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Elsevier Science Ltd

Printed in Great Britain

0009-2509/95 $9.50 + 0.00

0009-2509(95)00088-7

HEAT TRANSFER AND ASSOCIATED ENERGY DISSIPATION

FOR OSCILLATORY FLOW IN BAFFLED TUBES

M. R. MACKLEY and P. STONESTREET

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA,

U.K.

(Received 15 Augus t 1994; accepted in revised f o r m 13 February 1995)

Abstract--We report experimental data on the heat transfer performance of a periodically baffled tube

subject to both steady (net) flow and oscillatory flow. The data show that, in particular, at a low net flow

Reynolds number, significant heat transfer enhancement can be achieved with the superposition of fluid

oscillations. A general correlation is derived for the measured Nusselt number as a function of both net flow

and oscillatory Reynolds number. Dynamic pressure drop data for oscillatory flow are also reported, and

estimates of energy efficiency for obtaining heat transfer enhancement made from these measurements are

compared with smooth wall turbulent flow equations. For large amplitudes of oscillation (equivalent to half

the tube diameter) the overall power dissipation follows the quasi-steady theory. At smaller amplitudes of

oscillation the power dissipation was larger than predicted by the quasi-steady theory, indicating an

increased eddy interaction.

INTRODUCTION

Heat transfer by forced convection in tubular systems

is dependent on the flow conditions in the tube and

the heat transfer characteristics for turbulent and

laminar flow in smooth walled tubes are well estab-

lished and predicted by the Dittus Boelter and Sieder

Tate correlations respectively [see for example Kay

and Nedderman (1980), Holman (1976)]. When the

flow is fully turbulent, rates of heat transfer are rela-

tively high due to the presence of radial mixing. At

intermediate and especially, lower tube velocities

where the flow is laminar, radial flow is not present

and rates of heat transfer are correspondingly re-

duced.

A method for improving tube heat transfer is to use

static mixer inserts which can modify the flow, and

promote radial mixing (an improvement in conduc-

tive heat transfer probably occurs as well). Designs

vary, ranging from a simple helical coil insert, to

a more complex design such as proprietary "wire

matrix" inserts (Oliver and Soji, 1993). While this

approach is often successful, the flow conditions ob-

tained with a particular static mixer is ultimately

a function of the bulk (net) flow velocity, and control

of heat transfer is dictated by this parameter.

An alternative method for efficient mixing in tubes

is to apply an oscillatory flow to tubes which are

periodically baffled. The oscillatory flow promotes

chaotic mixing in the tube, of which radial velocity

components are significant (Brunold e t al . , 1989;

Howes e t al., 1991). An advantage of this system is

that mixing effects are decoupled from the mean flow

velocity, since it is determined by the superposition of

the fluid oscillations which can be precisely controlled

by varying frequency or amplitude of oscillation.

The use of oscillatory flow for heat transfer en-

hancement has already been investigated by Baird e t

al . (1966), and by Kiel and Baird (1971), who exam-

ined the effect on the overall heat transfer coefficient

of a shell-and-tube heat exchanger by flow oscillations

on the tube-side. The tubes were unbaffled and a small

enhancement effect was observed, and correlated to

oscillation frequency. Examples of similar experi-

ments can be found in the literature, see for example,

West and Taylor (1952), Mizushina e t al . (1972), and

Gupta e t al . (1982). More recently, heat transfer en-

hancement was investigated by Mackley e t al . (1990).

Fluid oscillations were superimposed on a steady net

flow on the tube side of a shell-and-tube heat ex-

changer, in which periodically spaced orifice-type

baffles were inserted. A sevenfold increase in tube-side

Nusselt number was achieved (relative to steady, un-

baffled flow) in a tube subjected to a low Reynolds

number, R e , bulk flow ( R e < 200).

The aim of this present study is to extend the

preliminary findings of Mackley e t al . (1990). This

paper reports the results of experiments to determine

the heat transfer enhancement that could be achieved

under both steady and oscillatory flow conditions for

a single phase fluid in a conventional shell-and-tube

heat exchanger containing periodic baffles. A full

range of frequencies and amplitudes are explored and

a heat transfer correlation derived. The power dissipa-

tion required to achieve the oscillatory mixing is

evaluated and related to the heat transfer enhance-

ment. The power dissipation of oscillatory flow is

compared to quasi-steady theory (Jealous and

Johnson, 1955). Power dissipation is also determined

in relation to the heat transfer enhancement, and

compared to the effect of turbulent flow mixing in

smooth walled tubes.

2211

2212

BACKGROUND AND THEORY

Oscillatory flows can be characterised by three

parameters. The first is the oscillatory Reynolds num-

ber or peak Reynolds number given as

Reo = XocoDv i (1)

where Xo is the centre-to-peak amplitude, co the fre-

quency of oscillation, D is the tube diameter, and v the

kinematic viscosity. If there is an additional (external)

net flow in the tube, a net flow Reynolds number is

defined as:

R e , = U D v - 1 (2)

where U is the mean net flow velocity. In steady flow

the Reynolds number is the indicator of the relative

importance of inertial and viscous forces. However,

when there is unsteady flow, the relative importance

of these two forces is not constant, and an additional

parameter is used to describe the flow, called the

Strouhal number

D

Sr = (3)

4~rxo "

I n this form the Strouhal number represents an

amplitude ratio, as used by Sobey (1980), rather than

the alternative Xoco/U for smooth tubes [see Schlicht-

ing (1979)]. We choose an orifice type baffle geometry

that has been shown in previous work to be effective

for fluid mixing and heat transfer (Brunoid e t al., 1989;

Mackley e t al., 1989). The baffle spacing employed is

1.5 tube diameters, and the constriction ratio of each

baffle is S = 0.6, where S = (Do~D) 2, D is the tube

internal diameter, and Do is the orifice diameter.

HEAT TRANSFER EX PERI MENTS

The heat transfer efficiency can be determined by

evaluating the heat transfer coefficient h, expressed as

a dimensionless number, the Nusselt number, Nu:

ht D

Nu , - (4)

k

where D is the tube i.d., k is the thermal conductivity

of the fluid, and h, is the (tube side) heat transfer

coefficient. This is determined from the measured heat

transfer coefficient, for the shell-and-tube heat ex-

changer, given by the following equation:

1 1 D O l n ( Of f D)

Uo - h, 1- ~ + 2 k ~ (5)

Uo is the overall heat transfer coefficient (ignoring

"fouling factors"), k~ is the thermal conductivity for

the tube wall material (stainless steel), D~ is the outside

tube diameter, and h~ is the shell side heat transfer

coefficient. Uo is related to heat flux as follows:

Q = A U o A T l m : Qoi l = m' Cl , ATo i l (6)

where ATu. is the log mean temperature difference

(LMTD) of the heat exchanger, A To, the temperature

difference of tube side oil over the tube length, m' the

M. R. MACKLEY and P. STONESTREET

time averaged mass flow rate of the tube-side oil, Cp

the specific heat capacity of the oil, and A the total

area for heat transfer based on the tube i.d. For the

entire length of the tube, the LMTD is given by

AT2 - ATx (Tout - T1) - (Tin - T2)

ATI m-

I n [ A T 2 / A T 1 ] l n[ ( Tout - T O / ( T i . - T2)]

where Tout and Ti. are the oil temperatures leaving

and entering the heat exchanger, respectively, and T~

and T2 are the water temperatures entering and leav-

ing the shell side, respectively. Note: it is assumed that

all the temperatures are time averaged bulk temper-

atures. Substituting into eq. (6), this gives the follow-

ing equation for Uo:

Uo __ m ' C p A T o i l l n[ ( To~t - Tx ) / ( Ti . - 7"2)] (7)

A (ATo, + ATwater)

Uo is then determined experimentally and the tube

side Nusselt number is calculated using eq. (5) as fol-

lows:

1 k _ o . [ _ 1 O O l n ( O , / O ! ]

N u t - D LUo O~ , 2ks, l ' (8)

To calculate the wall resistance for 1 mm stainless

steel, it was assumed that k~s = 16. The shell-side heat

transfer coefficient, h,, is assumed constant and is

estimated by plotting 1/Uo vs 1~Re m, where m is deter-

mined iteratively, h~ was estimated at 1800Wm -2

C- 1 at the intercept 1~Re '7 = 0 which corresponds

to infinitely small tube side resistance. This was in

close agreement with a value obtained by Mackley et

al. (1990) for earlier experiments.

Comparison of the experimentally determined

Nusselt number, Nu t will be made with existing cor-

relations for smooth walled tubes.

Re,, < 2100

Nu , = 1.86 [ R e P r ( D / Z ) ] ~/3(#/#w)'a4

(Kay and Nedderman, 1985)

2100 < R e < 10,000

N u , = 0.116IRe - 1 2 5 ] ( Pr ) :/3

x [1 + ( O/ Z) Z/ 3]( l a/ l aw) ~"

(Levenspiel, 1984)

R e > 10,000

Nu t = O. 023( Re) ' a( Pr ) l / 3( #/ #w) ' 14

(Holman, 1976).

EQ UI PMENT

A l aborat ory scale shell-and-tube heat exchanger

was used for both the heat transfer experiments and

the power dissipation experiments. A schematic dia-

gram of the experimental apparatus is shown in Fig. 1.

The heat exchanger was installed in a horizontal ori-

entation to be used in single pass, counter-current

mode. The tube used was a 12 mm i.d. stainless steel

pipe with a wall thickness of I mm. The active length

o il return

water in

Heat transfer and associated energy dissipation

[ i i i i i i i i i i i l

12mm i. d . b a ffle d tu b e

2213

Isometric of baffles

tube insert

18 rnm i ~ 1 1 ~ 7 r n m

11.5 rnm

O scilla tin g

P istons

t f

Oscillation d ire ctio n

W ater o u t

" " [

flowmeter

, TI

D r iv e h u b

D isplacem ent

transducer

KEY

Ti~ermoco,Jple

q- - D Pressure b'ansducer

non re tu rn valve

~ - - e le c tro n ic lin k

T ube in te rn a l d ia m e te r: 1 2 .0 rnrn

CHURCHILL o il heater/pum p

Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of the apparatus used for heat transfer and pressure drop experiments.

was 1 m. The shell diameter was 80 mm. Tap water at

mains pressure was used in the shell as the cooling

medium. A constant flow rate of approximately

101min-~ was maintained on the shell side.

A mineral oil, Shell Tellus R10, was used as the

active fluid in the tube. The oil is a Newtonian fluid

and has the properties of p = 840 kgm -3, k = 0.137

Wm- ~ C -1, and / ~=0. 005Pas at 50C. A Con-

air-Churchill oil heater-circulator was used for the

oil heating and bulk flow transport in the heat ex-

changer tube. Fluid oscillations within the tube were

provided by an electric motor driving two horizon-

tally opposed pistons, operated by a connecting rod

and yoke arrangement. Hydraulic hosing of equal

lengths connected each piston to either end of the heat

exchanger tube. As the motor turned, the crank and

yoke caused one side to apply a positive pressure to

the fluid while the other moved exactly 180 out of

phase with the first piston to apply a negative pres-

sure. The speed (frequency) was adjusted electroni-

cally, and the amplitude was set by adjusting the

connecting rod pivot point on the motor hub. The

resultant time-dependant displacement was measured

by a calibrated displacement transducer attached to

the piston yoke.

Four K-type, 2 mm diameter thermocouples were

used to measure temperature. The specification of

each thermocouple-instrumentation was 0.IC res-

olution, 0.2% accuracy in the range 0-100C, and

a response time of approximately 0.4 s to approach

65% of a 100C step change. The calibration of each

thermocouple was checked before installation for lin-

earity, and once per week for drift. Each ther-

mocouple was inserted together with a short section

of dense wire mesh in the tube to ensure that an

average bulk temperature was measured. The temper-

atures measured were the oil inlet-outlet to the tube,

and the water inlet-outlet to the shell. The volumetric

flow rate was determined using a "Litremeter" helical

gear, positive displacement flow meter, which is able

to measure the absolute value of flow rate, indepen-

dent of viscosity effects. The resolution of the flow

meter was 0.01 I mi n- 1, with an accuracy of0.1% and

a repeatability of 0.01% for the range 0-10 l mi n-~.

The analogue signals corresponding to temperature

and flow rate were connected to an analogue-to-

digital converter (ADC), which, in turn, was con-

nected to an IBM-compatible 486 computer. The

digital resolution was 0.1% of the full scale of any

measured value. This recorded the data from each

channel on to a disk ASCII file. All heat transfer

results were calculated by a Pascal program and the

output data files were subsequently manipulated by

graphics software.

EXPERIMENTAL METHODS

Before a set of experiments, the oil heater and pump

were activated, and the oil was allowed to re-circulate

until the desired temperature of 70C was attained.

A constant net flow rate through the heat exchanger

was set using the flow meter and adjusting inlet and

outlet valves to maintain a severe flow constriction at

each valve. These constrictions, coupled with a non-

return valve at both the inlet and the outlet, ensured

(as far as possible) that the propagation of the oscilla-

tion occurred only in the heat exchanger. This was

confirmed by a steady-reading observed on the up-

stream flow meter. Note: it is possible that, while the

2214

time averaged net flow was constant, a slight pulsing

of the net flow occurred because of the effect of the

main tube oscillations on the non-return valves (unde-

tectable by the flow meter). However, this would

probably not affect the temperature measurements,

which were made in a section of insulated pipe where

no heat transfer occurred.

For all the experiments, a constant shell-side water

flow rate was maintained, and it was assumed that the

shell side heat transfer coefficient was constant for

every run. For each change of flow conditions (oscilla-

tory or steady net flow), the average Nusselt number

for the tube was calculated from the recorded data

corresponding to steady-state operation, i.e. where the

thermocouple and flow meter values had become

steady. Furthermore, values of p, la, Cp, Re, , Reo, and

Pr were calculated on the basis of the length averaged

tube side temperature at the particular steady net flow

rate of the oil within the active length of the heat

exchanger tube.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The first set of experiments were performed to de-

termine the heat transfer characteristics of the stan-

dard case of smooth tube, and to determine the effect

of the baffles relative to the smooth tube where the

flow of oil in the tube was steady (non-oscillatory).

Figure 2 shows the relationship of the (tube-side) Nus-

selt number, Nu, , to Re . for the non-oscillatory mode

of operation. It can be seen that in both cases Nu,

increased as the steady flow, Re . , increased but the

effect was much greater for the baffled tube. The

M. R. MACKLEY and P. STONESTREET

maximum Nusselt number obtained was Nu, = 95 at

Re. ~ 800, which is a fivefold improvement over the

standard case at the same value of Re. . With steady

flow only, the addition of baffles to a smooth tube

results in a significant improvement in heat transfer.

These results are in general agreement with those

given by Mackley et al. (1990). The similar effect has

been also observed with the use of proprietary tube

inserts, such as wire matrix inserts investigated by

Oliver and Soji (1993).

The second set of experiments was performed to

investigate the effect of oscillatory flow on the heat

transfer characteristics of the baffled tube relative to

a smooth tube. In all the experiments, a small, fixed

steady-flow component was maintained, correspond-

ing to Re, = 130. For the first oscillatory flow experi-

ment, the amplitude was fixed at 6 mm ( St = 0.16) and

the frequency varied from 2-10 Hz to give a range of

Reo. Figure 3 shows the results of these experiments

and demonstrates that significant heat transfer en-

hancement occurs when fluid oscillation is combined

with the presence of baffles. At Reo = 760 it can be

seen that the Nusselt number for baffled-oscillatory

flow is of order 95, whereas for the smooth tube it is of

order 20. Compared to earlier experiments (Mackley

et al., 1990), the Nu values for the baffled-oscillatory

flow are of order 20% greater for the same oscillatory

Reynolds number (Reo), although the same general

behaviour is observed.

Further experiments were performed by selecting

different oscillation frequencies at various fixed ampli-

tudes. Figure4 shows the results as a plot of the

100

=-

Z

o

o~

Z

80

60

40

20

O

O

o

o

oo

o

o O

, o 0 0 0 0 0

~ , o o

. . , ~ 8 d ~ oo~O o o o

o o O t 1 ~ ~ "

, , , I h , , I , I I I

200 400 600 800 1000

Net flow Reynolds number, Re n (tube)

o smooth tube

o baffled tube

0 i

0 1200 1400

Fig. 2. Comparison of the heat transfer obtained for a smooth tube and a baffled tube for steady

(non-oscillatory) flow.

=-

Z

.g

E

e-

o~

Z

100

80

60

40

20

Heat transfer and associated energy dissipation

I I I

o

o

o

B

o

[] Baffled tube

smooth tube

J ~ , I t ~ J I , , t [ J , , I J ,

0 2 0 0 4 0 0 6 0 0 8 0 0 1000

Oscillatory Reynolds number, Re

Fig. 3. Comparison of the heat transfer obtained in a smooth tube and a baffled tube where an oscillatory

flow is superimposed on a low Re bulk flow: Ren = 130, Sr = 0.16.

2215

100

Z

o

e~

Z

10

O

X

O

+

X

o . ?

O X A

6

R e n = 1 3 0

O St r = 0. 27 ( Xo= 3. 5 r a m)

X St r = 0. 21 ( x0- - 4. 5 mm)

+ St r - - 0. 18 ( Xo= 5. 2 r a m)

A Str=0.16 (Xo--6.0 ram)

Str=0.14 (x0=6.5 ram)

0. 1 1

O)X

o

Fig. 4. Tube side heat transfer as a function of maximum oscillatory velocity for oscillatory baffled flow

with a low Re bulk flow, where Re, = 130.

Nussel t number , Nut, vs t he maxi mum osci l l at ory

velocity, xoto, obt ai ned for five different ampl i t udes.

On t he di agr am, t he St r ouhal number is i ndi cat ed as

well as t he ampl i t ude. I t can be seen t hat var yi ng t he

ampl i t ude has onl y a smal l effect; al t hough t here is

some scatter, t he dat a poi nt s all lie fairly close t o-

gether. The maxi mum Nussel t number obt ai ned is of

or der Nut = 100 at xoco = 0.41, whi ch is vi rt ual l y

a 10-fold i ncrease over t he non- osci l l at or y resul t (at

t he same Ren). Var yi ng t he frequency has a st r ong

2216 M. R. MACKLEY and P. STONESTREET

effect on the heat transfer. For example, where

Xo = 4.5 mm at a frequency of oscillation of 2 Hz

(COXo = 0.056), the Nusselt number obt ai ned was of

order 17, whereas at f = 11 Hz (ogx o = 0.31), the value

is approximately 93. It is obvi ous that the heat trans-

fer is dependent on oscillatory velocity ffox,), and that

a desired Nu, can be obt ai ned by choosing a high

enough frequency for any given ampl i t ude (obviously

within practical limits).

I n order to determine the effect of the bul k flow rate

on the oscillatory flow heat transfer, experiments were

performed in which the flow rate was varied for each

of a number of different oscillation frequencies at

a fixed ampl i t ude of 6.4 mm. Re, was varied in the

range 100-1200 which was the practical upper limit of

the oil circulator. The results are shown in Fig. 5, in

which dat a are plotted as Nusselt number vs Re, for

a number of different oscillatory condi t i ons in the

baffled tube. The points for Reo values depicted cor-

respond to f = 0, 4, 6, 8, and 10 Hz for Reo = O, 300,

450, 680 and 800, respectively. It can be seen that for

a given Reo, the heat transfer rate increases with

increasing Re,, and that for a given Re,, the heat

transfer is greater for a higher Reo. It can be seen that

at large values of Re., the oscillatory curves tend

asymptotically towards the steady-flow curve, be-

cause the net flow component becomes much larger

relative to the oscillatory flow component for higher

net flow rates I n addition, at low values of net flow,

high rates of heat transfer are still obt ai nabl e

(Nu > 100) provided the oscillatory flow component

is present. For Reo = 800 the first dat a poi nt corres-

ponds to where Re, = 130, and it can be seen that the

Nusselt number is of order 120. For the steady flow,

smoot h t ube case Nu ~ 4 for the same value of Re,,

and thus oscillatory baffled flow resulted in a 30-fold

increase in heat transfer. This is a significant enhance-

ment. I n the extreme case it is expected that if the Reo

curves were extrapolated back to where Re, = 0, good

heat transfer woul d still take place, as the mixing

effect of oscillatory flow is still present. This would

correspond to a batch heat transfer situation.

Figure 5 also shows a correlation which was fitted

to the experimental data. The correlation is as follows:

Nu, = 0.0035 Re~'3 prl/3 + 0.3 [(Re, Re22 1

( 9 )

This fits the dat a well, although it is acknowledged

that it is a purely phenomenol ogi cal model. The first

term of the correlation corresponds to the steady-flow

cont ri but i on to heat transfer, and is deliberately

chosen to be similar to the well-known Di t t us Boelter

t urbul ent flow equat i on, but the exponent of Re, is

greater to account for the presence of baffles in the

tube. Note: the Pr number was calculated for each

experiment, but the dependence of Nu on Pr was not

specifically determined. An expression for the wall

viscosity effect has not been included because the

significance of this term could not be determined

within the scope of the experiments. The second term

accounts for the additional oscillatory behaviour, by

assumi ng that when Reo >> Re,, the effect of oscillation

is superimposed on the steady behavi our by addi ng

the oscillatory term to the steady term. I n the case for

=-

Z

, J ~

Z

100

10

r r i _ ~ - _ _ _ _ ~ , I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . + - . -

R%=S00 " -*-+-+- ~ -~- - ~ " ' * + 7 +

- - +- ' - - - +- i t - +- ~ . - - C- ~ / ~ ' O"

+ @ # _ - ~ - - ' ~ - - / . / . ~ 1~

. - - ~ / . /

Re =680~ ~ + + ' - ~ - + - + - ' +

~ 9 . . . . . . - _ Cg- +- ~ " . ~ "

Re =450 , 4-

o * _ - ~ -

. - -

Reo=300 ~- -

/

+

~ ~ - - ~ , / + ~ +"

. " 4:

/

+ ~,

# . /

Steady baffled flow

/ 4-

+/

+ Experimental data

- - - - correlation (Eq. 9)

. . . . . . . i z a . . . . . . . . . . . . t ~ t Z . L .

100 11300

Net flow Reynolds number, Re n

Fig. 5. Experimental and predicted tube side heat transfer as a function of both Reo and bulk flow Re, for

a bamed tube.

Heat transfer and associated energy dissipation

steady flow ( Reo =0) , the equation is simply

N u t = 0.0035 p r l / 3 Re ~. "3, and this is plotted on the

bot t om curve giving good agreement with the experi-

mental points. Similarly, when Re . >>Re o, the oscilla-

tory term is small in relation to the steady term, and

the curve collapses onto the steady flow behaviour.

While obviously the correlation was only fitted for

measured N u values within the experimental range of

R e . and Re o, it displays the correct behaviour that

could be extended somewhat outside the experimental

range of R e . and Reo.

Figure 6 shows a plot of eq. (9) plotted against

standard heat transfer correlations for the flow of the

oil in a smooth tube heat exchanger of the same

dimensions, which gives an overview of the heat trans-

fer regimes corresponding to different types of flow

behaviour. As can be seen from Fig. 6, oscillatory flow

can provide similar heat transfer rates to those pos-

sible with smooth wall turbulent flow, but in the range

R e , = 100-1200. The results in Fig. 6 show one of

the significant process advantages of using oscillatory

flow in a baffled tube. Whereas turbulent flow is

usually required in smooth tube devices to obtain

acceptable heat transfer, Fig. 6 shows that the re-

quired level of heat transfer can be selected by choos-

ing an appropriate value of oscillation amplitude and

frequency. This allows the freedom to choose the

appropriate net flow to give the required residence

time or throughput within a given tube. I n particular,

high heat transfer (i.e. N u > 100) and long residence

times (z ~ rain h) can be achieved in tubes of modest

length (Z ~ meters).

2217

POWER DISSIPATION

M ode l l i n9

The oscillator acts on the fluid to give the following

variations of displacement, x, velocity, u, and acceler-

ation, a:

x = - Xo cos (cot) (10a)

u = xo~o sin (tot) (10b)

a = xoo~ 2 cos (rot). (10c)

The time periodic flow will result in a correspond-

ing unsteady pressure gradient. For oscillatory flows

in smooth tubes, the relationship between velocity

and pressure gradient is evaluated using unsteady

boundary-layer theory, see for example Edwards and

Wilkinson (1971) or Schlichting (1979). For oscilla-

tory flow in a baffled tube, however, we assume that

the frictional component in the flow results mainly

from the cumulative effect of flow through each ori-

rice, rather than from events at the wall. At any instant

in time the pressure along the tube (relative to the

dat um pressure) is assumed to be a linear function of

length. This is illustrated in Fig. 7. For a fluid direc-

tion from left to right, the left side is under high

pressure, while the right is under negative pressure

(the pistons operate 180 out of phase). Under these

conditions the pressure at point 1 shows a positive

peak relative to the datum, and at point 2 a negative

peak (at the same time instant). Thus, for normalised

distance along the tube:

p = p= sin ~b(l - 2f) + p'

( i t )

1ol)o

Z 100

o

e~

E

Z

Z

"~ IO

.8

[...,

' ' ' ' ' ' ' 1 ' ' ' ' ' ' ' 1

Oscillations + ba f f l e s

, ~ Re--3(X)-800

- + . + V + ~ . + ~ f ~ + + . + + - + + * + +

+ ++ ++

~ r i f i c e ba f f l e s onl y

t - e e e

+

Laminar regime

( Si ~ l e r Ta t e )

x

O

Transitional

, , , , , , ,

x

x

x

x

x Turbulent

(Dittus Boelter)

l i i i i L J t i [ i i = J L i L i i i i i J J L i

100 1000 10000 100000

Bulk flow Reynolds number, Re n

Fig. 6. Comparison of oscillatory flow heat transfer correlation to standard heat transfer correlation for

smooth tubes.

2218

I

O

Pl

Pi = psin~

4

~- x g=x/Z

M. R. MACKLEV and P. STONESTREET

dt~

p+dp

Pressure gradient--dp/dg

P2

p2 = -PmSin~

Pm

P

-Pm

~/ p=pm(1-2g), sin~=l

~ ~ _ ~ p=PmSin~(1-2g)

~ p=pm(1-2e), sin~--1

Pm

-Pm

Fig. 7. lllustration of pressure-time behaviour along the length of a baffled tube subjected to oscillatory

flow.

where p' is the mean pressure, f is the normalised

length (0 < d < 1), and sin ~b =f(t ), where the form of

is still to be specified. Thus, for d = 0, p =Pm sin q~,

and ~ = 1, p = - p, sin q~, and we define a time-de-

pendent pressure difference between positions 1 and 2:

Ap(t) = 2pro sin 4-

More generally,

Ap(t) = Apo sin ~b (12)

where Apo is the overall pressure difference between

positions 1 and 2.

The power at any instant is a function of the pres-

sure gradient and the instantaneous superficial velo-

city which is assumed constant over the length of the

tube:

P ( t ) = a c u ( t ) A p o sin ~b (13)

where ac is the cross-sectional tube area. The instan-

taneous power given by eq. (13) is more usefully ex-

pressed by the time-averaged power:

ac u ( t ) A p o sin q~dt

o

P.ve = (14)

T

where T is the period of oscillation (T = 2 n / t o ) . The

power density is obtained by dividing eq. (14) by the

system volume, and substituting eq. (10b) for the fluid

superficial velocity:

acxoto I ~T

sin (tot)Apo sin 4) dt (W m- 3).

e v = V T .Jo

05)

To obtain an expression for ~b, it is convenient to

define a phase shift between pressure and velocity,

defined as 6:

Ap(t) = Apo sin ~b = Apo sin (tot + 3) (16)

where Apo is the maximum pressure fluctuation

(centre-to-peak). Applying a trigonometric expansion

to eq. (16), we obtain:

Apo sin (tot + 6) = Apo sin (3)cos (tot)

+ Apo cos (6)sin (tot). (17)

Substituting eq.(17) into eq. (15), we obtain the

following:

A p o x o t o cos(6) f ~ sin2 (tot) dt

e v- Z

where Z is the tube length (m). After integration, this

reduces to:

1 Apo c o s ( 6 ) x o t o

e,~ = 2 Z (18)

Heat transfer and associated energy dissipation

From which the power density may be determined.

For a particular experiment the phase angle, t$, is

obtained by measuring the time difference between

the peak of the pressure trace and the velocity trace on

a plot of Ap, u, x vs time, and determining the fraction

of a complete cycle (in radians) which this time differ-

ence represents.

Quasi-steady theory f or power density

For oscillatory flows it has been a common practice

to assume "quasi-steady" behaviour (Jealous and

Johnson, 1955). This model assumes that the frictional

pressure drop in a time-periodic flow at a certain

instantaneous velocity is assumed to be identical to

the pressure drop that would be obtained at a steady

velocity of the same magnitude of the instantaneous

velocity. The maximum frictional pressure drop is

obtained according to the standard pressure drop

relation across an orifice (at high Reynolds numbers),

i.e.:

np(tOXo)2(1/S 2 -- 1)

Apl 0 = 2Co2 (19)

where n is the number of baffles and Co orifice coeffi-

cient (usually assumed to be 0.6). The power density

for quasi-steady flow is given by:

2np(toxo)3(l/S 2 - 1)

(20)

ev = 37rC 2 Z

Graphical determination of power dissipation

For the area traced out on a pressure-displacement

diagram, we can define energy dissipation per cycle, Ec

where:

= ac~Ap( t ) dx. (21) Ec

By measuring the area from actual Ap vs x plots, one

is able to calculate the power density

a , acf a , f

e ~ - - - ( 2 2 )

V Z

where a= is the measured area andf i s the frequency of

oscillation (Hz). The value of ev so obtained can be

compared to the value obtained by eq. (18). The two

values should be in close agreement.

EXPERIMENTAL ME T H O D S

Power density (W m-3) was determined for oscilla-

tory flow by measuring the time-dependent pressure

fluctuations in the same heat exchanger used in the

heat transfer experiments. The pressure fluctuations

were measured with two Druck model 810 pressure

transducers. These transducers contain a solid state

silicon strain gauge and thin diaphragm in direct

contact with the fluid. With the associated instrumen-

tation these devices are accurate to within 0.1% of the

full scale capacity (3 bar), and the expected 15 Hz

maximum frequency of the pressure fluctuations are

well within the 2000 Hz bandwidth. The outputs from

2219

the pressure transducer instrumentation and the dis-

placement transducer were connected to an ADC and

a 486 computer was used to record the pressure-time

and displacement-time data to a disk file. The corres-

ponding power density calculations were performed

using a spreadsheet program.

Before each experiment was made, the system pres-

sure was equilibrated by opening the bleed valve to

the system and the transducer conditioners individ-

ually zeroed. The oil was then allowed to circulate

through the tube to force air to escape through the

bleed valve. The bleed valve was then closed. For

oscillatory measurements, it was found necessary to

pressurise the tube to a constant mean pressure of

50 kPa to avoid cavitation.

In order to obtain the pressure-time behaviour

uniquely for oscillatory flow in the active length (i.e.

where heat transfer took place), and also to avoid

effects from various components in the external flow

circuit, all oscillatory flow experiments were con-

ducted for a closed system (no net flow). The pressure

drop at different (steady) net flow rates (i.e. where no

oscillatory flow was imposed) was determined in

a separate experiment. The protocol was to select

a particular amplitude within a range 1-7 mm and

then carry out a frequency sweep from 3 Hz to as high

a value as was practical. Usually, it was possible to

reach up to 15 Hz at small amplitudes (1-2 mm), but

at the larger amplitudes it was not possible to go

beyond 10 Hz, as the pressure fluctuations exceeded

the range of the pressure transducers. In total, fre-

quency sweeps for 6 amplitudes were performed, at

approximately 6, 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1 mm. This corres-

ponded to a Strouhal number range of 0.15-0.9.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Figure 8 shows typical directly measured data of

the pressure and displacement both plotted against

time. The data shown are for a 4 mm amplitude at

10 Hz oscillation frequency. The pressure traces p~

and P2 are the direct output from the transducers and

are shifted upwards on the diagram due to the system

pressure of 50 kPa gauge. Because of the "push-pull"

action of the oscillator, the pressure traces from the

transducers are inverted with respect to each other.

The output from the transducer closest to the com-

pressing piston shows an increase in pressure, whereas

the downstream transducer (closest to the expanding

piston) registers a decrease in pressure relative to the

datum. The thick solid line on the diagram is the net

pressure fluctuation, Ap, obtained by the difference of

the two pressure transducers. Data were found to be

highly reproducible, provided all air bubbles were

excluded from both the oil and the pressure trans-

ducer ports.

From Ap vs t and x vs t data, it is possible to

calculate the power density by eq. (18). It is necessary

to measure the phase angle, 6, and this can be ob-

tained directly from Fig. 8, where 6 is the phase lead of

pressure with respect to velocity, or where x = 0. For

2220 M.R. MACKLEY and P. STONESTREET

100

50

-50

I &P= P 1 - P2

oe

F ;

I I I ~ i!

I, ". "

mi e I

%

f :

%. :

. a

o P2 (gauge) -0- P1 (gauge) . . . . . . . x (ram)

-2

-4

-6

- 1 0 0

- 8

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25

Time (s)

Fig. 8. Pressure-time, displacement-time and velocity-time data for an oscillatory flow pressure drop

experiment.

>

the dat a presented in Fig. 8, the time difference be-

tween the pressure peak and x = 0 is 0.007 s, and thus

= 0.007 x (2~f) = 0.53 radians. The peak pressure is

approximately 75 kPa, Omo = 0. 24ms -1, and the

power density can then be calculated [eq. (18)] as

7807 W m -3. These calculations are performed for

each experiment.

Figure 9 shows typical pressure vs displacement

curves for oscillatory flow. For the purposes of illus-

tration only three plots are shown, corresponding to

frequencies of 6, 10 and 12 Hz at a fixed amplitude of

3.2 mm, although obviously such figures were ob-

tained for every experiment. I t can be seen that the

shape of the plots approximate a tilted ellipse. An

interesting phenomenon is observed for the data at

6 Hz. The measured plot of Ap vs x collapses to cusps

at each extreme of x. This suggests that no net energy

dissipation occurs over the outer parts of the oscilla-

tion stroke. This may be due to the unwinding of

a vortex around the baffle edge as the flow changes

direction, resulting in some recovery of energy. This

effect is not observed at higher frequencies, at which

the flow is presumably more chaotic.

From the area of each pressure-displacement plot,

the power can be determined. Taking the 10 Hz plot

as an example, the area corresponds to the work done

per cycle, and the power density is calculated accord-

ing to eq. (22) to be approximately 7750 W m- 3. This

agrees well with the calculated value of 7807 W m- 3

calculated from eq. (18). A number of such calcu-

lations were performed, all with good agreement be-

tween the two methods, and consequently the power

density for the rest of the experiments was calculated

according to eq. (23), which is a simpler method than

measuring the area for each Lissajou diagram for each

experiment.

Dat a for all the power density experiments, corres-

ponding to frequency sweeps at six different ampli-

tudes are shown in Fig. 10 (note: this is for Re , = 0).

Also shown is the power density that would be ob-

tained from the quasi-steady state time-averaged

power model [eq. (20)]. It can be seen that the results

for the highest amplitude (6.4 mm) are only slightly

greater than the quasi-steady model prediction; how-

ever as the amplitude is reduced the frictional pressure

drops generally exceed prediction. This trend was also

observed by Hafez and Baird (1978) in their measure-

ments of the power consumption in a reciprocating

plate column. I n that case the operating frequencies

did not exceed 3.5 Hz and the lowest amplitude was

3.5 mm, so the effect was less pronounced than in the

present work.

It is interesting to relate the observed power density

behaviour to the Sr number, where the flow is non-

quasi-steady, the amplitude is small and therefore the

Sr large (0.5-0.9). At larger amplitudes the quasi-

steady behaviour is approached, and the Sr numbers

are correspondingly small. This agrees with the work

of Sobey (1983) who investigated flow separation with

oscillatory flow in furrowed channels. Although the Sr

employed by Sobey is defined slightly differently, it

was nevertheless found that at sufficiently low Sr

numbers the flow was quasi-steady, while at larger

Strouhal val,ms, the flow was described as an "un-

Heat transfer and associated energy dissipation 2221

70

50 ~r , ' j ~ - ' ~ ~ ~ ' ~

.lO

-70

-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4

Displacement, x (ram)

Fig. 9. Pressure-displacement plots for three different oscillatory flow pressure drop experiments, where

xo = 3.2 mm.

10000

1000

~ ~oo

10

Quasi-steady

, , , , i [ , , , , ,

0.1

COx o

Fig. 10. Power density as a function of maximum oscillatory velocity for experimental data and predicted

by the quasi-steady-model.

steady separated flow". I t is possible that similar re-

gimes exist for oscillatory flow i n baffled tubes. Where

Sr = 0.16, the power density indicates the flow follows

more or less the quasi-steady prediction, whereas for

Sr > 0.2, the quasi-steady prediction is not valid.

I n order to relate the heat transfer obt ai ned in the

previous experiments to the energy requirements i n

oscillatory flow, the tube-side Nusselt number can be

plotted against a normalised power density. This was

done as follows: At a part i cul ar value of toxo, the

2222

corresponding Nu value is obtained from Fig. 4, and

the oscillatory flow power density from Fig. 10. Be-

cause the data in Fig. 4 had a steady-flow component,

Ren = 130, we have to add the steady-flow power

density component to each value of power density

from Fig. 10. The steady-flow power density for the

net flow rate corresponding to Ren = 130 was meas-

ured as 35 W m-3, but when coupled with the oscilla-

tory flow, a correction has to be made for non-linear

interactions in the tube. This can be approximated by

calculating an enhancement factor for the steady-flow

power density given by (Baird, 1994):

{ 1 + [4 ReofiRe. x)] 3 } 1/3. (23)

Using this formula, the enhanced net flow power

density was calculated and added to the oscillatory

flow power dissipation for each value of cox.

It is also useful to rank the heat transfer and power

density performance for oscillatory flow alongside the

performance for a conventional laminar or turbulent

flow. To determine the power density relationship for

laminar and turbulent flow regimes in smooth pipes,

the power density is calculated for a specific Re. using

the friction factor equations (Levenspiel, 1984)

For laminar flow:

Re2,, i a3

ev = 32

For turbulent flow:

(Re./~)3

e~ = 2/ s Dap2

(130 ~ Ren ~ 2100).

(2100 ~ Re. <~ 20000).

M. R. MACKLEY and P. STONESTREET

)e I is the fanning friction factor obtained from a fric-

tion factor chart for a smooth walled tube. Using

these equations, and the standard heat transfer cor-

relations for Nusselt number, we plot Nu vs power

density for a given net flow Reynolds number, Re.. All

the experimental and calculated ev values were nor-

malised by dividing by ev = 6.5 W m-3, which corre-

sponded to the power required to maintain a flow rate

of Re, = 130 in a smooth tube. This value of Re. was

used for the oscillatory flow experiments (see Fig. 4),

and thus it was considered appropriate to use the

steady-power value at Re. = 130 as the reference

value in all cases. Note: We were only interested in the

power density values for the flow regimes in the active

length of the baffled heat exchanger tube. Any addi-

tional frictional losses in the external flow circuit are

characteristic of the specific design of an external flow

circuit. Also, we did not attempt to evaluate the elec-

trical or mechanical efficiency of the oscillator unit,

which is a feature inherent to the mechanical design of

the unit.

Figure 11 shows the Nu vs normalised e,v data for

oscillatory flow at two different amplitudes for

Ren = 130, and data for turbulent and laminar flow

regimes obtained as described previously. Additional

data is shown for steady baffled flow. It can be seen

from Fig. 11 that oscillatory baffled flow, where

(24) xo = 6,4 mm, gives the best heat transfer response (the

highest Nu) for a given power number for all the flow

regimes shown. Oscillatory flow at this amplitude has

been observed to approach quasi-steady behaviour

(25) (see Fig. 10). In contrast, where Xo = 3.5 mm, the Nu

achievable for a given power input was less than for

Z

Z

O3

100

10

' ' ' ' ' ' " 1

/

x

al l ~

P

aW

0

c' ,

, , , , i , i i I f , , i f , , , ] J i , r r l ~ E[ r ~ T

w

/

f

i x" ~ Xo= 6.4 mm

-x steady flow

s mo o t h t ube

- Turbulent flow

. . . . La mi na r f l OW

i i J , , ~ l l i , i I J , l , I i _~ i i 1, 1, 1 i i J t t J , , I , i i i l l

1 10 100 1000 10000 100000

Relative power density(~v/g ' Re=130 )

Fig. 11. Comparison of the oscillatory bamed flow heat transfer as a function of power density with

predicted behaviour for smooth tube steady-flow heat transfer.

Heat transfer and associated energy dissipation

either oscillatory flow at Xo = 6.4 mm, or for turbulent

flow in a smooth tube. For this amplitude the flow

was observed to be non-quasi-steady.

For the steady flow with baffles the data seem to

fall in a transition region, eventually coinciding with

the quasi-steady oscillatory flow curve (xo = 6.4 mm)

at high power values. This indicates that for non-

oscillatory flows in tubes, there is a clear advantage

for the use of baffles in favour to a smooth tube, as the

heat transfer performance obtained would be higher

at a given power input than for either laminar or

turbulent flow in a smooth pipe.

In general terms, it may be observed from Fig. 11

that oscillatory flow in a baffled tube gives a superior

heat transfer performance than a turbulent flow for

a given power input. Furthermore, for power values

below 800, oscillatory flow can produce a Nusselt

number performance that is not accessible to conven-

tional steady pipe flow.

CONCLUSI ONS

It has been shown that oscillatory flow leads to

a substantial enhancement in tube-side heat transfer

in a shell-and-tube heat exchanger. While the presence

of baffles in a tube results in heat transfer enhance-

ment, the greatest enhancement is obtained where

both baffles and oscillations are present. For a broad

range of oscillatory conditions tested, it was found

that the heat transfer rate was strongly dependent on

the product of frequency and amplitude of oscillation

and, by choosing a particular frequency and ampli-

tude, precise control of heat transfer enhancement can

be obtained.

The greatest advantage of oscillatory flow appears

to be found at low net flow Reynolds numbers (low

tube flow rates). It was seen that a 30-fold improve-

ment in Nusselt number could be obtained under

certain conditions. A correlation was fitted to the

experimental oscillatory flow data, and this could be

used with confidence to predict the Nu within the

range 100 < Re, < 1200, and 0 < Reo < 800. The cor-

relation for heat transfer presented in this paper

should enable design calculations to be carried out for

heat exchange. This, coupled with residence time data

(Dickens et al., 1989) and data on the particle suspen-

sion characteristics of the type of flow (Mackley et al.,

1993) should now provide sufficient information to

enable pragmatic reactor design for single and some

mixed phase reactions.

The heat transfer and power density data presented

here illustrates the similarities and differences of oscil-

latory flow in baffled tubes to other types of flow. At

high net flow, as seen from the heat transfer data given

in Fig. 6, the presence of oscillations has a diminishing

effect, and the system approaches the non-oscillatory

flow behaviour. However, at low net flow rates the

presence of flow oscillations significantly alters the

(convective) heat transfer behaviour, which suggests

a profound effect on the fluid mechanics.

It is apparent from the power density data given in

Fig. 10, that at small amplitudes of oscillation and

2223

higher frequencies the power density is greater than

predicted by the quasi-steady model. We believe the

device is operating in a non-quasi-steady regime,

where particularly interesting effects have been re-

ported in other papers. It has been observed from flow

visualisation studies (Brunold et al., 1989; Mackley

and Ni, 1994) that complex flow structures and signifi-

cant Eddy interaction exist. Effective control over

residence time behaviour can also be obtained in this

regime (Dickens, 1989), and efficient heat transfer has

been demonstrated. I n our opinion this non-quasi-

steady operating regime offers a different type of fluid

mechanics to either quasi steady or turbulent flow,

and we believe that significant process advantage can

be found by operating in this regime.

Acknowledoements--The authors are indebted to Prof. M.

H. I. Baird for valuable discussions regarding the power

dissipation work. Financial support from Shell KSLA (Am-

sterdam) and the Science and Engineering Research Council

(now EPSRC) is gratefully acknowledged.

NOTATI ON

a acceleration, m s- 2

as measured area of pressure-displacement plot

ac cross-sectional area of tube, m 2

Cp specific heat capacity, J kg- ~ C- 1

Co orifice coefficient

D tube diameter, m

Do orifice diameter, m

D~ tube outside diameter, m

Ec work done per cycle, J

f frequency, Hz

L spacing between baffles, m

f dimensionless distance

m' mass flow rate, kg s-1

n number of baffles

P Power, W

Pr Prandlt number ( = Cpll/k)

Reo oscillatory Reynolds number

Ren steady-flow Reynolds number

Sr Strouhai number

S fractional open area of baffle

t time, s

T Period of oscillation, s

u velocity, m s- t

U bulk average velocity, m s-

x displacement, m

xo amplitude of oscillation (centre-to-peak, m)

Z tube length, m

Greek

c5

Ap

Apo

Apy

Aplo

P

(0

letters

phase angle between pressure and velocity

power density, W m- 3

pressure drop, Pa

maximum pressure drop, Pa

pressure drop due to friction, Pa

maximum pressure drop due to friction, Pa

kinematic viscosity, m 2 s- 1

density, kg m- 3

viscosity, Pa s

angular frequency, radian s- 1

2224 M. R. MACKLEY and P. STONESTREET

REFERENCES

Baird, M. H. I., Duncan, G. J., Smith, J. I. and Taylor, J.,

1966, Heat transfer in pulsed turbulent flow. Chem. Engn#

Sci. 21, 197-199.

Baird, M. H. I., 1994, Personal communication.

Brunold, C. R., Hunns, J. C. B., Mackley, M. R. and

Thompson, J. W., 1989, Experimental observations on

flow patterns and energy losses for oscillatory flows in

ducts with sharp edges. Chem. Engng Sci. 44, 1227-1244.

Dickens, A. W., Mackley, M. R. and Williams, H. R., 1989,

Experimental residence time distribution measurements

for unsteady flow in baffled tubes. Chem. Engng Sci. 44,

1471-1479.

Edwards, M. F. and Wilkinson, M. A., 1971, Review of

potential applications of pulsating flow in pipes. Trans. I.

Chem. E. 49, 85-94.

Gupta, S. K., Patel, R. D. and Ackerberg, R. C., 1982, Wall

heat/mass transfer in pulsatile flow. Chem. Engn# Sci. 37,

1727-1739.

Hafez, M. M. and Baird, M. H. I., 1978, Power consumption

in a reciprocating plate extraction column. Trans. I. Chem.

E. 56, 229-238.

Holman, J. P., 1976, Heat Transfer, Fourth Edition.

McGraw-Hill, New York.

Howes, T., Mackley, M. R. and Roberts, E. P. L., 1991, The

simulation of chaotic mixing and dispersion for periodic

flows in baffled channels. Chem. Enong Sci. 46, 1669-1677.

Jealous, A. C. and Johnson, H. F., 1955, Power requirements

for pulse generation in pulse columns. Ind. Engng Chem.

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Kay, J. M. and Nedderman, R. M., 1985, Fluid Mechanics

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Keil, R. H. and Baird, M. H. I., 1971, Enhancement of heat

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Levenspiel, O., 1984, Engineering Flow and Heat Exchange.

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Mackley, M. R., Smith, K. and Wise, N. P., 1993, The

suspension of particles using oscillatory flow in baffled

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Experimental heat transfer measurements for pulsatile

flow in baffled tubes. Chem. Enang Sci. 45, 1237-1242.

Muzushina, T., Maruyama, T., Ide, S. and Mizukami, Y.,

1973, Dynamic behaviour of transfer coefficient in pulsat-

ing laminar tube flow. J. Chem. Engng Japan 6(2),

152 159.

Oliver, D. R. and Soji, Y., 1992, Heat transfer enhancement

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newtonian liquids. Trans. I. Chem. E. 70A, 558-564.

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