4.995 mΑ 151 7.91 V/V : : 1'7 0.IO.λ3'3 _f11 πlιτaj_ ro: ωf ]1l1]l||]itllli. π.4. 0. Ξ9 RE 4.*: ι00 : : 0 :1mΑ (oΚ for C6) -0.. maximize R.:Vcc-Vc 'll ΙF I 'ε_β-ll:π-o 1 10-2.Ψ mΑ 1Ο0 0v πili} * 1.τR7G+η ^ ^u : ]57kΩ : aγ = =}RE+ RΒ/(β+ 1) ].tI :_ΙrRr' /εglven ..4+2 : +2.3 V VCQ : V.984. #41 lffi| * φl- Ι[ lπ- :_6T Ι\' : Rc kΩ 2..3 v $*.6 : 1 7.6 kΩ .4Υ R.1βι - t} g17 τ = l11{i.3 kΩ : V.:8'48kΩ lC Ο9 Εx:6.49 Φ +10v ffii * Φ .Exercise 6-1 Ι.(min) + 2V . setR. : .oo Ψο Ex:6.3kΩ : Forindependence from β. ι1rι{ iffilt * 4 *r{ ]M+4Τ * rs]Ι fr. 0 1 Aνo _ -s.7+Vεε 1*.1 V/V .) ρ'" .Ο02) :2..92 p Ι' _ 101 x Ι' : 1."(ro 1 1.51 Refer tο Fig E6.+2. Auo ! -320νlΥ in'Rc o 40X8: _ Ro ftc .1 : : c..9ν vΑ: l00v _ 1O0 kΩ .lΟl(2.g.5 2." - 2.". ι .8V lower value + V.5 lt. _ lm:40mΑ/V ^m vr 25m l0Ο _ 2.} o-f.50 R.52 t Example 6.ι v--(ι β+l _ ls. ) R.01 mΑ Vn:0-Ι'R': -1V Vε:Va 0.-1 \i (where l.O. -1.4 _ 296 ^R.4-2:-4.4kΩ νlν .Εxercise 6_t 2 Swing: _1.".R.7v:'1'7v β ΧιΧ7.7 7.4 + 5 .5 : 2.5kΩ r" β 40m 8..5 V -Ο.4Υ 6. υ'-RrlR^nuur. :Ψ:Γo: Ιu: Ιr/(β+1):ΙΕ/|00 _ 2Ο0 lower + 18 6.44kΩ '.Q.005 mA so V..5(1.57 ν v^.4Υ β- 0 Ι' : 9.* 14.0196 mΑ sο V..5ν Γ-{ 5Ο: upper stiΙΙ 8 Ι Using 5% resistors: R. Vι:c r_ ?\ () .5 kΩ R.:RsIR'μ7R.5(β + ]) 'ι.8kΩ Rllv 0.7 + ΙaRa+ β_ kΩ : Rε Ιl : 10οll 2.n('ro li Rc) Rο |I _ Ex: 6.44' 7.19.5 5' -ι 39.V .4 O.. . : 18Ο kΩ o.-: Y 9 g: 0.002 mA Vρ: 10 7.96V'0.l?.01 m): Vε: -1-0'7 _ -1'7v β : 100 : υpper limiι = \' .5 .7 kΩ lο Ιa 18Ο + ΙΕRC-Vcc : - lower : upper still 8V' _ ο.5Ο i*. .4v) v'c I |l R.1 x 15 l.-" : l00 lm o -Ι.:lgΟkΩ 7. 40 x'7.-----:!-: (β + l) Ex:6.V'-Ι' Va -. : -0. 11 Rι):-4Οx3'5 : : rο1l Rc : 100 8: Avο : .] .4 _2 = _3.5 kΩ R.44 /|ol2.. Vc .o I -vΕΕ -Vεε _ β_1Ο0 R.smv - 586 mV -r19V/V 7.7) - |7|. : 7.5-0'4-2: -2.n 0. : α(1 m): 1 mΑ 1a : 0'0l mΑ V6 : 10-8k(1 m) : +2v Yu:lOOkx(-0.1 39.3 kΩ -'^ Vrc_0.49 (cont. < : -r*fl.4k{L Α. : -e.ill R.Exercise 6-13 withζ: J.Ιl R. + RE) 223 {L : -32 ΥΝ = -12. * .fto 25 + 223 R._ '*' * f-'ΡΞ R.*"^' Φ.. GV 54 Ω 100k) + 25 15 mV ..o : 7...Gcll R.4ΥN -9. ]| o.123 V/V r11fri'ψ] 6.:1mΑ g..*-ff'.ο) :40x1o_3X(8klΙ kΩ &-. Ιl rο) :4ox3:12OΥ/Υ fi:Γ":25 /"ig Rrig * r. : lvo! : ιvlx Av : 512'4 : 62mΥ 5 Ex:6.=5kΩ - . : lOΟV 1OOkΩ s. Ο-Ε mir R'.1 R"ig -| r" 0.. = * : 20 0. : Rrll .:η=25Ω : Avo +g-(Rcll ..') : .*: s+20 s _]Γ = "λ=V"'.5 kΩ ι.Ξτ^ t -:--i *'. : α1R.54 mAN Vo: 100 r.99 r":25Ω 1.": 40 η' r. .._ : R. . = +g'(R.005 v/v α(R.22kΩ = . : 5mv w/oζ: .|| R.5Ιl mV lπlΓJω*Γ: i * ι'.Ψ πtη.4 : -296Υlν Ro.n$t "** - Ι" Ι0ο) ] -5+(2.|j /: vv-.p eγ.9 2ΟK.iΙMl. 5ωδ : 0. νi.ε .6 V/v ρ R._ 2.: 100kΩ β: 1ω ro:2'5kΩ α :0..] .._8kΩ &:R.25mV νN 12.) I f* iir.Γ--40(g) 40-δ -8Kli 5K -'fr. {...

R. tut R..* : 5mΑ Ιc 100(25 5m ro: Va Ιc . :0. ιb m) 10Ο 5m ={ 5ΟO Ω :2OkΩ 1/ rπ Gvo 'o andVo . (V/V) 0.55 :.) (RsΙ| RB) l (β + l)(ro | (ro|ll R νvo ω++o" βVτ Ι/ 'h Rs + RΙN 0. Riυ : Ψ : ." * R.7 kΩ : Gv :vo:vttvo vs ys :.3 kΩ vl (β + 1)(rr|| R.'. -Voxιrol|r"1 -O.) 20Κ (1OK|l 40Κ)(_5E+5 +2ΟK) lοl Rnu.68 0.5 G.165 r ..7 : 28.(β] : Vo rτ "(β l\iblro|| + Ι)(ro|ι R.Εxercise 6_Ι 4 Ex:6.'+ lt.) rτ RL't : V/V 0.796 (β + l)(ro1| R.05 + 0.5 Β : + (1ο1)(201| 1) 96. |l R.735 0. : Γo 11 (r" + tRr ll Rr]) / (β + 1) : 20 || t0.8 V/V 40|| 96.(kΩ) Ο.95-lο\/ Ο. R.Ο79] kΩ -84Ω f.0 For R.00_5 e 2'0 l.Οl Xo.

Ν Jlo -svlμrffiJlΟ μΑ Ao : 50ΥN -i. varies ψith '.i: rense of cuπent in an npn illπllllliilll]i11li1]Ιι.1 π.5 ΙΟ. : η] 4j X1MΩ:200 66.-y.Α.: M* For/r: 1pη _iie z 20x0..Exercise 7-1 ι Τhe minimum value of 1. a.8μΑ Iζ'.1.''' ΙD qμ]u]i μu = ] - : \\ΙoS } : Fabricated in the O. iΓ.3 4. ΙV *.|ι o anda. _ lΙΙΠiιιrll llπtllπllιrι:rιι.3 For this problem. ιtaι is 8-r": _ 1ι.L ΙD l :]ue of Ip occurs when tOο...-0.:' _') ι'r.Crd: Cou"W: 0. = . 2 x 85. We have Ι : :)ινo μ"C.ηl.5 μm CMOS technoΙogy specified in Tabte 7.5Χ3.-ν.i X5X0.j } _ L /l]llL- that - .4 O.and the intrinsic gain οbtained ε lτain currents: (L : 0.4X5 /..-' = J "'--3.+ ?9E05 Ao: g.28mΑ/V l ha\ie: '..5 μΑ :0.A.62ν 2τ x5 8.3 + 2) 1.7 /ν ο.l fF.15): = 1.': ill lηω.ο.. F{^(Ψ) : 10 Γh μΑ.: ι "111I ψ ]Mηr-.+Cov 8-V fτ: 2τr(Cr"+Cra) = i ι\Ξ.xrrπ. : 85.fo: ].1/ Fn.8 l0. wiιh } JΙ o :2tF .^YrVλu " : 1. n< ν'J : -' 1ο0 kΩ 'i'μΑ Ια) k{) _.57 μ4 (8..5 1mΑ Ψ4 v x ΙO k() : 10 kΩ 20 ν /ν Ex: 7.eπwυ ι.57 R^:2lo on Vou.3 Fοr an NMOS fabricated in the O. is :J2Χl9oΧIΟXl=2Ψ ιoι. (7.r' .11): Fοr }e ΥN 8. we want to find the .3v .5 μm.:JzxlsσXl0Xloo . Ι=---._ ι-^C-()h =*. using eq.5 μΑ 0.-m:O. οccurs 'Ιι il i. (7.5 μm) Cr.Ι1] _ L :uΙl} =: :0.o ν.* = .ηrΙ..1Γ') X1ο -o'2mA lll4] mΑ/V ') .-mA M_ Λ -.:r' a: 85.5 μm.v 8.\ l17kΩ Ex: 7....5μΑ_- v Since g.1 ιvith Ι : andVor: 0.l mΑ tlffitΙllltlilllfl-ψγlll' ll .8 GΗz '-: ]ι.:iwLCn. use eq.mV .

_ Δ1 0.. .zε.\ι*.6 kΩ) _ Since ly. -vo1 0.28mn/v( \._]6 αt *a μm) _ ι8 kΩ .6 kΩ ]η] _ 20.]6 lοz 0. . l InΑ .2νlν kΩ) _- 100Ο L halved: - V/v 0'55 υ m 2L..2μm W kΩ (1s kΩ μm} l| 21.nl.175V)': (Ο-]v).'1(f)ιu""r(' ffi) w 2l.5ooko -500k() r.'' -ι A^ " sο(-l9)' \] 0Ο/ l58 ν/v Γ- iΓ1 Fοr/ρ _ l mΑ: ι ρ Α^ " | 'l' _ u. . V/μm (l00 μΑ) (0... ^ -|vi.lO0μΑ) :126ko 2 (100 9Ο ιιΑ/V'(0.ε *elv .c.Εxercise 7_2 Εx: 7...24 m\lν) 12. Ivol ..2) : (4 mΑ/V) Εx-7. ._] - _ l. _ ο.2 (500 Since all transistors have the same Ι - Ο.1 V\ Llas ν.|ι..) Au Au :' (.' 4 mΑ/V 5ov r.24 .ll tu.i μΑ) r/ v)'l " l \' + Ο.':Ι_10ΟμΑ Ιr.. 50ο ano lv^1 DΛ" : || Εx:7.0'l μΑ _ n'_ 50r..Ψ)' 1ο \ / : vr..'l v.. _ 6 Vzμm ι0.Ι..'ι''1 /Υ'.'_ "' roι-βr 8. tu. (r.1-5ΟV mΑ Au: g'' r"ι _ (4 rnΑ/V) (500 kΩ) : 2000 v/ν Α.4 Ιl-L is 7.rvlv \l/ VΤ 25 mV 4mΑ/V _ l00 -25kΩ R..5 l00 μA ιffi] 'l'l.3 1ο I : l ΟΟ μA=+8.' Ι^ - .Ο1ο/ I - Ι..36 we haνe Inεp 1o: : μm' : Ιοz: /ρ1 _ : Γ .'εz μA /zι 1.. : 8.lvol L.5vlμm19Σ_ι'Φ mλlΥ VonL.89 mΑ/V ) *ζ*.Λ ll r. τ - L w L 21l.οl0'l'.! mΑ Vοltage Gain is : g..

. .8n3 : 8mι : fl. ..:.l3.25 mΑ 0.ο.r. 10Ο kΩ _ -\u.5 - 0.2 V 0'3 + 0.1. .5 kΩ Ιn V ou 2 frrl:fo2:tn 8^z lσ) uΑ o.2 : 9.5 0.)Rs Rs: 0: Ro : 20kΩ+ 0+ (4ο)(ο) : 20kΩ Rs : lkΩ: Ro : 20kΩ+ 1 kΩ+ (4οX1 kΩ) : 61 kΩ Rs : 1Ο kΩ: Rο : 20 kΩ + 10 kΩ + (40X10 kΩ) : 430 kΩ Rs : 20 kΩ: Ro : 20 kΩ + 2Ο kΩ + (40)(20 kΩ) : 840 kΩ is : 1Φ kΩ: Ro : 20 kΩ + 10Ο kΩ + (40)(10Ο kΩ) : 4.5 '40 fο Γo4: Rι : R. so : .7 : ο. (a) From Rι.r. _ ε Ψ 11fu._:50οΩ+20 "' 40 λ.2 V )1*.l|g'oη.12 MΩ α.: : *: 2 V 1"1 o-_J = o'8 ο. mΑ/V)(lO kΩ)]'? kΩ 0: (b) From Fig..πl as 100 kΩ: : e..2 : 1.25 ν/2 :2mAN .RL "]Π 2 mA/V (2 mΑ/v)(20 kΩ) :5οοΩ+3-+40 R.Ι'_sp3 mtn 40 Rι: Iyιl + lvrrl .-1' D. "-angois lVrrj = 1.* ._:500ο+]!9_!9 '" ι-G.2 : 0.7.Exercise 7-3 Εxz7.5 V Ο.. : (2 mΑ/V)(10kΩ)2 'M1. ι.V orr: : R._ |Yrr].3 v 8m = ilj ΙVπ\ :10kΩ 1(!ll&πel".*'. 5 0.25 mΑ RL 8- \8^ro) ω: ^l.* : - 6π ]s'm 0.50oΩl 0 :0.5 V :rs i. : 25.\in - : v :20kΩ Fig.7 8" 1.8 8-ι : kΩ Ro: ro +Rs+(g.. : - 0..M'. + .:lMΩ: R.E : r" : : 1.Ι'1 Ωo" 3 k() 20 kΩ: ._ : _5ΦΩ+ |MΩ : '" 40 gre identical and the gate vοltages !U i. M r r) : (2 mΑ/V)( 1Ο kΩ)2 kΩ: t R.i_ξ = fu1.l.'' :uo: ΙD v :!_l .ι. .13. a : l'sc: _ .7 V 1.*= b..2 ν/2 : 8* -ΙmAΛ .: r.. Ex: 7.Ω (.: -..

z 20 .. : Vov''2 (a) 0. .Rs)r. 1 ζ. : 4ο0 kΩ' R.(o')."r-g-. 4 can be modeΙed as ?"(or).κi7.".2 - 0.10 Av : -8mi(gmrr"rr"r)ll Rrl Av : -1 mΑ/v{[(20)(20kΩ)]ll 20kΩ} Where Rr _."" the approximation of eq' (7'35)' Rι' ι 2ok!2' ι n'"'-8-r.. signal swing is to be allowed at the drain of Q1.. - |Voι/ Ι.19. τ or (Υ)..6 v/v 7.Rs)r" : Eiιher method is correct.: 20 kΩ' R1*ro.2νlν Av _ . Ιf a 0. : Avl: 1 mΑ/V(2OkΩ|l Vοο I :21kΩ- Avl : -1 mAiV(2ΟkΩιl 21 kΩ) : -10.l : 400kΩ ..ττττ.: {"(Υ)._ Ι and Ιor: Ι Since V οv...Au. - 1 (t + g. V2ovz ) *. single transistor.7 = 0..2 + 0. from eq.Rs)r"R' + Rg 1 + g-Rs [+ g. R1 !| _ρ'-' (l tg..'""(Υ Ι22 Ιo' L*..l * g.31).: ?..is connected to the οutput' A.ιlι ^ .Rs)r.9 The circuit of Fig.1. - |vorΛ + |vtp| can be set at 1.)' (b) The minimum voltage alΙowed across cuffent I 1.qnzroz -'tf.r".rn) : 1 mΑ/V(20 kΩ) 26 (a) For R.85 V _'φ. Ι Ι '=(vr).5v/ν ε.9 K) : -1'74νN l*" . A. the gain rΘmains the same Ιf R.Rs- 2kΩ = then.1 mΑ : so' (g.. - 8'.1O-2 o- q r& : 200 v/V Auu : 2kΩ): -1.(Υ)'u'".η 0.(l : wouΙd be 1Voυ| 0.55 - : 1. .7 v .t1l ι g.9kΩ ^ κ'"r:ΤTtr}Γ.2 V we have .5_5 0. t9.04 V/V Aυ -19.Ι mΑ/vtt(2Ο)(20 kΩ)| l| 400 kΩ} - vi +1'8 Υ Εxz 7.82v/v . l+20 : -8'ι(roιl1 :"'Avι -1 mΑ/V(2oKIι R"') 1.the highest dc bias source -l JΞ V I' 1+ + g.2 V if made with a.-2oo A.5 0.._rc'. for R.82 (b) Now.20kΩ+20kΩ: l.: + v '(o. voltage would be G-"' : Rn. . 2o 'l m^/ν : -grRo so.).") cοntinuing. Exε 7.8 - 0.1 Vcz Ιz= Ι Ι. ^'''' ..Ro : #*"- oo : g-Rs The οpen-circuit (no load) Voltage gain is : Φ and : Au .Εxercιse74 :20kΩ :Vo:2ν ΙD 0.Rs)r.1 vPP : v (c) V scz : V. G.04 : 10. (7..1 mΑ/V -8m2 and R..

25 'l τ- :ir kΩ |l 6. 19.. Ro.ιlλ lilit ιl 'ι l00 μΑ) 8nι : ΙmA/V ι.1 Γτ_ 0. : ll 1. = :' : jflc : ""'Ι.33 : -3.7.5 Α.r"* : *5714νN -' 'g.s '--.4 V to 1. = Ro: ro: φ1.7 withοut + r)l (that is. r=r) Ao^u" and r-:) |--' ie. occurs when Q1 and Qrare selected and bias sothat ro1 and ro1 aΙe>> rτ Ron : (8.: : Γο' : v! . 40 mΑ/V -' _-VA _ .2o.zro)Qorll .:.5 MΩ Rnp: (8firgz)roι: βlrοz Roo : 50(20kΩ) : 1MΩ Rn" Finally.14 Fig. ilρ lΙlΙlMililll.'tΦJ and biased so that _:gn lηξ*1 i]l||υ|Ιg .rofl - R. 1tlΙ_'il]"..Exercise 7--5 Ι.r) (4 mΑ/v)(50 kΩ)(50 kΩ 25 ll A.. 10kΩ Εx:7.kΩ /)] Ι kΩ 176.) 'r ]ξ lι.1..]]' Then.55 V :r1lt Αu.lιτ:': 1ξit.10.2'l(a) fol : ε^.ΙV 6.ll]Ιc:.33 x 103 v/v kΩ) M) : 3. : ι : -(8 mΑ/v)(2.l. ιhe alΙowabΙe range of ]i(πl!ι is from 0.5ν -. 7. iri1l{ll|i-".25 kΩ) η'{Q li kΩ 20kΩ ]iiu"Ι.Rο : -(1 mA/V)(3.l|ll 2.[:9d acrοss it fοr prοper :v) : ι..O : #: ** 100 β - ro: MΩ MΩ) 40 mΑ/V :25k{) 8.lW7ryo 8il - ιi ..2--4-ffi-4mAN n1ψ]Π' .ιι1- β-+gm2 lΟΟ 4 mAN =25kΩ Assuming an ideal cuffent source.--. the lι. R.-lOV __ lΟkΩ ιο -ιC lmΑ lrililllrir". /-a- "l2(200 ψA / V')(25 ^ |πΞ'Un: 8^ι: 'mΑ r-:.il )( O. Ο. -.6 : -G.33 MΩ .50kΩ l 0. r"r Referτing toFig.lmΑ : fi"C.1i 8. is impΙemented with a llιlηιl"::- .2 mA -- mΑ ^ * lΙrl 8.ll ιο[lι & o6 .iπilar ιo Fig..i Γοz 0'762ΜΩ) Ro R" : : (E.5 kΩ) l_5 mV :50 8 mΑ/v : : : 4V : 0-2 ι 1lΙlΙlnΙl ]ι ιι_l mΑ 8 mΑ. Ro - lo + g^(R.5 "--'' kΩ v '''. and have insignificant :ilDι ".lll{ll"m.lηυ.A1o.4V . ffiiΙtfrιiιιllππr4 '."" -: kΩ ]I 12.':lllllιιπt -!iηr Ex: 7..ιro2)rn2 : β2ro. : 1Φ(25 kΩ) : 2. ιιι(llΙtΓ . tlηη]lm .

3 'rn. R'g kΩ l| 25 kΩ -668 x 103 vοltage we ηeed mA/v)(50 kΩ) Ιo : 6Ο v/v 100 and we want to reduce the change in οutput current.Exercise 7-6 10μm_}4z:50μm w 5μm ..'zro)σor\l . and Ι' _ Ι'(_w lL\o Since all channel lengths are equal L. : Ιr:φ: : ιRl'l'fl. => t20 __15*w.2 V of the negative supply R.. οf the matched transistοrs ιhe same as ιhaι oΓ Εxample 7.z:4mΑ/V Γoι: roz _ toι: ro : 25kΩ Γnl -.: wl Ιn order to allow the voltage at the drain of Q5 to go up to within 0'2 V of positiνe supply we need voν' Ι5 : μΑ : 80 .'r) R" : (g. :20: /*.2)2 :50=Ws:50Ls ws: wtw4 80 50 μm 4+Wo _ 50μm 4 _ Ι2. : 1 mΑ/V 8. 1κtlι. w\ Ιι: 'RΙlτ'W| - 5ΟkΩ 4 mΑ/V 7.2)2 rw) _ μΑ : Ι. 20Ο X (O.16 Foι the circuit Figure 6. s(Ψ) . Ιz: 60 μΑ. .'' : 0. 1: : 20 ψA' Ιι : Ιι: 2Ο μΑ and 1s : 80 μA.v'".o. Δ1. _-' 4mΑ/V(|67MΩ) : w1 . \ ι /.. R.|Ξ τ' 1*n.(Υ).:8.. correspοnding to a 1 v change in ouιput νoltage. ΔV o.l5. ιo 1Ψο of Ιo' Thaιis Δ/. . we have: From part (a). : Ι*''1ψΤff.2Υ : ir. ir..OI1r=ΙJ ' roι 100 μΑ 1Υ : 1MΩ .sΟ . } οΓ ιhe ιΓansi5ιοr shοuld remain ιhe Same..7 we have: (w / L\.: ) Ex: 7.0'2)2 => 2X8ι) (y).19._ 1'nιR'.167 MΩ A.. μΑ'ν"c.w.1μm Fie.0. Wz..2)2 - w. ι*nι'@TΙ.:15xL.'(ξ)"v'o..Wr-W'-L-Ψ_+ 'owo_ wo Ι4 lο : G.s(fl. Voνz=o. 10 Ιz g.)R" so. 7. ιw / L).ι: From Fig.Γoz _. =V'ou.r.Γτ2: r': G.γo.5 μm .9 .n^:Vn"L*lMΩ '"z Ιr'. : ( 1 mΑ/V)(50 kΩ)(4 1.(o... lo Ι.._1μm Lι:Lz and : lΟ μA. _-.ι Ιn order to allow the νoltage at the drain of Q2to gο down to within Ο. \W/L)\ VcιΦ : Ι..: ' 1μΑ ΞL To keep - JψJ20 V/μm _ 20<L lσ) μΑ -_ 5 μm Vρ.21 (b) Sο the dimensions of the matched transistοrs Q1 and Q2 should be changed to: W:50μmandL=5μm Ex: 7. w. Τherelοre : \κ"('l).ι:g.15 Ιn the current source of Example 7'15 we have l&.01 X LVo . _ x (0..

ξ ]llΙΙΙ]lfr[ 1'' = .197 ...497 mA .I 1*uu tl: .19 : 5 μm 50 μm \ lΓl * Σ--QJ) lοΟ / -_l|\ ΙΓn / ] : t.4. 1-.65 kΩ [mιΦ !.f u.ffiflrππ ga.\ r\ ) fr.7)Ξ πιπ _'ll: "'*"5 mΑ _ 0.74) we have: . :Ψ '.Ο2 mA Ιr. It0lΙl 50 ] See next page: . .Exercise 7-7 ].Ι|)ι +2-0.Vr. ..:gΙion (7. Ws 3Jd w5 ππμφl : Ex: 7. t $0"= l. 8.:τ_ !1'.]'! ll ur : 15 Ψm.-- ι== (Ι 50 ) -:_.'y= o Vcc V'ε .. =98 kΩ - 1ο0 kΩ il '. ll β0.. + ρ 1o. 1. Ιn this case the maximum number of οutputs for and errοr οf less than 1 07o is N = 9.(*) Ι_ /"*on .Exercise 7-8 1nεε : Ico*o..Ι*or. :Ιμ:1-ryll /o.o*r.-Ιζ" !.+ ..9β β+ 'Ι'=O. β β From (*) we have: 1co*on *1 : .9 =l+N+l=l+t+ΝΙ1<l. we have 1.t1:1*tt. (! * t^^ 'ιgκnΙ-\β Ι:Ι-^'vREF N+l .11+N+1<O..+ 1*UjJ ββ l) I llΝll =0.o //+1 Ico*μμ -ι+-N+ I β Thus: Ιι : Ιz _ "' Ιgnoring the effect of finite output fesistances.: 'Ι ΙsQpρ'r+ ΙB|+ : βββ- 1..11 β Ν+1=11=N<10 The maximum number of outputs for an eπor nοt exceeding to be lessthan l0Ψo then we need N<l0. /*nn >0-g/--..-. : Ιι : Ιz 1cρo*'.. 1) βl ...* Ιι' * ..n β For an eπor nοt exceeding |oΨo νle nend: Ι ' /ν+l β Ξ 1orlr(| _ 0.. 91coκτ:r 1*. ... ..r" . = Ξ = !:.r. x lo0:2Ψa l0OX l0OkΩ=5MΩandΓor : "22 Ψ the simple miπor R.23 -ξ \' ν) : 096 V g.Exercise 7-9 Πιriε::rg ιο Fig.. 1 Ζ .nτπ uu λ:trιln mirror fiom the equation For the current source in Fig.)1r.. * ]i μη l.1 mA) w .ιζ_\ .. therefore.rr.. 1Γγ0 : o. l mΑ '.37awe have Ro:roz:fo:1οMΩ lffii.tηlτi'fτ β For the Wilsοn current mirror we have rι-ε:ιιlι ιoltage is Ι]][ψ'.. Ιn ExampΙe 7. 7..69) we have : μm) i..23 V . + 2(0..87 mA/ v)(1s kΩ)2 s.5 kΩl| 25ο kΩl]lo vο 9Ro:54MΩ O. / /) a.. RΕ .37b fιom equation (7.6. lOμA ' MΩ..o2Ψo &=[l l Ψ(ll.7 .R: tl : 1 1.τ . 7. ll __ (5Vlμm)(O. : Ιoι : Ξ*.l ' whereas for the simpΙe mirrοr fιom equatiοn (7.I 0. Lt = . : f : 1Ο0 kΩ o Εx: 7..6. = . llιl]]Ι.22 For the two cufrent sources designed in Example 7.4 mΑ ancl : b : l90 v: 10 Ι.*.98) we have: &- * 7-(RεΙl .n " __ : !: Vr : Ψ'Α 25 mV 0. lr R" ru:rn:τ resistance.4 kΩ .C 1ιεp : 10O μΑ Ι- 7'::-:o'sε 1 'RΕl'' t τ-ι '(Υ)r'"" μ.5 kΩ ..'': : 1 r l'o -_ Ιιεεl I 1* r-. Rρ.ι. rn: 8'β :25ο For the current source in Fig.]l0... :{.32...F] ilξ.._]6 ' Ι-' O.lμL'_ -. we have . we need . "(Rρ.5: + 1'0v Since the currents Ιor.1X RD entire current is .1 ReΓerring tο Fig. : Vοο . the common-mode range is to 1.l'5v = 1.ll .) 18V/V - : 1( mΑ/v)(36 K |l 36 K) .8.zν12 (4Ο0 - ργ)2 Ω.0.2) o _δm Sο' Aυ : μA) : Ιo |Vov|/2 2 .82 56.|". 0.s v Vr"-u": vt+Vo:0. _ Vοz _ l K' I Voo _ 1 Vοο Ro:5kΩ Ro R. : Vcs 0.5 2Ιυ \τJ.2vlv Since Refer to answer table fοr Exercise 8. 2Ιo μA lν211o.l w .' μ1Co'(V μΑ) /1v\ /ι4l\ O.5 : - V + * Vss 0.4x2.r.o μΑ)(2) .0.0..| 16\ Aο: (4 mA/V)(5 Kιl 50 K) : 18.O'4 2mΑ.5 +Ο.r 2(100 (1Οο Ex:8.^l1 νov : -o'45 to0.5 : .3 where values ιvere οbtained in the fol1owing way: O. Ιf Rp is dοubled to 5 Vn.8 : 200 μΑ .5 V Voz: Vοο _ l.4mA(2) :4mA'/Υ δm 0.5 : + 1V Vov: tΙ/ΚWπ-WL : Ι Ex: 8.4 (0.2 (a) The value of uid that causes Q1 to conduct the βv ou -+ Ο.200μΑ -_ lΟ0μΑ )2 ι : 2(0." : !rn"(Υ)(V.)2 Sothat ΙD :36kΩ c"'(ξ)v".l: 2vονJσj ι^: ! . and 1p2 are still 0. l^ .28 V So.45 V ^Γzx thοn.l 1: μA/v2)(0. : roz = tol : foι - (c) Thus the differential output range is: Vor: from 1.5V Vρ2 : 1-5 .1 Ex:8.2 ^/-'(y) o __ Ιo .l mA/V.Exercise 8-1 Ex:8.5-1. ΚV ouz Ι Vοv v 20ν :5OkΩ ro: vA ΙD .2 mA each.5 With 1 _ (10V/μm) (Ψ!2\' : ) 1r' : Ιοz : 2(100 \νι --+ υi..l'_5 .4V vCS + vcs + 0. κl : ο.36 μm (b) For Q2 to conduct the entire currΘnt: υi.4mΑ 22 .VcMηin .3 \vov |/ -τστ ^τΓ-: 'ov: 6. for all transistors.18 μm) : 0.2v Vοv/2 Ο.5 vrs 0'5 V Vοι:Voο:+1.nzν2)ιlO0) ro.316 : 0.0'4 X 2'5 : or- mΑ ν ιhen' V Ο.5: 0.- V 1.: ηfo'zι..3.36 μm) mΑ (w\:rW) \ ι ).82 V : -0.2v (100 8^ι(ro. Vr.^r".28 v Ex:8.! .: \τ)^_. \ ι /.ΟV -ο.0'8mA: Ο.5:-1V - 0. .4 mΑ Aι: g. * _ = ιl_+ πfl-:ntia] :ιttιι .Εxercise 8-2 ιπl : ]$. . and the fact that CMRR - (2 ξ. JΙ(lli111]] l_ι.: 1ι1Φ μΑ) _ι ---------_----Ξ_ :ι'l μ-\ 'i v'(0..7 mΑ v illtfriU tll1ffiμ".0l 10( 20.' ηlt i o"l' iζ.2 V)' .1] 20 H_ .Ψ.: π. :lι 'f. : :- . Rss) rΔε.2 mA ι _ tι/.. υcz: -0'7 Υ (-5+4.2ν).9 2οlοg : 2_5 0. . ] =lr.\lΩ jl .64)." aJ. Fs*19'" CMRR(dΒ) -------------------- / :: . Ex:8.j# : Ο.000) : kΩ Κ): 2Θ mA!Υ." : I mA/v)(36 k)'? l' _ = i1πιηi v)(36k)'z . a ]llfrll]i .ll ιπ Ιog.lΙ||||.5 tr 0-7 :4..lΙrillπ =m 4 mA/V Jtrnr .:rW) 'ηl * Ι" 36 kΩ $-.τΙ ]]]] τl W/ ' i = :i. 'l. for all NMOS \ι)o 1 : 1Φ.296 MΩ) 1ko 1kΩ *5V : ':τ'each transistor is G τι il iil : -. Rr.4m4 -2J \r 20.1 ::r llllllll1llι lllιΙlil]nrγ."Υo}ιu :'. Υ2). .{..4mΑ : Ei:(w\ ]'1ψ l]r.8 ιransistors is r. r-.3x1) ucr: -5V ill/rfr].5v I. using eq. )(5 K) : 20 V /V 1:0. (8..-. \ - +.lffi{* L g..3 acι _ +0. {.-lf CMRR(dB) _ 20 lo_s'o μm = 86dB .l0 mA gain for matched Ι'}oI :8-Rο frl rηer:. μ"C"'(0.: ma (α: l) Εx:8. +ο..7. O00 . : uΙn) -:6 (#) From Exercise 8.)(25 - 86 dB +5V =d+P:lmΑ/V = : l|!ψl11. ..\ '/ν'(0.\ \ε-) : Ex: 8. iι 100 μΑ) Jw -l' μ. 0._ Vτ .1 2(25 K) : 5Ο K = 0. |!"| .Ιez.zο log.Us2: v. mA i62 : 0'5 .70) yields -VΕΕ : 1+ r(υιz UBι .1Sin(2zr X 1000r).(ο.l00 = Ο.25mΥ : ΙF Ο.1.'Ψ=' : " B^ 4mAN : R'.0v/v re 0. lA. #:#:roΨ (Vcc 1o0 μΑ 25 mv μΑ +0. mΑ - : 4mA/Υ ro:lVol n -Vo ._ |Icl omt vT = 25 Ιn(99): 115 mV Rcι:Rcz-Rc: Ex: S.11 Substituting lfl l iεz : o.tsz Ρeak=2ΟΟV/V Ο.l.Vc + a. : l0Ο μΑ 10v :lοΟkΩ .u:0-7 = (15 - 0.5 X ΙcRc) 10) - 0.../ _ 2Ο0-μΑ: I) 22 P-ι : 6m! P-C : 6m ρ. >> r".ΔRc .7 V : -1.4 mA ιLi 2 tVcc From eq.25 Κ R.1 X RcSin( 2π ΙC l mΑ 0.1VPeak :86d8 andsinceα. (8.4v _ + 1.Ucι Γ) VoΙιage gain : |A .5 + 0. |Aλ x X 10Sin(2π'1000r) = Rrll'o 1OOKli lωK:2.1Sin(2τ X 1000r). VC" -u". (8.1 Ο. v (ιe) υcz _ υCl : 2' S|n(2ιτ Χ ΙΟο0r).2 mΑ ΡΞ 0. = 251n(1 / 99) 1:2ΦμA υ31)/V' Sinceβ>1.1Sin(2π x 1000r)..Ο25ln(T) +υΕ:5-0.99 Ι Qs 1 in Eqn.011 .l 10.οl)(lOοK) . v υCz .o : 2rn ro : β : . l.Ετεrcirct-t Ιcι:Ιcz:Ιει:IΕ2:!: : 0.3 v + ο.12 (a) The DC current in each transister is 0. (8.67) Κ) + Vοq 0.(s- Ιι-ι. v υ62 : 't0 + 1Sin(2π'Χ 1ο00r).5v + 0.9 v Ex: 8.25kΩ Since R". .|200| _ 2v Note: Ιf only the 1oad transistors are mismatched.5 mΑ.._5 t g'ιΔoru.683 V υcl Il:zoo"ι Ι lrt: (d) Vιz 1Ο00t) 25kΩ Ιf the total load resistance is assumed to be mismatched by 17o.4ν = Vcc ΙCRc+0.ιrΓ_/ 200 μA r-'| = r-'2 : r.5 v to + 1.5 + 20 X 0.Ol |Λ"πll _ Γr' 2(5ο η CMRR(dB) : 20 log. Thus V6s for each will be V.317Υ (b)c.2 mΑ(5 From eq.9v Voz Vc"-in: 'Vεε+VcS+vBΕ : * 2.4Υ = 2.5 V Vc" ^1n Ιnput range is .0.683:+ 4.5 .66).005Sin(2π x 1o00ι) = 0.ο.: (c) j61 : 0.10V =50kΩ . = 1Ο { ilιι .. __Rc _ .: ' -ι ι llllιlllιlll[ ι[{liihη: t. ji O. x 0.... l Ro 1+" Ι Ι.:4mA/Υ fl..148a) y v | A'.8mΑ/2l o. : * -"j: .. . : n : vnu (0.."l1|lli{fl{ll|lli h" - s ou'!= tr = .156): 2 o"'.^" __ oo I (0.m -' 1 i..5X0.ζ. y-4" : .}d "'.i'I 4 mΑ X 25 kΩ /2 μn : |A.vt E / : G-: g"' } '.| Ex:8. Ro -. due to ΔR. 2x4x25 :O.138) G^:8. 1lluΙ 2.ιln 1/.rg ll!Ψ.Vi.. then all transconductances g.r ..lοο -__]_qq l':ffil-r"-=0'5μΑ . l ι l.17 Frοm Eqn' (8. are identical. (8. :: τl lVt is obtained .: :5 K _ (8'127) Ex: 8.00() --. lv orl : @:o2Υ mΑ/V : η/20 thus...16 w lL|"Χ μ.8 m/2 20 - 5ο kΩ ) thus.il _ Κ|1 1Ο0 K)y.141) A' _ G-n^: '-α -m υ ιΙrπππr.1 μΑ:50nΑ (lω)(5ο Κ) ro .5 mV : u (Ψ) :0.]!9 Ιιl 'fliiιi .Te ιιrta] input οffset is: : : ) -Ι V - ιOΟ FromEqn.ο05 162ll roo ..{Ι. ll|ι|] (^t'1 rοfv i. : .'"'-2.0.50ly...--(10O FromEqn' 2βΟ K) + αr5 K ..^":vonn.8 mΑ/2 From Eqn.o05v/ν CMRR: .ιιv.l m 200 20 m :20 + m + Since al1 transistors have the same drain current (Ι l 2) and the name product w l L x μζ. (8. . (8. ]1fllfi ψ./xT).R.1 59): Ro :20. Ro:50|| sο: zstο From Eqn.!-qq- dB -+ 86 ο. (8.1___Ιj!_L-. Ex:8l5 . qαlffimμ = ''' _...* : Ι ..* l .=='* _ξΟ] 0.162ll roo 20 :5ok() .-)p - iι]llllι] li({llilllr]l ι.2v - +mΔ V From Eqn..q-.2m x lOO: (W ( : l L\ρX μρζ.499 'il*|IllllΙΠ]].Εxercise 8_4 lψιlllll/rfl .8 n/2) Ι (0. mΑ 25mV '" v (Ο..: 'ο. .: Refer to Fig (8.5 95 : 7363 v/v Ex:8.' : ? - 200 _ thus. X MΩ Rs: Rs- @.8 mΑ - Va '"** Cunn: l 20ΟΟl | 1-llrsl 16Ο. 2 2 ^Εφο 5'2'7 kΩ μιzv1ιεοlιlο μal l ('ξ-. (8. So. l'" _l Ιr.174) n. 1Ο0 dB A.is: [β.5 mΑ 5ο X 20Ο o.Ο0ο : 104 dB lο0 ν 20ο Ο.ι.l05 v Qn (d) r-: l0 / 0'05 : 200 kΩ : ζmιι : Ι/2 _ 1m/2 : z0mΔ 25m vΤ vA Ι /2 : βιroι - ''ο .1 :100kΩ 6. 10ο:1X9OΧ2οoV^-u2 . Ex: 8._ 1οοv :125kΩ .19 +1Ο0: 'or) Overall voltage gain..7"75 mA/Υ 1'90 mΑ/V 6o:10/0.Ο.".e.1 67): ^ Λ'' L).) is rn -+R--: _ K kΩ 0.(160.--(W/L)o.. (ΙVl L). ο00) G^ 'J] ΞVovο _ '25 \/ '01257 20Ο 2 -2xl25K A.42.8 m/2) l00V l25kΩ 1 .l29V From Eqn.2\ " (w/L)4 (W/L)s'5g thus..XRι]: 16X 125 : 20οο y Frοm Eqn. Using the equation developed in the text..129 Υ ε' : 0.'Ιrr-2Ι Lsing fun. * Ιβ" aΙ1 1. (s. β..105 v 2Ι^ vΞ* μA 0.Ο.Ετ. (8..177): Ros _ ξ βs : ιoo"Ψ: 10 From Eqn. (W/ L) 6 100 : 2ω x 1"Ι.u"": For a simple current mirrοr the οutput resistance (thus R.18 + Roι Similarly k) K 20 lοg'.20 Referring ιo Fig' 8. (b) For 0.178) l.775 mΑ.129ν Qr 100 μΑ 0.162) R': --2x 2Χ rn V(Ι :20kΩ 2x 'B-: /2)''' 25 mx 160 (0. (8. (10ιl 10) MΩ Ao: 8. (8.(8. %sl: : V..1 :100kΩ (e) Eqn. x A.1.n* ^ Λ'' (w / LΙ3 =)Vονι. (W/L)l*16 =tΟΟ- For Qo.179r l'* 1 .'(Υ)./Ξ-Ο.176): Al : -8'ι Qorl\ 'oo) 0..129ν 50 μΑ 0._--v i Eqn.|| &: Az: -8nοσoul| : -95 V/V %ξ] : 5 MΩ 20 X 500ο: 105V/v i. (t1"/ l _ \ν. (8.V o.:10/0.) . zοo ' Q'Vo-: Γor 50 Q' Ex:8.8 mΑ Al _ G.775 l2o0l| 2ο0) :10MΩ 77'5 .f oι 16ο X .41) (a) Using Eqn.gπ:πe :_-ξ : l'.05:2Ο0kΩ 6o:10/0. : : . values are the same.C. Jιr'*: .. V"r..4Ξ:β.2 8256 v/v lOO.7 :0. Jf) 1]. * μ8 : 0.1 X 20. iltuπ : d t.5) _Ι Ξ- ' l1ρ-π' Ro:152Ω Ι{. Ξ:βs:t00 lιs ibs _ Rt+R2 i.15 + 0.I52) With R. 'u T' Ι)r: - : 10 kΩ and R.:8-513V/V flxιrπrιe 8.'.85 + 0.8 *^-- I .3+0.5 : ξ. then } : i[..1llllμ1 ψ e Ji.8 15.85 V y.1. I ll thus."p. ffi [:JO/0.:0.4V 0. ir.2 + l0 (l + Ο.Ι_] πt ft.t .:- Vourr: V.15 2. 40 Ji L ' I :4943Υlν Ο.7 : 0.r ΙΨl_υι_ ') \{tw/L\t\ 'ι : ...X9ο" .-lV -= _:. mΑ/V Finally. * {i{lllfr * ffi - : . ..0492 15. iυl* i.8879 ιr Thus ιhe oνeralΙ cuπenι gain is: -s! ι| Χ : : l0l 0. . of .5V / Φ_.r--Rs i". .%n.5 [rlllfr a..8) μ.z R\ + R2+ Ri2 'i2:βz:10o _ 40 40 + 5. :Q.5 + (-0.8879 x0. ..L) .3 v '... l {l - Ex 8.r..3 _ 3 + 234.8 : 0..f@_r)) Jl \Λ/ |2.Ot26X 100 55993 Α/Α and ιhe overall vοlιage gain is vo _ v 'a R6 ..Πffi1: * * a' 1.i..) : : Vo": V- .0492 X Χ lOOXo.22 R'=20.26 i_ n0 / 0-8) + ".7:1V Vcιι: -1.ιMllmmr " t ltl- --_ts ]tt{liΙ1 ilil] ιu"]1 s ]ΙrΙrθ$ C-:- {τ ] J0 0.ο5 : 0.8 - '( *.2kdl Α.r...'.s Js *ide as B. \ ._ .01.ιπl Q'.8 Ex:.a. ξ.5 Rι Rr + R. is: ruβ.i"s ir R... Χ 55593 : 20. .7 + 303.: v eVcs.r.t Rs + R.5+1: -0. l I r0 ) 0-38 0. : .5V : Voν ιι |vrrr| : ο. . i1 -i x 90 u ]'ι:tT rΔ.23 Ψ: βr+1:101 ιυs .]x90μΑ Ο.:lω ιυl ..ξ\: . _.' Χ85 I.8.: +2.r'.V. are identical to g. 1i.: 1 Lg1 20'2 A.: ..3 : +1.Εxercise 8-6 ill Ιlh@]: .: 1-i0mV .

'Ι _2:8.ig) r-: Χ 3.:1 ..2ΚLΙz FCψ) 40 x 10-: 2ιτ(0'84 + 0. ^..7 Diffusiοn cοmponent of Cπ _ 10.Cμ Cττ '. 10+0.|l lο X l0.2τx1μX(10+0.6 : lxzοX2O(5-2)2: 2 _25Ω .2 Cpn: 2 x 2Ο : 40 fF Co: Ca.1 Ex:9.Εxercise 9_1 Ex:9.rΞω.5K+5K] fpt = 21'4Ηz fpz f.2H2 ^ *o'ι : : Jτ .w 2ofp :nrF ^ - (**Γ σ δn1 f : 2.47 GHz Εx:9.\Cτ fpι fF o : Ι..45 "' : 3. then: at /.9 f1-fn: 1 3 o δm 2n16n1qμ1 4Ο X 10_] -..rr:@ 6. is proportional tο 19.:72.9 .6 : Vr1.1 A""' : =..45 fF/ μm C6u _ WL6γC.lmΑ :4ΟmA or v vr 25mv - . : 5Υ 'r""(Υ)"(vil'-vιn).72 V/V 9.2 2.012) X 10'12 : 7.1 1+2+1 ο. : IPz 2ιτCr/g'.3 lτ' f e.: fF 4.''t2 -ι 10 Ρeak current occurs Αt V 1 i Peak Ηz ([-l- C aυo Εx:.τ.3. Ex: 9.|2.o16Hz .].84 PF 3 Cno 0.5 : 1ο 2τCrrlRr'+ Ro) : Cga: Csy: l'72fF 2 2ιτC61(R6 * R.45 X 70_3F / m2 -.9.45 + 1.1 - : : Cr' ll Rp) 10 2rwrco"* Cou : ? x ιoX K 1+yΙ9 I :o.'e -V. .7 pF 2: 12.1 M) l | __.7 pF Sinοe C4.6vo 4 Εxz9.7 oF c'π+ιμ: too _ : : 10.'7 12J .:l: J P'\ (t0 + :8Ηz 318 2π1 ψx 1ο) vo Caυ : Γ. : 4ΟΨ +Ιc : 40mX25 kΩ : β+β : m : 1 mΑ lO0 6m pι: .Ro= x Rc + R..]l8Ηz .4 Ccl: Cε: C62: | ψF 8.' of l mA .6 2π'1γι(8K+5K) lh"l |''reΙ Ex:9.Cr'|Rπη+ R"r 1 2π1μ[l00K11 2. -25mV lmΑ ΙF f 24.2πΧlψ/2m .. l8Ο0 Co": "r." : 10X ο'05 X 3'45 ι :172 tF & --fJ-+lο: 50 'f +fτ:5OOMΗz f.8-:zox1Ο 12X40X10 : 0.5 =ΠL"φl 1 fF 0.is A": f ρι g-1R1 l0 .' Χ lο. + Cie: 0.8 pF Ci" .

.4 ''Dc 1+1. then : .(#)) Ιf *" rr A.) ωrwe have +- Kωp1 and ωrr lf ω":0. Αr.ιιll l0ω ('-.9 ωρ1. :r ": I { : Γ. -(#)'] : ωn: L.i" R. ωp1." Κ -1'7 : : (i M) : 3.1... πlu..-_..|Ι R.63.Jο..1+Κ:2..7 \η) > |l' 1 MFΙz l. l. l_.9'z)(1 -. : + (RB + Rsig) :_:.14) ]l{1ι R.(ξF)'] 2- kΩ [. ) (100 ll 5) ('-*χ'-*) : R.11 Using equations 9.. . : 0.65 Κ Ex: 9.9rz. we can wriιe the general form ofthe transfer function ofa direct-cοupled amplifi er as: .t_." {l{ιlfillri]ι}:' * 1{ι |lllιι||ll|lΙ 1.5 + 1ο_3 1Ο3) : l.42ΜΗz 68p .ι = Ili.l2 By definitiοn at ω + 1Χ7.f.-(Ψ)'][..87 pF . 1000 and For this ampl ifier we have: |Htiω"'1|'ι :.M |R5) _:F -8.'Γ't 4. { t 1o5 .1Ο_3XR. 1l]. Cio: 7 + |il.-_.tiil. :'rcn (1 + 1 :68pF + Cμ) =Ιu: 2τ ΦX + 1.-(Ψ)' : 11*(Ψ)' :Ο. . : ΧlΧ7.99 {1 1. πjΙ.Exercise 9-2 rlη : l 87 pF : i. 2+ : 1'O1*(Ψ)' : 0Ο1 + .".65 : 1 . : lO5 Ηz Εx:9.6 is the upper 3dB mΑ/V frequency of the amplifier. where is ιhe DC gain L ιι J 4ι1B of the amplifier and.. then '(Ψd)'] :. π. kΩ ]ψ]]]l R. 8.88 -(Ψ)') : :.14 l0Ο ΚHz Therefore ).s{ : (s) Δ Α. -('#::i')'] +ο.Γι s 2'ιτ . - * Ι ( .78 [.26pF F/1s1 Ψ. Ιn this case we have '-(Ψ)' Κ: 9." : l .61 and 9.05 + "q.(#))('. Α(s) : : 4._-l->1MHz Ι..7 ΜΗz .\4Crxινrl F'Ε *. -(Ψ)') :.r.(#):[..' il Χ AM (1 +0.

..122.({)) : : 1.".. Frοm Exercise (9./ alp2: Κωp1 K: l=lr. Vu: _Ο.38_56 - ]'_:9 \1Ηz V. can be Γοund ftοm the foΙlowing equation: -' '(ff)']ι' (ffi)'l L' Αssuming .296 MΗz .is: ω.' Κ_ωr.R|'R')Cμt kΩ. Ιn this case.9 -9.2R') + \24'2R. theretοre. : ''ιι R. Λi. Using Miller's theorem we haνc . : a s..lr'i JL : inf. the gain-bandwidth pιοduct is: 7.o 10 909 476 4.n V .: ωr' For the case οΙ K . - We haνe μrl οf '.:1Vwehaνe ρ..(#)'lΓ' (#)'l -.23 - ..2 X 18ο ΚHz: 1. ' _ 80'1'4 nscc : + R..6 k{ι -_ ' 324.)2-4Κ] v: 2 -H: ΦρI FοrK: 2a'ι:0.]l R..2 Φg-ωρlrJ. O.4 nsec l : ωll .99 l00Ο0 . Λ.' Ιn this case.> -t ForΚ: Ι+ω.l {'r.4 nsec : (s0. + R'i"'o.is FI' lQ_\! .Εxercise 9_3 Ex: 9.76 4.95 ω". _ " X l80 ΚHz - 2:τ 's... {'r.15 2=) Χ4+1K2+t)Χ2'K2: Ο= 1 Οk() -(K' | ι)+.71 => Rr..1pF Thus 803.(exactvalue) (noιethatinthiscasethezerοs haι.84ω"' 'Γι _tr ωg-ΦρIrJ..8 g.99 9.1.| .f.2 nsec 884. v/V anι|.13 Now we want ιo lind the valυe of R. _ 8Ο. is: lpF kΩ Therοfbre. _ A| Α(v/V) ωr.8 R..1Cgι =.: R'. we haνe R'n .2.n.** O.' ''' - 420 For this value of 420 ι x 1(l() 4> 2.3 FΦ' lμ ilμltrΙ' ΑV' Ri.Q7ιυρr Α.l)x'1l Kr \ K'/ τ lpF Ξ Λ.9 -9." : ^ΓΓz-1 ω.s.R - ].14 lι' Λ/ lΟ8 Xl28.8 kΩ + R.8 nsec "o are at 180 KΗz.' 1 803.84Ξωrr Φρl _ 0.2 - 8ο 8 _ (R'+ Ri'l R. using equatiοn (*).x " Φρt (trx2.1 Cg.'s'"" Αssuming['.16 Ι0ο 99 90 -9 -9 000 9. the apprοximate value of ω.. Ε'. .( ' '\ t*x''l Κ2] wehave rι : 884..l2) we have: -/c' L' ι(.e _ '(:?]'l \ωr2.* : 8O...89ωρl Fοι Κ _ 4.'. the gain-handwidιh prοducl i. .999 -9. | | '|'94)' \ωr'/ _ Γz=(:9iι')' \ωr.7. the exact value - ωg _ ωPl /'Γa ll ν -' : Ex: 9.ηK']l l.: k'r./ .^ and ζ*lkΩ'.R.9 Ο...]:t kΩ 2-23 k{L Λ'. the exact value of ω. F- I a" .99 -9.64ωn.. the apprοximate νalue of ω.. + 323./ (9tι)']Γl \ι.(ν) VJVrιe (γ) t \ΙHz ξ(mV) : 128.: 10.3 ΚΗz. We haνe: T{'\_ τ_ (4 Ο. result Γ' . R.: z c: ' l_: 'rr' ω ) we _-]- |.3 MΗz -z- 1Χo*[r.2"f 80.2νlν Ex: 9.

^-mA v -'Φ ll''|. .) .d.3 l kΩ (c) Using the method of open-circuit time constants.* 4.3 kΩ K .25)]10 + f'zf": 250 MΗz f.. .5 25oΜl]z Ex: 9.Ri)R"1.19 Au: ^ ..lrl approximation of i.93 and assuming..25 A/A we have: f im "'li tlltl fl x{r1r rι'e have .2. from equatiοn (9. |l (R. + RL] + CLR.Ril 5 (4ox 36+0.. + Cgd( + 8^RL)]R"ιε+ (CL+ Cg1)R.: R. : ' ττnected at the output -rr Using equation 9.onp.nR'".5kΩ '4 |A'l : 8^.:36kΩ 1 lmA ..5 : 6. .RL) : 16 pF + 0. ιQ llΙΙlΙιιΙ:|!gil:Ξ 1__ in example bv 4 reduces x 250 : 1.. = ].ls'. + r. _ l75 y V -v.. R.' .'.Εxercise 9_4 :: solution of ExampΙe -=::ι-mined by the exact ._e >ι._ξ{5)]. .5νlΥ TiriΙΙl:_λ jdth product (f.-]. || rorn.)l f":+:82.]]ιlπtl.1:l ''' .r. 2τCinlr. ]]-r= 1.) is: = -" CHz :l : :ι..F_ ] Ε : n f 2'ττ[[2o f ιΙ : +5 f(l : 6. : : .v B 20C) r_ " 8' 4ΟηΔ .56GΗz Ve.ιlπ* . + r.opnp : 130 kΩ |l sο ιο R.n: Cn+cμ(1 +c.} f .6kΗz (36 + 0.97) we haνe: rn ζττ-rr(e. : .3 pF(1 + 4Ο X 36) : C'" : 448 pF .4GΗz ηr'*πed b} r^-^^: 'οnρn = .R.._ nsy A.25 + 5) f Χ 2. || 1R.)RLl *.lmin .2) x 2lτ 448 pF Ι5 η ll - 448 pF 4." n]5 .1 00) we have: τ1 : CoR'"rr+ Cμ[(1 + g. _ 36 kΩ We haγe R.ιuιion of Example . GΗzandf.5 x2.25Υlν f' :fo. 1 - l3OV:130kΩ lmΑ r :lvoλ:50V . (b) Using Miller's theorem we have: C.onpn ll .^mΑ δm VT 25mV '.=|ι'1' fπ : j]:i:::'ιare iΙmΙrΙ llΙ _':en a: 2π{|Cr.2+5 36 kΩ) - and Vuuby 2 .4ι.e + (CL+ Cs.R'ι -.10K .}1 l'._lXI0Κ:2._skΩ v (a) From equation (9.:5 X lο : -12.znc.1 6.lι K + (25 + 6.npnr'-Ι7l -lrA -soκιl R.

thνs f" .a[(r * Ψ)o. g-'Rr)R'1. * (Cr. r.1) Therefore.20 Referring to the sοlution of Examp1e 9..5 iπx10kΩX2GΗz +Cι':94.20'8 we have: To 2πτμ η4 40 I v f z: 2τC".75 K + (5 f + 15 f) X 179'5 τa : 0.) : -g'1Rtll rs) R. since |Αr| Ξι.1)R'ι |A"Ι /tpd __ '_----------:a 2τR}'f7 12.*4:t*+(*.. -..C. O'25 * Cra[(l (cL+ cd)RL ro + thatdo not Cr.a : 5 fF cι R*1": 10kΩ'Rι:20kΩ' ι : l *.xι 9.. + R1Ι Rl : .ro)' ro : 8^ι : 8^ ro(2 + 8ι1ro) g*2: :42ro : -g.1 * C)' Rgι : 20 f x6.135 ns + 3'59 ns : 3'72 ns (cL+ c)R'L Since$r <<f. ^ lΑ.1 : 50O Kll 2s0 K τ1 : Cr.l T Cε. also Cra 8n/(2'ιτCrι) ':C'!^C'o Cεa %/Lτrcr+ Cr)1 Εxz9'22 rο b)f. : fοι : : -g".l 2ιτ(Cγ+ Cr.'J : 4o since Cra : 0.CL + Cμ) + C. - : :6'75 kΩ + Av σ t: K 42'7 ΝΛΗz 1 Ex:9.(Rrll 0 5ΟO 216 + ExamPle 9.3 pF I 8.' + -20 : : R"lg 2 τ.C*1R"igRι : 25. T' 280 a) Lo\ν-Γrequency gain Aγ'' g.: : C"..5 fF F.25 mΑ/V .1ο2).n.ro40. Au Since: Rt: ro-+ to place remains the same as that of the example' we need f'.foι Rsiε 1l R.R.nε __ _ 4o ucs τ.1 : Cr.r: _"' h.l* +(Cι ι Cμ)Rι 2τ LC.Αmplif ier'.* CS Ex: 9. *. andfp1 << fρ. and g'rs where: kΩ ' and from Κ R.115 x 75'l kΗz l.' + R. 5Ψ.1MΗz :'.ι [. K ΑmpΙifier: where ' Rι : I : -)(g. (9'1ο3)' and R.2v \ : 179'5 kΩ R3.l0 ι.12: g'o : 1. -- ic*it + g.τΞ.: Neglect compοnents of C r.rοz * sincerr.25 Cr.'Rr.l kΗz 2τ|C " + (same as in Eq.(42rsll tr) " -8'' : -40 v/v Αy.iε 2l . 6m δm'o _ -75.Eπαtixe e-5 Thus: τn : 16X 4.l1 we haνe .R.f .1Rrlt| CS ...8 5οοΚ .rol : include Rri*.π: Thus.2J R6 -5 XfF we know that: J 2O'8 9.Ι]5 X ]ο kΩ (9'104) (d) Using equatiοns (9.oll '.1 2) .1* +fρι : 75. : 20 ff'C.'nsc.' at 2 GΗz 2Gtlz:1r:lAvl'fn 11 (8^r)' R".(.Rι)lR. = 1 5'1 13'1 : -_ 16.3 + O.2 ΜΙ1z f oι (e)f'::|AM|fΗ -.' Rsig + c. : fF' 15 .l f.2l l For a CS amplifier fed with R'ie and 2π(C 1+ Aν CΑscoDE Av: : -Sn. _ 2Ο kΩ ' 16) -lx4o: -2ovlv roι * (8'nz'roz)rol roand (g.lkΗz 20. {^- l IC"' Cu(l ι8. : . + K 10 /ρ : τ. : 2 9 τll : C." Rra : Rι 1l Ro Ro : ro1 R. Rr: A o δfr J.2πΟ. : |A"I ' /r. : τ. : : ΚHz MΗz Ι3.ΑmρΙffier L-c.)1R.2Gt1z fpι = 1_ οbtaini: Rr.3t(1 + 4ο X 36)4'3 +5 x 36 τn : - 36] R'" 2'72 nsec | f. ll Ro roa R._20V/ν : fol : : 216i roand : (g. Ι:1 _5 XfF 12.< f ..ιε 1Ο 1τγC"+ cμ(1 Ξfil:75'1 fpz:' [c.iε ll R. δm f 2Ο Κ: 2so + Aν fF 9.135 ns + 3'59 ns Thus.i 2O's (g^r)' R"i.C*lR"igRι 25'2 ΜHz f since$ l .21 For a CS amp1ifier fed with R"'. Since: Rt: ro-+ ' Au :6'75 kΩ C)' Rgι (Cr. *d p ι"lf.ι = 7 5'7'ΚΙ7z x 75'1 kΗz : 13'1 MΗz 13. Rt : 20 kΩ ' ι .R.5 and : τa : :0 σ 2π(C 1+ .R.q.1MΗz tο plaοe remains thΘ same as that of the example' f.=: l6'2V cUl' -R. |C"('CL + cμ) + C..5 τ.ro)' 16 gn2: 8^ι : 8' ro(2 + ζn{o) :42rο : -g-(42r9ll . : - CS . * sincerr.' since C.Eιιτtise Φ_5 (9'104) (d) Using equations (9. 1 2π f n7 : + 8.)]R.7 -8'' 0'25 C* Cs"' Rrιg * Cgal(l + + (C wheτe: c.iR. οbtaini: : Rr.3 + Ο.tR.'J : 4o . + (same as in Eq. : |A"| ' /.. at 2 GHz we need 2GΗz : 1r: : +Cr: F.' R1)R'1* + R11 + C..5ΟοΚ n'" : ττ{'τo l25. Ι.12) 1 Kll \' : '. : ξ R.1kΗz fρι: v 1 ι8."L - : R. l0 + 2ο'8 we have: Tο Thus: τ" : 16X +5 x 36 : τn 4.=|Aιι|fa: l : t << |'Ι5 foz.ξLιινRJ ' Τ 179'5 0.nzrοz)rol ' Crι Ctsd)l L=Crrr-!t:lfg T .rol cΑScoDE Αmplifier: Au : -g*(Rrll R.3t(1 + 4ο X 36)4'_] _ 36] 2'12 nsec 1 t': JH 2ττμ- -75. 9.AmpΙifier g'/|2τ(C1l Εxι 9-22 Rl.ι.1 + Ex:9.)R'L R.f.'Rr.20 Referring to the sοlution of Example 9.12: 1. : 20 C_*.lxao._ : ..ro40: Rt: rο b) C r.= : 20. Au: -g.C.r) : -40 v/v Αycnscιr.1) f : .Amplif \er'.a || 2' Z(8.1 /g : ππ : kΩ 3'72 ns _." R.. -L 2τR''" f .1 ' i"' '. R. since |Αr| =C. : Neglect τΗ : components of Cμ : = τ.23 a) Lo\ry-Γrequency Au'.t we know that: J 50Ο Κ CS Ex: 9.. g'.a : 5 fF Cι : 15 fF' 10 kΩ.f n lA^. _-2|.'ι. : _4o : z Αrcs -2o /. : K 280 f X 6.jg + (C1+ C*)Rι kΗz + Cμ(l + 8.r : Ro : Rr.lΓ(l * o'25 Cr and g'nrs Ψ)o.n g. + Cμ)R. - Kll τll : Cn.3 pF : R..l 2τ(Cι+ C*t\R'ι |Aυι|.i_*: also Therefore.:20k{ι' rρ) -.)]R. g. : ..'xι lΑ.1) Example 9.ig + (C.42'1ΜΗz gain 2._ 2τC " fz ηΔ 40 2π 0. .75 K + (5 f + 15 f) X 179'5κ include R. ro that do not g.l1 we have /. tνs fa . l .lε + C.) : -g''(R6ll rs) where R.f1. / \2πC Cri ".25 l 5ΟΟ kΩ ' cra Re and from mA/V 'r.c"' ".102)' (9'103)' and ff.vτoτ{|xτGΗ' 94.o1| Ξ τa : Cr.2GHz : R. o. : toz Ι roι * (S.8 kΩ Rt __ 5Ψ. .

1 26ΝqΩ 1l : !59 ns.[_..ie)= R'..5 Compared tο the CE amplifier in Exercise 9.l !r[ηl rη] " *..t 'il s* u-l _ 0] kΩ .t Rρ1 .r*(l *g*rRo)*Ro. i 16 ι:-. pf : Rιl| .2-5 X lο O.. . 5.6 kΩ τn : Coι 'Rot * Cr1 .Jll To ca1culatefi \. -- :10K 20 Kι| 2ο K FromEq. : 0.8' .: 2'τττ" -469KΗz 2π X J39 ns f.3 p X 10.l + l. 2π 20 r : R.t+ll L \'r.6 p +0 +0..ig : 10 K R.Rμr * (C".in*R'ι n ^'"-- R*7 : 1ll-f. has increased from 113..4 kΩ 5 Kl|(0.. t11 : 130 K|l 35 Ω:35 Ω Rr1 : R'. :.(s0 Kll 26 M) 0...4Κ+ x 3s + (5 τ.".25 X l0 : 8^R't 4.30 we have: : r'||(r'ι* R.1 Τo increase/.4 K + ο. X 21 X Rsie tψ...ig : 4'4 kΩ R.ig teιms that do πιuψΙtyΙ::l'Ξ τhe ]]xlx1 * i. .::' C. |.z) (Rr lι Ro) pX K+ 10.t : R'. *.l.γe use the method of open-circuit time constants.ιiion of ]Ιτ€ - ν / V ..3 p)(50 Kll (0 + 16 p) 26 M) 339 ns | t. |Α"| hasincreasedfrοm 175 242 \'ι_.19._) ιι MΗz 113.5 MΗz 1 3.9.Exercise 9-6 .2 + 36) R'. From Figure 9.ι)] il2r ' : Roι 8-ro roιll R. Rr1 : 1Ο.25m 8' Ι Jτ_ (20f+5η r"("J%) :8GΗz 1.3 + C..93 l .25m-locHz r_= 2τr Cr.) ι.(' -Ψ)) .ig : 4. =|l'"1'f n : 242Χ469ΚΗz -i*(ωr. to 1 MΗz we need: π::r_iner considered in .R. RoΙ + (C L + Ccsi + Cμr) τ' : 16px 4.δ.ιl ΖrΙ + C. l.48 kΩ lOΚ llοΚ l-125Χlο y v .2kΩ :52ΟΟv/v 1_ :{] : tQ + i:kΩ: β..6 K + 16 p (cL+ : Εx:9.fi V/V to ΚΗz to MΗz to has increased from 75.. [.--'. thus 4..3 1.o.4 R'ι : x 35 159 n.-:T1-\ -' : "" R. 1 = px + .l.1i11.121 wehave: -iK ]|]ο =J. ' ''' l-l g'R'.".1 469 ΚΗz andf.25 p).

: 2ιτC r_ '' -"β+Ι 6nι 2ιι(C' + Cψ) ιμ 2π Χ β+1 2τC.s 1.|rd | ιrr.Exercise 9-7 - R. - -2pF 400 ΜΗz 14PF : ThusF.il (.5 ns : 2.igll ['" + (β + l)R'ι] R'siε R.96 ns * 0.) R'"is + (β + 1)[r" + (r" || R1)] and r β+Ι : R.: n 2ττ" Εxι 9. ooΨ τπ. : Q'J ns' * 1. : 1 kΩ + 0. - 5 ps τH associated with Cr.Iι R.9.96 ns fn: Ι/(2τx 2.η .ι :20 K ι : R.26 r.1 2.) + R'11 R'L thus.= 1. Assume r.4 mA .106) JΗ )n(Cr+Cr.. we haνe: weknοw .f " _ !_ιρq9. 9.||r.2 (b) Aa : S. 0. : tou V 0. csl[R.. 1. 'M 2τ x 9lp - R'. flnd To - Rιll R. when R"'* is low: {-t (Eq.] .1 kΩ " :Ι.5 Κ 4.lmΑ -40mΑ/V δm Vτ 25mV in this οase Rs J .2 (c) For a CS amplilier.1 + ο.1 kΩlιlΟ0 kΩ _ 0'99 kΩ Rμ 1Ο1 q"R) -...Rcιx Ct _ 50 : : Rμ o.09 : "π kΩll ιz.0. : ^8r: L" C.74 kΩ X l5 fF -11 : Ι- kΩ X τ.-51Ω : we have o . and C.85) zτΓτ H wlψι' ro from Eq.5 R.2τrcu.1 kΩ R'1 : R. we have: 459 ΜΗz : R'..CL The percentage contribution of time constants to : 1..Ι .99 2.:1 rH where 100 Ω =G -ο.27 (a)Voν !!xιοο:ιzqo 'ι kΩ we have: f = 337o'' + (1ο0 + 1)Ο.- .":5 Kιl 1OO fF + CDB ιhus.r.5K 1.: + R" R'.ig * Γ.( I ] g.96ns) _ 53''7Μl1z "' .8m .5kΩ l mΑ / - c. : JH 2π1 ll0f l 50 : | K: 110 tοf) X4.: /. 84: e' cr"'R. I + cL. : τ8' : τr.lc (β + 1)(r.50kΩ =Aa-4m(5Κl| 5ο Κ): l8.ι *) Rμ 20 K ιl 8ο0 P : fF : Rgax Crι : 10 R8' X Cr.. we have: that noting r:' - l.(R. are: 9t x tο0 30 9l 55Ψo'' x l0O 91 I | r.2γ 0.965yv .) where Vo 20ν ' : (Ι / 2) .75GHz :-βVτ -|00x25mV-2.55ΜΗz " : Ι (]η/ / L)η .1 we have: kΩ τcι -..48 kΩ x 20 fF -30ps 0. ο.5 ''l+--t-.5 kΩ fF :2q5MΗz Using the open-circuit time-constants method for R" : Ι0 kΩ (d) .R'.._.74 τ.1 J ' rtcJ" 1. Cr.5 K] + (1Ο0f+1Οf)X4.ig * Γ.τr:50fX10K+"' 1o ftlΟ K(1 + 4 m X 4. andC.+mΔ Vr g.99 1 ο. s!ts " Εx:9.:=βl' " lπL -r.99] R'rl*'R'ι 'lτ---' re rτ 50 ps 9l ps lH . ll r.5 K) + 4.)R'ι' R't: Rο1| : . ..

1531to (9.5 K + 5 f X 235 K + 5 f 1. ^ 2τC"R.R. : K MHz 15.\1Ηz ..Χ R'.] \'Ι Rr..^ /o' : 2\ 10 + 10 i /c .:. !-e- K ---lH-τ---:6l r"2) 1( R'.ig(1 + g.l[R. r-1J :r . .n 11. 1+2Χ#Λ a lοaded bipolar differential .157) we have: Ετ:9.5 mΑ i'o 2Υ _ X 1ο9 1O9 #-: 15 MΗz-1. _ 2_ 3r.l Γn -.31 :-'1pFX(2ο0Kl| -'..:inant pοle is set by the output lοad 1 ] f(10..5 Ει: 9.':r . _ 20Kl| 6ΟK:15kΩ Rr7 _ R.R'L) + R'. we have: -dιh product is: :.= (βι * 7)(r"' * 200Κ)Ω we haνe: .n Κ) MΗz Ex:9.=... ^l Jr! tρz: . _j-_: 1 .υ-μ 'J 2 ^' BτΗ _ CgrRg.9 Rc. 1 -.2r' :2PV' .5kΩ R.*R.)('-.'..1ifier: t * Rs R. the transfer function οf ιhis CC-CB amplifier is: AM Α(s) : lΑιsll lΔ .4ΜΗz V γ 2_ ^A 3V 2'ιτΧ2pFx10K -8MΗz Therefore.π) Α(s)l2 '-)"'Η - A'" 2 '. : -g'(R''|| -+X(2οkΩ|l :: :s l v 2οkΩ) _roγ - using the method of open-circuit .r" and β.46nS+/E GBP v/v 2Οο0 : τn 1xzο!4X2οΟkΩ _ Rs 2 Ο. 1.n Ξ ('* #*..l GΗz ::iπ. : 2 = l kΩΞRn.2ΜΗz lTΓ'Γ g : -..* - r") 10 K] lι" lll :. : 235 kΩ R'ι: Css ' Rs.9.:βr:βwehave Rin : ..ig(l + G.+ Cga'Rrι* CrR'ι mΑ/V :20 10Οv :200kΩ Ι'2 . Rιll R.5 vr R'ie * Rs - 1*g.lr 1] ρ we haνe: f pt: .0.R'ι) + R''] :ηΚ+5 f[20 K(l +20)+ " o v.= + 2\R.'f I Ι :R'ie * o : mΑ 25 mV ''2 20 :lO.8a) ' 'ξ':Ξ + C3.5οy v.ll 2r -) ftt + 2 pF)(1o K |1 1O '1Ψ K) -6.4 p)2.8 MΗz itι 1ο _ X .. .Rr"#o.10 kΩ ΙC 1 Ri.."(7 + c*){n.22GΙΙz ]eseneΙation of )*...τ.Exercise 9-8 Using Eq (9.ω Since in this case fe| : Γ"2 -.29 For . : |μ) or ' '() ._-.28 ' 2τ' 2τ ' (0.=)]*.8.Ο.]:-:-S ιι'e can employ Eq (9..1 : R.-Rι _ p_ :*2x2o -: 'l ... -! :60kΩ _.

s) ooΨ znJ.3 mΑ/V ^ Cr__Ψ-4. I ri..2Kx258p 280 KΗz . 2ρ :14pF Cnq:2PF+ 14PF+2PF(l +40x3) 0. Tο obtain Ceq 1 .3 Req Rιs Examp|e 8.)l'...2oΜΗz 2π-X 4.6 mΑ 2ιτx2 ξ' _-Ξ. ("&$$'.&\-. .rR.. Using the approximate formula. Rrs Ιrq J 1 _ 48 ΜΗz _ 2ιτx2. .33 To obtain Req: Thus: A... G.Γrοm ι'c 20kΩ _2525 Ω Thus. (9.2 _ : 8nι(.4 : lοl Χ2imy lmΑ : C"z* Cns + cμ5(1 C*z:Cns:2PF fL. G'z : 2zτ-C2 1| 2525 lmA 25 mV T * Cμs : _ 0.2 kΩ * S. ll r"' r. 4Οm 2πx 400 m thus. 9.'.6ΜHz l-+- 162 0. ιzof \' tznf 'f) 'l')(.s-(β' ιιlΨ_ Is fn .^'-uo _mΑ 1. /V ρF : 2.nl'z -4OOk() Cnq Εxl.' : 9. = 0'6 mA/V .1 _ -5MΗz thus.^t.25 Sοlving this equation fοr/ρ we have: -L /l Rrll l00ν .-^.32 From Eq (9. (9. l78) G'ι : .) [ΙtΞ : Req At" :258 pF Finally." (.8 pF : K : Ιs v * Cns : Frοm Εqn. for} _ 10 MΗz: 2τrXlΟΧ10'' 'Ι - _+ :'-------= lτΓ' L 1 Un. t R2 ' .Exercise 9-9 Ex: 9.Γ. From Eqn.6 mΑ/V [.7 : o-::δr\ mΑ/V 0.1'73) Gurz 20 K || 400 -R: :3 kΩ Cn5 ο.J\ fλ.1p .8pF .177) 1.4. we have: il. Ι _:4 Ar Α ι0 ' Ex: 10.MΨο ofzt1 : : 4O dB the amplifier by its small signal modeΙ 9.9V ] ]Γl μ ]i ψ r- 20%: 80 : _ . *B-Vc.01Υ 1.7561 l = 0.z (1 V.001 V 10' X Ο.: _ 0.09x10:Ο.fnr: fn\+ Αβ): 1x7 :7kΡ..1 V and Vn. ιhe larsest close-loοp gain ril':i-:] -{ : 1000V/v 1!Ο0:10v/v l|lltιtll]l* )' ιιτ:l:ljfiers are cascaded: !' lLlηιι: lιιΙlιlπi ιlli. + Rr * RD butR2 + Rι >> Ro R2 + Rι + RD +Vo-( ε..''*' grounded: : 10 which rIilllμ ]ilΙ ...0O9v _ Ξ Ξ:0.β 1 ηu -πl:ψ-:: ιlf feed-back is: πιLl = _ 1lΙ x 0..1 - il':l l !' * --__ .Ys -*tuo Rr+R2 -R2 + Rt .ψ*. : ' Vo : . ._ . 11.09 : 10 which is 2OdB = .!r .Vo)β : #t Vo V..β:10_] Ex:10.\:lo -..3Ψο maximum Feed-back factor: β= and 2+\ιf ClοsedJοop A.ΟΙ ''- _-. x {(Rr + Rr) ll Rr} (R2J Rr)Rp q v = or'r'\ R. -3 .99 + 0. Open-loop gain: without R2 and R.:v 1i "'il Ao-60o0. .illl .i '*ψA: 4l=Ο.-i-J#) : -g^Vr'Rυ -Vr": Vr-vt .0099 animprovementof 20 lοg(ΙΟ0/1) b' V'r + Vnf + 1 : .Exercise 10-l .'.V.] 1_ ΙΦV/VandΑ/:lo3 Ι_l _ I AJ Α IOr -.AtVt: lOx I : IOV l:lj 1.100/ Ex: 10..οΙ llΙlΙ. xn6Φ:1oΨο _ l: V6: -g'Vr"ΧRo Vr.l .: -Vt+A: ga1Λ : Af B^Ro #τ .l. :0..1 '.6 Replacing V/V 0.09 .1 vo 10 4ll. .'. : AtA..' Αlι : : 1000 V/V .. V".]n.l . *. 1]]l"_ :1ωv/vandΑr:19γ7γ .. New SΛri ratiο ..4 For ΕxampΙe I lΟΟ Ξι_ tlr[ llιiι]ll_-:1 . 1lll1ι]iliJ:'' i ll π - a__rj l I+ ΑιL.' A' : A|A2β V"1 + Aιπ (l Xl00)Xys lxvn .5 3:-=--1:10. : 10 V * = 9x1Ο ax10: Ο. = 1 ''\.Ι r (l00X Ι)X l Ι l J (ΙΟοX l)Χ l Thus. il-η iη!i]:T1:ses +Αβ):(1 +(6X1O3)X10_31 :7 .--ξ61 -+2..ιr.'x9X104 '. ang the gate -rr : :etd-baCk iS: tl = --.: -a_ l lο4 r11111 i: '-1'.11 ι 8.. -Rε l*& RM Ιoop gain if loop-gain Ι A. +Vo-c. * R) & >>1 :l*&RΙ Ex: 10.nz'Ιvs-vf} : Aιζ.1*. R.t - .: j 1+βΑ Ιf Αβ >> 1 * RrA..Vp >> .rRo thus: Α. t2 1 Ex: 10.4'β ' "': 8'Ro I * g-RpR1l(Rr + R2) Ι +(8.1 -RF \ if Α >> ^η . that: is ιhe οpen- ζ'. Aη & .Εxercise 10-2 β:i V. : Vs.8 The equivatent small-signal model for Fig 10..#r*".| ι RrA.r*' vo 1 and Α A t R-u.... and 7r.rR.ty.1 Is (l*1*& o.:vo: ' V.Ιo'Rr-# . &.10 b) is: Vo: _ΑV. -+t.g'.--+v' Ι' : Ιs: Ι.2) : AιS.(A'V ') -+ A AtVt : 'i.2 we know 4.ΙοRr} + Ιo( l RrArg.=V' Ιn _ '1nzVg. : vo i v'-_ τ:. >} n'^ 1 and Aι8'z ηi.Ro _Rι+R2 g-RoRJ(R.vo _ -vo_vo 'f .-J.t . | Ι.: : I iΑR.. . {l + : #*} v.#ξ} & v.n. if ..nz'Vs Aι8'z Ιo ι ' _ ys .RοVs Closed-lοop gain: Thus tr. vo -1. ..-8':R3 where g.g'2 which is the Same '''ι A asΑ.7 Frοm Example 10.11 b) ##R") (. 1' (1) + (2): open-loop gωn: : -vnl & V.g'. andV.. 1) -'oιΑR.z{Vs.( 1 .R.Rp)'Rr /(Rl +R2) g. >> Rr =tr1*+-tandAr--Ro A ARi. : Ι6 _ A1gn2V. : 9 Ι n : g'.t _..RΙ= β -ιo 8. v.ff) vo = lr * \ -AVι RMl Ex: 10. V.) ΑR. = Aβ >> - 1 '-9 S^zRo 1+& RM Ιo: Aιi.9 The equivalent small-signal circuit fbr Fig 10. Εxercise 1Ο_3 : Rl,ν 1 Rnr: :103 - to3lxlo-31:7 {6 Χ w = ,-0 : 201 - 10 : 191 R,): : 1':: : =ξ: 9.57 ! + Αβ 19.1 l8.8Ω Ω Ex: 10.L2 The feed-back network is composed οf the voΙtage-driver resistors R1 and R2 a) The loading effect of ιhe feed-back netwοrk at rnΑ rx20 - Rs : (R",,, lΙ + Ror, _ {β) _ 1x7 :7kLΙz R,y theinputis: * 0.7ν R, ll R, b) The loading effect of the feed-back network at the output Ι : 5οΩ, r"3 : 5Ω is: R, * R, A circuit The is: Rt ιιR2 I "'qυilψ'-"x N'o 9K For the CG amplifier: A Φ To - l)(r", * r"r) - ': _ζ0) + (1ιl I R, ll 9) : 21 o P -Vo - τ - RJ& A,: _-1//V i*, ''A'= Substiιuιing: ' ^, t, obtain β: Ro . ' 20 l:rεlιl ρr+lJ ι 8-[Rο|| 1n' + nr)1 V/V = 85.7 l : 1+Αβ ' 8.Rο ,,Rr(l i g,R,) .Rr + R2 + if Rr + R2 >> R, we obtain the same result as in Exercise 10.6 From ιhe Α circuiι: vl, Ri - |/g.=R'n _ -j-(lr Αβ) 1 6n I _ il, - - 85'7 r=.:, I + 85.7 x 0.1 *{ 21Χ9.57 : 201 kΩ g.96v / v : Rυ Ιl (R, + Rr) + Rnu, _ (Rp ll R1 + R2) 1+Αβ Exercise 10-4 Ex:10.15 Ex: 10.13 Referring to examPle 10.5 l ,-2OOΩ 5XlOr λ'-1=:R.: "r '''-Rε Af w A ιζ,nz - Rrn 1 -f Atg^rRt 20ox2x 1ο : 1+200x2x10'-3x200 3 : 4.94 mA/V Ri, + RF + (Arg.rRt)R,,1 :1O0 K + 2oO + (2Φ x2X 10-3 X 2Oο)' lOο K :8.1 MΩ Feed-back network: Since rρ2 >> Rr, i.e 20 Κ >> 2Ο0 Rou, - ,oz(1 : 'l Atg*rRp) K (1 + 20ΟX 2 X ΙO_3 X 2Οο) :1.62 MΩ lf g',r: lmA-+ Ar: 4'818 mΑ/V ΔAr _ 4.878 4.94 : - |.25Ψe AJ 4.94 Ex: R-' ' Rει l0.l4 β _ ,;iτr,. no A" ''J -'ov Ι __ lOΟmΑ/V ' '' and w:ith vo v Α/ = l0Ο mΑ/V - -1ΟOmΧ600 ,s (b) A, =\ '-β Jβ - lO: *ξ#--+R.: _ -6Οv/v Ιr - -| ^ oη_ *' (a)if Αβ >> l ΞAr - ,_o, i v 8OOΩ A-circuit: o Vr, : : - s.v ll Ro) - ano ,,(r, Ir(Rs ll Rr) v _ -(Rs =1,: -! /.s .A Δ:''F 1+Αβ RF)8,(ro lι RF) Rr)g.(r, ll Rr) t * (i, ll Ro)g.(r, 1l RF)/R, -(Rs This figure is for 10-15(b) ξ* s |1 11 Exercise 10-5 rrmffiδlll li11r |lftlth;πlllιrru ιlL1tL l; nt -:: _:: 'm''' ''" =- ι-:sed = in Example lO.7 1+Αβ Ri: Rs ll n.: Ro: ,o |l r. : ]]ll11ι]ii m ιiliii ]]m,'Φ β : -1/RF _ -|/10 K: -O.1 mΑ/V Αβ: -3ο.3X-Ο.1 :3.O3 _ _3.03 Κ - _7._52 kΩ Ar ' Ιt,4β -Δ- ]]]];,,", ',{}- 'υ_nll -'-"_Λ. j / - liil{itι Ι, i ,R F --, ll - r μ p ,.F. =; ;_ ilil1111 Ri. "' __ Ι13.o3 1 |l rO:9O9Ω 20 |l 1O _ 6.67kΩ __--_-]qξ- Ιl-5m(2Οκ|| lok1 - 2g1 t' : φ2 :225.6lι " - -Jιl+Αβ 4.03 jι__ 6.?l Κ R,,, - _ - I.66 kΩ ''' l+Αβ 4.O3 R,, R,,,,, {itlll{i - 20 K K lΙ', _|Ο l-5.ιlκΓττ= I'66kΩ μ: 1ω Rs_-ror:1KΩRl:ΙΟKΩ Rz:9ΟkΩg.:5mA/V ro: 20kΩ Ex:Ι0.16 ]Ιlll1] ,;l] RF _ -; 1-μ 1il1 ReΓer to Example 10.8: i :illl]]|' Ri :]_,-:: _led in ExampΙe 10.7 jΑΒ rilll' ;RR oo j ._,ll n-l ο' 1ιlil{i i R.) if we call ,L llll 'r ilil rl R. rillll & ll : Κ, 10Ο A: _μ.=jL: 'R, ll R, - -l0O. 1ο-lΙ η : -1.1t X 103 Α/Α β : -ο.1 Α/Α, unchanged Αβ : 111 _ι.llΙ.lor : _9.9l Α,J Α/Α ι + 1I1 *,": ff:9OOΩ Rο : 900 KΩ, unchanged Ru,, : (1 + 11Ι).9ΟοK : μ 111 Ex:10.17 Ιf xωlf! ,', * !-: ι:JR.: t. ω f, ' A11 = 1,= Rl+R2 : -, if Αβ >> 1 -+ idea1 R;:Rsi| π,, ll R, :ω|| ω|| Rι:Rι Ro K A,:-|:1ΑlA 20 kΩ η,]Ο Rl : Ο=+β: 1οO of Ι o is fed-back. :+ j- R. R.) - unchanged |l 10 K) : roz+ (R, il o) * g,ror(R,ll o) -- ,o, Replacing R, for 0 in Eq 10.69 . ωρz : 106 : 0 radls : .f RS _l ω-+R'n I -Rr Since \l '.'. .RI Thus Φ I T--J R.008 ( l lΟO1 : Ex: 10. ωpl 4(1 + Α..5m\2ΟK/lΚ 11Ρ 20 K .-..5 -_l.i .. 9.:2 no .18 Small-signal equivalent circuit: -V 8..22 Frοm Eq.v _'. ro LR.ooι. Frffiο 10.lωll()- : ^β : =Oιεο lΑβl : 1:β"... ^ .1 ra'j ωι8()' 0. V.: "lι Ri" : 1 } Rr Εx : t0.q6ν\ .".. η _. ) ωrr)2 - Using Αo : 10O.01 : : .4(1 + 10Ο β) X 1Οl0 0 l+tooβ _ (1.. t_R.β) ωr1ω"2 : 10a.19 .'/l0j) : ..Exercise 1Ο_6 . oβ_ffi 4mΧl0K For clοsed loοp gain lK ( ).20 A( 'iω) μ8.F8'rrr'RI R".β l l0ο -t lO0 X ο..'Rr l.5 _ι4 __ ll lΟ.'nr'R1 ΛΙ To obtain Rin: R' l+Αβ o. lΟ Κ ' l Κ as compared ω 3._R' =' ='R. _ .39 οbtained in Example : l tΑ(lωιε")l : * (. 1 '6 x lO' Αmplifierstableif lΑβl < 1 at 1^ μg.O.03 οbtained in Εxercise t Cοτresponding gain is .. A_ o -xr βS. - When Ex: 10.'RI Λ Τ. 10'92 Ρoles wi1l cοincide when (ωr. β : + Α''β 10Ο'1l:Η: 1 _ lΟ 10'(lοOl) Η- Εxz 10.77: ΞsF' . μg.ο1)'?Xl0Οi4 Ξ β : 0'245 Corresponding Q : 0'5 : 010'7 and Formaximally flatresponse Q r---------.r. 8." Fi-10.+ l0 (1O1+ 1ο6)2 . l J(l r l00β)X lυ =β . " 10' l5 A _ τ' Λ.Φ : 18Ο + tan (ω'r..g R.(. R..μR. Rr: : At .. /ιΟ\' l --_------ : -3 tan-ι(ωz l04) 1(ω.i_ μ'3''.6fl \t κ ll |/4ml = r _ / (l ιΛ^F): 'rf 1 0'4 Cοmpaιed tο 17. 1_--ε. rn .. Αβ Λι Ξ-.. y...' :'' 1001 t00X l.n -_ l / μg.*.F)')"' _ 1+105XΟ. >> '. ''o': 1 .: -_--τ r.Ι v' .Ri:_β8-Rι o1 -l-l'8.2'RD2 ρr.ι./104) + ll σ _ β.ι +Αr9): 'f . F RΙ lι l/8.rοκ:l6.r^.21 Pole is shitted by factοr o.\ _ ΑΒ-_ ''Y rrtR. n.f . 60 40 A:A^-20 dΒ 20 -40 0 = :1 .rhle when ιut'ψrτtrβ:β".Exercise 10-7 ruMmm i:. -'-5β''l' u:'"s-.:. Frequencγ οf 2nd oοle -1οX1Ο6 1o4 : e. .9-r : tD il rS = r. 1Hz complex pοles Rate of cΙosure : 20 dΒ/dec Εx:.' 1O0β) 201ο9lAl : 9 1Ο0 1o. .01 _ --::l t" ]1fr rtflillil = _ 71 1ιffi11]1"l{r 1|i''' --9Ο' !.fp τ .t =.π :'fο:100Hz ιjJ _ 'Ι ΓN .10.. Cn"* : Co1a Χ 10o0 .-! = .707 r'-20 80 lt00 . / dB 201og(1/lBl) \ llιiιlΙlΓ 0dB :t]:lΙΙon aΙe: j5J3β''.:ε pοles are found using ]]ilιπμllgε &:μ!- ιlilliΗ#-__n:0 * jΙl .27 Must place new dominant pοle {ι]= 4_ ' A .28 The pοte must be mοved /. -:-1ωβ)__Ο rl- s1 . - /".* ' f In 11-r x 0.ιrMi 1i]- "i'lΙ'.(1Φ dB - 20 db) 1Ο3 FΙz The capacitance at the controlΙing nοde must be increased by same factor as/is lorvered.ω 1+jf/fp at 106 Jo ' . and :P -.l'|-9ο:90. to where ---------A +4.-'= f -10aΗz Original response Ao 100 10 Λ" Jo low fre- 102 103 104 10s 106 _λ f"'l' I f margin Ex: 10..5ξ' 1lll1 ι.__: ]]πffi ηdμ *s i]:l:'.ι'' Phase tillιllil'f =.'. :15-0.8 mA' lnrΨ) \Ι/ V : -9.6 + O.o : ιi Αtυ.8 : .Pι _. __ O vtrc Εx 11.998viv :1dL Atι.2 : :2'ν'Ι Efficiencyη :14.: Fromequation 11.64 (b) P+: : 2.:24'8 mΑ 0.32 Σ. Δ| υ. : 0.ωl r"1 1 Ιax v. - a.6 + Ο. (12. υ9g1 : : υl : iι:10 ι -4.4 *ii*"- Εx||.22) D ΙDΝmax --D:ιDPfr^x 10'68V To calculate the incremental voltage gain we use ι. r.15 0.oο tz +'' _... :6.: n'x4 Rt Rrl r"' :-1ρu iμ:4. the load current is 1O - 10 : 10 mΑ and 4.2 : : υo -- _ the emitter current of Thus.1-1 .: -V.3 Ex 11.14'8 Maximum emitter current 2Ι 2 Χ 14'8 At O.5 5. v 1.97 β/ J')2 - __ V.^.32W Ex 11.8 mA _ -Vο_ (-Vcc) _ _0.8 14.6 + 0.64 V (4.1 mA (e) Using Eq..53 \γ P-: VrrxL9 τRι nxlxll: τΓ4 P.*:V. "o : =-l_ !1 I l.:+10V.8 : ο.9ss v / v Thus.0.995V/v : t + ο. i" : i. P.O25 ln 10 + 0. * %o* : -1ζ + Λ.8 Ι : (v"l J1)' - RL 4.7 _(-15) o " I4.1 For Q..8 Y to . l Ο.x1:2 x 10 x 100 x 10 kΩ 0.5)2 1 .8mΑ Thus. τlr. iι : 0andi61 : 14.68 V 22.tsw rco: _2Ξ_xrco 1 : r . . -..8 mΑ and ao .31 v- Λouι -:--τ--ιP t ιΝ 0n: ) ai 25 : 10+10 Rι R.. 10Ο :2V'.2 lkft ycnru.X 2 x l0ο 16Ψο _ l ν" (a) r.91 \γ (a) The quiescent power dissipated in each tran- : .'. : 14.59 (d) 0.8mΑand ι__ ο.τ-iiτG' Similarly.. ig:24.-%t*. z. + Ruuι 100 100 + 1.8V υ"-..l'7 Ω : ο.^^ lυυ : : 0. _ n'R. UΙ = At υo : o V.67 Ψo Peak inPut currents = Thus.025 ln (24.6 : Pt . υrr' : 29.25 Ω .2 Output signal swing is from 14. Ο.36 V Thus. sistοr Total power dissipated in the two transistοrs :2ΙaΧ v( --2x2X1οrX15 :60mW (b) In is increased to 10 mΑ 10 mA AtV": 0.24 mA V. . --3x (c) rl: 'P.25 1.5 51 4 mA andip...Ο25 : 0.2dL ljυ'1 ^_l anο' 1y: β+1Rι V υι :+0'67 Υ Αt υn:+10V....8) 0. Thus.Exercise Ex 11.:1& - Ot is 14.'' : Ε 4. ..2475_ -'*ii Ξ _ 1 ηll] lffil.': ι._ {t111 -- .il iυ -2 ir:Ιo'^-lr. lΙlili -0. -.[' 'o ' l l{ " ιο '''...Ο4 .j...: ' 1]Α ]iυΙirιrΙ : rμ l = n0 Xl: Vo"": (1) ."'1 .lΑ = . .. ...\ ..l0Χ103X1_5 1lllilu]j V"^ + Equating equations 1 and2 .: ψ* rlllllll|*l l(n ι :r-\ u! lllfulllιllπιtιtu * {t' .* llllllllΙ Ιlililιflil '.lrι'r' L t? '.ι-I1 ψNf *.il.25 -vcc 2 mΑ) using equation mΙ. Q 'i{ *Vcc :5 lulllllll']lι(llllιl]ιllι]ιllυΙΙ1rt]η l]tξ*t. (l0-γ . i'ιa _ . ft ι"Ιl .ir"- Αs : -lΟV and rι : # : -O. then i"(i' 100):9 #-100i"-9:Q 9 i.)1 I il ηΙ But %. -t.andfor4:g 100Ω β : 59.ln(Ψ) ι2\ '-' ""'[-fr] :"''(Ψ) -:.. : 3 mΑ 0' current through diodes ... Vm:2η'. : 0.0 since η: = Ι 00 mΑ. u. l R : " -"l.. : :!!]]i{ * ι" !: 'tl [ι1 : -- !!]t ιi: Ι00mΑ caΙculate πris λ { is because biasing diοdes have area J ot the output devices. MπΙπlnι.υπυmrε '' Ι 6Ψο '27c : -: \:...Exercise - ιi ' 'ιl1]1ll1.ι '. j:r Ιlι|||llrllih|h iιlllfii * - 6.rff]m]ψ|ιlL]I|ιul||ι11ΙΙ]ηT 4ι lψn .s Ξ -:. μ] : . ξΓt -'r:rpated in each transis- l : : V'ln.1Α. .o.l.2475Ω lΟο Ιιn|0. lr:Ο.frr.l ltfllt.(il)+/.. rlllllir . R... _ .ry : 1Ο0..:]rπA. and Γ ]'-.1 mΑ io: i" .iΙll{..1 mΑ Fοr υ6 r}'ο.. ti .. iNGN-0.%a ' :--| .l.-:3-2:ΙmA π: :0V ψ.ff 11] 1 I π..1):9Χ106 Ιf η is in mΑ.1 Α -10ΟmΑ a first apprοximation assume ip η .iιi-0. mΑ .. 39 + 0. e0'Ι/0'025 54.52:3.i.8''X 2 mV/'c X : = 2. :Vnz: 0'6Υ β1 is very large' it follows.4X 2Χ5 : 0. : -200mV: Vμ:1.| Ι'ιlιu" : o.5Υ : mΑ _ 1.37 mΑ o. is in mΑ / mV : 4mΑ Refei to Pig.]1ωj"-81 :0 LΙc -.025 e Ι6': lΧe :2. . O. 12.'. -Ι : Ιcι* Ιn : 1'5 mΑ Thus/6'.1) : 81 X l-- ι - (lo 1Ο For Δ 7r. : : : 100.46 + 0. (aa) ι+l Ηere i.37 : Ο.25Υ Ι-:#:O'52mΑ ΔV :$$: e_ο'ο5/0'025 | :0. .Exercise :Vs.18 -50 mV V66-1.o .V.Vτ|nιffi)+ 1 Q.ln(.rtu" (w / L\- qW/L1.58 mΑ Ι : Ο._Τ rr)2 - where : X 1. .(Ο.025 0.ιο ΔVr. : .1 Υ zν-ιn|:xlO_'l' Γ : Ιρ Vp:1'4Υ /\ .25ο(Ψ)..|.14' (a) Tο obtain a terminal voltage of 1'2Υ' and since that V".)' iP(iP [j " 'o ''1 i"(i" .8 mΑ i": i" .48 mA 2. : 0.2ν __|-2: O. (w / L\- rwfl" (w / L)l ν T: : 0.ln (.6o +O.0v Ιn: Ιct : \x 1: ο. : Vτ'.15 ι'-= 0 025 lΧe vBE : Ι Ο. .5mΑ Rr + R2 2. .)' Lo' (Ψ)'.54 mΑ -..-v.018 mΑ 0.43 mΑ Ex 11.2)' 'Χ40 = (Ψ) -- .58 u Expressing currents in mΑ .24mΑ + 1Φ mV O'13 mΑ mΑ l2.85 mA For ΔVr.r".\)+ V.7 5 "C'mΑ g...54 : 7. 0.025 i ο.59 e_0'1/0'o25 (w/L).4 Ιn: Vgο: 1'15V o. : -100mV: i".l ) 0.4 Thus.13 : yBB:1.(.8 For 54.12m1' ι :2!l2 + 0.43 ι-I .r.[μl But yrln .ηtz. = O.93 mA For ΔVr.2 ΔVr.1 A Equating ηuations 3 and 4 [ξ " 'o-'''. : 0'8 mΑ + ip Ex 11."(ffi) 1-3 Vμ: |3Υ V.65 V Ιr' : 1Χ e ^vBFιvτ l : 1.-.lmΑ Ι .9 Using equation 11.10mA: 6m 25 mv Ι: x 1 eο'05/0'ο25 1.15 vaε _ .r. : : V (b)FοrΔVrr:f5ΟmV: 0.4 0.4 : : ^ι o. _ gε'V 0.575 Ιρ': i"(j"-1ΟΟ):81 Thus..3 0.4 V1g: 0.4 Vgg:0.48 + 0.39 Ι : 1.n 0.0.n) . : +20ΟmV: Ιcl 1 : 1'3 2.625 0. vsε: Tt.h) .1V In Δ1.55 Ιcι : 7X For : / 0.60 mΑ 55.o .4mA/mV Ex 11.

Ι) * ::-Ο.5Ω D...: V o.2)2 -0.14) x Εx1l.Exercise .14+ 1 14.5Ψo 2XlXιO-r t}o 0.14 :14..2r t 8. ι0οΟ ξ' Χ yo2u : 3.'iV..14mAN Rnu. .112 X LΙ (0. Θmn l-ι : 10-3 .Ο35 omρ - : -3.l'')2 Χ -' -2Ιo .n) Ψ{8'ρ 10x(14.5) .iil1lriir ι . __ _ 1 1--4 Gain Error \v.t2 See solutiοll on next page * ]lυi * mr rΙ1 .

: (Vcstua.)..V scr. for the gate voltage.Φn.) : (Vscpa. + Υ9!-Q V c*ι' .". then VGSlνz : Αssume Qμ off (V"'": V.V o) : .r) so ll.VscpQ+ μ(Vor- (Vcpz Ex 11. : v V ιnto the value for V 6μ2 : '.V scpQ+ ψ(V 62_ Vi2) [yGsP2 oR] .vΦa+ V. V cpz : ('V υο - V s. + ιι(V 4Ιa: )o..V.lVu.. : .ro) + ψ(V o.rn* (Vscpz 2|v V scpQ+ ψ(V92 scpQ + 2v SGP..oι) + tpl |v tΡ| Find V.o.o)' . Vor. u/' * .".V.lV.z = Ο and I V.l) . : +V n. |V. _ Ι/. (o.. (v ScP"2 - \v'λ : - V V "s"a) + ψ(V οz - V 2) - V'z) : Λul..ιy.l Plug this va]ue for ι|v.r/'Ψ) 1v tρ| : 2) o.Exercise : 1-5 .υ|| μ"_μ |v.12 Need to prove when Voz : 41ρR..sr.ιv where (l) - - - Vi^l .λ)2 and show V οsπz - V iz (v SGPa V. Q'E'D' Vove Same proof Γor p transiSιor..n using (l): - 4Ιo 2V scpQ + o) : - V 2(Vscps- : |v'ol) V scpz : 2V scρQ : 2V r"rn .

4 = Θsa : 1-6 Vq:7a-7Υ Θtι Po Θ'^-175:3.:: icz: fπ τ1 +9.14 ιa} From symmetry we See that a1l transistοrs will cοMuct φual currents and have equal V3r's Thus.ο25 lnr4'86 \:.1 - mA No fur0.4. l5-'1o'7: Ι': .s6 \3.3 /. VE1 + 10.25: 5Ο Θlι : and.86mΑ But at this current : Vsει - "'(?)X O.87 mA ν V".f$: 0.88 mA.87 mA Ιg2.5:1.13 Tl 200 Tι: . .4 x50 _ 13Ο"c Ex 11.Exercise Ex 11.ozsrr|1ΦΙJC'l \l.3 Ygει Π1'πε πφlect 1r.5 θ71X50 Θlc + Θcs + θsΑ 3.3 :0.o25Ιnr0. To find 162 we use an identical procedure -15V Wπ. then ffiυi o.ο:v Ι{o 1o*0. _ 15) '5 : : ο.643 Ιcz icη-2. : O-7V and 11 : : Ψ 2.3 x .87 mA Errσξ iefatiοns are required and = .7 vn: ff lιrr10.7: 9.6+ΘsΑ 1.7 V : O.5"C/W But.Tc: ΘrcΧP' Tl Tc: Tt * θJC\PD :200 .:86 mΑ lhrg αrrrent.: : : Ι2 _ 4.1.6v : Thus.643 V Vs2 1O -. /63 : Ι6a:1. Ια=Ιil -"/t :0.88 1c.63 V and 1' by : 2.86mA +15V +0.86 mΑ t'c. 1 0.95 mA "vιr/vτ : .5"C. 15V + Neglecting /63.86 mA X l0 " V lo 3\ *J +9.l x rο 'tl =ο.o_ιι Where : *1gγ' frr iterations let V sBt - : .zw .357 4.87 mA Finally. V66 is given Wπμr ll]h.(- 0.7 v Then 0.6 lO_J) x 1ο 'ol V and η: ther iterations are rφuired and Ο. : Ιcι: 3.- γ"":V''-Vr':0'62V 2 Thus. ν+| ιl-^/V^ -:Ι.:-9. Effective scale current : βπ Isp 1ri. υ.. :Vrι-Vοεl _-9.. n'o Ι Thus.36 3. _Vει-Vsεz : - 10. 1...15 For Q1 : ιC\ _ lSP e iΓ ι'''/V.ο25 : : 10V . Ι6'.38 mΑ : 0.0.o - {q-..58 V - - Ο. υ7 : .5_ l5 l0'58 - Vεr Thus.88 [β^ i.62: +9. : ο.) ln(]!9 O.651 v d.81 mA Ιga:0 mΑ 1 \ Vρρ2: 0.'(f) 1Ο 'X Rr.02mA Ι6a:10ΟmΑ U. υ.be ic .87 mA Ι62: Ο.5 o.. z.10 V. Ι61 lο0 201 mΑ Ex 11.87 mΑ (as in (b)) Assuming that 1g Ξ .6 V - - 0.6.Εxercise The symmetry οf the circuit enables us tο find the νalues for ur _ -10v as follows: Ιρ' : 4.62 : -9.6 Ο.6v 15 Jli*tl* ic 0.5 : 0.5_ le ffi+rc mΑ.86 : 9.* B ls= Αssuming t!ιatVgil has nοt changed much from <_ - i(.86ν V 14e0'5i 0'ο25 mA 0. then :25xΙO.95 mΑ Fοr η _ * 10 V. :4. ]π Qι β-#- Ιg _ Ι1-Ιμ: 1c'1 .100 mΑ - Χ 10 '"i \_]. 10.' Vg64: υ' - υ7: +10v' (c)For l_7 Thus.16 .357 Vllι:s - 1 ζr.0251n (2 x OΙ See Figure Νow for 02 we have: ΙCr (b) Εffecιiνe currenι gain = Ex 11.5 X 10 +9. : :2mA When ] 0Ο _ 1.025 grι 0.-58 o'72_ Thus. "εs/Vτ ' β..98 V For 1 ι... β.02 For symmetry we find the value for the case ξ-100mΑ 163 .3 :Vει-Vιει :10.643Υ lPκ+l] {ι. ιB :2Ox 50: 1000 |1 etLB'l1'ι|2ζ l0O X lO ' -_ 5Ο X ιΟ 1) : ι169 o.'Ι2ν VB2 - 9.34 15Ο x '.= + v. ιaι - V.6 /.51 V : 9.l: -1ΟV as.87 mΑ ΙC2:0.643 Ιr:4.0. . Ο. !lc .86V. 0.88 mΑ Ιcz: Ιc+: 1.-l x lo : 10'88V 1.t β"(β" Y then v.β.10.88 mΑ - :0.3 : Ο.38 mΑ Ι6:o.38 Inrη9 Χ-]C) r'1 / \ -1.98v ιρ- - Ο.88 mΑ 0.30 mA V62: 10 ..: 1r'".βπ Ιr.35'7 Ο.h(?+Ψ) 4. & λυi E.35 μΑ .) Pι'B: _3R : Ιnput resistance Peak load _2R. rΙi - Ltrffifl{':: . _6mV/"C Ψ::: -3-3: dT * -lR:1R3 : . φ Vro: 2Vo. :il.*1t *ft)u.!η:B - ..58) tvcc : aT *6 rhus [1 1R:)aVrro \ : R4l ar (t * ft)" -.-3V/V R3 : 10 1.ilffi| η!Ι]ii. -3)2 6.. (12.D but From Eq. : Ο. -R.(v"l"D)' ιL & : Thus Ιz.1 : (lycsΙ -y. 0.64: (1+2)x0.17 -.434/25x10_\ 11._ 4.7 . :9'5 -fr)r 4v.= : R.2| R-l We wish to vaΙue :. X 100 mA : V n.22 ReFer to Figure 11.43a : : 1ΟO 4.20 e0. ' 1_R) _ ..7_ 4Χ0.E.651 Ρ.Jt rmι riη.1 R.44 Ιοl.. o. .* 6. Jττx2Χ8: 8.R 4R.64 __???ο Χ 1O_] Using equation ].7+(1 -+ R.ti 1-8 or 16. T.ι |ffitπ. Ι.34 mΑ x 1OO Χ 10 r ΕΙ 14 * Ο.75 A w Εx1'1'. tfrMM. Rl Thus.R. R.Ξ ιe R: r{ - lΙ : Vcc : mΑ 2Ο 20 - v.x11.. /ΑR) Q.lΙ..5 kΩ uo: 3 X 2Ο: 6ΟV Ρeak-to-Ρeak ]- V Ex 1Ι.:Is..34 Ω [: ιeak output cuffent i.32Υ >> 'P: -*-x111l1 : Ιοp: Γor Ρdissipation 1Ι-\-αrρply curve intersects the irre rr a pκlint for which the output$iπι:t vcc:(r*ft)r. "..\oπ/"-_λ :.: 6..R4 -.64Υ *-]..2 Vοltagegain:2K whereK: I : 1+R2 : R3 t-llrτenι out of mode -πls Β : \ r R3 o" R2 υo Γ -..25 3.)2 +V"' : 3.Α'. .νιε5/vτ : lο I cuπent : ΨJ : 8o (3o/-j5)2 : 56..Exercise l_'{] X 1Ο 'R".".4Υ peak-to-peak .9 W 'e: ιhaι ιo be less @ffιπ{Llτn supply vo1tage οf 2ΟV is lΙΙl|hrr )*"C''}{1v"r1 lωXI0 l:1Χ2(lycsl 'l 2 0.

65-0.5)'? +Κ:2mΑ/Υ2 : 2(0.7 1 Cc + V'ι Gn rVut .. : 8....3 The small-signal equivalent circuit for the op-amp in Fig.r.12'15 on page of the Text: Rι : Πiπ Εx:.65+0.|yrrr| ..5 τπτ '' ----------ττ----: 8-n8-ι|.6 rnο\| rol /or.ol -vSS+vov6 >-1.65+0.|v u."o R.55V V.G*|R|v >-1...2 2 X 'lο .voν6: 0-5 v r.. 11 r.η2 + Ιz: O'8 mΑ 0. : -G-lVrn'R.g.2ν.l mΑ/V G-ι : " _VoJr'-?9_-zsκο '.3 <+0.} V ιz -. we can neglect ForQ6:Ο. *-r)- Since r.Vnu ...8 20 =+fo6:r':#:40kΩ A.8:4mA/V 8.5 > G n'zV v l.:1.|ο6 : Γο'7 : 40K G'nι __ l mΑ/V -_ l0O MΗz (^\ \α' JF| 2τC ρ 2τC..5-0.n68ntRt.+d /o".o"| |V ou <+1." - |v Ι nu.t2.oll r.| ' lcιι(.5-0.. * V ouι + v. + -!JΙ G. I mA/V G'z _ 2 mA/V Cr:1P : fn4: 1O0K.10Ο)(-40) : + 4Ο0Οv /v . and Vinι : ./Α : 1OO x 106 /2X 1O3=5Ο (b) to moνe zero to s : ω R__J-__ G..4 : K(0.Εxercise 1 2_1 Ex:12..roz'1 r"ι) Ι '^ -0.1 At: -G.14.6rP 3. .7 '12. 1 2.5 0'5 : : R_ = Ι : Κ(voi2 Q2:Ι.11 r"rl : -2 : 20 kΩ Εxι t2. 3)(4O( Κ)/2): -4ο vi v = (2x 1Ο A : Al'Α2 : (-5O)(-4Ο) : + 2000 fρ : f. From Eq. <_ Vout R2 Gn':Υ.tRr: (1 X 10 .5 Vn1ηin)> For where lnuι ι"-ffi < + 1.2 : lyΑι : 3οv' 1ο 0'5 mΑ' Vovι : 0.15V - : V.(1 X 10-3)(10ο Κ/2): -50 v/v Ar: -G'rRz: (2x 10-3)ir.3-0.3+0.(g .: Voν+8'z: o' 4q 'οrο -' + is huge.1 on page of the Text is redrawn below for a unity-gain buff'er.65-0. : -|-zrnz: -4x25: -10Ο v/V Ar: -1'εrnο _ -l X 40: -40 v/v A : AιAz: (.t8^ι(r^z|l r.=500Ω KΗz ..ι2.n || 1.n)Ξ Voo*\Vour\ <+1.' Ι '''' 0. "u|ιherefore 1 8.15V and have Εxιl2.5 Vor.8'o8'ιR'V"u.1r. . 40k Rn : (r..1 G-2 : rnzll .8' 12. : V..c'(^rn)= - Vr.35 v Vu(r. fo2 =C.1 V From the above we can write Ξ V υο . '1 : tρ| > -Ι.

Vor.4 _]18 / ."-2oox25+5kΩ 25mV : Vr ---! r.. .ο5 v Ex:12.-1 .Γ /i l Ι"Γ /i Llsr .10 . : 25 1( rvln lo |Ο . *S lr V..5 + 0. L vovl + vt.5-s .2Υ (b) By Sym. '] <+2..33MΩ . : pnp:Is : -l'ovl +Vtn -l.9Υ v ΒΕΙ + V ιεz Vr|n(Ι / Ιs) : v ΒΒ + v BΕ4 1'lo !f] : v-rnΓal l ' L/srl+ v-ιnl ' L/.ll ν-/v- Ι : Ι'e V uu: and13: Ιa. j l.Βxercise 12_2 i:'19-3:318X 106ΗΖ ] .7 V ov + Vr : -1..Ι1: Ι2 Fromect I = tL.c"l^rn. .'ΙlmΑ Vo l25V .5: ο. /s:.β : :Is npn i'.0. -2. -1...rr] .9ν ..Vr)' : 4(Vcsz.-Vrn * "_ξ: 1'2'9 1 - 1.lnΓ ' L/{s/s4l . ': Ι" ι Ι.1Φ IOοΧ106:Π. = 1οδ - > - Vss + v ov + 2.3 + Ο.7 V 2oo.9 v l.)"= .lmΑ : t25 k() l2.^: " ΙC .vT) or Ycsr : 2V6sr.Ι_r ". ].85v .β : 10 laA.'.]'': : _ 1.2 lll'il-i.5-0. _] Εxι I ". .-.7:+2.:.V 1 50.9ν=(Vlcnι)p< + 1.2 v *2.2v -t_ (c) \ΙHz .)κrwlL$$Vcsι-Vr)' lz : )κιwι/ L)(VGS2 Vr)' For Ι' : Ιr: (Vcsr .:-[|.0 jιωi l": ]Γl0 tili ] ' '' .i.rl v.'\'':' -1._-ι."..1 Llr. : -' mΑ/V kΩ f1'οroarosf Ι: l-1.: 'u i-r : 10_laA ΞVnε:vrh! Εx: =i3.'' : 633 mV '* 8-:β/r5:2Φ/5k:40mΑ/v fn-β.Vτ:2(VcS2.J1''l1'l'1] '11{r/s.2 Υ < (V lcΙι)s()TΗ < + 1.5 : -0..e.3+ο.] (d) X lΟ0 1ο6 X 0.33 x 106 0.9 V Ξ (Vlcv)n'"ΙaΙl < + 2.2v < (V ιcιι)ll < + 2.i.3 + 0.-. .V.vΑ :125Υ :5οv 1r"vιε/vτ Vr. ' .i ./ro I ' i .cc .Vr)' i.55v μA 1Ο0 1. 93 we haνe: = 0.^ο'Γ"5 .Ψ.02R €-: R10.4r+ρ*o7 ν Ξ Ιrut 12.3+0. 12. then .08/ε nι β .'ι6 and (c) /B7 : 2.o rg5*R 'πΞ?τ R' ΔR .(.'r - 0'ο2 ο.43 MΩ .ο.ΟοΟ4/.lιr: Ex:12.631: V='o /.Ιcs* Ιcε:9'5 μΑ : Ιε(Rz+ re6) : i"(| + 2'63) (a) V ιο lρ\ \ι.18 * 1orr & β*t - MΩ MΩ Εx. : Υ-ιι= ρ.23 on Page of the Text: /(.o'sεs Vοltageacrοss R. Qzo have afea = 3 nοrmal Γ.6 V = + 14.o8/ε' X = 3. See 1 mΑfor8!1 - -R 0.3+0. 6\(2.!c6:.'Ι Vfor/..585:0.1 3.42Ν1Ω G.|2 vBΕ -....02Rιr"' V nεt Substituting R = 1 kΩ op-amp.. we have .: . : Vnεto. 12.. : '.V'ε'' Vr^n _ = 0"Ι - Ο.6+0.1'4 Assume Qιε..22 on page οf the Text. R" : =Ξ+ = 3.tιll| 2Ιε :r.5 μΑ X lO l.β"10^ CMRR ff" 12.n1 - v io=ia6-i=i Vrs (neglecting R1 & R2 droPs) : .l: - Ο.6+0.Τ for 141 l :5..63 10-6 rn1.or * _ 15+0.63 X ιO μ x 3... : /c : l0 μAforQlO Εx:\2.0 : 0. .ι : .'g:Γuο:τ_ Ιιι: Ιιι Εx:t2. - 5.'.6 = = '|2.Exercise 1 2-3 Εxιl2.84 k{} : 2B.: U.l'l μ) z'o: μ ι 3l'l μ / lΟ '/\ " 5. .1(l+8ηIι. . 12.n1 Ι.95 we have: 9.5Χl0 t.13 μA : - V οo .(-5 ε'orn 2.02 : 0.:.0.5 kΩ + - R' r"6... |2. Let Rz = R + ΔR Αssume β >>t and r"5 Vss = Vso = i(res + R1) = i(r"6 + R2) v qΙry * l0 Fig. *ll ιn ι ιn - ΔR €..ι 1.63Il ιuo Hence: .251*.|'7 in the Text. ιt s x ιο')) 2.*R ll.l3 X 10 " mΑ/\ /e.08/.ιinΡ Ro = Ros R. v'νUνt'Δ (d)Vw: VrulΙ'rr.t(Roell 1(q.02 .Jiffi -* Ι8OμX3:540μA = 3.84kΩ X /Δ _' (β + |)V gl Ι' :t.6.]/ε l.ln|ffi] .9 ν - = r". 12..{ Γ.5 x l0 .: 2.115 g /^.οz + Ζ'6i kΩ and re = 2'63 Εx:.6-0.5 ξrqj.'.5 _- R".l7 €. β Ro)l= Ex: 12.V rεε lctι('o") = + 15-0.'Ι ν v'c'1.frΓ. Qrl (now diοde connected transis_ tors) have normal area * Qτι. ιΛr.5 '\ r..'R4 RΔ Ex:12.15 Assume Ιct (b) From Fig...".n X ιο-6 [' ...'' ** _ =Vuu * 5Ο 2o1 V : x 19 (. we have: From Eq.|6 οt ι v. Frοm Εq. 'ιgXlOhr2oΟX25Χlοt '\ ._ 5.l -0. - Rr l| ^ Rorο v^ _ Rolo = 31'1 R.n r"5*R*ΔR -ΔR tior v BΕ * Vaεs * V sεl * V:. .05 + 6.) 14._--_--------^--" 0.0ο5 201 Αssuming βz: : _50 and βra _ 2O0 and Icll..3 kΩ vT ΙT Vιr.'Ro.Ο455)] μA .Ξill '.^'. J β2]+1-] . :-- i' 16 = _<Ω r_'ο ]al Χ : : 0..5 16_]Ω Βx:.-.. -0.23 - 3360 or :lΙι}11]]]l i]ΙΙ ] il lllllIΙlnπ]J . t Ro = r"ro * iL\' l lll-η .'r) .5 ν /ν Εx:.Q .8Κ l8.05] V_ =)R.1tι \: .".: r. 'Ll8.u.4 Ω ..O25. * ..Εxercise 12_4 : -G.5 X 8..fi = "-i: kΩ r-lο : 25 mV = r:_ξ Q = :.16.6Χ0. Ιτ 145.-s : 100 Vυr.r l ) -'JlI : 29..12.q kΩ kΩ + βr+1 Ro.8lK\ (ιοι+25Μ +_t l80μ st) .' ψ lllrnΙ ]]Ι]ιl ψ .8K : yr[0. t + +5. ''". "..9171 '.. (Αz)o]" : -6...24 Γπ.Γ 6.K 1.12.ο -Ι.l l *.=5 5_94 " 20t Ro: " ι"ι i. q'ιgVr(Rιo ll .=+ tT --P .-lΙ -:.-56 200- 40 x 0.ι : 180 μΑ fromTable t (lο: ι-]lg+ tsεε) : *.s 30..2kdL _ _ (R.") .l1 - so.-.1 : -526.\ .. ll ' '' 4r" + 2R. .: Ψ^(Ρ.". must be reduce x new r+.%:+ SR 2Ι ινith R. .ι.25 : SR using eq.x:12.. Qι X 1ο'6 5..') '.?Ψ I + IRΕ) : 4[Vτ+ ΙRΕl2ι"t QΒD ^ Gλ' : G. :.'. 12 '' Αo : G.ι91279ΜΗz ." Vτ : ffiιrQ) : 1. __ *. -Ι 2r' * ΙR' X 10-6 A 0. C.'.26 G^' b*^(*.5 SR . : f . C.' R Ao/G.26kΩ x (2vτ .63 V/μS using eq. -2L.p l R. .63 Ι 2π(|0\Χ1X10'6 1Ο kΗz ' : n. O.(*) I \1. A. (12....R: νv' : -ι7 SR '- 1ο {=zοX where -.r F. : 2Χ f ρoια: 8'2|1z Gain A α : 25 mΥ R::Rl:ffi:2O.. A also halνed : Αorα-6dB : 1Ο1'7dB Αn"* f .'.lA -f has been halved f ρn".050 -- 9.l L-: ' -c.Exercise 12-5 Εxzt2.οoOΩ -.: "ι'ncw 2 factor of 2 {: 2 ιspε G-. ?..'733 Ω . ..'. "sR n : iiG-^o* : 0.129) 0..:2-43147x10s : .ο25 ffiV I : for I Rε: Φ inserted in emitters of Qz' νηl now 2L G-' 9.28 Εxz|2.5 2r. Εxercise l2-6 Find :0 kΩ ' lli t ι' _ Ι'**(f),: (y), ι' : 2Ι,** (f)" :- 1]] Ι - lorrii"r : - .'.i' _ i" - iε: and ir'- iu2 iP :ρi ρ, (;:)('")('") ,(Υ)^ i(o,), the original -:l ', (g),. Assume lρι ::ιlm Exercise 12.28 ' : !** I 3 '. c Qo 0.2 sο R3, R9, and R1ρ llll'lil ,----: {η, ιo ,.o iΙ] (b) iB] -! β; io, : 10\ : iu, : ξ_ (40)" β;β, 6.25 β, (]Ο)".40 - = 40 μA (Αssume βρ . lΟm l,l - _jξa ^l P\ ι/υrun,, - 2.5 μΑ lO ) ) Εxercise 13--l Noise margins stay unchanged' because Ex:13.1 Ιn the low_ouput State, the transistoΙ is οn and κ.' - ,os Ξ __'__τuμ"C^,;(vGS 1 v oL,v V,. Since V, -v'' von -50μΑ=-Rorro, ι^^'_Rr+ 'DD rυs 2.5ν :5OkΩ - 50 μA - vDD;f;S : f Tο obtain , = - -wL V,) 6 1o3 X 125 X 1Ο X (2'5 - 5OX 10_6 : 125μw tο When input is low, the output is high and equal tο V o".lnthis case, the switch is connected Ηence,Vo" R., is zerο' : Vcc: 5v' : Voι : Vcc- Rr,Ιr, : 5-2X 1 3v ' |ν. \νe use:K"R^ _ ly, Tο determine Ζ StitutΘ y, : Ο.089V, ft,' : 3Οo μA/V2: .lO0 Ro : : R, _- lO kΩ and K, O.O8g ξl() - X o.zzν Vrr' V ,"' V ,r' V o'''' Von : Vυo : 1'8 V unchanged Vlr: V,}V': 0.5+o-22: o'12Υ V," -_ V, | 1.ω fτo;l ,- v ' _ O.22 = O.5 t l.6] /ηττα22 voo ,, voL_ - . 'Vλn-V, NMu and sub- 10kΩ ' _ ιls X lO ", Ψ' lο X lO' - *σ ='| Ι Vo"- V,": NMι: V,r-Vor: '.-61'1'8 032 : - 0'26 : - The power dissiptiοn becomes: : lruootoo \r": __ l.-rlν ι.R -0.5 ''Ξh: Pdu,",ug" equal When the input is high, the οutput is low and Ηence R.,' tο is connected Lo v oL.The switch Ex:13.3 and wiιh Ιind Ex:13.2 therefore the current thrοugh v, To calculate the new noise margins' we have to 0.5) When the switch is open, no current is drawn fromthesuppΙy: Pοο : 0 R.r, -!- V,z _' Roι ' ')' Ro,=>V.' ζ When the switch is clοsed oι in low-output state' the curent drawn frοm the supply is 50 μΑ' : VιoΙoο : 25X -_ unchanged: .w _" Po, unchanged resulted in V, Ex: L3.4 K.-R 1 2x Voo -Vor -_ l.8 _0:l2 : 168 μ\ Ιιt'D' ιDD ι l0 kΩ RD : 302.4 μ\\' Poo : VooΙoo: 1.8 X 168 μΑ : 15l μW Poo',,,,r,: l'ro To determine V, , we use: we use: ψ'C.'Υ(Vo, we Ιnorder to calculate the power dissipation' need tο first recalculate stayed the same. 2 kΩ 48 kΩ |'οS : and higheι power consumption, but noise margins r, Rot ,or; 6. 1 _ 2.5-J2J-: = rr, -_ hence:R, oo'V,' has not changed, noise margins Nοte that keeping Substituting for and V Stay ιhe Same. Therefore. the current drawn ttom the supply in this state can be calculated as: Αlso:Vr, oH,v ΙL,V., onlydependοn 1'3Ι : : O.ltr 0'49 \' 0'46 \' ξu"" =voo-vot RD P,/n'.,nr. - r'.ε x !Ξ-926 : } Note that keeping f 1.l9 μ\\' uncnanged resulted in 1oιιe: noise margins and higher power dissipation' Exercise i3-2 Ex:13.7 -----: : FromEq. 13.35we -.1 .o-V,: haνe.. Po"n Po' = 1OοX Ι06X 1ωX = 32.4 x 10-6 : 32.4 ψw Ι.3V : 1CVoo2 1o_,5x 1.82 Ex:13.8 = (_1.8 - PdynαC'V2oo= Pαyrt 0.5)2 P,ιynz iz_l-11.g-2ΧΟ.5) - Ο-5 s2 = δπ * :- : 0.5V - l8+(3-1)os -t+l 66.73 CιV'or' ;v; = oο.ε Ex: 13.9 v'(t1 = v.(*) Ψ : - (v.(-) - v.1o*11"-,t" Voο _ (Vοo _ ()1"''eιa tΨl ' Ιrr-]) = -(-tpι') \ 2) τ"'< |'oo-.ιl,]lη] ',- - Jr - --l υ6)2 ::! -':,- -'Ιοο-V,-Vo, l- : 1.8 -0.s-0.12 . : 0.61V - 61 :.69Υ ,l -.38v c{-: ι, K,and _.L ' and = .-Ι:, tpιll : for ιp1rr: - k,W,, 'oo', . o.un 10 psec. with l - Ι.8. |0r' U.69 ltr - 1-1 = :. C : ' = lOfFand l.2 mΑ Voo: l'8Υ 1u voL+ voΙ1 :tpιlt ".") : .. thΘ output stafts at V9μ and goes to Vρ1 through Pρ which )ιuo"*Vo): (Lu ".I "(-''(i)) :69ps tρμι : Ο'69'R'c : 0.69 R.'.* . : }ιl:ε \{to"'. is 10 ] Vor'-(Vor- - - kΩ lu ".C = 0'69 (20 K) (10Γ) = 138 pSec For tpo1. V oΙ')e 'PΗL τ .Εxercise 1 3-3 tpιμ Ex:13.10 yoΙI For tp1gthe output Starts at Vq1and goes to through the Ρu which is 20 kΩ: v o0) : * ξιv oo ? - Lv "" v V o@) - o) : * Lrv (v V "r) (voH) + voL 'ι_ ''(..v or)'-'''"'" = 0.'HL.) :.rLπ/τ o(o*))e 't" .69X10KX1ο/ p + 69 p) : 10o p trr.)) __ lptιl o|Φ) o" : - - (V v ο" . f' = Φ"-16 nsec .Exercise 13-4 ΙlT{ρxι -1ιo1o'11e "" _ O]ε_'': κ'100 f) : τ . 4=+r:1 v. Ι 3.63 to 13.68 we have: tpnι O.v o" .?:' "' (Ψ'). From above: +(wΡ = 0.v. PHL and I3.8 1 t ρur \1.'(Ψ)" tptn: 430Χ10_6X1(1.7O.5x1.4):31ps From Eq.i" :) '>< (Ψ). When V.8r+0. thΘ οutput resistance in the high-output state is the same: fιlsp : fοsπ : 2.l*49.r: n"'(Yr).1'2.59: r(V oo - ι : V.2 : w. : : .n : I + tPHLl -- λ(τPLH ξιzι. .8 Nοtingthat in the lowc) The output resistance of the inverter is: outpuι state 3οΟX10 .u|' thenrn: αp: 1'99 ι5 l. 13.15 .1ps ux1.4 ps .svoo-2V.r.r'-Vor: 0'55 V ' 3 - Ex:13. using Eqs.^1 ' vno-\voo) : ΝMg : Vo"-V.tr":ffi" οι-.6r : r(____JΞ7= 0. zι'ο = ρπr l.13 μm:0'52 μm) oΥ b)Von: Vυυ: ''2ν'Vo': v..69RNC and if we substitute for Rγ 0'53 V - V from Eq.') = [ -- Ρ+ (Ψ ' -l) x." lqzvoD+2v) V 0'55 v ΓυSΝ : . : ι.. o". : 'o Using Εqs. _ _r(5- lV .9 kΩ ο.s * (91)' __ t.67 ''νe have: αnC '*': .2'z)* (Ψ)..2x10 1.12 a) From '. .(ry) "\ L ). 13..): }ιr>< |'2-2xo'4) 50 X 10 . then: __ '9.ν4 Using Eq. ).4 X 0.8/ V.e.2 .47 + 0." -.[.r.6 υ'o : " . =0...": !.55 - [.(Υ)Ρ. x l2'| x l0' 2. V..ul r*1 l)l ri7 {μ.9 kdι ΦF-(Ψ).0. 13.-58 = " Ex:13. _ t Eq. : (Ψ).wehaνe r: [i : os' Ex: L3.es t.C ν"c"'(ξ)"ι.99 X 1Ο Χ t0 : 24.1 _ :r -'4 x o. -:Χo. +0.65V hence: .L3 *. - r5 we οbtain SimiΙarly.Exercise 1 3-5 Εx: 13.14 = 0.58: r(V oυ _ |V. i.) 1 t Since Qγ and Qpare matched. : ' )0..' o.2-ο. R62_5 5ιl x lιl kΩ (Ψ).ο.)v o ( \t ι4 '\V.os " " ι .0'65 NMι: V.4) = 2.4 r 0.R.. 2wn = (Ψ).5 X 2ο X l0 15 ιy)" l/2 : 0'2ν V οο aιdV o τυn 'QΝ opefates is siνen as: circuit the in triode region and hence & : v.ul\ + rΙ1 V .":|V.. : l+r- 'ξ 'rγΞtριμ 49.13.13'69 and 13'71' . 35 16." : 0.25x10-tsx2.3375 + 1 + : 1 2'9 o.1125 + C.*'rwrε - . c) Frοm Εq.2 0. increased by factor οf 2..3 b) From - of ιpis: part * Cn"* .r psec ]5 lητ to 0.691R"q Cexι and in order tο reduce the extrinsic part by a factor of 2.rα increased by a factοr of 2.25 x The maximum possibΙe οperating frφuency is: 19 psec f^ : |.375 μm iβ (Υ)" ^r(Υ).6p + 21. + jR"oC". 13'19: Cn"* * -Ξ'iaLD '].19.ll. Therefοre. '=rη. lΙp = ψnπεh ιhe inverter can _i_ 2r. * C"*. Cin. : 2Χ l'. Note that . 13. toneνι : ## x 28 ps = 20.3625 + 0. C1n. S has to be C.ll ο. then Α or area is also doubled. or equivalently rtr' : L old ]' * _ιiι: * tr) * #) = .3p) : Payn : fCVoo' : 1 x 10e x 6.5 ps d) .) t \ L - 1ρ 2erα + 2Craz + Cdb + .jι ."n.gτil O.1 μw Η"n"".52 = 39.7875f) + . :efr-ιcιion ι{ilιiFξ -.69ιR"uc"..r.. (r).'.Ι9 a) Αs mentioned on page of the Text.2 = 3.C". _ (2Χ .35fF Εq.52 _:Ι9. sΙ : C1n 2x C"^r: C8ι * Cgo * C. is the contribution of intrinsic capacitances of e1y and Qp. '2to C Χ V292Χ 6.3 psec Using Eq. ilΙ: ε =50x1O_l2 Φ .6 psec : 21..Exercise 13-6 J: 59X3οX1ο3 c _r Ex:13.o o" t"* : Cinr* Cur/s t ρoΙd Cin.il.20 : 16..7875 + 2... S : ). .ilJlπ:.) For ff _: nuu. PDP : ParnΧtn: f-*CV2oυΧto .2t Α: W Χ Laιd''*" (Ψ) is doubled and L is constant. we have: /t\ Ιρ Ο. 13.-<r-.5fF/J t' : ψμ 2 " fF .οo(n"oncinι6 + lR"o.J Th" exιΓinsic 8.. R* has to be reduced by afactor of 2 ξ : l-6 s_& R"u }. I 2Χ28 ιO-ιs x2. Therefore. . Ex: 13. z-o'4_ !> x4J0X lo-nΧ l. hence' { : 1.2 Υ - 0.' thus both 410X 10 Pοe 6X 1.5:# ο. Vpo and V.0.1 is = 59.22 = is scaled *fu" Using Eq.412 : O.CV2 οo.5 . w τ .4 μΑ 0. t.2\r in the absence of velocity saturation' For the PMOS transistoΙ.54 in V6. o CV'oο 'r/\7 2tu 1'2 V Vr5 .Ψ ιo . Ex: 13. the ratiο is 4' (b) There is οnly one possible configιtration (or path) for capacitoτ discharge. The maximum current available to charge a load capaοitance is that prοvided by four ΡMoS transistors.2 0'q _ !x x 1 l/S- V without velocity saturatiοn Ψδs'. .2) : 55.^ _ 1X 2 V s : l. gfeatΘr than V D. Ιf Vρ.25X1ο conditions in 1. V 's' and propagatiοn delay is scaled by rst _ l8 1.l8 O.0. ιherelbre tn is scaΙed p . oC since 'ρ k'Voo- 4ooito4 Εq.5 X ο.O'l8X4X. do noι scale hv o V' o5 iD: Table 13.8 v V οs : Vov : 0.l !J Ο'6 V 1.l8 t. we haνe: Ψ:qn:ΨX4Xl.Exercise l3-7 Ex: 13.23 οSo.2) : 231. we see that since :0'8 V and 1'2 Energy/Switching cycle.24 #"u. i'e'. Thus.1 μA and ιhus is scaled υy : ly"l : be οperating in νelocity Saturatiοn and remains bf ' and K' tο 1.34 : V' 0'8 V which is A1sο.ιι(ι.2 ι.l8 (a) The minimum cuffent available to charage a load capacitance is that provided by a single ratio is s3 = 0.27 ο.l8 υy_ξ : -_ ο.s2 s - : For the NMOS transistor. the cuπent snpοp obνiously.l8 t/s' Fοr ΡMoS devices: Y τ __ b) For .1. ο. : - results Saturation is οbtained over the range 1r scaled by S.2) : 154-1 pA if velocity-saturation-were absent.2 ν (1 + ο.1 x1. 0'l or O'8V = v DS< 1'2ν Note that the velocity saturation reduces the s ] 33Ψο and the ΡMOS current bι .l 0.6(l .o.51l.63V Εxz L3. ΡMoS Ex:13.6(l.25 NMOS devices: For PMOS deνices: " 1lο uvΞ V os< X 1. lVr-. : (1 + ο.34V to 1'2V cοmparedto : 0.1 8 /. the entries in . .1O1 are satisfied and the NMOS transistor decreases by a factοr οf 8.2_ x ιl-+ ο. and Vt 6X1ο7X1O_: Ο.^ __ 1 'υ 1 0. is scaled by thus P6rn increases. : Εxzt3.2 that change are as follοws: α - V wi1l be operating in the velocity_saturatiοn region and thus lp is given by Eq.Ο. Thus the minimum and maximum currents are the same isscaledυylrl '.r Χ 1.l8' Ο.2 V Ο'4 0.94.| anv- n.4) { α Ivorl .2 1l"A . device.21 a) For w __ τ The power density.n 6. is greater than Vpro.2 .Ιvn| bοthlargertha.l8 '' " V 0.5X o. 13.4)2(l NMOS cuιτentby - 7Ψο. 13'1Ο0 are kept cοnstant..26 0. Since dynamic pοwer dissipatiοn is scaled by Dxz\3.5 x O. io = |lO X lο-'' X are thedevicewi1l . while C is scaled : 1'2 would be: more.6 Ξ yDs < 1.thus unchanged. t NMOS devices: t\ " 18 X t.. They are kept cοnstantl Voo V. e have π1 - οf the straight line representamm*rιion is given by: .Exercise 13-8 iΙ]*ξ !-}' ι. v) 0 0'648 Ι'8 V -ο'648 v V νoL_+0ν μ(Ψ). tprπ Ο.t ι. : Vυυ-V.v.446v.03 nsec 1rsx10-6..07 nsec l V)2 _ 800 μ-t 1v)' :320 μH 800μA + 320 μΑ = 1l20 μA t.ν(o) : 1. L.15) and (14'16): : - 14.5+ο.356V 0..9 x 10 \κ"(Yr) 'ιv Capacitor cuπent is ic@) : iρρ(o) + ir"(o) 1(' )-β .t : L)" (W / 1.14'12.13) and (14'14): ΝMι '!i -τΞ JΣ. : / V': V.12): l. + o.a4Qs ..5+o'3vr'2 ("/T3τ : Γ:l * . 14. 1_44x2.. (r 0.4 |{:ο : 0.5 (W ι4. (14.5_(2.. - Vο1 (2'5 - Ο5) X [-!l v'_ (vDD_ v..- -2-) J:γ/ : (2) x : tpιll : - .($$."." - V.:0.|'_η 4 - -=n.65ν L{41 V6r: o.(tpιll): o.17) and (14'18): -" 0.O'5)2 86'4 μA : Po : Ι"rurVoD : 86'4 μ'2'5 0'22 mW -.)ι'lιn 2 .._ u.:0.r. v .- sο that.)[. (b) Ref'erring tο io.V.27Υ Γl 1r. (14.l 2Φ. .ξ '(Ψl\ .-"Ψ).189 ..] (Ψ). v.gx-7 : Fig' 14'12(a)' = }ιro = using eq.'' .3 L).1s *(%#) 30 = 1. we get v'. : 0'5 ns sinceVr.n)' - rnru'l(ffi(s v io"(o) : V. using eq.03 ns V' -_ : TΗE NoΙSE MARGΙNS wΙLL NOΤ CΗANGE _ (Vου. Γ_ ι_ +l _ 07ν ΝΜ.2 Usingeq.- o'32 rr.. : :(tρμ1 1 lρ7g\ . (14.ιv ""' \rzo*ozv'l(})ιsv : t 0'03n) = Ο.09(2'65 Vo"_s5Υ --4 144 'll1-'(t)- : - : v Von : Voo.223:o3Jτ-65_v. (14.5 zf|ι- 0.68 X (tΙ] : 7ΙlO-''- 3Ο..3v!'z'σ'85V yields one Solνing this quadratic equation..: : 168 Ο.85 ':." Suhsιituιing νalues.-_ 0. _ V../:.11 nsec rs = 0. Squaring both sides Yields f'+ #r] Γ. (14. 10. .o+{]vljfi.11) V JΣΦr) situation is To obtain iol.o5 v.Exercise 14-1 t4.)' \ι.V] v using eq.-L) .15 : tpuι t- : 0. : practical value for ζ μ)0.ltprλ'we note that this can use we and identical tο that in ExampΙe 14'2 (c) the result of Part io"Qrr") : : 50 μΑ iυ.)ιl : \ . r.l[ι ' ΝMtl: (yDD_ V.(#)><.3vι/2 v? J4(5).'.fiΞs vl αs5 (a) Ret'erring tο Fig.(Ψ).+.0. without lοading' *"r""(Υ)" : β6. using eq.+)(t)-ιtΙ] 1.

22 ns 14.(Ψ)-.69(5.b' - voo 2 #:8'3kΩ 14. n'o-#il: . (14.j_.fuτ'πine Vr.5 kΩ)] tn : : \τ )" Using Eq." + Solving for lV.69RC: ο.Ι.(13.19 ns : o.uv-"σ. 19 ns) 0.zι : 0 ns + O. : #*o.64 ιs .weget lV.6vJ l.613ν lv.6 V t--.7 jr-ΦΛ Using Eq.)' (d) ιυ - t: o.- - :. we have the quadratic equation. - r/'v r]7.λ' _ : . Ιgr.. f) V.ι_ : Ιv.l ts |V.5vl/2 γ-trV-)2:8O0ρΑ '- " {fi o.(Ψ)] Using Eq.-j * 0'πμ.5 kΩ .5 -]t-l-:320μA : 8ΓΦμΑ + 320μΑ R.5 kΩ + 6.5 μA Ι!μ$'tr.36) we see that nr" ' :l _ l49Ι.'}F(Ψ) ξ_sr : lv. : j9 kΩ (Υ)' _- kΩ: Ψ (2) with Eq. to ) kΩ j5 kΩ 0.?:? ( : 0.5kΩ tpιll tpιπ ili. + - JΣφrl . (Υ)': '.λ:1v+Ο. wiΙl πrn off γlhen where ".ι 1ο_6)Α z$.t1' .5 kΩ * Crcr)R ι * (Cinz Ι Cτcz) = 0.14 r* it- $:t 14.69|(Coutt x (il + R2) Λ4 μA I2.4g ν Ro.5kΩX7O)(10 15)F 0.ι = _17[ffi μΑ ffim μ-η : : 20 μA : (w\κο: lΞr) ι.Βxercise 14-2 o.o| squaring bοth sides and setting one side equaΙ to zero.l : 1. when .4t'- Rτct I Rτcz 4.38).-2 2 = 5.71).. |V.ol * 1"5μΑ :325 μA V : : 0.24ns obtained in Exercise 14.(14.at .(Ψ) -:(+Υ1 * _iΙ!μ_{1 : 722.p| : Ir )(ιrm 1 tpιlι\: )ιo. r- .27ns which is close to the value of 0.^ '".r. (14.024ν2 solving.5yl/2 -βs rβ5y * 1.69[(1OfF + 5fF)(15kΩ) + (1οfF + 5fF) X (15 kΩ + 12.ol "i[t:.36).6 (f)":. + O^6τ * 0."FΞΞl g.g76ιv. :|*sorl(3-1 ) ipzl.(Ψ) will also d*ble ' C... 1. ιoι|.10 Ret'er tο Fig.12 Neglecting the base curreπ of Q1 .u on _ v. 28sμΑ 1 |...ιi J.. υ'2 decrease ιo ].: !ΛΥ)_)"!.2 : 1Ο0 . - Von μΑ Α) -_ t45 r' ---_----:---l- = 100μΑ 14.\ 14.'lo 2(72. the cuιτent thrοugh R1. _'r remains saturated during Υ=AB+AB A l75 _.6285 mΑ v Thus.o. : _ Vι-Vorr: 0.9 Thi.l _''<rl =50xlι(5 -l = 115μA _ i^.. : 14.12 '. 'ι: Rr+R2 5.l(|)"oσor- (f)'rl o*o.Εxercise l4-3 =1x5ΟXl(5-1)2 2 = 400μΑ _ v. = 0.l 'Dl t. l - 6)A o. t4.56X1O-9 = . Dι.5 μ ιhe new r"r71 is ι PHL .9V) : 0. '"(Ψ): 2(68..-Ι*.)' lr(Vrr) -\ι"'c. -0-57 Vn -0'57 -0'15 .9μA) : 137.lV) __ (e) Δυ. Dz and R2 is 0.907 + 4.. ι5)F(1'8V ou.Δr ioz1u.1 _ |"(Υ).2 μλ so ir(Vrr) : 2(76.8 This dοubles Ιι.'v.-' : I rιv\ (h).6 V.A.: 2'' ' l..V..88 V oιl : 'O.75 ' 0.'' jr' (c) A' A Y=AE+ΛΒ xoR τ XNOR Since v...1μΑ) cloubling **(y)".' τ ] 40Ο ."(Ψ)".o..19 ns -)" !..76V ΑFTER SΗΙFTΙNG v Refer to Fig. 5.Ε'14.Ι : V oυ) X l0 |' x 4 288 x lU 40 ----------- - ..\ ir1(ν.ιι .2 .'..'Lt C t-t X 1O_6Xο.98 (\/DD-v)2 4 (d) .1.. Δl '_ ..11 : Vοι _ 0 -0'88 V SΗοULD BE SΗΙFTED BY - 0.DΙ(τ.(v ^^ μ Α '(uoo-Ψ) _ 30(1O Ι 145(1Ο 14.|.2-Vor-vo. anτl io(V oo) : 152. E '''(#)".4 v 40 x 10-ls Thus.. (Υ).88v ΑF'ΤER SΗΙFTΙNG V or : ' l.75 : 0 i(v') ν. ιi' \ι"(|)"...2 iozlo.56 ns Follοwing the hint we assume that Q* -' lrr( τ. -._53 : -1 V Vπon:-1-0. is _:{:.018:3.2Ο5 ) v' 'i.|o] \1) - - UΝoR- ru|nris V .-Πdin_sΙy. t " -' - Uon: .2) \l/ = 0.-1 : uon -0.02.. - = 0.r : .7g:-1.jino]rl = ".906 V " n..vΒΕΙoR* (-VΕΕ) 0V (because .79Υ ').88 mΑ 4.rlο' : : - 0.88-0. O.818 V Thus a better estimate for the current through R.0Ι8 mΑ ate for 0.12 mA.55 kΩ V .1. -':"] -_ ).1..---J:_--: V οr!ρ.zs * oο2sln[l!.75V -1.Exercise 14-4 {. V' _.2 ι). ΙΕ = 4.818 τ-lρρ : is -1.: 4.= : V ro!ρz -_ l5.799 4.75 + v B Ει 0^ iS o. Τhe V c!a" .:: _ Vsε'ορ F5. o.22 Χ 4.31 V q.75ν.779 ]ιL ll .24Υ 14.. /ιL _-0.Fis.0. .12 υ.245: -1 ιi.ιι|Rr .2 mA ο.75 + 5.015 + 5.O25ΙnrΣg) ill]ι] = -0.798 : -1.75:*1.906 Α better estimaιe for Vruir.788 -_ 4'5'] η'q O. Ιρn : 14. ]i 1 1-1.2 - The vaΙue of IE we found in Exercise 14.O25lnΓΞ) \1/ = Ο.VrΙao : *0.0.28 = \ 1.166 mA ι.ιimaιe Γor /^_l " ' 'μ1lS ο.2 Α better estimate for V BΕιQ2iS RΕ -4mΑ o = -Υx4xRc2=-4x0.. _ 1.779 ι1l i_]iι ]] : Iι:'l .V.788+52 o.._]2v.12 mA (c) The inpur resistance into rhe base of e3 is (β+Ι)[r".' r:g.z5 .ο25 Ιnr2'0ο9) ιΙ -1.49-Ο. : : 0.':-..025|r(Ψ) _ Ο.7..75+2 __ 5 mΑ .2 i . _c :er esιimate of 0 779 : : 0.gg V.Ξ QR : 0.Ο.32 for 99 Ιno.24+) : __τil ' .7Mν (b)For z.98) \1. -.98mΑ lil] "l - . : Von : -0.75+5..89_0.26 ι l 'εl8z :-0.22x 4.+Rrl = {Il 'ilιπ : π lol[f + 5Ol : 5.14 ιo be 4.58 ru|nris V : -1.u: -l. - -. 14.97 mΑ -ο.906 . Ι Q" 'i1 lι .779 : 6.798 : Ιr/2' Ιno 0'75 -1'656+2 -----_Ξ-::: V.15 REFER To FΙG. r . ./ v _ .z5 + ι).79 V Vπon: -1-0.sinΓ6.ι .:5 .75: -1.779 .--__πi1g_-. Jli 1 = Ιl r- llιι ]it1 asrimate for -_i 3. ' __-_______-_____ .2 ..75+5.49-0.Ο5 : and coπespondingly mΑ Α better estim V nεlqι : Thus.656 \/ Vινon 4.2Ο5 ..0Ι8 mΑ _ I :lA : 0.0. 9Ο9 _0. Ιt follows that the power dissipated in the ret'erence circuit is 1.55 kQ Il 0.265 x5.2 0.636 mΑ 6. the gatΘ draws a current Ι ε: 4 mAfrom the 5.26' Fοr the ref'erence circuit' ιhe current through R1.2+|.629 v 0.909 Αssume d) See figure below.2 2 X 0.leo -5.57 - : Ο.3) .58 V \4. |4.269 (#. and R2 5.75 mΑ : 'l'32Υ l. D1. : _Il _ Va 'ΕlQ| Ι6: αΙu:0'99ΙΕ x 0. D2.Εxercise 1 4-5 V clno (5.269 X 0.79+Ο.'Ι9+5.265 mΑ from the 5'2 V supply.' 5οΩ 5οΩ+5Ω τ'πon υc|ρι : 0.2 = 6.zzr)xro3 !πon '.65:22-4mW totatr .98 + 0.75 i" '" 4.---=:-- κοl -o'57 Ο.2V supply' Thus the power dissipation / gate is Pο:4x5.99 vt-0.22 : 11-'rr.629 + 0. -0.zz vi - '.. V '' _ - -0.'l "( 1QA 0_y"+ο.2ν (because the current will be 4 to 5 mΑ)' At the range of saturatiοn.55 ιl * Rt 0..0.907 v rlo.=φ^ --ο (η-0'79} |o r. the dissipation attributed to a gate iS Ψ : 1'65 mW Ιn addition.Ο.l2 + 5.16 Refer to Fig.24ν /y 0'79Υ : (η-0.6 mW' Since the reference circuit suppΙies four gates.1 : Thus.636) = 1. { _5.| Thus ιhe reference circuit draws a current of (().79-0.2 _.719 + vs : 0. . : 2x 1o-t2 xo.1: (fl.n use - v o)2 2.5/ (l \ -r] : .7nsXΞ 1...6μm 8ιra ' - ii --->l'Ι<- ΙΞ ----------> .εns Δr: 1..8 ι)''' ___-lΙ____Γ--__ -. I .ο 'l(f). l-. (Ψ) : \Lt" 144 ο. _d__Vοο vDDt2 Ξ+ -CR ln2 t1 k"' : 4k.5 /. : l X3OοX l0 6x '2 : - ο._s)' Χ(t.o.". : 30O μA/V2. "X5x103XΟ.69 10 6._s Ex 15.n"nO* will be : ..1 ..4 From Example 15.)' : ξo.1 Refer to Fig.-_J | ' ι Ex 15..Exercise 15-l Ex 15. Vee .Jie - v.1. : To find !r(μ'C.).5)2 6 1.ο.2 : 1. -_(Voou)Ψ -:(Ψ)'1 l kΩ 5 . .5..(o.'2.(Ψ'(}).O 5)(Ψ) . : '" \Ι5 L': Ι."'(Υ)r.5 Χ (ι.(Ψ . : Saturatted'a : ξ Ψ and Q2willbeintriοde O*'(Υ) _ Voυ____ l I *zpp -------------> Ο--.2:2. '.οο.5_ 0. .5 t2xo.' :2. I (Ψ) = \ ι' )" = ο'5 )' 1.l X 3O0 X ΙΟ-6 X 2..7 ns 24OΧ10 . ). 15.gns μA or:Δ/α 1o 1 Ι5 rW) \L therefοre.Γ (y).5 ιιA 6r:2x70144 l.8 .)ι νl'] -* 172x1o-o l+'J_οl '^'-2.8_ O.5 l..8 : 24o μA 6. : a.9 ns / 17 ι2 "'" [rvDD-νιn) \ (ηι.5 ι. ΓΨ) \Ll" : "" 15.1 : 0.5 (a) when υ. z. r^. 1v - : .()(Ψ).ι.5 .)' i(Ψ)(ffi)[ι'.. ir'(Υ)".1. Wo: Wρ Ex 15.8 = zM(lιη + t) Refer to Fig.8 X 180 μA : 324 μW - (Ψ).28: .'" ο.6 mm 1 2N transisatthe Nth level there wiΙl be can be transistors' of tors.Exercise 15-2 Ex 15. (Ψ).26 show: our decoder is an extension οf that to 3) (as opposed w" ιr. Tius it willhave N leνels: Αt second the at i"".18: πΨτ.:Xl0_'' :ο :6. eactιof the 2M word lines Thus transistοr' PMOS NMOS deνices and to one required is the tοtal number of devices 6'25 5. can τ bythe 1 : 8^' + 8''υ Ηence. ο2 r.14 t"l 2x5tu 1 - 2X5X1ο'9 :100MΗz . 11. 15.2Ν _ Sum: . Number 134. G.13 tt : c.* nη bits is the address lines' wοrd 2M be and correspondingly there will to M cοnnected is Noιv.1 11.l - yΥιι CB 2 ΔVιοl x tο '1 ο.12 For minimum area: select Wn: Δl : x l.. find as 64x 1024Χ ιo24x2 1.6 mm RefeΙ to Example 15'2' 1..0 "ξ L : mV -0.)'] x 2. αr".8 : l8O μΑ -_ 5OPF Ι-... Since Δr is proporιional : ι .9 'o . = _J-')') Ex :2QΝ*1) 15.+ ?Ν L ^ Lτ (1 Thus. CVroo Ex 15.ι.(' - FromEq.CVoο 0.5 ns Δr P: VroΙ : 1.voo 2 .-60 mV : : : o' Reler to Fig. " ?. < .nndfrd g^1rhaνetο be achieved by ru"to.14 and 15'15' we have: C.7 From Eqs. = 2.r] + .2 X : 134211128 pm" Β2x 1'74'46 mm2 = :2 13-2 mm2 +2+22+"'+2Νl) :2 Geometric series r " : ξ' \Λ/e reduce Δr byafactorof2bydecreasing Samefacιοr.i.ll"". = (Ψ).l'-('- (l). can Gn increasing lhe cοrrespondnε (Ψ).2rnrn' o. - Area of the storage array + 2M(PMos) Ex 15.5 x + [r . Thus thΘ tοtal number .6 (}). Διατα6.06 v : Total chiP area X 134.018 :24 6 f ' ιι'us' | :2N -l Number Ex 15. _ 1ν0'54 . 1 0'18μm M2M(NMos) ΔVι. has to be doubled' be increased by a and both g.11 Ex 15. τt e increase in g. or i. = ''(Ψ)" (Ψ).t8 (Ψ)" : tx2'16 ..'2 _l ... ' Ex 15.3 our tree decoder will have 2Ν the first ..5= (l). οJ"ιO ." wilΙ be 2 transistors' 22 . _ -30 x 1o 12x1'2 -Cr'.equivalentlY 11. 10' .9ns ο.l ns '": *o"(Υ)^Q.ai.Exercise l5-3 ilrτ M s - 1)2.s (c) Ιn one time-constant the νoltage Ιeached is -)rt'7 Vop ullΙ i : -1 1251 ιιιtntlfri __1.35 mΑ . C"Δv ΙD _2x10-12xg.16-η2 : ]xsοx9x2. .5Υ C" -'lnrlx.2 voo\-e-t): : --J Ξ <_ o.t.16 5 V V--> {.5 γ +2.35 l-: -:x103 X 1O-3 .lο2 ') ') :0.5:2.o..632vDD 3.=2. e)'* -20lοglT(jω')l r lo ιoε[l ιυ. lO lοg[1 + ο._)ornnl 'l0.6 Γ1_- .) I-1 {-+.7(s) : Thus: I .\ -.. (rt+4) s-'l-.I . N -_ l l Use Α.8 o"7 0'5 0'1 A:: ο 0..3654 9 Α.4) j1'2) (s + 0'l n oz: + O'65) lΓι - 1s2 + 0.4 : Κ_ Ι :l 4 k k___-=-----:-- (1 ('f 7.7 : -l The real Pole is at s at The cοmp1ex conjugate poles are s : 2cos6O" -t jsin60" : -0.'.-20log lTl [dBl : 1 O.oΞa-a 0.a' + 2Ο lοg ^h lΟ 1οg[1 + ε ωol2Q: lCos60 : : 1 ωo/r.99 O.. : r/lοT_ l - Ex: L6."../l -ιυ'.a'.5tii.st--j: "44 .- a Ι6.'.E.Q: 1cos60 : t).) 1 r a.) 1/ l ] > 30 Thus. l2\ ' .l'.'.1 .k: 1 1s+l)(s'+s+s+l) 1 I Τ(s) (s+1)1s2+s+11 1 j2) - (sljΖ){s 'l "[j)(" i (s:+4) 'Ι.54 dB 1/2 pοles has As shοwn' the pair οf cοmputex ωο: l andQ: + Ex: L6.4 r(sl -'ιffi (s + Ο.23 lιυ)l j1'2) Α(ω..3 ' - 0 1() Q:\ 1 - c2 ω") 11 'ω2) 'r-.9 Ο... to be exactly 3Ο dR e'x 1.1 | 2 3 6 20 1T] Εxι Α.ιsl-o "t T(o) 2 .522] : 3ο .0οηl_4OdB Ex:16.1 + ιJ s({2 . since Γ(0) : 1. : and οbιain 32.Exercise 16-l Ex: 1:1 16.11.Jωι.'|.58882 X 1'52Ν] : dB N: 1ΟLΗS 29'35 N :1 1 LΗS : 32'87 dB .87 dB Fοr Α.η.' μ-" t ω_"] -! Jι*ro I - { Α{3) - rοg} Jl ' _2O lrad ' .lιt-_ ' 12^l(l'ιυ1.'ι.) _ + 1'45) Γ ] - ^/lO"' | -- 0'5υ88 /' _ ι ιυ'' l ηf '-.s* .D - τhus: ιυ 28'6 dB 'r' Ex:16.05 Γ-l 20 1og 0'95 : τ 0'9 dB ' .2 : 20 log 1.2 I 2 Γ=_'=a-Λ . ι.ιlξ.s)l :55-50:5dB o.:})'l "t ι 10 1og[1 + O.3 dB tl '(ffΙ u'.5)"] .2 . π * -'f = /_ i'l} .5Ο882cosh2(7cosh : 68.(fiΙ log[1 + 0.9 for DCr*: 1 0.2 e : 0.'. : ![n.5O882cosh218cosh _1l.A..2 δr:ω"CοsO:r" 6r:ωrCosf:o.5088 : 10 log[1 + 0.34932cosh .9 Excess rο roε[l . e : JlO"ι i _ 0.sο) : 0.|.l)τrl : rιΦ' ) 5 Ι]|μ} .: (a) For the Chebysheν Filter: ιten ιfiΙ Ex:16.50882cosh21ly'cosh 7.εlr" dιr:ω"Cosξ:o.s)] - sο (b) For a Butterwοrth Filter 0.z' _'t.o. l0'o_l : N : ι."""'(Ψ).so.50882(1.Exercise 16-2 VaΙleys are obtained when co.""'_'(fr) : : kττ'k ' : 0.n rι : n/ Α('s) : Σ50dB :0 g].95ωp _ξ ):ο ο.3493 Α(ω. Ex:16.5o8ι{ 10 tog[1 + O.'= l dB.ι)-J 217cοsh _121] 64.5088 : Α(ω.) : 1O 1Ο -. choose ] = 50 16 log(t1 + 0.'[π"o.: 6ρ /ι .'[lucos_'(fiΙ .k:0'1.4 .) " : : Ν:5 : Io losΓ| + ε2cosh'Γλ"o*h _-"" .'.9 dB For. 0.10 o. choose Excess Αttenuation ο : i---π." 1O : N: 8 log[1 + 0. r.t .2 dB Α(ω:) '2)] This is an increase of 3..:.5ο882(1.5 dB .5 €: 1Olο-1:o.5)'*] N -attenuatiοn : N:15.sι.l'. '.13 7('s) * ι'lb lO5 raιl / s o: ---+-Btv. : ωJQ : o.. l t(t BWι 1 Q..rr)l lO-trad/s For R arbitrarily selected tο be l0kΩC: .15 (a) 104:!CRr R./ ωn.ωb ιo'1' ι<'l2o ..Ε.n.JIO"t oRBIV.D. (fordc gain = 1) 1 (Ι).-1 BW.o. -'Ξ-=_:--:2. ωrω2- l=^Λτa.'δ']'. Ex:16. 2 : ' the same Ex: 16.. +ιυi . =o=_--. I 0'._+ Rz an az :ao Rl : kΩ 100 : r(s) Ex: 16.1 NL νalue at de(unity) Q.". selected to yeild a centre Frequency gain of Ex:16. Q (b) FοrΑ:3dB : '9" .:O.l 10'x . and ω.11 9:IO3rad/s a 10..'_ \ιυ. Γn'4+ ο) Jωl) I ωAιυ2 (ιo3 ..(r?r-r1) + ω'ω./!{)ι I'' ωο SUB(l) Φιl !="6ρl"-1 ωr-ω1 0 'r. '-l O' I i{f'nm ιffi1 ιJr:*ι ]llΓ1]!Πlllry. -_-_μ s+sn/2ι'l. ι rψrl 2 =--4 /r Aι ιυ ..lrj.: "cR 1T(.-. 14 1 : . : : - <'l!)2 ωz(ω2o. at which |Γ| lοtoρΓl .'2' . _ ω$ _ <'l| Q \n +{lel - " ΦlΦο Ι=γ1ρ.t. r-' 2 r ^/ - is lοr any two frequencies ω.1 " lΓl= } 1 which is 3 dB helοw ιhe 1.2 l. l 1ο" - μF t+ The two resistors labelled R.1 . - 1 ω21 Q..F."ol... .Exercise l6-3 Εx: 16.υi)2Q2l .:10kΩ C : 0. ω\2Qz μ'. : Bιv" *((l)δ_. and ω' where ω. - Φ.D..12 Reler tο Fig.can also be selected -lΟ tοbe kΩ each.14 This Γ(s) =a Φlωo ]=7i6e. . Gain .2 (2ωi ω-) z I(r'n .r.01 μF D l0 Η.')" +... ω.jqB}V.ω?) ω$(1) Now tο οbtain attenuation > A dB at ω.E.. s2 52+sωρ/Q+ωlo ωb-ω2 16.ε. . t 1 6.26 kΩ -:265kΩ . .2..6μF R : 1o kΗz Δ/. o: ' ω"L L:+:.".2 radΙs Q : ΙC) :.'.'. 1 for the bandpass case i( = centre-frequency gain = 10 1*rr/rr:10 Selecting rl : 5 r kc) 10 kΩ thenr.ωp : 2τ10a ω-_ 5 8'1408(s + 0. s + 0.4684 ωo + 0.12(l 2(.2895ωo .. ιolo : 2Q' 1.*)l ηt'-'' -.u.1789ωn + 0.16 abονe 3dB bandwidth ι-.42Η 50O Ηz 0:=!-:β:ru -.4293ωo2) 1 1s2 + s0.2 X lο 9 2τ|oo Now using the data in ThbΙe :@ _1 : ωnC (%*Ι 2τ|0a 16. 500 Using the data at the top of Table a- {. : 9Ο kΩ Ex:16.2 nF Rι:Rz-R::Rr: Co -- x 1 1'.2x 1o-9 Ru: Q/ωnc: : 13.19 f " 1.9883ωr2) The circuit consists of3 sections in cascade: (a) First ordgr section rΙιΜ Ι!r - 2.].25) 7(s) : . '0 x l. ιυo)2**-.)2 Cο: 1.19o ωoQ 2τ60 x 6 Ex:16.".20 I ':x2τ1Ο5x1ο3 Eq (16.25 mH 1 ξ the number coefficient was set so that the dc gain =1 7(s): -0'2895ω. : :4.-.2895ιor) 1s2 + sO. Δ"f. lι * ll t" πnfi'ι = ωo/Q 2τ10:2τ6o/Q+Q : 6 Q : ιooCR 6:2τ60 XCX 1Ο4-+C : +)-' \ - .u- .o.Exercise 16-4 From Exercise Ι6. Exercise 16-5 Let : R, dcgain = as iω -+ C: Rz/Rι: 1 : R2: 10kΩ C=ΙnF I .Cn' 0.2895X2π1oax10a : | ωnC R: 0.2985ω-Ι' _ x lO 2τ10a -l5.9kΩ " UsingEq. (16.62) andselecting R1 Rr: R,:10kΩ 5.5 nF : 10 : 10 kΩ 10(2x2 - 1) : 3ο kΩ K : 2 - + : 1.5 v/v o Using Eq. (16.63) and setting R2 (b) Second-Order section with transfer function: Τ(s) L6.21 Refer to ιhe ΚΗΝ circuit in Fig. 16.24 Chοοsing cο 4 lr(jω)l Εxι R1 0.4295ω')ρ : Rr(2Q - 1) : Ηighfreuency gain= s2 + 0.4684ω,, + 0.4293ι'12, where the numerator coefficient was selected to yield a dc gain of unity The transfer function to the οutput of the first integratοr is Vnu vi _ 1 _Vnι - sKl(CR) Φn, sCR vi s2+Sj+ωο 2 Thus the centre-frequencY gain ΚQ = CRωn : Κo - l.5Υ2 -_ 3v/V F.x:16.22 "T" Select R, +C: -Rz:R::Rs:1ΟkΩ JσA2g3x2τ104xlo4 : 2.43 nF Cι:Cο:C--2.43nF n - - l.4=> κ^ - _9-: - L-oιiql'n Φ,,(' Ο.4684ιοΓ 14 (c) Second-Order Section with Transfer-function: Γ(s) : 0.9883ω2 The circuit is similar to that in (b) abοve but with Rr : Rz - R:: R5 _ 10kΩ 7 Cr:Ca: - αln X ;: 10* ,,(Rr/ R"\s2 + ι._ " (RF/R1)-2n l sω,,/Q1ιrl2u given C : lnF Rι : 10 kΩ R_ ι '' lο ,_-_ll.8:]kΩ ΦoC 2π5 X lρ'X 10kΩ Rι:1οkΩ+R": : R2(2Q-1) R2 _ 10kΩ*R, : 9ο kΩ =-10(10 - 1) s2 o Jα9s83x2τ1ο4x1ο4 1.6 nF :5.56 o:Jασ8&1 _ Ο 1789 ThusRu v^ Vi : Q/ω,,C:55.6kΩ PΙacing the three sections in cascade' i.e. connect_ ing the output of the firsrorder section to the input of the second-οrder sΘction in (b) and the output of of section (b) to the input of (c) results in the οverall transfer function in eq. (16.25). : &-' Rr*o DCgain R, ω_2=R, " = : lor9]' \5/ : κχ: (z ;)fr : : 3}:9.: 16.7 25.6 kΩ , Εxercise l6-6 jbr ,'+r[-___Ξ-+ Ι l \ \Ιο "x2X ΙOs lοΞ;;τ;/* ;,ηρ ---------.:1.59nF 1 ]π10* {ιlll l lM = :1 : ,'+ l0* : -εein = ΚQ r13 X lοJ) + 1Os _ 0 ,: -3xΙΟot^/qxιo'-ηx 2 t = -0.382 x 10a and -2.618 Χ rc4 rad s :'_ ll1f, ]i X . Ι0:2Ο0kΩ :r. : 2φ 19 Εx:16.27 vi :τrd ΤabΙe 16.2 ,l,*'''πλ, *^^'-.,iE 1 Vt: O- vo sczRl Σ 1at (Α) V^ j:?+SCr(Vο-Vi-τ#\ * v,-v^ o;;":o &*sc u"*##,r ,l 2 1'-l- Γ: : X + oVο _ 1O*s sc2.R3R4 vo= ΙnF vi : ]ωkΩ _α/ scι ffr;l n Ro +1 .tc2R3R4 + KQ ffillhη',fr' = " ψ't : f: This is a bandpass function whose poles are identical to the zeros ofr(s) in Fig. (16.2g a). soιο C,_-l0 "F.R':2Χ ΙO5Ω&Rn:5, |::9,: 10'Ω ' ]&l;,llirrr*xtι Vr: _.-JX2XlΟaXα Vi s2 lsX lo4 + Ι0β i:ιr:lιtiιln of the feedback network is : ].Ea t. Τhe poles are the roots of ΙffiMlΙΙuilillιΙΠπ|:lττilf :ι: poΙι.nomial, ]ΙMhflιπυπrυrli* l1sltιιuωπυ υl uil-τ'-_ ] --Ι \ - l' ffit,,'" = -_- : ]0-9 lffi = *' -'Ιl. C&) F, 'cg7o Rι : 2X l 1O5 Ω, - For unity centre-frequency gain Xα: 10a+α: τnus & : lΦ kΩ: R. α l_α 2x1o4 ο O'5 -- ι00 kΩ :ο ^ Exercise 16-7 1 Δω, - _ !9--'---Ξ : -l.s( ^+2.o Ex: 16.28 .s;o <_ Scayoι ωo .---> Sc4 (yΛ-yο) SC3V6 c3 Διoo:-1'1:-2Ψo Ca R2 - vi - R1 vo ri:{-C' +.si:ΔC,-z '" C, (')ο - *" C, 11 - _!ι_2l+ ') '(-2Ι-2 SC'V, - t :2-2:0Ψο : so-,^J) l sg,Δ=C'-l "L2 'C ^Q a R2 n χ; Γ yol srcrc.R, 1 - vi sz + f;sc.n, * 'sc'Rl -n, s.ft_,(r R. . 1 O :o(-2)+(0)(-2)+0:0Ψο Ex: 16.31 From Eq (16.96) & (16.97) I ft). Cι l a -_..-.-------:_' νηr,,R/Rr(l,ι) Rz) \R, gain: ] sc,,+ Ιl "#_* as in Eq. (16.ii) lc.coR,R, D.C. + V ρSCa(SC,,Rz) / C3C4Rβ2 : -J- <no high we have: Δι,ro Σ 1at(Α) ο- 1:0Ψο o 2Ψο V,,(t + SC, Rr) SC3v LQ:ι- (d) using the results in (c) tbr bοth resistors being Ξ V,, + Combining the results in (a) & (b) (c) vo Vn: !=.Δρ__-1x2--l% )- O 2 s9 "R+ vo as in Eq ( 16.78) Cι:Cι:ω6TρC l ,x20 - 2ττloaγ 2ο0 X lοr - 6.283 pF From Eq. (16.99) C.-C':ΨΞ:O.3l4pF 020 From Eq (16.100) Centre-frequency gain = Q.E.D. Cs : Cs : : 2 t 0'314 PF Εx:.16.29 From Fig 16.34 (c) Εx: t6.32 R,_R,:R:10kΩ CR:2Qlω. tΛ-2Q,rRnι : 4Q2 -- C, : R'' - υl9Ι.Q9 '_ 2τ106 X.l.2 Χ lO 2/J1 : 2π(4 x 16:;10a ι(!\: \) Ι .5.63 nF : R.ll ., Ιl R, : Q _ - I 2 .. BW : f ,/Q: ι'l +ιin:_-; 2 : '1Ψa !x2 : 2 15ο 1'5 Gι|| R'"; zωrl 35 (2πx455X103)X5X10'6 7/2 *Δ'o: -' +Δ'Q/Q (b) ΔR. i R,: 2Ψa kΩ+R, : 10311 103 2.81 nF S'o: R3 2 X Ex:16.33 z Fi,x:16.30 Refer to the results in ExampΙe 16.3 (a) ΔR./R. : *2Ψo ':,: R 6 1Ψο 455t35: 13 KHz 1 ωhL I : Cι : (2τx455x lOr)2X5X lΟ 24'4"Ι nF 24.47 - - 0.2 : 24.27 nF 6 :3kΩ 7 pF R: 1 = _ .3 .. --"' Χ2?-X = _ αlll ilΠlill η(16.37 Γ"sιaεe ι ^ -ξΛsιage2 lL ιL ::x15.Γ:1': _:ω/2[2 : 10.'lMΙiιηrυlllπ'ri α Rrιug"l X : : 6.-) :1'Φ/.7X106)2X3X10-6 L ηi ]πF '.ι.110) '] ι.?s Ξ 1fl.48.63 Ψ 103 -*D M]: - 3ΙΟ.' _ ιυlυι. - .l ff.= 1 : _Ιits τtr : zq.:.8 = _ι: 5 X 455 X 1O3 X 5 X 10-6 fili' ?- -]Ιl = _!_ . .ΙR/n.95 48..here 1.. 15.1 14|.t 1 :Π7 Gain of synchrοnous-tuned amplifier at to - |03 Gain οf stagger-tuned amplifier atlρ is proportional to Ιp-l- = s.X 1Ο.1 (2τ lo.5 lο-6 pF CBt : . - __ f.rlrjthr...Exercise 16-8 :.Ι* Eq (16.63 x 74J Χ 1o_|2 ΙO6.fr 1 ιιΙlιΙ|'l * ]. t:.'. Φ+r I: R: x 106.'-s* = x I ωbzL : ::e ιι1ltage developed across L2 kΩ : 74.77 '2oιL ls5 '=-l-i. .JKHz MΗz X lO'6 2π 1o3 Ex:16.Ratiο 1l7 :7Δ') .an * x 10 For stage 2 kΠ - 72'8 15.ηi:. Vr" : ΙR/n & Ri is =#'- 141..-i :li]m]il] ]il.- ...2 x X.5xl5.lΙ6) : '.'i-]..- Τhu_s.illll{i π' " .Ιi|]fil.77 ΜHz 141'4ΚΗz _. Eq(i6.fh.'l2 --a : lo.r[z lil'.95 x Rsιage2 6.uf. .]{ τ lJΙn.3 .4 Χ 2π CΒ.2X3Χ (2π10.rtritt | - 72.ψ1lιl .' 'iS = 1_ C: τeε: n caιions mιuιr.I15) - "{F-- _ :rq on.8X = :. .4 Χ kΩ l9. Now if we :''(.l7'2 17_'Ι vο t 1 Vo .n" neglect the curv b -.* i. R..Exercise Ex: 17.*.(ι-ft.r*i.ο95 + is tο ground :\ Zp kΩ .0.1 Ροle frequency f.03 :--------1 3+scR*3iπ : where R : 1Ο kΩ and C .!(ot _R.. _ 1kΗz Centre frequency galn: +(:d..' :-15Χ]-οτ(t-J) _ ' yb-(-ι5) Vn-Vu Rl +5'93V Thus limiting οccurs at ?6 the cuπents rent through D.R (Yr* Yn ) \ R. : __τ' 2u.n. Αt the positine 2 Εx:.3 5 peak is from symmetry. 16 X 10-9 kΗz input and worκing from the οutpuι back tο the continuing the equations we get ' νο ' ι-τ'scn] *(n*#χi-r. t6' (b) The frequency of oscillation ινtpιlptεκ cltι'l : !vzv οr L* : VR\'o'* Vr(t ..n.5 : ('*ft)('=+tJ :(t* 2 thus the a) for oscillations to start. /R' shοu1d be Set So that iιs resistance Rl\ . scRrR I 'sCR I 3.'7 + i.ο / 3. the positiνe peak' tο-peak νoltage is 2l '36 V Slope in the limiting regions -R. in-vu t3 :-5. * =+Vο: 1ο'68v Υ 1:2.-v. _60 Limiιer gain .)777.4 (b)"f": Ex:17. x 3 +. )- scκrR'l Ι . scn'=L :#ι.91 (a) vb+15 Vo: -F the R.93 3 : -) : |otentiometer -O. we see that the negative peakoutput Thus the φ*1 .li R. lo-s + ---l---.-lοElο'.(r'.#) _ voΓι. sCR/ r\η Y.ft) Thus.)+οτ(r+J) :5+0.93 V/V vo . SCR.5.#*#π) .Sy !6x l0 = by settlng The closed loop poles are tbund οf s' satifiying νalues the are itl"y ir..) : kΗz drop (0'7 V) voltage at nοde b will be one diode 1/3 ofV'l thus is about which V.93: 1 is (10s/16) rad/s peak (c) Refer tο fig.s r J/\ -' 16 x 10-s + ---J-5116x1Ο ] : 303 : -Vo _ l(Vo. y' l6 nF Thus L(s) : 3'03 . ut iirl = tt '.fr: z.l scR *ι' '-*)] s-cnrl'..ιιι. vοItage uiouJ.) 10 2Ο Ex:17. in cοmparisοn with that find we Ro and R' through L :'v*&. 17.Λ1 : ω ":-2Υ /Υ - -601ι 30 5. L(s) -ξ)-s Εxι17.tc u": #. (oscilΙations have started) it can be eliminated resulting in s'ι.Exercise 17-2 v"/ RΙ Ex:17.D.ιrc(ε.S.|| zxlo3ll 1OoX1O δ" :l0lι 2|l C.:n R lm. Rε:OΞOο:Ξq.) r*(rt.4R -4R *.ι.Ε.G'.F.t..IΦ . .the magnitude οf !ο l or gτeater than) unity. JC(Lt + I.*r&-r)] Nοde equation at collecιor: 4*Ι {.*).6 .is _Lr . Εx: |7.9 ]πlOr = . t6Χ 1ο-9X 10X 103 tΙz foηsm.*ε.nkΩ R w large as the voltage :fu Ε€ak-tο-peak L1 / amplitude : qll R.-k('-#") ]ffi'Ι? s_cκ.ll Γo : . 1οO : ιοοxIoJ 1.64:65.ε.64kΩ t.Yo *sΞπΞ & [rk v.C + L2C) : jω 1l-ω2C1Lr+Lr)l+jal '.:01g^R"t:# ηπfoe οf R.8$ \-Vo.- from *sL*.ξ : Γl . πtπ. C-R: 1 o L2) + L2 L2 + 8^R': Lι/ Lz 3 for οscilΙations to start g'R)> _t L2 Q. . Substiπting S *)- S21L.υ.jιοCR1 :' -ξ('-#) aΙ the ι m{ b value of α) that πrmber.-t.v'"k*h:' ξ*r'u.airred Since Vo * D.:vorh#:r"(.r:40xt..

Rι R2 : 1.Ο1 x lor2 Χ 0.:1kΩ R2:200kΩ Rz . 5οXl0 :10π l'f 5: R'x10 Rr: a levelsof:t12V 10 kΩ R2 : 20 kΩ : 200 Rr forR.01 65.Οl + ο. 2ιτ : |ο.015xrc6x0.: ft..66 Ex: 17.10 from Eq (17.12 v r" .25) .L3 0.1 : Ex: L7.52 120 " = 55.''c\+c2 O.66 μF z CtC.R.018 MΗz g-& =9! : a Timedelay= 3V 7ΙΙ 2τx2.13 R. &).6 .125 ms f 0.x:17.14 2.olzx 10-]2 2.6 - 16kΩ Α comparator with Ex:17.Exercise I 7-3 : Cz x 0.015 MΗz from Eq (11.000 Ex: 17.ft-.V r.66 X 10 6 = 100 μΑ 0. : : 50 mV .15 |V-| l'rl Βxι17.0ι2 + 4 F. PossibΙe chοice ι00 2 &:10 Ο.1 'P I 1- lΙ C"C" o ' "^fr.szxa9]Φ ms=Ο.11 Vτll:Vτr:βlttι R' -..24) "1 Ι\ 2τ]LC' : a_ αsz'o.: Rr+R2 .06 R2 2Rt threshold of 3 V and output R] R.

55 V 5.#': #6: .7 .l Χ l0-6X ΙOX lοrx lnΓ|2 + 7r) \12 Jt_-τ1_-. Vο : ο.. Vυ : 4'6ll 1.) 0.:'ioo. R2 Thus Ru : -5 : 20kΩ 10 -10 x R2 .05 : 0. * O.: -a+R.o.. tnr12.ss) /l.15 : Hz : 0.75 V 500 : _-lo.- ::Ι _ ' ]ο^ X OO9Ι l.45l Ηz.7 +.6s) \ 1 Αt 1ο0'c .(+#) _4281Ηz Αt 0'c.09t/ F{Ζ Tt During V ζ : - 12 T2 (ι2 + V o)e '/5 '(t1 Vι: Voatt:T/2 Vο: 12-(12+Vo)n-'''' R2 10kΩ τ: z. Vn : O.18 To obtain a triangular waveform with l0_V peak_ to-peak amplitute we shouΙd have V7u:-Vrr:5Y ButΙ/".65 V lt J - /lrr.09Ι lnr \I _ v v .O5 : 0. : ':Ψ r.Exercise 17-4 . :Ξ-.rg.7 . \1r.25 ) Αt 50'c.35/ : 0.: 3'995 Hz h(12.7s\ \r1.no"."n(12+Vo\ \ι2-VD) : 3 Ι0 kΩ 2 XO.4sl Ex:17.@\5oo - V Ιr) \12-vD) fltr"": .

5 gρVrn -Vτr - 1O-3 X 1ο-6xRΧ 10/10 5ΟkΩ F.25 .6q x l0 I : kΩ(l) 14'49 Using Eq (13. l0.17.' :2: 04 For 3V'< v ._-_--!0. l0.44 : . _ 0.Thustheerroris kΩ.whileideally ". * kdl and 3.: Ξ 5 1.1CR*R : T/1.Εxercise [7-5 For 1 kΗz tiequency. 17. u 'RrR2 t- ='Ιv υ-_] stο 4. .-τ125 ιzs ideally I .1 X mΑ while ideally -0.37) X tΟ 1O0 Rr : : 6 0.2.6l kΩ (1) : o.whi|e .17'2| T _ 0.6 mΑ) 16:!*4--l 5R.1c: 9.1 x 1O-6 Χ R3 -(i#) Εx:.4mA Thust.22 .O1 R: X Ο. subsιihrting into (2) Rl : ι _ 1_ ji RA+ 2RΒ RΑ + RB 8V we must haνe 6.69 x 103 x 1Ο_l21Ro + 2RB) 1O3 = Ro'l 2RB .10 mA.88 kΩ (2) 7'27 ΙJse 7. R2 : 1.tOmΑ. * Αt V: 514 the 0. T = lms /2 _ _ 0.i:0.1 mΑ' Α+R" _-----__Ξ_ - o 75 : V (i. Thus the error is circuit proνides r5-3 -.l kΩ 1οο : i 4 o'u Εx:. .45) x 14.20 _ To obtain a perfect match at υ to select R.1 x25 : 2.69C(RA+2RΒ) X 0. Thus the error is 0 A.6 5 the error Νow.1 .x:11.3 mΑ (mΑ) 8 Rl 6 -Γ .3 l0-7 . i --> is -0.9 mA.2 kΩ j: 9: 0.25 - standard 57o rΘSistors' Ex:.(2)+Ra : 3.4 mA' +0. Αt 1/ : 7Y . the circuit provides T : l.7 l25 π Ξ Ξ R: : 1'25 kΩ Αt v : 3 V.whileideally. -!.Thus At u : 10Y the circuit Provides.e.6mΑ.25 kΩ for ι> 7V .7 5 the circuit proνides _-] ι. υ ' υ 3 υ_7 -RrR2Rr Thus.8.6 0.3 mΑ.19 Using Eq (1'Ι. to obtain : 8 * 8-3 .5 mΑ. : i : 1. so that 6171 Ω l.u 4 2 ι--0.75 10. T To obtain a perfect match at V Slope = 1/R. Αtυ:2V.6mΑ.

wil1 cοnduct and close the negative feedback Ιoop around the op amp.s ) 2. 2. The diοde wiΙl be cut offand u.42\ 2. Thus the voΙtage at the op amp output._r R 1llfl* h1 - -' 2.7V :) 0.lΙ/.)R" __P .o: 10mV :10μΑ = 1mΑ z: > O. υo operative.42\ rt :'::' : \-../1_2. the current - : through R.l L5 ? / l\ 2. .? x 2'42 2.51 v υl: I vΞτ/o: 1v iο : 1 mA.2Rr) . 1t a : -0J V which will set .1 Exercise 17-6 Thus. ιp : Ο. the negatiνe feedback causes a virtual short circuit to appear between the input terminaΙs of the op amp and thus υo: ιl.5 V so : 0. : v. wiit be 1 mΑ.π:: ]Ι-_1J )υA υo R )υo =1 nε rι"'aπIp .6V 0. υo:0Υ υι: -12Υ lilr( u .26 Refer to Fig(17.(Vr.34) E^--.25 ) 2.Ι"1Ιir) . Ιn summary υo: 0 for υ.5 -+. and D. υ 0.s f 1 . --.-Ι. the op amp Saturates in the pοsitive saturation leveΙ.>0 Un: aΙ for υ1<0 Εx: l7.5 : -.U/ ινι τl Y. For positive U/ . D.7 V υl _ 13Υ at : -1 V -Thenegativefeedbackloopisnot aA 7)o '.ilι'iπι is ideal υo : υrfor .s ) . rnv mv R l. mΑ 10μΑ :0.42 2. : Ο.Ι. :: K l.s lr(l i.ο Χ . : f Εx:17. υomust be negative.1 case.5v : rJ ο. in which {..42 V 11 v.4+94 \/ For the diode to cοnduct and close the negative feedback loop. : Q.

7 V 1)o_ +lmΑXlokΩ: l0V υr:10+υr. R1 .. : o+ 10 1]A : * Fοr ι. :0V -η:ο. R. τlD| off * nο curfΘnt flοws through D. -- Ο. 15+ι'l:o 3R R τη: -5V ιl'1-5Υ-DzoffD. V : .. : 0.on ' Uο:0V For υ. L7.οn. will conduct thΙough l0 mΥ r kt) uo goes the & tbrms D. The following circuit .5 + +0.will terminal' inνerting input be will D.r' Εx..Exercise 1 7-7 R'' Thus D' off and no cuΙrent will flow thrοugh τη{0-D. 15 . r.-on ' .ο lΟ μA .1 so goes negative.& R. will be | :lmΑ 'τ: τ.7v R:: to v. Thυs ιhe diοde' D''νοlιage will be 0. through curτent : υ..21 vΙ >0 - Equivalant Circuiι -D.off υ12 0 D1 into the Current flows from ιη through Rl' R" output terminaΙ οf the opamp' ι0 goes negatiνe results: and is thus οff. This οccurs aS the 15 V supply negative υ' sοurces the current Ι even for sma'll 0 This situation remains the case until 1 : u0 7lι : -R. ' The nega_ thus be tive feedback lοop of the op amp w:i1l at the appear will ground closed and a virtual The cutοtΤ' be D.:1g-7γ "...IRR As z. D. : -l μΑX 10kΩ : o.. Rrand R.10 mV The cuΓrent through R1.5 V. τ. : -10mV R. the above circuit hοlds that τη.1 V ο'1 : 0'6 V This is similar to the case when v.28 1kΩ : 0..D. Εxιt1.

1 10 = 0.1V = =O.Exercise 17-8 υ' : b) with 1 aΙ1 oΓ V- simiΙar to the circuit in (a) but ιhe undergτounded οpamp input termi- nalsatul: 1 V υo:1V Ι : \/ 10kΩ : υ1 :1*Uo. resis_ ι:nce in kΩ & vοltages in V.use circuit mΑ : -vr: 1V 1.0lmΑ Ι + Ι"= 0'o2 ov V6=_ιη =Ο..Iv {ο.2mA Vr: Vo Ι V= 1+O.oλ - uο .7 ι o. 4'3>o ιο: 10Υ 1 : φ : 1 mΑ-diodevοΙtages : O.aΙΙinput teiminals (nοt grοunded) of opamps is equal tο Ι0v.1 vo ai ι1 \B :g.l+O7+οιl.1 γ lοr all circuits.|.l -" υ{j:0-ΙR : =.01mΑ 1= 0 + 0.οl.na V'=Vρ+ (Ιμ 0. in (d) mλ .similar to (a) & (b) .Ι μO.63 V Vι= _12ν <- 0.5 note U/ : 7l0+ o.οr.#)" = -υr .1γ Vs: Vr-fV^ = O.63V IV (e) 0.=0.63 V \.7 : 1O.o.-(ii.rΙορ(Q?) : "\l/ 1.. currents are given in mΑ.7+O.7J Ο. = Ι + o.6V (c) : - O.7 υ1 υ.:Ι*Ι. . - :./ο.:0.7V Vι : υo+ ΙJοz : 10 + ο.1 r/ 10 V .R = =0. υD2:0-Vo<Ο-Drοff! '"'I : mΑ ιoρ ΓQ-l) Ι.tlon[QΟ2\ "\ Γ/ = 0.1 mΑ Ιo.7 V d)ur:ρ.

8 + 0..e..l. we οbtain Vυl+vM+ Vr.o8 O.| Thus. the block diagram implements the absolute value οperation.To τR obιain Γull-scale leading. Thus l mΑ. i. with the diodes reνersed.Exercise 17-9 υt ('D 1: . _ -lηl υz _ 0.|υr|| = + |υ. and a weighted summer results in the circuit shown belοw.73 "D be Vοι : lO l O. Using the circuits of Fig( 1 7.55 V : where v _5'D : s. Αt this valυe of VΑ.l logr+) -\1/ V Π]'x:17. _ 1"Λ' υ. lmin : -8. - Forιlr>0.5 V" will be maximum when peak. υρ : -|x . : -|ιl'| and 'lJο: _|"Λ_zX |.1 Forυr<0'i.7 + Similar|y we can calculaιe 1/.ι.Ο : .31 use circuit (d) Vo I 10.5 _ - o.7 + ο.34 a).7 + O.e. UseR _ Rf _ lOkΩ - Thus V.ΟmΑ _ 2mA V.rl :+|"..7V and U.o5 4.55 v .e. Ι0 V _s 1. This currenι musι be equal tο l mΑ. υo : 5 : τΓRΨ 2* kΩ Vo is at its positive J2 v.30 ) τtιe average current through the meter will 't <lc a x 'l' . to implement the halt'-waνe rectifier.i.o* s"lt x o. which leads tο R = 4.' -* v.υ.10 V Ι. - : υo is a sinusoid οf 5-V rms (peak vοltage of mA lo _ -al: ζ: Ex: 17.*Vo Vοι: Vυι : 0.