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A PROJECT REPORT Submitted by
RAJESH.J (Reg.no:04TC09) BAKTAVATCHALAM.G (Reg.no:03LC02)
in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of
BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING
COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCEINCE AND ENGINEERING THIAGARAJAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
(A Govt.Aided ISO 9001:2000 Certified Autonomous Institution, Affiliated to Anna University) MADURAI-625015 APRIL 2007
THIAGARAJAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
(A Govt.Aided ISO 9001:2000 Certified Autonomous Institution, Affiliated to Anna
Certified that this project report “AN APPROACH TO CONTENT BASED
IMAGE RETRIEVAL USING CLUSTERING” is the bonafide work of “J.RAJESH(04TC09) , G.BAKTAVATCHALAM(03LC02)” who carried out
the project work under my supervision.
SIGNATURE Dr R.RAJARAM HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT
SIGNATURE Mr. M. SIVAKUMAR SUPERVISOR
Computer Science & Engineering Station: Madurai
Submitted for the VIVA VOICE Examination held at Thiagarajar College of Engineering, on
First and Foremost it is our duty to express hearty and sincere thanks to Dr.V.ABHAI KUMAR, our principal for giving us an opportunity to do this project. We also indebted to Dr. R. RAJARAM, Ph.D. The Head of Computer Science and Engineering department for his energetic encouragement. We are grateful to thank our guide Mr. M. SIVAKUMAR, M.E., Lecturer in Computer Science and Engineering department for patiently and full heartedly assisting in each and every step of this project. Finally we thank our Project Associates, all the Non-teaching staff members, My friends and My Parents who have been supporting us in the all our ways behind the successful completion of our project.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER NO. TITLE ABSTRACT LIST OF FIGURES 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 SPATIAL DATABASE 1.1.1 SPATIAL DATA 1.1.2 SPATIAL DB MODEL 1.1.3 SPATIAL DB STORAGE 1.1.4 GIS 1.1.5 SPATIAL DATA OPERATORS 1.1.6 SET ANALYSIS 1.1.7 NETWORK ANALYSIS 1.1.8 RASTER MODELLING 1.1.9 VECTOR MODELLING 1.2 SPATIAL INFORMATION 1.2.1 COLOR 126.96.36.199 COLOR HISTOGRAM 188.8.131.52 COLOR SEGMENTATION 1.2.2 TEXTURE 1.2.3 SHAPE 1.2.4 TEXTUAL DESCRIPTIONS 2. PROBLEM DEFINITION 2.1 TEXT BASED IMAGE RETRIVAL 2.2 CONTENT BASED IMAGE RETRIEVAL 2.3 CLUSTERING 3. REQUIREMENTS 3.1 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS 3.2 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS 4. PROPOSED METHODOLOGY 4.1. IMAGE ENHANCEMENT PAGE NO. 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 8 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 15 17 18 19 19 20 20 22 35 36 36 36 36 36
4.2. IMAGE ENHANCEMENT TECHNIQUES 36
4.2.1 INVERSE OF ENGRAVE 4.2.2 DOUBLE EMBOSS 4.2.3 GRAY SCALE 4.2.4 3D SHAPE DETECTION 4.2.5 INVERSE 4.2.6 EDGE DETECTION 4.2.7 GRAY SCALE 4.2.8 GRAY SCALE EXTENDED 4.2.9 COLOR REDUCTION 4.2.10 HIGH COLOR MODE 4.2 COLOR FEATURES 4.3 IMAGE COMPARISION 4.3.1 DETERMINING PATCHES 4.3.3 PROCESSING PATCHES 4.3.5 COMPARE USING PATCHES 4.4 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION 4.4.1 IMAGE SETTINGS 4.4.2 PERFORMANCE GRAPHS 5. 6. 7. 8. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS CONCLUSION FUTURE WORK REFERENCE
37 37 37 38 38 39 39 40 40 41 41 42 43 43 43 44 45 46 47 48 48 48
4.2.1 CALCULATE COL FEATURE VECTOR 41
ABSTRACT Color is an Important Attribute in Images. So we use Color Features and their Clusters used to find the Nearest Images with respect to their Color Contents. We can compute the Similarity between two images in CBIR using Color and its other features. In many research areas Color feature is the one of important feature for Image Retrieval. Many of the Researchers find many methods to process the Image Color for similarity measurements like Segmentation, Region Mapping …etc. But we propose a new technique that is Comparison using Median Vector and new algorithms and we compare the efficiency to the already developed method. Also we recommend our Image Enhancement Algorithms to overcome the Computational Errors in the Color Feature Extraction. Also we give the opportunity for Text-Based Image Retrieval rather then CBIR when some simpler images to be searched. All of Our Algorithms always works with only Pixel Values. Also we combine the similar images of output using clustering.
LIST OF FIGURES NUMBER
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
Images Stored into Spatial Database Spatial Database Models Context of GIS Geo-Referencing Spatial Data Queries Set Analysis RGB Histogram Text Based Image Retrieval Image Retrieval Content Based Image Retrieval
04 06 08 09 10 11 14 20 21 22
1. INTRODUCTION Color is an important attribute of visual information. Hence color is a very useful Attribute for image matching and retrieval. Color images have not been used widely due to the large storage and high computational requirements. With advances in technology both the computing the storage costs are rapidly decreasing therefore color images are increasingly being used now in many applications our work has been motivated by a need to develop color matching techniques so that image retrieval based on color can be and fast. This is required in many multimedia information systems such as trademarks databases, face image databases …etc. The problem is defined as follows assume that there are a large number of color images in the database. Given a query image we would like to obtain a list of images from the database which are most similar in color to the Query image. For solving this problem two concepts need to be developed – first a Feature which represents the color information of the image and second a similarity Measure to compute the similarity between the feature values of two images. Research on Image Retrieval is of high importance as it has applications in various domains such as bio-medical, remote sensing, digital library, astronomy, textiles industry and etc. The last decade have seen the emergence of a new generation of image retrieval systems called Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) Technology. In this technology the visual content of an image is most of the time described using three image features: color, texture and shape. The color feature is the one that received the most attention from the research community. This is probably due to the relative simplicity with which this feature can be extracted and implemented. The usage of the color information in an image without including its spatial distribution reduces the usefulness of these techniques as they produce outputs that are not conform to human perception. This paper describes our recent research work in which we investigated efficient means to combine color information and its spatial distribution for a more accurate color-based image retrieval.
1.1 SPATIAL DATABASE Spatial Database is the large and vast Database that contains Spatial Data. Now the Geographical Information’s of Earth and its entities are stored in this Database rather than normal Conventional Database. In Spatial Database the Geographical Information’s stored as Images obtained form any Image Source like Satellite that Collects Daily Weather Information and Extracted Features form that Image for Future Process using that Image. Also the Image Source gives vast amount of large Images with high definition, so we don’t have that much of storage space. To reduce the image storage space we need to process that image into various form and also the content of image shouldn’t be modified by that processing. So we extract some features from that image and store it into database rather than store the original image and get it from when it needed.
Image PreProcessing Features Need for Future Image Processing
Spatial Database Modal
Figure 1.1 The way of Images Stored into Spatial Database 1.1.1 SPATIAL DATA Spatial Data is some kind of geographic element that is used to represent Any location information of the geographic image. Also it has some additional information like connectivity among those elements, contiguity… BASIC ELEMENTS OF SPATIAL DATA Geographic referencing explicit geographic reference, such as a latitude and longitude or national grid co-ordinate
Implicit geographic references such as an address, postal code, census tract name, forest stand identifier, or road name. SPATIAL DATA REPRESENTATION Objects are entities such as buildings, roads, pipes, properties; they have distinct boundaries; they are considered discrete entities. Fields are continuous phenomena such as elevation, temperature and soil chemistry; they exist everywhere (every point has an elevation or temperature); they are not discrete entities. OBJECT TYPES: o Points, Lines, Polygons…etc. USED IN/FOR: o o o o GIS - Geographic Information Systems Meteorology Astronomy Environmental studies, etc.
SPATIAL ATTRIBUTES o Topological o adjacency or inclusion information o Geometric o position (longitude/latitude), area, perimeter, boundary polygon 1.1.2 SPATIAL DB MODEL The following are the Spatial Database Model, Vector – points, lines and polygons Raster – grid, classified space
Figure 1.2 Two types of Spatial Database Models Vector Model: In this model we extract features and store it into database using the format of Points, Lines and Polygons. Raster Model: In this model we extract features and store it into database using cells, line of cells and grid of cells. 1.1.3 SPATIAL DB STORAGE
VECTOR DATABASE STORAGE o Spatial database – Internal GIS database o Attribute database – External database o ATTRIBUTE DATABASE Traditional database structures e.g. network, hierarchical and relational database management systems
These are linked to spatial database by unique identifiers of entity e.g. LOC_ID
RASTER DATABASE STORAGE o A unique reference coordinate represents each pixel either at a corner or the centric. o In turn each cell or pixel has discrete attribute data assigned to it. o Raster data resolution is dependent on the pixel or grid size and may vary from sub-meter to many kilometers. o Raster GIS’s store various information such as forest cover, soil type, land use, wetland habitat, or other data in different layers. o Raster data requires less processing than vector data, but it consumes more computer storage space.
GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS Definition: ‘A powerful set of tools for collecting, storing, retrieving at will, transforming and displaying spatial data from the real world for a particular set of purposes’, Burroughs and McDonnell 1998. ‘…tools that allow for the processing of spatial data into information… and used to make decisions about, some portion of the earth’ De Mers 1997. Context of GIS:
Database Creation: Database creation involves several stages: input of the spatial data input of the attribute data linking spatial and attribute data For the vector data model, once points are entered and geometric lines are created, topology must be "built". This involves calculating and encoding relationships between the points, lines and areas. This information may be automatically coded into tables of information in the database.
Data Input: Digitizing hard copy maps Keyboard entry of co-ordinate data Scanning a map manuscript Converting or reformatting existing digital data; and From Satellites Geo-Referencing: All data must be input to the same geographical referencing systems. Various algorithms available to convert from one system to the adopted base geo-reference. Problems of generalization with different scale data.
GIS Outputs: o Maps and Tables o Charts and Animations o Numbers and Arrays GIS Based Analysis: o Attribute data queries o Spatial data queries o Set queries o Network queries
SPATIAL DATA OPERATORS Spatial operators define the spatial relationships that exist between map features. Most spatial operators (overlaps, entirely contains, entirely contained by, contains, contained by, terminates in, terminus of, passes through, passed through by, on boundary of, has on boundary, touches, meets) can be combined to answer complex spatial queries. Proximity operators (between, within, beyond, entirely between, entirely within, and entirely beyond) are those that cannot be combined with each other. Examples of Spatial Data Queries: Metrics How long is the R. Thames including all its tributaries? How many ha. Of acid marshy grassland exist in the R. Wolf catchments?
o GIS can also compare or combine query sets in several logical ways. Queries that involve two or more query sets are called "set queries." o Commonly known as "Boolean Operators" their definitions are as follows:
Union: uniquely combines the contents of both operands (query sets). Intersect: keeps only items present in both operands. Minus: keeps only items from the first operands that are not in the second. Difference: keeps only items present in one, but not both, operands.
The main types of network analyses are: network tracing and network routing. Network tracing finds a particular path through the network based on criteria provided by the user. Network routing determines the optimal path along a linear network. Some possible criteria to select the path include shortest distance, fastest distance and minimum cost. 1.1.8 RASTER MODELLING and return numeric values for each cell in the output grid. 1.1.9 VECTOR MODELLING across layers and return Geospatial data. 1.2 SPATIAL INFORMATION The Spatial Data extracted from the candidate images and the input images for query processing are called as the Spatial Information.
Map algebra allows you to apply mathematical operators to values across layers
Map algebra allows you to apply mathematical operators to Hierarchical values
COLOR One of the primary components of image analysis for the purpose of content-
based image retrieval is that of color analysis. As you may recall, color that is visible to the human eye represents a small range of the entire electromagnetic spectrum that represents everything from cosmic rays to x-rays to electric waves. As noted above, the color visible to the human eye range in wavelength from 4000 to 7000 angstroms respectively represents the colors violet and red and all of the colors in between. All other waves ranging from cosmic rays from the stars to the FM waves to our radios cannot be perceived by the human eye. It is this small range of the spectrum that is referred as human perceived color space. o The image is a two-dimensional grid of square tiles called pixels. o Each pixel has a uniform color All colors that pixels may have form a color space. COLOR SPACE The models of human perception of color differences are described in the form of color spaces. The two primary color spaces are that of the CIE and HSV model – hence these are the typical color spaces used in content-based image retrieval systems. o RGB: o HSV: The HSV model represents color in its distinct components of hue, saturation, and value. To understand this model, we will first explore its components. The primary colors are identified as the primary set of colors that when combined together can create all of the other colors within the visible human spectrum. Similar to that of a computer monitor, the primary colors Each color is a sum of a red, green, and blue component. The intensity of each component is given by a number from [0, 1]. The color is a triple (r, g, b) from the unit cube.
are that of red, green, and blue. Equal mixing of these colors produce what is known as the secondary colors of cyan, magenta, and yellow. If we were to represent the primary and secondary colors within a color wheel, you will note that the secondary colors complement the primary colors. For example, the primary colors of red and blue mixed evenly will produce magenta, blue and green create cyan, and red and green create yellow. This process of inter-mixing colors will produce tertiary, quandary… eventually producing a solid ring of colors. This definition of color based on the combination of primary colors is also known as hue; note the color wheels above and below. As can be noted form the diagram above, saturation refers to the dominance of a particular hue within a color. A less saturated color is closer to white while a more saturated color is closer to the pure color found on the outer edge of the HSV color wheel diagram (toward the pure colors). Meanwhile, the value of a color refers to the intensity (the lightness or darkness of the color). While the two components appear to be similar, they have different effects concerning the visibility of a color. A color that is highly saturated will have a lower value as noted from the red color. A highly valued color will have less saturation and have a color that is closer to black. Meanwhile, a minimally saturated and minimal valued color will be white. Hence, the HSV model utilizes its components of hue, saturation, and value to quantify a color. analysis. o CIE : The CIE color model was developed by the French organization Commission International de L’Eclairage developed in the first half of the 20 th century. This model was based on the tristimulus theory of color perception hue, saturation (0 = gray, 1 = most vivid), value (or brightness: 0 = black, 1 = bright). This model’s more straight-forward ability to quantify color is the reason why many CBIRS utilize this method for color
in which the three (3) different types of color receptors in our eyes, also known as cones, respond differently to different wavelengths of light. The CIE color model represents the wavelengths (400nm or 4000 angstroms for violet to 700 nm or 7000 angstroms for red) of human visible light. The color white is when all three cones are stimulated evenly. While the CIE model is a very precise method to measure color, it is not a very practical or easy method to use to examine color. Because of this, many current CBIRS utilize the HSV color space for image analysis. PERCEPTUAL UNIFORMITY: Colors are represented by should correspond to Points (in the 3-d color space) Distance between points
Perceived difference/similarity between colors
This is very far from true for RGB and HSV Other color spaces (e.g. Lab, Luv) and other distance measures (e.g. CMC) have been defined to improve perceptual uniformity. COLOR SPACE QUANTIZATION The above descriptions describe the models used to quantify colors. For example, for the CIE-RGB model (the color model for computer monitors per the CIE color model), some numeric value is noted for each color component: R – Red, G – Green, B – Blue such as R: 60, G: 10, B: 20. The same can be said for the HSV model in which numeric values are assigned to individual colors for the hue, saturation, and value. Noting this, an image is composed of many pixels – many small segments that when put together piece together the image (i.e. think a puzzle except with many small square pieces instead of all of the weird pieces). It is then necessary
to find a way to represent the numeric representation of color for the thousands of pixels that make up the image. Divide the color space into some number (e.g. N) of disjoint regions. Represent each color by the index of the region it belongs to, o A simple way of recognizing similar colors as similar (i.e. by pretending they are the same) • But colors from two different (adjacent) regions can still be fairly similar, which we would tend to ignore o As if the image had been painted using a palette of N colors Example: divide each coordinate axis of the RGB cube into 6 ranges → 6× 6× 6 = 216 palette entries. 184.108.40.206 COLOR HISTOGRAM HISTOGRAMS The color histogram represents an image by breaking down the various color components of an image and graphs out the occurrences and intensity of each color. To compare two images, one needs only to now compare the color histograms of the two images and determine the similarity of the two histograms. o Color histograms are a good representation of the colors present in an image. o The image colors are therefore usually quantized, meaning that the number of colors is reduced, often to 64 or 256 colors.
CALCULATION Color Correlogram: Another approach for color comparison is to utilize the color Correlogram method. As noted in Huang, most commercial CBIRS utilize color histograms for image color comparison but this method of comparison does not take into account of space information – i.e. the space or distance between one color vs. another color. There are various approaches that attempt to integrate spatial information into color histograms, but color correlograms natively resolve this issue. Also known as scatter plots, correlograms will create a visual representation of the image similar to that of above. So while the histogram will note the number of colors and their intensities, a Correlogram will be able to note space information indicating the distance between the different colors. Therefore, when comparing two different images, it is not only the color components that are being compared, but also the distance they are from each other. Choose a color space and a quantization. For each region of the color space, record what proportion of pixels belong to that region, o We get N numbers (an N-dimensional vector) (h1, . . . , hN). Distance between histograms gives us a notion of difference between images: o Euclidean: DE2 = (h1—g1)2 + (h2—g2)2 + . . . + (hN—gN)2.
o Manhattan: DM = |h1—g1| + |h2—g2| + . . . + |hN—gN|. Remarkably useful given their simplicity. Only capture information about the presence of a color, but ignore its spatial distribution. The color histograms are then similar to the grayscale histograms. Except that each bin represents a color and not a grey level.
220.127.116.11 COLOR SEGMENTATION The regions should be uniform and homogenous with respect to some characteristic such as intensity value or texture. Region interiors should be simple and without many small holes. Adjacent regions should have significantly different values with respect to the characteristic on which they are uniform. Boundaries of each segment should be simple, not ragged, and must be spatially accurate. A single description (e.g. a histogram) of the entire image can be very inaccurate Divide the image into several regions such that the color or texture of each region is approximately uniform, o How to describe each region? o How to measure similarity between regions? o How to combine information about similarity between regions into a similarity measure between images? Segmentation as filtering o Texture is usually defined as a pattern that repeats itself regularly in the image o One can use digital filters to work with texture in the frequency Space o Or, use edge detection to define borders between regions. Segmentation as clustering
o Divide the image into a grid of small windows (e.g. 4× 4 pixels) o Describe each window with a vector (e.g. average color, etc.) If two vectors lie close together, their corresponding windows are probably similar o Use clustering to form groups of adjacent vectors (hopefully representing similar windows) o Form a region from the windows of each cluster. Use the centroid of the cluster to describe the region. 1.2.2 TEXTURE Another key component of image analysis is the analysis of the texture of an image – i.e. the perception of smoothness or coarseness of an object. Similar To the color histogram above, many of the current techniques for image texture analysis while quantified, lack the spatial information allowing one to compare the location of a coarse object within an image vs. a smooth object. Gabor Filters: Similar to a Fourier transform, Gabor functions when applied to images convert image texture components into graphs similar to the ones below. There are many widely-used approaches to the usage of Gabor filters for text image characterization. The careful manipulation of these Gabor filters will allow one to quantify the coarseness or smoothness of an image. For example, within the above figure b) could indicate a more coarse texture than that of what was found in a). Note, the comparison of these images are performed against the mathematical representation of these graphs hence the CBIRS’ ability to compare the textures of two different images.
Wold Features: Similar to the above Gabor filters, the purpose of using Wold features is to utilize a mathematical function and coefficients to represent the texture of an image. The Wold decomposition algorithm fits within the context of human textual perception in that it breaks down image texture into the components of: periodicity, directionality, and randomness. As noted in Liu and Picard, these three components correspond to the dimensions of human textual perception determined by a psychological study. 1.2.3 SHAPE Used in many CBIRS, shape features are usually described after the images have already been segmented or broken out . While a good shape representation of an image should be handle changes in translation, rotation, and/or scaling; this is rather difficult to achieve. The primary difficulty is that images involve numerous geometric shapes that when numerically characterized will typically lose information. A methodology that identifies information at too detail a level (down the individual colors and shapes of a Degas painting for example) will only be able to identify the color palette. Conversely, a methodology that characterizes image shape at too global a level will only be able to quantify the entire image vs. identifying individual components within the image. components. 1.2.4 TEXTUAL DESCRIPTION We can also use the textual description about the candidate images, the description contains Annotations, Keywords, Image Visual Features… We compare images using these texts rather than using Content of that image, but however the single image contains lots of visual information’s and unknown visual content. For example consider a Picture of Hills, diagram of a rocket… so we use these A global approach to shape analysis and identification would require any similar images to be similar in all of its
textual information’s are the sufficient one not necessary in image comparisons. Also these descriptions highly used indexing and fast accessing the image from the database. When we compare images using text the searching speed is very fast and it occupies low space than the other methods and also no computations are needed. But consider a large database that contains high definition images then the description adding of these images are rapidly complex and no time for do that, so we go for CBIR rather than using Text Based Image Retrieval. 2. PROBLEM DEFINITION The following sections are the brief explanations to the problem definition of our project. Also the following sections contain General Approach to solve our problem. We use new approach using these general approaches. 2.1 TEXT BASED IMAGE RETRIEVAL The Image Retrieval from the database using Text comparison and the similarity of the images found using Threshold of Keywords matching. Here large no of keywords and descriptions about the image is stored with that image and the image comparison is done using Text Query with required. Also the Automated Annotations are now available to detect the objects in the image and automatically do the descriptions for that image. But the Automated Descriptions need extra computations and large amount of space rather than simple keywords that describe the image.
Image Descriptions Text Patterns
Formatting & Indexing
The Image Descriptions are given by the Users and Analyst who are interested in that Domain. The Image Descriptions are then converted into Text Patterns used for Faster Comparison. The Patterns contains the individual keywords extracted from the descriptions. Then the Text Patterns are Formatted and Indexed for Faster
Accessing. Then All the Formatted and Indexed Patterns are now Stored into the Database with that Image.
Image Retrieval: The Input Text Query is given to the Pattern Matching System. The Pattern Matching System Matching System does the following, Extract Patterns from the Input Text Query and Format those Patterns. Get the Patterns of a Image From the Database and compare those Formatted Patterns with that input patterns. If the patterns are matched as per the Threshold value then add that Corresponding image into Resulted set. Do the above until all the image patterns in the database are compared. Now the Result set has matched patterns and the corresponding threshold values. Now we divide the result set into no of clusters using threshold ranges. Then finally display the output images according to the Clusters. Here Clustering is done according to that Threshold value. The user must select the Threshold value and the range of thresholds to do the clustering. Each cluster contains images that have to be defined threshold range. Also how many no of ranges to be calculated also indicated by the user.
Stored Text Patterns
Faster Execution Storage Space is less Accuracy is high Retrieved Images are Very Similar Disadvantages: Adding Image Descriptions o Highly Complex o Long Time o Storage space is large when describe large image We overcome the disadvantage of user manually entering image descriptions using automated image annotations. In some areas the image source gives large no of images with higher size and we can’t do the manual description for these images. For Example Consider, A Satellite gives some one million images of a planet in one minute. We can’t do the manual descriptions here. We can either go to automatic annotations or Content Based Image Retrieval. But rather we use Automatic Annotations we can use Content based image Retrieval. Because content based image comparison has more efficiency. When the image comparison is needed by a small organization or any small purpose we can use the Text Based Image Retrieval using Automatic Annotations. 2.2 CONTENT BASED IMAGE RETRIEVAL
Figure 1.1 The Block Diagram for the General Approach to Content Based Image Retrieval with Clustering and Feedback. There were two approaches to content-based image retrieval initially. The first one is based on attribute representation proposed by database researchers where image contents are defined as a set of attributes which are extracted manually and are maintained within the framework of conventional database management systems. Queries are specified using these attributes. This obviously involves high-level of image abstraction. The second approach which was presented by image interpretation researchers depends on an integrated feature-extraction / object-recognition subsystem to overcome the limitations of attribute-based retrieval. This system automates the feature-extraction and object recognition tasks that occur when an image is inserted into the database. These automated approaches to object recognition are computationally expensive, difficult and tend to be domain specific. Recent content-based image retrieval research tries to combine both of these above mentioned approaches and has developed efficient image representations and data Models, query-processing algorithms, intelligent query interfaces and domainindependent system architecture. There are two major categories of features. One is basic which is concerned with extracting boundaries of the image and the other one is logical which defines the Image at various levels of details. Regardless of which approach is used, the retrieval in Content-based image retrieval is done by color, texture, sketch, shape, volume, spatial constraints, browsing, objective attributes, subjective attributes, motion, and text
And domain concepts. The developments in this field have been put forward in three levels. Level one is the fundamental level where low-level features like color, texture, shape and spatial locations are applied to segment images in image database and then find symmetry based on these segmentations, with the input image. Quite a bit of research works were being done during the last decade. As we mentioned earlier, many software packages have been developed for efficient image retrieval. Most of them have used combination of text-based and content-based retrieval. Images are segmented manually beforehand and text generated based on these manual segmentations and retrievals are carried out accordingly. But since the volume of images generated could be enormous in fields like satellite picturing, this method of manual part processing is time-consuming and expensive. Little automatic retrieval without human intervention have been developed like QBIC, Excalibur, Virage which are now commercially being used in addition to packages developed which are not yet sent to commercial market. But they have limited applications in areas like trademark registration, identification of drawings in a design archive or color matching of fashion accessories based on input image. No universally accepted retrieval technique has yet been developed. Also the retrieval Techniques developed without human intervention are far from perfect. Segmentation has been done in some packages based on color where the segmented parts taken individually do not contribute to any meaningful identification. They generate a vague symmetry between input objects and objects in image database. This level still needs to be developed further to have globally acceptable packages. Level two talks about bringing out semantic meanings of an image of the database. One of the best known works in this field is of Forsyth by successfully identifying human beings within images and this technique had been applied for other objects like horses and trees. Also for example, a beach can be identified if search is Based on color and texture matching and color selected is wide blue with yellow texture below. Attrasoft Image Finder has come up with an image retrieval technique where input images would be stored in various files. Also images would be kept in directory Files.
There would be an interface screen where users can provide the file name containing the input image and also can put various parameters like focus, background, Symmetry, rotation type, reduction type etc. The images from the directory would then be selected based on these inputs. The images in the directory are defined containing the sample segments or translated segments, rotated segments, scaled segments, rotated and scaled segments, brighter or darker segments. This method goes to some extent in bringing out semantic meanings in an image in the sense that the user can specify an input image semantically, then corresponding input image is retrieved and based on that input image, image database is searched to find symmetry. There are few others similar automatic image retrieval models available including Computer Vision Online Demos. But this level also needs much more developments to achieve universally accepted techniques to bring out semantic meanings out of an image. Level three talks about retrievals with abstract attributes. This level of retrieval can be divided into two groups. One is a particular event like ‘Find pictures of a Particular birthday celebration’. Second one could be ‘Find picture of a double-decker buses. To interpret an image after segmentations and analyzing it efficiently requires very complex logic. This would also require retrieval technique of level two to get semantic Meanings of various objects. It is obvious this retrieval technique is far from being developed with modern technology available in the field. A generic system is defined as one where the processing steps remain more or less the same (or, standardized) for different choices of image contents. An automatic system requires no manual intervention while a semi-automatic system may require a Limited manual intervention. Thus, approaches to CBIR can be semi-automatic and non-generic, semi-automatic and generic, automatic and non-generic or automatic and generic. The selection of an approach to CBIR is influenced by the image features to be extracted, the level of abstraction to be revealed in the features and the extent of desired domain independence. The use of low-level (or measurable, automatically extractable)
Features, for example, color, texture or shape, in image retrieval makes the approach automatic but not necessarily efficient. CBIR systems that make use of only high-level (composite) or semantic features are domain dependent. Inter-image distances computed using the low-level features is called “real” inter-image distances. Inter-image distances computed using the high-level features is called “estimated” inter-image distances. There is an urgent need for an efficient and effective image retrieval technique that not only reduces the complexity associated with computing the inter-image distance using low-level features, but also aids in making the system generic and automatic. The goal is to develop an efficient, generic and fully automated CBIR system. The image retrieval problem can be defined as: Let there be an image database, populated with images O0, O1, O2… On. Let Q denote a query image. Let P denote the real inter-image distance function. The real inter-image distance between two image objects Oi and Oj are denoted by P (Oj, Oj). The goal is to efficiently and effectively retrieve the best q (q < < n) images from the image database. As we pointed out, plenty of research works have been done in image retrieval based on contents of the image. Attempts have been made to retrieve similar shape when Shapes are measured by coordinate systems. Content-based image retrieval is emerging as an important research area with application to digital libraries and multimedia databases. The focus is being put on the image processing aspects and in particular using texture information for browsing and retrieval of large image data. It is proposed, use of Gabor wavelet features for texture analysis and provide a comprehensive experimental evaluation. Comparisons with other multi-resolution texture features using the Brodatz texture database indicate that the Gabor features provide the best pattern retrieval accuracy. An application to browsing large air photos is illustrated. IMEDIA project which is related to image analysis, the bottleneck of multimedia indexing concerns about image analysis for feature space and probabilistic modelisation, Statistics and information theory for interactive browsing, similarity measure and matching. To achieve these goals, research involves the following topics: image indexing, partial queries, interactive search, and multimedia indexing.
In a project named Efficient Content-Based Image Retrieval, the focus is the development of a general, scalable architecture to support fast querying of very large image databases with user-specified distance measures. They have developed algorithms and data structures for efficient image retrieval from large databases with multiple distance measures. They are investigating methods for merging their general distance measure independent method with other useful techniques that may be distance measure specific, such as keyword retrieval and relational indexing. They are developing both new methods for combining distance measures and a framework in which users can specify their queries without detailed knowledge of the underlying metrics. They have built a prototype system to test their methods and evaluated it on both a large general image database and a smaller controlled database. An approach based on visual-based image retrieval method with respect to MPEG-7 still image description scheme is presented. A segmentation method based on multivariate minimum cross entropy is used hierarchically for partitioning the color image in classes and regions. Local and global descriptors are defined in order to characterize the color feature of these regions. The retrieved images are presented in a description space which allows the user to better understand and interact with the results. A histogram generation technique using HSV (Hue, Saturation and Value) color space has been proposed for image retrieval. The histogram retains a perceptually smooth color transition that makes it possible to do a Window-based comparison of feature vectors for efficient image retrieval from very large databases. For the purpose of ordering of image feature vectors, a vector cosine distance measure is used. In an attempt to overcome the drawback of the histogram Techniques of color image retrieval which consider only global properties and hence cannot effectively define an image, a scheme to capture local properties has been Developed for more accurate retrieval. The original image is segmented into several sub images blocks and color histograms for every sub images block are generated. All these color histograms generated are then combined into a multidimensional vector to search database for similar images. In face detection in color images, a method has been used for integrating the well-known color models by using fuzzy set based concept. The shape analysis is performed by using RAMHD, an enhancement of the conventional Hausdorff
Distance. Also an algorithm for updating the elliptical model has been developed. Then a video based face recognition system by support vector machines is presented. The authors used Stereovision to coarsely segment face area from its Background and then multiple-related template matching method is used to locate and track the face area in the video to generate face samples of that particular person. Face recognition algorithms are based on Support Vector Machines of which both “1 vs. many” and “1 vs. 1” strategies. Also a methodology to find multiple persons in image has been developed by finding face-like regions through skin, motion and silhouette features. Attempts have been made to eliminate false Faces based on face geometric and the Support Vector Machine (SVM) by developing an algorithm. To get rid of the effect of lighting changes, a method of color constancy compensation is applied. To track multiple persons, a face-status table is used. The authors claim the method is much robust and powerful than other traditional methods. An object-based image retrieval procedure has been presented which allows user to specify and to search for certain regions of interest in images. The marked regions are represented by wavelet coefficients and searched in all image sections during runtime. All other image elements are ignored and a detailed search can be performed. A system for the image indexing and retrieval using speech annotations based on a pre-defined structured syntax is presented where an introduction of N-best lists for index generation and a query expansion technique is explored to enhance the query terms and to improve effectiveness. Through addition of the most probable substitutions for the query terms, more relevant images are distinguished from the data collection. A new conception of emergence index has been presented whereby index for retrieving images from the database would be decided by considering the hidden or implicit meanings of an image in addition to implicit meaning. Relevance Feedback In order to help the users retrieve the correct images they seek, relevance feedback techniques have been developed. This involves allowing users to make further Selections from the initial lot of images, presented for a query. The users can keep on
refining the search from the results of the previous search until they get the Desired images or closest to what they desire. Issues regarding relevance feedback have been presented where the linear and kernel-based biased discriminate analysis, BiasMap is proposed to fit the unique nature of relevance feedback as a small sample biased Classification problem. Also a word association via relevance feedback (WARF) formula is presented and tested for erasing the gap between low-level visual features and high-level semantic annotations during the process of relevance feedback.
Feature Extraction Most systems perform feature extraction as a preprocessing step, obtaining global image features like color histogram or local descriptors like shape and texture. A region based dominant color descriptor indexed in 3-D space along with their percentage coverage within the regions is proposed, and shown to be more computationally efficient in similarity based retrieval than traditional color histograms. The authors argue that this compact representation is more efficient than high dimensional histograms in terms of search and retrieval, and it also gets around some of the drawbacks associated with earlier propositions such as dimension reduction and color moment descriptors. A multi-resolution histogram capturing spatial image information has been shown to be effective in retrieving textured images, while retaining the typical Advantages of histograms. Gaussian mixture vector quantization (GMVQ) is used to extract Color histograms and is shown to yield better retrieval than uniform quantization and vector quantization with squared error. A set of color and texture descriptors rigorously tested for inclusion in the MPEG-7 standard, and well suited to natural images and video. These include histogram-based descriptors, dominant color Descriptors, spatial color descriptors and texture descriptors suited for browsing and retrieval. Texture features have been modeled on the marginal distribution of wavelet coefficients using generalized Gaussian distributions. Shape is a key attribute of segmented image regions, and its efficient and robust representation plays an important
Role in retrieval. A shape similarity measure using discrete curve evolution to simplify contours is discussed. Doing this contour simplification helps to remove noisy and irrelevant shape features from consideration. A new shape descriptor for shape matching, referred to as shape context, has been proposed which is fairly compacting yet robust to a number of geometric transformations. A dynamic programming (DP) approach to shape matching has been proposed. One problem with this approach is that computation of Fourier descriptors and moments is slow, although pre-computation may help produce real-time results. Continuing with Fourier descriptors, exploitation of both the amplitude and phase and using Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) distance instead of Euclidean distance has been shown to be an accurate shape matching technique. The rotational and starting point invariance otherwise obtained by discarding the phase information is maintained here by adding compensation terms to the original phase, thus allowing its exploitation for better discrimination. For characterizing shape within images, reliable segmentation is critical, without which the shape estimates are largely meaningless. Even though the general problem of segmentation in the context of human perception is far from being solved, there have been some interesting new Directions, one of the most important being segmentation based on the Normalized Cuts criteria. This approach, based primarily on the theory of spectral clustering, has been extended to texture image segmentation by using cues of contour and texture differences, and to incorporate partial grouping priors into the segmentation process by solving a constrained optimization problem. The latter has potential for incorporating real-world application specific priors, e.g. location and size cues of organs in pathological images. Talking of medical imaging, 3D brain magnetic resonance (MR) images have been segmented using Hidden Markov Random Fields and the Expectation- Maximization (EM) algorithm and the spectral clustering approach has found some success in segmenting vertebral bodies from sagittal MR images. Among other Recent approaches proposed are segmentation based on the mean shift procedure, multi-resolution segmentation of low depth of field images, a Bayesian framework Based segmentation involving the Markov chain Monte Carlo
technique, and an EM algorithm based segmentation using a Gaussian mixture model, forming blobs suitable for image querying and retrieval. A sequential segmentation Approach that starts with texture features and refines segmentation using color features is explored in. While there is no denying that achieving good segmentation is a big step forward in image understanding, some of the issues plaguing current techniques are speed Considerations, reliability of good segmentation, and a robust and acceptable benchmark for assessment of the same. In the case of image retrieval, some of the ways of Getting around this problem has been to reduce dependence on reliable segmentation, to involve every generated segment of an image in the matching process to obtain Soft similarity measures, or to characterize spatial arrangement of color and texture using block-based multi resolution hidden Markov models, a technique that Has been extended to segment 3D volume images as well. Another alternative has been to use principles of perceptual grouping to hierarchically extract image structure. Features based on local invariants such as corner points or interest points that have traditionally been used for stereo matching are being used extensively in image retrieval. Scale and affine invariant interest points that can deal with significant affine transformations and illumination changes have been shown as effective features for image retrieval. In similar lines, wavelet-based salient points have been used for retrieval. The significance of such special points lie in their compact representation of important image regions, leading to efficient indexing and good discriminative power, especially in object-based retrieval. A discussion on the pros And cons of different types of color interest points used in image retrieval can be found, while a comparative performance evaluation of the various proposed interest Point detectors are reported. The selection of appropriate features for content-based Image retrieval and annotation systems remains largely ad-hoc, with some exceptions. One heuristic in the selection process is to have application-specific feature sets. Although semantics-sensitive feature selection has been shown effective in image retrieval, the need for a uniform feature space for efficient search and indexing limits. Heterogeneous feature set size to some extent. When a large number of image features are available, one way to improve generalization and efficiency in classification
and indexing is to work with a feature subset. To avoid a combinatorial search, an automatic feature subset selection algorithm for SVMs has been proposed. Some of The other recent, more generic feature selection propositions involve boosting, evolutionary searching Bayes classification error, and feature dependency/similarity measures. A survey and performance comparison of some recent algorithms on the topic can be found. Approaches to Retrieval Once a decision on the visual feature set choice has been made, how to steer them towards accurate image retrieval is the next concern. There have been a large number of fundamentally different frameworks proposed in the last few years. Leaving out those discussed, here we briefly talk about some of the more recent approaches. A semanticssensitive approach to content-based image retrieval has been proposed. A semantic categorization (e.g., graph - photograph, textured – non textured) for appropriate feature extraction followed by a region based overall similarity measure, allows robust image matching. An important aspect of this system is its retrieval speed. The matching measure, termed integrated region matching (IRM), has been constructed For faster retrieval using region feature clustering and the most similar highest priority (MSHP) principle. Region based image retrieval has also been extended to incorporate spatial similarity using the Hausdorff distance on finite sized point sets, and to employ fuzziness to characterize segmented regions for the purpose of feature matching. A framework for region-based image retrieval using region codebooks and learned region weights has been proposed. A new representation for object retrieval in cluttered images without relying on accurate segmentation has been proposed. Another perspective in image retrieval has been region-based querying using homogeneous color texture segments called blobs, instead of image to image matching. For example, if one or more segmented blobs are identified by the user as roughly corresponding to the concept “tiger”, then her search can comprise of Looking for a tiger within other images, possibly with varying backgrounds. While this can lead to a semantically more precise representation of the user’s query objects in general, it also requires greater involvement from and dependence on
her. For finding images containing scaled or translated versions of query objects, retrieval can also be performed without the user’s explicit region labeling. Instead of using image segmentation, one approach to retrieval has been the use of hierarchical perceptual grouping of primitive image features and their inter-relationships to characterize structure. Another proposition has been the use of vector quantization (VQ) on image blocks to generate codebooks for representation and retrieval, taking inspiration from data compression and text-based strategies. A windowed search over location and scale has been shown more effective in object-based image retrieval than methods based on inaccurate segmentation. A hybrid approach involves the use of rectangular blocks for coarse foreground/background segmentation on the user’s query region-of-interest (ROI), followed by the database search using only the foreground regions. For textured images, segmentation is not critical. A method for texture retrieval by a joint modeling of feature extraction and similarity measurement using the Kullback-Leibler distance for statistical model comparison has been proposed. Another wavelet-based retrieval method involving salient points has been proposed. Fractal block code based image histograms have been shown effective in retrieval on textured image databases. The use of the MPEG-7 content descriptors to train self-organizing maps (SOM) for the purpose of image retrieval has been explored. Among other new approaches, anchoring-based image retrieval system has been proposed. Anchoring is based on the fairly intuitive idea of finding a set of representative “anchor” images and deciding semantic proximity between an arbitrary image pair in terms of their similarity to these anchors. Despite the reduced computational complexity, the relative image distance function is not guaranteed to be a metric. For similar Reasons, a number of approaches have relied on the assumption that the image feature space is a manifold embedded in Euclidean space. Clustering has been applied to image retrieval to help improve interface design, visualization, and result preprocessing. A statistical approach involving the Wald-Wolfowitz test for comparing nonparametric multivariate distributions has been used for color image retrieval, representing
images as sets of vectors in the RGB-space. Multiple-instance Learning was introduced to the CBIR community. A number of probabilistic frameworks for image retrieval have been proposed in the last few years. The Idea is to integrate feature selection, feature representation, and similarity measure into a combined Bayesian formulation, with the objective of minimizing the probability of retrieval error. One problem with this approach is the computational complexity involved in estimating probabilistic similarity measures. Using VQ to approximately model the probability distribution of the image features, the complexity is reduced, making the measures more practical for real-world systems.
CBIR Search Tools The use of low-level visual features for image indexing means that visual features must also be used as the basis of image search. Users must submit visual queries that depict their search need. Most image access mechanisms within CBIR rely upon the integration of a direct visual query tool with thumbnail browsing although some systems have sought to provide methods that rely more on browsing [see for example. The primary means of submitting direct visual queries in CBIR is through query-bysketch/paint tools (see Del Bimbo for a review). Users submit a rudimentary sketch or painting of the required image, and are presented with sets of images that have been ranked in terms of their similarity to the query for browsing. Both mechanisms can be tailored to take account of the spatial location of objects within images as a means of facilitating more accurate queries. However, asking users to search on the basis of low-level visual content represents a significant challenge to the user in that they must be able to recreate scenes either from memory or through their expectations of how a particular image or scene might look. Furthermore, frequent mismatches occur between low-level Features and the user’s highlevel semantic expectations, referred to by Santini as the Semantic Gap. For example, a
user searching for an image of a large sea mammal could easily be returned with pictures of an aircraft. The images returned would be relevant in terms of their low-level visual content, but in terms of the semantic closeness of the retrieved image to the user’s query there is a significant gap. As a consequence the user must either serially browse large sets of seemingly irrelevant images or engage in numerous query refinements. Despite these challenges there is some data to suggest that users may be able to search on the basis of visual features, although the few studies that have been carried out report mixed findings. Jose et al. examined users’ ability to retrieve images with a spatial querying tool which allowed the submission of queries by Drawing and labeling rectangles. They compared performance of this tool with a second system that used text only queries. Participants reported that they were able to formulate a mental image of a picture that would satisfy their search need, and that the queries they submitted were an accurate representation of that picture. Measures of user satisfaction indicated that subjects generally preferred the spatial query tool and that they felt it improved their performance. However, the tool used did not have the added complexity of being used in the context of content based searching alone; users were able to annotate their visual query with text descriptions. This may well have made the users task slightly more familiar and perhaps less difficult than the use of visual features alone. Venters et al undertook a requirements analysis for the design of a visual search tool for the Retrieval of trademark images. The analysis revealed that users believed that their work would benefit from the use of three different types of visual search tool. A sketch tool, a shape building tool and a browsing tool. They then evaluated the usefulness of these tools compared to an interface that allowed users to simply browse a hierarchically organized collection of images classified according to the Vienna System. They found that while the interface tools were rated very positively in terms of their usability, participants reported that they believed the sketch tool was inadequate and that its successful use depended wholly upon the users’ artistic ability. Overall, participants reported that they preferred the system which simply allowed them to browse the collection.
The possible causes for this browsing preference are unclear. It may be that users were clinging to a more familiar retrieval strategy or it may be driven by the particular tasks users were trying to accomplish. 2.3 CLUSTERING Here we are using the Clustering scheme for the only purpose of categorizing the result images in the user most likely order. So here we use a simple algorithm to categorize the result images into various clusters, so the high promising images are stored in a single cluster and less promising images stored in another cluster and the rejected images stored in another cluster. The user can view all the clusters. The algorithm is like the following, Get the Image threshold value and compare it with the cluster ranges. If the no of clusters are n then divide the threshold value by n. Add the images with the divided threshold with the corresponding clusters. Display the Clusters. 3. REQUIREMENTS 3.1 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS o Processor with 3.0 GHz Speed or Higher o Random Access Memory 512 MB or More o Virtual Memory 50GB or More 3.2 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS o Microsoft Windows XP SP2 or Higher Version o Microsoft .Net 3.0 or Higher 4. PROPOSED METHODOLOGY The following sections illustrate our proposed methodology of our project. Many of the sections contain algorithms with explanations.
4.1 IMAGE ENHANCEMENT The first process in our project is to enhance the input image, so that the image is compared perfectly. The input image may be has different contents and different format. Maybe sometimes the same image may given by twice with some small change in that image, but the comparison of these two images using pixel by pixel may not give the positive result not at all. So we propose some of few enhancement techniques that enhance the image and we compare the image using only the modified images not the original one. 4.2. IMAGE ENHANCEMENT TECHNIQUES The following sections contain some of techniques that are used to enhance the input image to increase the image comparison accuracy. 4.2.1 INVERSE OF ENGRAVE This technique is extended from the Engrave algorithm of an image. Here we apply engrave algorithm then apply the image inverse algorithm. The algorithm is given below.
For i = 1 To ImageWidth- 1 For j = 1 to ImageHeight - 1 R = ((Pixel (i, j - 1) And &HFF) - (Pixel (i + 1, j) And &HFF)) + 128 G = (((Pixel (i - 1, j) And &HFF00) / &H100) Mod &H100 - ((Pixel (i, j + 1) And &HFF00) / &H100) Mod &H100) + 128 B = (((Pixel (i, j - 1) And &HFF0000) / &H10000) Mod &H10000 - ((Pixel (i + 1, j) And &HFF0000) / &H10000) Mod &H10000) + 128 No = Abs ((R + G + B) / 3) SetPixel (i, j), RGB (No, No, No) Next j Next i
4.2.2 DOUBLE EMBOSS
This technique is used as the Texture detection algorithm. Here we call twice the standard Emboss algorithm. The algorithm is given below.
For i = ImageWidth To 0 Step -1 For j = ImageHeight To 0 Step -1 R = ((Pixel (i - 1, j - 1) And &HFF) - (Pixel (i, j) And &HFF)) + 128 G = (((Pixel (i - 1, j - 1) And &HFF00) / &H100) Mod &H100 - ((Pixel (i, j) And &HFF00) / &H100) Mod &H100) + 128 B = (((Pixel (i - 1, j - 1) And &HFF0000) / &H10000) Mod &H100 - ((Pixel (i, j) And &HFF0000) / &H10000) Mod &H100) + 128 No = Abs ((R + G + B) / 3) SetPixel (i, j), RGB (No, No, No) Next j Next i
4.2.3 GRAY SCALE This technique is used when the input image is very high color mode or very low color mode. The algorithm is given below.
For i = 0 To ImageWidth For j = 0 To ImageHeight R = Pixel (i, j) And &HFF G = ((Pixel (i, j) And &HFF00) / &H100) Mod &H100 B = ((Pixel (i, j) And &HFF0000) / &H10000) Mod &H10000 No = Abs ((R + G + B) / 3) SetPixel (i, j), RGB (No, No, No) Next j Next i
4.2.4 3D SHAPE DETECTION This algorithm is used to detect the shape of the objects that are in the image. Here the shape is displayed as 3D view. The algorithm is given below.
Emboss () For i = 1 To ImageWidth For j = 1 To ImageHeight R = Abs (((Pixel (i - 1, j - 1) And &HFF) - (Pixel (i, j) And &HFF)) + 128)
G = Abs ((((Pixel (i - 1, j - 1) And &HFF00) / &H100) Mod &H100 - ((Pixel (i, j) And &HFF00) / &H100) Mod &H100) + 128) B = Abs ((((Pixel (i - 1, j - 1) And &HFF0000) / &H10000) Mod &H100 - ((Pixel (i, j) And &HFF0000) / &H10000) Mod &H100) + 128) No = Abs ((R / 4 + G / 4 + B / 4) + i * 2 / j + 20) SetPixel (i, j), RGB (No, No, No) Next j Next i
4.2.5 INVERSE This algorithm is used when the input image contains some alpha blended objects or color inversed objects. The algorithm is given below.
For i = 0 To ImageWidth For j = 0 To ImageHeight SetPixel (i, j), Not (Pixel (i, j)) Next j Next i
4.2.6 EDGE DETECTION This algorithm is used to find the edges of the objects in that image. Resultant image contains color lines of edges with corresponding image objects. The algorithm is given below.
For i = ImageWidth To 1 Step -1 For j = ImageHeight To 1 Step -1 R = Abs ((Pixel (i - 1, j - 1) And &HFF) Xor (Pixel (i, j) And &HFF)) Or opt G = Abs (((Pixel (i - 1, j - 1) And &HFF00) / &H100) Mod &H100 Xor ((Pixel (i, j) And &HFF00) / &H100) Mod &H100) Or opt B = Abs (((Pixel (i - 1, j - 1) And &HFF0000) / &H10000) Mod &H10000 Xor ((Pixel (i, j) And &HFF0000) / &H10000) Mod &H10000) Or opt SetPixel (i, j), RGB(R, G, B) Next j Next i Inverse ()
4.2.7 FINE GRAY SCALE This algorithm is to reduce the high definition color image to finer gray scale image with promising objects alone. The algorithm is given below.
For i = 1 To ImageWidth- 1 For j = 1 To ImageHeight- 1 R = Abs (Pixel (i * j / 2 - 1, j) And &HFF + Pixel (i - 2, j + 1) And &HFF - Pixel (i + 1, j - 1) And &HFF) + 128 G = Abs ((Pixel (i * j - i, j) And &HFF00) Mod &H100 + (Pixel (i + 1, j - 2) And &HFF00) Mod &H100 - (Pixel (i - 1, j + 1) And &HFF00) Mod &H100) + 128 B = Abs ((Pixel (i, j * j - i) And &HFF0000) Mod &H10000 + (Pixel (i - 2, j + 1) And &HFF0000) Mod &H10000 - (Pixel (i + 1, j - 1) And &HFF0000) Mod &H10000) + 128 No = Abs ((R + G + B) / 3) SetPixel (i - 1, j - 1), RGB (No, No, No) Next j Next i Inverse ()
4.2.8 FINE GRAY SCALE EXTENDED This algorithm is the extended from the above algorithm to reduce the high definition color image to more finely gray scale image with promising objects alone. The algorithm is given below.
Grayscale () Inverse () For i = 1 To ImageWidth- 1 For j = 1 To ImageHeight- 1 R = Abs (Pixel (i * j / 2 - 1, j) And &HFF + Pixel (i - 2, j + 1) And &HFF - Pixel (i + 1, j - 1) And &HFF) + 128 G = Abs ((Pixel (i * j - i, j) And &HFF00) Mod &H100 + (Pixel (i + 1, j - 2) And &HFF00) Mod &H100 - (Pixel (i - 1, j + 1) And &HFF00) Mod &H100) + 128 B = Abs ((Pixel (i, j * j - i) And &HFF0000) Mod &H10000 + (Pixel (i - 2, j + 1) And &HFF0000) Mod &H10000 - (Pixel (i + 1, j - 1) And &HFF0000) Mod &H10000) + 128 No = Abs ((R + G + B) / 3) SetPixel (i - 1, j - 1), RGB (No, No, No) Next j Next i
4.2.9 COLOR REDUCTION
This algorithm is to reduce the high definition color image in to low colored image. The algorithm is given below.
For i = 0 To ImageWidth For j = 0 To Form1.Picture2.ScaleHeight If Pixel (i, j) < 2097152 Then No = 0 Else If Pixel (i, j) > 2097152 And Pixel (i, j) < 4194304 Then No = 2097152 Else If Pixel (i, j) > 4194304 And Pixel (i, j) < 6291456 Then No = 4194304 Else If Pixel (i, j) > 6291456 And Pixel (i, j) < 8388608 Then No = 6291456 Else If Pixel (i, j) > 8388608 And Pixel (i, j) < 10485760 Then No = 8388608 Else If Pixel (i, j) > 10485760 And Pixel (i, j) < 16777216 Then No = 10485760 End If SetPixel (i, j), No Next j Next i
4.2.10 HIGH COLOR MODE This algorithm is to increase the darken image in to very high brighten, contrasted and colored image. The algorithm is given below.
For i = ImageWidth To 1 Step -1 For j = ImageHeight To 1 Step -1 R = Abs ((Pixel (i - 1, j - 1) And &HFF) + (Pixel (i, j) And &HFF)) G = Abs (((Pixel (i - 1, j - 1) And &HFF00) / &H100) Mod &H100 + ((Pixel (i, j) And &HFF00) / &H100) Mod &H100) B = Abs (((Pixel (i - 1, j - 1) And &HFF0000) / &H10000) Mod &H10000 + ((Pixel (i, j) And &HFF0000) / &H10000) Mod &H10000) SetPixel (i, j), RGB(R, G, B) Next j Next i
4.3 COLOR FEATURES
Here we are using Color Based CBIR, only we compute the similarity of images using each pixel color value. The color value of each pixel may not be a single value it is a vector contains all measures to compute similarity. 4.2.1 CALCULATE COLOR FEATURE VECTOR The following algorithm is used to calculate the Color Feature Vector, which is used in our new approach of similarity computing. Get the Input Image Enhance the input image using our new techniques, now we obtain a 2D vector with rows contains enhanced image pixels. This is illustrated in the following Figure.
COLOR FEATURE VECTOR Enhancement Algorithm INVERSE OF ENGRAVE DOUBLE EMBOSS GRAY SCALE 3D SHAPE DETECTION INVERSE EDGE DETECTION FINE GRAY SCALE FINE GRAY SCALE EXTENDED COLOR REDUCTION HIGH COLOR MODE Where nImage Height*Image Width Now compute the following for each pixel of the above Color Feature Vector. o RED, GREEN and BLUE Components [RGB] o HUE, SATURATION and VALUE Components [HSV] (Pixel 0 Pixel 1 … 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 … … … … … … … … … … Pixel n) n n n n n n n n n n
o Commission International de L’Eclairage [CIE - LUV] o YUV Components Now we have the new Color Feature Vector of size, V [10, n, 12]. Now we obtain the Color Feature Vector V. This vector is used for image Similarity computing. 4.3 IMAGE COMPARISION The similarities of the images are computed using the Color Feature Vector, which is computed using the above algorithm. The similarity computing algorithm is given below. 4.3.1 DETERMINING PATCHES Divide the image into no of small images as perfect squares. Each square is called a Patch. The Patch size was given by the User, but it should be the size of nXn. 3X3 is the default Patch Size. Also Patches are completed correctly to the image. According to the Patch Size Image should be re-sized initially. 4.3.2 PROCESSING PATCHES The Patches are used for computing the Median for all the 12 Components of All the Pixels in the Color Feature Vector. So the Median is computed for each patch to all of the Color Feature Vector. Now the Median Vector is used to compute the similarity of the images. The Median Vector size is given as M [10, (n/Patch Size), 12]. 4.3.3 COMPARE USING PATCHES The similarity of the given images is calculated using the following algorithm.
Inputs are Threshold Value T, Threshold Range (T/n) Consider Clusters C [(T/n), T] Compute Color Feature Vector V for Query. Image; Compute Median Vector M for Query. Image; For I1 to All_Images (Database.Images) Compute Color Feature Vector V for Database.Images (I); Compute Median Vector M for Database.Images (I); For J1 to All_Patches (Database.Images (I)) ValComp_Patch (Query.Image.M, Database.Images (I).M, J); DThreshold_Val (Val, T, (T/n)); C [D, T] Database.Images (I); Next J Next I Display_All (C); Now C contains all the clusters and user may try to get the Cluster that he was most wanted. Also the User views the output images that are systematically similar. 4.4 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION The above algorithm is produced following results with the efficiency. Query Image:
Keyword Query: face Database Images:
[karaikudi1.JPG, karaikudi2.JPG, karaikudi.JPG, kri1.JPG, kri.JPG, tce.JPG, tcehostel.JPG, tpk.JPG]
4.4.1 IMAGE SETTINGS The input image and its enhanced images are not to be same size or same color depth. But the no of enhanced images should be matched with the input image and database images. For the patch generation the images are re-sized into square matrix of
pixel arrays. Also now this algorithm supports up to 5000 annotations and the Image size should less than 2000X2000. 4.4.2 PERFORMANCE GRAPHS
6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 Threshold M ax karaikudi1.JPG karaikudi2.JPG karaikudi.JPG kri1.JPG kri.JPG tce.JPG tcehostel.JPG tpk.JPG
5. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS The following table contains the experimental results. Image s 250 50 200 35 Size 300X300 1200X1200 500X500 1024X1024 Threshold Best Clusters Time Sec/Image 467 521 378 547 5 Out Of 10 6 Out Of 10 2 Out Of 10 3 Out Of 10 115s 79s 126s 98s Existing Segmentation Algorithm 110s 89s 134s 87s
The above experimental result shows us our new approaches of algorithms are gives best results the recommended hardware and software requirements. The existing similarity measure algorithms take more computational space and time, but our algorithm works as the best. Also all the comparisons are made only with pixel colors, the Image enhancement algorithms are very useful to overcome the Color Based Image Retrieval drawbacks. But the enhancement algorithms are not necessary. Also we compare the efficiency with the Segmentation Algorithm which is already in developed and in use. The patch detection algorithm is run in very fast manner, because it just divide the image which has nXn pixel size into no of sub-images. Also threshold is computed using a simple division operation rather use a complex algorithm in other approaches. The clusters are selected according to the threshold range division, it is also a simple division operation rather use a complex Clustering algorithms in other existing algorithms. Finally all the images with best similarity are given to the user. 7. FUTURE WORK The main drawback of content based image retrieval is Speed of Computing similarities. So we suggest that we can run our algorithm in the Parallel Environment, So that many no of computing elements are there, we get the result very quick manner. Now our algorithm supports Color Based Image Retrieval, in future we develop other Techniques like Shape, Texture, Segmentation, Region…etc. Now our implementation is in Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 language, in future we develop our all algorithms in Free Open Source Software. 8. REFERENCE  S Titov, Perceptually Based Image Comparison Method, Graphicon’2000, http://graphics.cs.msu.su/en/publications/text/Titov_2000.pdf  David McG. Squire, Wolfgang Müller, Henning Müller and Thierry Pun, Contentbased query of image databases: inspirations from text retrieval, Pattern Recognition Letters (Selected Papers from The 11th Scandinavian Conference on Image Analysis SCIA '99), 21, 13-14, pp. 1193-1198, 2000. B.K. Ersboll, P. Johansen, Eds.  K. Barnard, P. Duygulu, D. Forsyth, N. De Freitas, D. M. Blei, and M.
I. Jordan, “Matching words and pictures,” J. Mach. Learn. Res., vol. 3, pp. 1107–1135, 2003.  A. Del Bimbo and P. Pala, “Visual image retrieval by elastic matching of user sketches,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 121–132, Feb. 1997.  A. Gupta and R. Jain, “Visual information retrieval,” Commun. ACM, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 70–79, 1997.  J. Hafner, H. S. Sawhney, W. Equitz, M. Flickner, and W. Niblack, “Efficient Color histogram indexing for quadratic form distance functions,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 729–736, Jul. 1995.  M. A. Hearst and J. O. Pedersen, “Reexamining the cluster hypothesis: scatter/gather on retrieval results,” in Proc. 19th Int. ACM SIGIR Conf. Research and Development in Information Retrieval, 1996, pp. 76–84.  A. W. M. Smeulders, M. Worring, S. Santini, A. Gupta, and R. Jain, “Content-based image retrieval at the end of the early years,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 1349–1380, Dec. 2000.  A. Vailaya, M. A. T. Figueiredo, A. K. Jain, and H.-J. Zhang, “Image Classification for content-based indexing,” IEEE Trans. Image Process., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 117–130, Jan. 2001.  R. W. Picard and T. P. Minka, “Vision texture for annotation,” J. Multimedia Syst., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 3–14, 1995.  D. W. Matula, “Graph theoretic techniques for cluster analysis algorithm,” in Classification and Clustering, J. Van Ryzin, Ed. New York: Academic, 1977, pp. 95–129.  Wikipedia, The free encyclopedia, 2007, Beowulf.org.
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