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!"#$%&"'"(# "* +(%,'- %*. !

3(%#4&(1(*' 05 &(6"0*%, %*. 6,07%, ."#$%&"'"(#2
- 1he human developmenL lndex
o Slnce 1990 Lhe un has urged Lhe use of Lhe Pul as a measure of developmenL
o More rellable and comprehenslve measure of human developmenL and well-belng Lhan
Cnl per head (gross naLlonal lncome)
o Pul lncludes Lhree baslc componenLs of human developmenL:
! LongevlLy (llfe expecLancy)
! knowledge (adulL llLeracy and average number of years' schoollng)
! SLandard of llvlng (purchaslng power ad[usLed Lo local cosL of llvlng)
o 1he un 2007 Lable of Puls shows lceland aL Lhe Lop, closely followed by norway and
o AL Lhe oLher end, Slerra Leone, 8urklna laso and Culnea-8lssau had Lhe lowesL Pul
- 1he lnfanL morLallLy raLe
o 8efers Lo Lhe number of chlldren LhaL dle before Lhelr flrsL blrLhday
o Lxpressed per Lhousand llve blrLhs
o used as lndlcaLor of developmenL because:
! Plgh lM8s are found ln Lhe pooresL LLuCs
! 1he causes of deaLhs are ofLen prevenLable
! Where waLer supply, sanlLaLlon, houslng, healLhcare and nuLrlLlon are adequaLe,
lM8s are low
- Clobal lnequallLles
o 1he gap beLween Lhe rlch and Lhe poor has been lncreaslng for Lhe lasL Lwo cenLurles
o ln 1820 Lhe dlfference beLween Lhe rlchesL and pooresL counLry was abouL 3:1
o Pad rlsen Lo 11:1 by 1913, 33:1 by 1930, and ln 1999 93:1
o Powever, many poor counLrles have lmproved Lhelr Cnl ln recenL decades
! 1he asseLs of Lhe world's Lhree rlchesL people are more Lhan Lhe comblned Cnl
of all poor counLrles
! 1he asseLs of Lhe world's 200 rlchesL people are more Lhan Lhe comblned
lncomes of 41 of Lhe world's people
! 8y maklng an annual conLrlbuLlon of [usL 1 of Lhelr wealLh, Lhose 200 people
could provlde access Lo prlmary educaLlon for every chlld ln Lhe world
- 8lchesL and pooresL counLrles, 1820-2007 (Cu per caplLa, uS$)
o 8lchesL
! 1820
uk - 1736
neLherland - 1361
AusLralla - 1328
AusLrla - 1293
8elglum - 1291
! 1900
uk - 4393
new Zealand - 4320
AusLralla - 4299
uSA - 4096
8elglum - 3632
! 2007
Luxembourg - 80800
CaLar - 73900
8ermuda - 69900
!ersey - 37000
norway - 33600
o ooresL
! 1820
lndonesla - 614
lndla - 331
8angladesh - 331
aklsLan - 331
Chlna - 323
! 1900
8urma - 647
lndla - 623
8angladesh - 381
LgypL - 309
Chana - 462
! 2007
Somall - 600
Culnea-8lssau - 600
Llberla - 300
Zlmbabwe - 300
Congo - 300
8&"6"* 05 ."#$%&"'"(#2
- lnequallLles ln developmenL
o uesplLe conslderable economlc growLh ln many reglon, Lhe world ls more unequal Lhan
lL was 10 years ago
o Some counLrles lefL behlnd ln poverLy cycle", aren'L able Lo develop as fasL as oLhers
o Lven wlLhln Lhe group of counLrles LhaL are commonly LhoughL as poor, Lhere ls
varlaLlon ln levels of poorness
o lor example, boLh 1alwan and SouLh korea have exLremely hlgh levels of Cnl per caplLa
- LmploymenL
o Culf beLween formal and lnformal economles
o Wldenlng gap beLween skllled and unskllled labour
o Crowlng dlsparlLles ln healLh, educaLlon and opporLunlLles for soclal, economlc and
pollLlcal parLlclpaLlon
o lnequallLles beLween and wlLhln counLrles have accompanled globallzaLlon
o 1hese have had many negaLlve consequences ln many areas, lncludlng employmenL, [ob
securlLy and wages
o unemploymenL remalns hlgh, especlally youLh unemploymenL
o ?ouLhs are Lwo Lo Lhree Llmes more llkely Lhan adulLs Lo be unemployed and currenLly
make up as much as 47 of Lhe LoLal 186 mllllon people ouL of work worldwlde (mosL
labour markeLs unable Lo absorb Lhem)
o Mllllons are worklng buL remaln poor (don'L reach Lhe poverLy Lhreshold of 1$ a day)
o A large ma[orlLy of Lhe worklng poor are lnformal agrlculLural workers (globallzaLlon led
Lo exploslon of lnformal economy)
o ln many counLrles, wage lnequallLles (esp. beLween skllled and unskllled workers)
o lalllng real mlnlmum wages and sharp rlses ln Lhe hlghesL lncomes
o 8lch counLrles lncome gap pronounced, such as Canada, uk and uSA
- arenLal educaLlon and lnequallLy
o Llnk beLween lnvesLmenL ln educaLlon and poverLy ls exLremely fundamenLal
o LducaLlon may ralse lncomes of Lhose wlLh lL (and Lhose wlLh hlgher quallflcaLlons Lend
Lo have less chlldren)
3",,(**"41 !(/(,0$1(*' 90%,#2
90%, :%&6('
;< =&%.">%'( (?'&(1( $0/(&'@ %*. -4*6(&
- 8educe by 30 Lhe proporLlon of people
llvlng on less Lhan $1 a day
- 8educe by 30 Lhe proporLlon of people
sufferlng from hunger
A< B>-"(/( 4*"/(&#%, $&"1%&@ (.4>%'"0*
- Lnsure all chlldren compleLe a full course
of prlmary schoollng
C< D&010'( 6(*.(& (E4%,"'@ %*. (1$0F(&
- LllmlnaLe gender dlsparlLy ln prlmary and
secondary educaLlon by 2003
- Lnsure llLeracy parlLy beLween young men
and women
- Women's equal represenLaLlon ln naLlonal
G< H(.4>( >-",. 10&'%,"'@
- 8educe by Lwo-Lhlrds Lhe udner-3
morLallLy raLe
- unlversal chlld lmmunlzaLlon agalnsL
I< J1$&0/( 1%'(&*%, -(%,'-
- 8educe Lhe maLernal morLallLy raLlo by
K< L017%' MJNOBJ!PQ 1%,%&"% %*. 0'-(&
- PalL and begln Lo reverse Lhe spread of
- PalL and begln Lo reverse Lhe lncldence of
- PalL and begln Lo reverse Lhe lncldence of
R< =*#4&( (*/"&0*1(*'%, #4#'%"*%7","'@
- 8evers loss of foresLs
- Palve proporLlon wlLhouL lmproved
drlnklng waLer ln urban areas
- Palve proporLlon wlLhouL lmproved
drlnklng waLer ln rural areas
- Pave proporLlon wlLhouL sanlLaLlon ln
urban areas
- Palve proporLlon wlLhouL sanlLaLlon ln
rural areas
- lmprove Lhe llves of aL leasL 100 mllllon
slum dwellers by 2020
S< !(/(,0$ 6,07%, $%&'*(&#-"$ 50&
- 8educe youLh unemploymenL

9,07%, ."#$%&"'"(# %*. >-%*6(2
- Changlng global lnequallLles
o : whaL a person can by wlLh Lhelr lncome aL local prlces
o unLll 200 years ago, Asla was Lhe domlnanL world economlc power
o 1oday rapld econ. growLh raLes are helplng Lhe reglon regaln lLs former poslLlon
o used Lo be Asla domlnanL, wlLh Lurope and Afrlca ln 2
and 3
around Lhe year 100
o CurrenLly, Asla ls almosL domlnanL, wlLh AusLralla, Canada, new Zealand and Lhe uS
comblned ln second, Lhen afLer LhaL Lurope, LaLln Amerlca, !apan, Afrlca and uSS8
- lncome lnequallLles (1wln eaks" of rlch and poor)
o 1he greaLesL conLrlbuLors Lo lncome lnequallLy are Lhe largesL counLrles aL elLher end of
Lhe specLrum, Lhe 1wln eaks"
o Cne pole represenLs Lhe 2.4 bllllon people whose mean lncome ls less Lhan $1000 a year
and lncludes people llvlng ln lndla, lndonesla and rural Chlna. WlLh 42 of Lhe world's
populaLlon, Lhls group recelves [usL 9 of Lhe world's lncomes
o 1he oLher pole reps 300 mllllon people whose annual lncome exceeds $11300
o Croup lncludes uSA, !apan, Cermany, lrance and Lhe uk
o Comblned, accounL for 13 of Lhe world's populaLlon buL use 43 of Lhe world
o ln Lhe lasL 23 years, Lhe maln changes ln come beLween dlff. reglons of Lhe world
! 1he conLlnued rapld econ. growLh ln Lhe already rlch counLry relaLlve Lo mosL of
Lhe resL of Lhe world
! 1he decllne ln real lncome of sub-Saharan Afrlca and easLern Lurope
! 8elaLlvely modesL galns ln LaLln Amerlcan and Arab sLaLes
o Some mosL lmporLanL global dlsparlLles relaLe Lo lack of decenL work and low lncomes
o Accordlng Lo lLC (lnLernaLlonal labour organlzaLlon), abouL 200 mllllon people don'L
have any form of work
- Soclal lnequallLles
o uesplLe some progress, healLh and educaLlon lnequallLles have wldened, especlally
wlLhln counLrles
o Sub-Saharan Afrlca and parLs of Asla are ln Lhe worsL predlcamenL
o Wlde gaps ln access Lo lmmunlzaLlon, maLernal and chlldcare, nuLrlLlon and educaLlon
o Cender gaps ln access Lo educaLlon have narrowed somewhaL, buL perslsL
o lndlgenous people, persons wlLh dlsablllLles, older people and youLh are Lyplcally
excluded from declslon-maklng processes LhaL affecL Lhelr welfare
- LnvlronmenLal lmpacLs
o 1oday's dlsparlLles are also closely llnked Lo human lmpacL on envlronmenL
o oor frequenLly end up wlLh poor land, waLer, fuel and oLher naLural resources (llmlL
:&(*.# "* ,"5( (?$(>'%*>@Q (.4>%'"0* %*. "*>01(2
- Llfe expecLancy
o More bables survlvlng lnfancy and chlldhood
o ln flrsL half of 20
cenLury, rlch counLrles saw average llfe expecLancy lncrease by over
20 years
o ln 1930 female llfe expecLancy conLlnued Lo rlse, buL galns ln male llfe expecLancy
levelled off
o ln mosL MLuCs, women ouLllve men by 3-9 years
o CldesL old (aged 80+) are fasLesL growlng segmenL of many naLlons' populaLlons
o ln Scandlnavlan counLrles, lrance and SwlLzerland, Lhe 80+ are approx. 4 of LoLal pop.
o lncreases ln llfe expecLancy noL unlform wlLhln counLrles
o lor example, lndlgenous people llvlng ln rlch counLrles, have pop. pyramlds more Lyplcal
of developlng counLrles
o Lxample, Amerlcan lndlan, lnulL and AleuL populaLlons have an age sLrucLure more llke
Morocco Lhan Lhe uSA
- LducaLlon and lncome
o lnequallLy of educaLlon ln lndla, ln Lerms of opporLunlLles and sLandards lmplles soclal
loss from underdevelopmenL and underuLlllzaLlon of human caplLal
o Slnce 1960, korea has channelled Lwo Lhlrds of educaLlon expendlLure lnLo compulsory
baslc educaLlon
o ln 1990s, subsldles Lo prlmary sLudenLs were Lwo Lo Lhree Llmes LhaL of college sLudenLs
o 8efore economlc reforms ln 1978, Chlna had achleved a hlgher developmenL level Lhan
counLrles aL slmllar lncome levels
o ConLlnued progress, buL reglonal dlsparlLles wldened
o ubllc educaLlon expendlLure lnadequaLe (2.4-2.8 of Cu), and urban blas ln provlslon
o underlnvesLmenL ln prlmary, over subsldlzaLlon of LerLlary educaLlon
o Clnl coefflclenLs measure lnequallLy (0-1, 1 belng compleLe lnequallLy, 0 belng compleLe
H(.4>"*6 !"#$%&"'"(#2
- 1rade and markeL access
o unfalr Lradlng paLLerns one cause of developmenL gaps
o MLuCs accounL for 73 of world's exporLs and 80 of manufacLured exporLs
o aLLern ls compllcaLed by flows of lul and lnLernal Lrade wlLh 1nCs and MnC
o MosL proflL flow back Lo MLuCs, whlle lncreaslng shares of lul ls Lo nlCs (newly
lndusLrlallzed counLrles)
o 8egulaLory bodles
! lnLernaLlonal regulaLors such as lMl or W1C
! CoordlnaLlng groups of counLrles such as Lhe C8
! 8eglonal Lradlng blocs such as Lhe Lu, nAl1A, and AssoclaLlon of SouLh LasL
Aslan naLlons (ASLAn)
! naLlonal governmenL
o Powever, desplLe Lhese bodles, mosL Lrade and money exchange ls done by Lhe world's
maln banks (ex. 8arclays 8ank's lnvesLmenL bank secLor, 8arclays' caplLal deals wlLh
over $360 bllllon of lnvesLmenL Lhrough lLs 33 offlces locaLed worldwlde
o CrlLlclsm LhaL many of Lhe regulaLory bodles have llmlLed power when faced wlLh a
powerful MLuC or 1nC
- lalr or eLhlcal Lrade
o lalr or eLhlcal Lrade can be deflned as Lrade LhaL aLLempLs Lo be soclally, economlcally
and envlronmenLally responslble
o 1rade where companles Lake responslblllLy for wlder lmpacLs of Lhelr buslness
o ALLempLs Lo address Lhe falllngs of Lhe global Lradlng sysLem
o Cood examples lnclude rudenL LxporLs and 8lue Skles, boLh plneapple-exporLlng
companles ln Chana
o rudenL LxporLs whlch grows and exporLs, has lnLroduced beLLer worklng condlLlons for
farmers, lncludlng longer conLracLs and beLLer wages
o Pas lLs own farms, buys plneapples from small holders and exporLs dlrecLly Lo Luropean
o Appears some reLallers are drlvlng force behlnd falr Lrade as Lhey seek ouL good pracLlce
ln Lhelr suppllers ln Lerms of soclal healLh and safeLy of Lhe work, employmenL of
chlldren, pay and condlLlons eLc.
o neverLheless, some confllcL of lnLeresLs
o lor mosL WesLern consumers, falr Lrade ls Lhe bannlng of pesLlcldes and chlld labour
o ?eL ln many LLuCs lL ls normal for chlldren Lo work, as ln Lhe uk ln Lhe laLe 19
early 20

o MosL LLuCs famllles prefer Lo send Lhelr klds Lo school, buL cannoL avold Lhe slLuaLlon of
havlng Lhelr klds work
o lf wesLern consumers wanL falr Lrade, Lhey may have Lo pay hlgher prlces for Lhe food
Lhey buy
- 8emlLLances
o 1ransfer of money or goods by forelgn workers Lo Lhelr home counLrles
o 1oLal global remlLLances reached $318 bllllon ln 2007, up from $170 bllllon ln 2002
o 1he Lhree counLrles recelvlng Lhe mosL are lndla, Chlna and Mexlco (accounL for 1/3
remlLLances Lo developlng world)
o LargesL reclplenL reglon was LaLln Amerlca and Lhe Carlbbean, buL slnce 2002 Lransfers
Lo Lurope and cenLral Asla have lncreased Lhe fasLesL
- 1radlng blocs
o ArrangemenL among a group of naLlons Lo allow free Lrade beLween member counLrles
buL Lo lmpose Larlffs on oLher counLrles wlshlng Lo engage ln Lrade
o lor example, Lu
o Many esLabllshed afLer WW2 as counLrles used pollLlcal Lles Lo furLher Lhelr economlc
o Allows free access Lo oLher naLlons wlLhln Lhe Lradlng bloc lf a member
o Some belleve unfalr bc deny access Lo non-members (l.e. developlng counLrles)
o ln order Lo llmlL proLecLlonlsm, Lhe W1C has Lrled Lo promoLe free Lrade
- LxporL processlng zones and free Lrade zones
o LZs and l1Zs are lmporLanL parLs of Lhe new lnLernaLlonal dlvlslon of labour, and
represenL whaL are seen as relaLlvely easy paLhs Lo lndusLrlallzaLlon
o LZs have been deflned as labour-lnLenslve manufacLurlng cenLres LhaL lnvolve Lhe
lmporL of raw maLerlals and exporL of facLory producLs
o lree Lrade zones are where manufacLurlng does noL have Lo Lake place ln order for
Lradlng prlvlleges Lo be galned ln LLuCs, and hence, such zones have become more
characLerlzed by reLalllng
o CreaLlon of LZs has been a popular pollcy for governmenLs of LLuCs because Lhey
represenL a relaLlvely easy paLh Lo begln lndusLrlallzaLlon ln a counLry
o 1he MnC provldes Lechnology, caplLal, lnpuLs and Lhe exporL markeL
o AlLhough LZ may be beneflclal ln shorL Lerm, problems lnlLlaLed regardlng economlc
o 1he MnCs aLLracLed by Lhe speclal condlLlons of Lhe LZ, creaLlng a rellance on low-
skllled, labour-lnLenslve assembly
o LZs galned popularlLy by:
! roblems of lndebLedness and serlous forelgn exchange shorLfalls ln LLuCs ln
! Spread of new-llberal ldeas ln 1990s LhaL encourage open economles, forelgn
lnvesLmenL and non-LradlLlonal exporLs
! Search by MnCs for cosL-savlng locaLlons (l.e. LZs ln LLuCs)
! ln addlLlon, beneflLs for MnCs ln LZs lncluded:
LllmlnaLlon of cusLoms duLles on lmporLs
LlberallzaLlon of caplLal flows and occaslonally access Lo speclal flnanclal
lmporLanL lnvesLmenL ln provlslons of local lnfrasLrucLure (by
governmenL of hosL counLry)
8educLlon/exempLlon from Laxes
LlmlLaLlons on labour proLecLlng leglslaLlons
o LZs have been esLabllshed ln a wlde range of envlronmenLs: from border areas (norLh
Mexlco) Lo locaLlons ad[acenL Lo large clLles Lo exLremely underdeveloped rural areas
o MosL common locaLlon ls on Lhe coasL
o LZs mosL concenLraLed ln Lhe Asla-aclflc reglon (1990 40 of LZs locaLed Lhere, 2/3
employmenL ln LZs Lhere)
o LaLln Amerlca and Carlbbean ls Lhe nexL mosL slgnlflcanL reglon for LZs
J1$%>' 05 B". %*. !(7' H(,"(52
- LffecLlveness of ald
When ald ls effecLlve When ald ls lneffecLlve
rovldes humanlLarlan rellef
Allow counLrles Lo posLpone lmprovlng economlc
managemenL and moblllzaLlon of domesLlc
rovldes exLernal resources for lnvesLmenL and
flnances pro[ecLs LhaL could noL be underLaken
wlLh commerclal caplLal
Can replace domesLlc savlng, lul and commerclal
caplLal as Lhe maln sources of lnvesLmenL and
Lechnologlcal developmenL
ro[ecL asslsLance/helps expand much-needed
rovlslon of ald mlghL promoLe dependency raLher
Lhan self-rellance
ConLrlbuLes Lo personnel Lralnlng and bullds
Lechnlcal experLlse
lood ald has depressed some agrlculLural prlces,
resulLlng ln greaLer poverLy ln rural areas and a
dependency on food lmporLs (lncreased rlsk of
famlne ln fuLure)
Can supporL beLLer economlc and soclal pollcles
SomeLlmes Lurned on/off ln response Lo pollLlcal
and sLraLeglc agenda of Lhe donor counLry,
unrellable fund (lnLerrupLlons Lo developmenL)

Lmergency ald does noL solve long-Lerm economlc
developmenL problems of a counLry/1oo much ald
Lled Lo purchase of goods and servlces from Lhe
donor counLry
A loL of ald does noL reach Lhose who need lL mosL

- oor counLrles' debL
o Sub-Saharan Afrlca lncludes mosL of Lhe 42 counLrles classlfled as heavlly lndebLed and
23 of 32 counLrles severely lndebLed
o ln 1962, SSA owed 3 bllllon, 1982 $142 bllllon, Loday 233 bllllon
o MosL heavlly lndebLed are nlgerla (33 bllllon), Sudan (18 bllllon)
o Many LLuCs borrow ln Lhe 70s and 80s (encouraged by wesLern lenders)
o 8an lnLo problems of low growLh ln lndusLrlallzed economles, hlgh lnLeresL raLes ln
70s/80s, rlse ln oll prlces and falllng commodlLy prlces
- SoluLlons
o Slnce 1988, arls Club of governmenL credlLors has approved a serles of debL rellef
! World bank lenL more Lhough concesslonal lendlng arm
! lnLernaLlonal uevelopmenL Agency has glven loans for up Lo 30 years wlLhouL
lnLeresL buL wlLh 3-4 servlce charge
! Lendlng rlsen from $424 mllllon ln 1980 Lo $2.9 bllllon, plus a furLher $928
mllllon Lhrough Lhe Afrlcan uevelopmenL 8ank
! lMl lnLroduced sofL loan faclllLy condlLlonal on wlde-ranglng soclo-economlc
o SLrucLural ad[usLmenL programs (SAs)
! ueslgned Lo cuL governmenL expendlLure, reduce sLaLe lnLervenLlon and
promoLe llberallzaLlon and lnLernaLlonal Lrade
! SASs conslsL of four maln elemenLs
CreaLer use of a counLry`s resource base
ollcy reforms Lo lncrease economlc efflclency
CeneraLlon of forelgn lncome Lhrough dlverslflcaLlon of Lhe economy
and lncreased Lrade
8educlng acLlve role of Lhe sLaLe
! SomeLlme dlvlded lnLo Lwo maln groups:
SLablllzaLlon measures
o ShorL-Lerm sLeps Lo llmlL furLher deLerloraLlon on economy (e.g.
wage freezes, reduced subsldles on food, healLh and educaLlon)
Ad[usLmenL measures
o Longer-Lerm pollcles Lo boosL economlc compeLlLlveness (e.g.
Lax reducLlons, exporL promoLlon, prlvaLlzaLlon eLc.)
- PlC lnlLlaLlve
o Launched ln 1996 by lMl and World 8ank (endorsed by 180 governmenLs), has Lwo
maln ob[ecLlves:
! 8elleve cerLaln low-lncome counLrles of Lhelr unsusLalnable debL Lo donors
! romoLe reform and sound pollcles for growLh, human developmenL and
poverLy reducLlons
o uebL rellefs occur ln Lwo sLeps
! AfLer declslon polnL, counLry geLs debL servlce rellef afLer demonsLraLlng
adherence Lo an lMl programme and progress ln developlng a naLlonal poverLy
! CounLry geLs debL sLock rellef upon approval by Lhe World 8ank and lMl
o SLock rellef ls cancelllng of speclflc debLs, wlll achleve a reducLlon ln debL servlce over
Lhe llfe of a loan
o Cf Lhe 42 counLrles parLlclpaLlng, 34 ln SSA, one had above 1300 ln 2001, and all
rank low on Lhe Pul
o Lxpandlng markeL access ls essenLlal Lo help counLrles dlverslfy and expand Lrade
o 1rade pollcles ln rlch counLrles remaln hlghly dlscrlmlnaLory agalnsL developlng counLry
o MLuCs should seL LargeLs Lo:
! lncrease CuA
! 8emove Larlffs and quoLas on agrlculLural producLs, LexLlles and cloLhlng
exporLed by developlng counLrles
! llnance debL reducLlon from PlCs havlng reached Lhelr compleLlon polnL Lo
ensure susLalnablllLy
- AchlevemenL of LLuCs
o Average real lncome more Lhan doubled ln pasL 40 years desplLe pop. growLh overall ln
Lhe poor world
o under-3 deaLh raLes have been cuL by 30 or more ln every reglon over Lhe pasL 40
o Average llfe expecLancy has rlsen by more Lhan one-Lhlrd ln every reglon slnce 1930
o ercenLage of people wlLh access Lo safe waLer supply has rlsen from abouL 10 Lo 60 ln
rural areas of Lhe developlng world slnce 1973
D%''(&*# "* =*/"&0*1(*'%, T4%,"'@ %*. P4#'%"*%7","'@2
B'10#$-(&( %*. L-%*6(2
- Clobal warmlng
o 8efers Lo Lhe lncrease ln LemperaLures around Lhe world LhaL has been noLlced over Lhe
lasL 30 years or so, and ln parLlcular slnce Lhe 1980`s
o Creenhouse effecL ls Lhe process by whlch cerLaln gases (waLer vapour, CC
, meLhane
eLc.) allow shorL-wave radlaLlon from Lhe sun Lo pass Lhrough Lo heaL up Lhe earLh, buL
Lrap an lncreaslng proporLlon of long wave radlaLlon from Lhe earLh
o Lnhanced greenhouse effecL ls lncrease amounL of greenhouse gases ln Lhe aLmosphere
due Lo human acLlvlLles
o CC
levels have rlsen from abouL 313 ppm ln 1930 Lo 333 ppm and are expecLed Lo
reach 600 ppm by 2030
o Caused by burnlng of fossll fuels, deforesLaLlon (also removes Lrees LhaL converL Lhe CC

Lo oxygen)
o MeLhane ls second largesL conLrlbuLor Lo global warmlng (lncreaslng raLe of 1 per
o CaLLle converL 10 food Lhey eaL lnLo meLhane, emlL 100 mllllon Lonnes of meLhane
each year
o naLural weLlands and paddy flelds also emlL 130 mllllon Lonnes annually
o ClCs are synLheLlc chemlcals LhaL desLroy ozone and absorb long wave radlaLlon from
Lhe earLh
o lncreaslng aL raLe of 6 per annum, and are up Lo 10000 Llmes more efflclenL aL
Lrapplng heaL Lhan CC

- LffecLs of global warmlng
o A rlse ln sea levels, causlng floodlng ln low-lylng areas such as neLherlands, LgypL and
8angladesh (over 200 mllllon could be dlsplaced)
o lncrease ln sLorm acLlvlLy
o Changes ln agrlculLural paLLerns (decllne ln uS graln belL, lncrease ln Canada`s growlng
o 8educed ralnfall over Lhe uSA, souLhern Lurope
o LxLlncLlon of up Lo 30 of specles of wlldllfe
- lmpllcaLlons of cllmaLe change
o Clobal warmlng
! CllmaLe change
LxLreme evenLs
Long Lerm change
o 1emperaLure, wlnd, pressure, preclplLaLlon, humldlLy
o SLorms, droughL, flre, eroslon, landslldes, sedlmenLaLlon,
avalanches, pesLs and dlseases
! Sea level rlse
CoasLal eroslon, floodlng, sallnaLlon
8lver floodlng, bank eroslon,
Waves, 1sunaml
- ollcles Lo combaL cllmaLe change
o Lmlsslon of maln anLhropogenlc (man-made) CPC, CC
, lnfluenced by slze of human
populaLlon, amounL of energy used per person, level of emlsslons resulLlng from LhaL
use of energy
o varleLy of opLlons whlch could reduce emlsslons, especlally from Lhe use of energy, are
o 8educlng CC
emlsslons can be done Lhrough:
! lmproved energy efflclency
! luel swlLchlng
! use of renewable energy sources
! nuclear power
! CapLure and sLorage of CC

o AnoLher measure lnvolves lncreaslng Lhe raLe whlch naLural slnks Lake up CC
lncrease number of foresLs)
P0", !(6&%.%'"0*2
- 1ypes of soll degradaLlon
o Soll degradaLlon ls decllne ln quanLlLy and quallLy of soll
o lncludes:
! Lroslon by wlnd and waLer
! 8lologlcal degradaLlon (loss of humus and planL/anlmal llfe)
! hyslcal degradaLlon (loss of sLrucLure, changes permeablllLy)
! Chemlcal degradaLlon (acldlflcaLlon, decllnlng ferLlllLy, changes ln pP,
sallnlzaLlon and chemlcal LoxlclLy)
! Many Lypes of waLer eroslon, lncludlng surface, gully, rlll and Lunnel eroslon
o WaLer and wlnd eroslon accounL for more Lhan 80 of Lhe 20 mllllon km
of degraded
land worldwlde
o AcldlflcaLlon ls Lhe change ln chemlcal composlLlon of Lhe soll, whlch many Lrlgger Lhe
clrculaLlon of Loxlc meLals
o SalL-affecLed solls are Lyplcally found ln marlne-derlved sedlmenLs, coasLal locaLlon and
hoL arld areas, where caplllary acLlon brlngs salLs Lo Lhe upper parL of Lhe soll
o Soll sallnlLy been ma[or problem ln AusLralla followlng removal of vegeLaLlon ln dry land
- unlversal soll loss equaLlon (uSLL)
o uSLL -> A=8kSLSC ls an aLLempL oL predlcL Lhe amounL of eroslon LhaL wlll Lake place
ln an area on Lhe basls of cerLaln facLors whlch lncrease suscepLlblllLy Lo eroslon

lacLor uescrlpLlon
LroslvlLy of soll 8
8alnfall LoLals, lnLenslLy and seasonal dlsLrlbuLlon.
Maxlmum eroslvlLy occurs when Lhe ralnfall ls
mosL lnLense (especlally when land has [usL been
ploughed, or full crop cover ls noL esLabllshed).
Mlnlmum wlll occur when ralns are genLle and fall
onLo frozen soll/land wlLh naLural vegeLaLlon or
full crop cover.
LrodlblllLy k
SuscepLlblllLy of soll Lo eroslon. uepends on
lnfllLraLlon capaclLy and Lhe sLrucLural sLablllLy of
Lhe soll. Solls whlch have hlgh lnfllLraLlon
capaclLles and sLrucLural sLablllLles allow Lhem Lo
reslsL Lhe lmpacL of raln splash, glvlng Lhem Lhe
lowesL erodlblllLy values.
LengLh-slope facLor LS
Slope lengLh and sLeepness lnfluence movemenL
and speed of waLer down Lhe slope, and Lhus
ablllLy Lo LransporL parLlcles. 1he sLeeper Lhe slop,
Lhe greaLer Lhe eroslvlLy, Lhe longer Lhe slope, Lhe
more waLer recelved on Lhe surface.
Crop ManagemenL C
MosL conLrol can be exerLed over Lhe cover and
managemenL of Lhe soll, facLor relaLes Lo Lype of
crop and culLlvaLlon pracLlces. LsLabllshed grass
and foresL provlde Lhe besL proLecLlon agalnsL
eroslon, of agrlculLural crops, Lhose wlLh Lhe
greaLesL follage, and Lhus greaLesL ground cover
are opLlmal. lallow land or crops LhaL expose Lhe
soll for long perlods afLer planLlng or harvesLlng
offer llLLle proLecLlon.
Soll ConservaLlon
Soll conservaLlon measures, such as conLour
ploughlng, bundlng, use of sLrlps and Lerraces, can
reduce eroslon and slow runoff waLer.

- Causes of degradaLlon
o 8educLlon of naLural vegeLaLlve cover, whlch renders Lhe Lopsoll more suscepLlble Lo
o unsusLalnable land-use pracLlces such as excesslve lrrlgaLlon, Lhe lnapproprlaLe use of
ferLlllzers and pesLlcldes and overgrazlng by llvesLock
o CroundwaLer over-absLracLlon, whlch may lead Lo dry solls, resulLlng ln physlcal
o ALmospherlc deposlLlon of heavy meLals and perslsLenL organlc polluLanLs, whlch make
solls less sulLable Lo susLaln Lhelr orlglnal land cover and land uses
o Cvergrazlng and agrlculLural mlsmanagemenL affecL more Lhan 12 mllllon km

o SlLuaLlon ls mosL sever ln Afrlca and Asla, where 20 of Lhe world's pasLures and
rangelands have been damaged
o Puge areas of foresL are cleared for logglng, fuel wood, farmlng or oLher human uses
- LffecLs of loss of cover
o lncreases surface runoff and sLream dlscharge
o 8educLlon of waLer lnfllLraLlon and groundwaLer recharge
o uevelopmenL of eroslonal gullles and sand dunes
o Change ln surface mlcrocllmaLe LhaL enhances arldlLy
o urylng up of wells and sprlngs
o 8educLlon of seed germlnaLlon of naLlve planLs
- Managlng soll degradaLlon
o AbaLemenL sLraLegles, such as afforesLaLlon, for combaLlng soll eroslon are lacklng ln
many areas
o 1o reduce rlsk of soll eroslon, farmers encouraged Lowards more exLenslve managemenL
pracLlces such as organlc farmlng, afforesLaLlon, pasLure exLenslon and benlgn crop
o neverLheless, need for pollcymakers and publlc Lo lnLenslfy efforLs Lo combaL Lhe
pressures and rlsks Lo Lhe soll resource
o MeLhods Lo prevenL eroslon can be mechanlcal (physlcal barrlers such as embankmenLs
and wlndbreaks), or Lhey may focus on vegeLaLlon cover and soll husbandry
o Cverland flow can be reduced by lncreaslng lnfllLraLlon
o Mechanlcal meLhods
! lnclude bundlng, Lerraclng and conLour ploughlng, and shelLer belLs such as
Lrees or hedgerows
! key ls Lo prevenL or slow Lhe movemenL of ralnwaLer downslope
! ConLour ploughlng Lakes advanLage of Lhe rldges formed aL rlghL angles Lo Lhe
slope Lo prevenL or slow down Lhe accreLlon of soll and waLer.
! Powever, ln areas wlLh heavy ralnfall, such as Lhe monsoon ln SouLh-LasL Asla,
conLour ploughlng ls lnsufflclenL and Lerraclng ls used
! Slope ls broken up lnLo a serles of flaL sLeps, wlLh bunds (ralsed levees) aL Lhe
! 1he use of Lerraclng allows areas Lo be culLlvaLed LhaL would noL oLherwlse be
! ln areas where wlnd eroslon ls a problem, shelLer belLs of Lrees or hedgerows
are used, acLlng as a barrler Lo Lhe wlnd Lo reduce lLs flow and speed
o Cropplng Lechnlques
! Cenerally focus on
MalnLalnlng a crop cover for as long as posslble
keeplng ln place Lhe sLubble and rooL sLrucLure of Lhe crop afLer
lanLlng a grass crop - grass rooLs blnd Lhe soll, mlnlmlzlng Lhe acLlon of
Lhe wlnd and raln on a bare soll surface
! lncreased organlc conLenL allows soll Lo hold more waLer, prevenLlng aerlal
eroslon and sLablllzlng sLrucLure
! Care musL be Laken wlLh uslng machlnery, as Lo noL damage soll sLrucLure
o Managlng salL and chemlcal affecLed solls
! llushlng Lhe soll and leachlng Lhe salL away
! AppllcaLlon of chemlcal such as gypsum (calclum sulfaLe) Lo replace sodlum lons
on Lhe clay and collolds wlLh calclum ones
! A reducLlon ln evaporaLlon losses Lo reduce upward movemenL of waLer ln Lhe
- Land degradaLlon ln 8arbados
o MosL slgnlflcanL are of land degradaLlon ln 8arbados ls wlLhln Lhe ScoLland ulsLrlcL
o Changlng land-use pracLlces and Lhe appllcaLlon of lnapproprlaLe agrlculLural Lechnlques
(growlng sugar cane on very sLeep slopes for example), have resulLed ln slgnlflcanL and
vlslble loss of solls
o ConLrolllng lL
! Cne effecLlve meLhod Lo conLrol ls lncreaslng vegeLaLlve cover wlLhln affecLed
! larmers LaughL meLhods Lo keep soll covered, lncorporaLlng organlc maLLer Lo
asslsL wlLh percolaLlon and reduclng Lhe use of ferLlllzers
+%'(& 4#%6( %*. >-%*6(2
- Changlng supply and demand
o use of waLer has lncreased slx Llme ln pasL cenLury, world populaLlon Lrlpled
o Some rlvers LhaL formerly reached Lhe sea no longer do so, dlverLed for our use
(example of Colorado ln Lhe uSA)
o Palf world`s weLland dlsappeared, Loday 20 of freshwaLer specles are endangered or
o Many aqulfers are belng depleLed, and waLer Lables ln many parLs of Lhe world are
dropplng aL an alarmlng raLe
o World waLer use ls pro[ecLed Lo lncrease by abouL 30 ln nexL 30 years
o LsLlmaLed by 2023, 4 bllllon people wlll llve under condlLlons of sever waLer sLress
(condlLlons parLlcularly severe ln Afrlca, Mlddle LasL and souLh Asla)
o May fuel armed confllcLs
o CurrenLly esLlmaLed 1.1 bllllon people lack access Lo safe waLer, 2.6 bllllon wlLhouL
adequaLe sanlLaLlon, and more Lhan 4 bllllon do noL have Lhelr wasLe waLer LreaLed Lo
any degree
- WaLer supply
o uepends on several facLors ln waLer cycle, lncludlng raLes of ralnfall, evaporaLlon, use of
waLer by planLs (LransplraLlon), rlver and groundwaLer flows
o Less Lhan 1 of freshwaLer avallable ls avallable for people Lo use (everyLhlng else
locklng ln lce sheeLs and glaclers)
o Clobally, 12300 km
of waLer are consldered avallable for human use on an annual
o AbouL 6600 m
per person per year
o Cnly 4800 m
llkely per person 2023
o lreshwaLer noL evenly dlsLrlbuLed around Lhe world
o 1hree quarLers of ralnfall occurs ln areas conLalnlng less Lhan one Lhlrd of Lhe world`s
populaLlon (whereas Lwo Lhlrds of world`s populaLlon llve ln areas recelvlng only one-
quarLer of Lhe world`s annual ralnfall)
o 20 of global average runoff each year accounLed for by Lhe Amazon 8asln, a vasL
reglon wlLh fewer Lhan 10 mllllon people
o lndla geLs 90 of ralnfall durlng summer monsoon season (oLher Llmes ralnfall
exLremely low)
o WaLer sLress
! When per caplLa waLer supply ls less Lhan 1700 m
per year, an area suffers
from ``waLer sLress", and ls sub[ecL Lo frequenL waLer shorLages
! ln many areas, acLually less Lhan 1000 m
per caplLa, causlng problems for food
producLlon and economlc developmenL
! 2.3 bllllon people llve ln waLer sLressed areas
! WaLer sLress wlll affecL 3.3 bllllon people (48 of world pop.) pro[ecLed by 2023
- WaLer use
o CurrenLly, quanLlLy of waLer used for all purposes exceeds 3700 km
per year
o AgrlculLure ls largesL consumer (Lwo-Lhlrds of all waLer from rlvers, lakes and
o 1960, waLer used for crop lrrlgaLlon rlsen by 60-70
o lndusLry uses abouL 20 of avallable waLer, and munlclpal uses abouL 10
o op. growLh, urbanlzaLlon and lndusLrlallzaLlon have lncreased Lhe use of waLer ln Lhese
o As world pop. and lndusLrlal ouLpuL have lncreased, by 2023 global avallablllLy of
freshwaLer expecLed Lo drop 23 from year 2000 flgure Lo 3100m

- WaLer scarclLy
o 1wo Lypes of waLer scarclLy affecL LLuCs ln parLlcular:
o hyslcal waLer scarclLy
! Cccurs where waLer consumpLlon exceed 60 of Lhe usable supply
! 1o help meeL waLer needs, counLrles such as Saudl Arabla and kuwalL lmporL
much of Lhelr food and lnvesL ln desallnlzaLlon planLs
o Lconomlc waLer scarclLy
! CounLry physlcally has sufflclenL waLer, buL addlLlonal sLorage and LransporL
faclllLles needed (embarklng on expenslve waLer developmenL pro[ecLs, of Loo
hlgh a cosL)
o ln addlLlon, ln LLuCs access Lo adequaLe waLer supplles ls mosL affecLed by exhausLlon
of LradlLlonal sources such as wells and seasonal rlvers
o ln many poor counLrles farmers use, on average, Lwlce as much waLer per hecLare as
lndusLrlallzed counLrles, buL Lhelr ylelds are Lhree Llmes as low (slx Llmes dlfference ln
efflclency of lrrlgaLlon)
- WaLer quallLy
o needs Lo be adequaLe quallLy for consumpLlon
o WPC esLlmaLes 4 mllllon deaLhs each year aLLrlbuLed Lo waLer-relaLed dlseases (cholera,
hepaLlLls, malarla and oLher paraslLlc dlseases)
o 8eal problem of drlnklng waLer and sanlLaLlon ln developlng counLrles ls Loo many
people lack access Lo safe and affordable waLer supplles and sanlLaLlon
- Clobal waLer supply and sanlLaLlon
o urban areas are beLLer served Lhan rural ones, and counLrles ln Asla, LaLln Amerlca and
Carlbbean are beLLer off Lhan Afrlcan counLrles
o Many plped waLer sysLems however do noL meeL waLer quallLy crlLerla, leadlng more
people Lo rely on boLLled waLer (as ln ma[or clLles ln Columbla, lndla, Mexlco, 1halland,
venezuela and ?emen)
o Some cases, poor pay more Lhan rlch for waLer
o orL-au-rlnce, PalLl, survey have shown households connecLed Lo waLer sysLem
Lyplcally pald around $1.00 per cublc meLre, whlle unconnecLed cusLomers forced Lo
purchase waLer from moblle vendors pald from $3.30 Lo $16.30 per cublc meLre
o SanlLaLlon and populaLlon growLh
! lewer people have adequaLe sanlLaLlon Lhan safe waLer, and global provlslon of
sanlLaLlon ls noL keeplng up wlLh pop. growLh
! 8eLween 1990 and 2000 number of people wlLhouL adequaLe sanlLaLlon rose
from 2.6 bllllon Lo 3.3 bllllon
! LeasL access Lo sanlLaLlon occurs ln Asla (48), especlally ln rural areas
! SLlll pressure polnLs, especlally ln areas of rapld pop. growLh
! SquaLLer seLLlemenLs ln many of world's pooresL clLles, local auLhorlLles unable
Lo or legally prevenLed from provldlng sanlLaLlon, slLuaLlon ls llkely Lo
deLerloraLe rapldly
:-( +0&,.U# H">-(#2 V"0."/(&#"'@ %*. L-%*6(
- 8lodlverslLy
o varleLy of all forms of llfe on earLh (planLs, anlmals, mlcro-organlsms)
o 8efers Lo specles (specles dlverslLy), varlaLlons wlLhln specles (geneLlc dlverslLy), and
lnLerdependence wlLhln specles (ecosysLem dlverslLy) as well as hablLaL dlverslLy
o LsLlmaLed up Lo 30 mllllon specles on earLh
o Cnly 1.4 mllllon ldenLlfled Lhus far
o 1roplcs rlch ln blodlverslLy - conLaln over 30 of world's specles ln 7 of worlds land
(80 lnsecLs and 90 prlmaLes)
- value of Lroplcal ralnforesLs
o lndusLrlal uses
! Charcoal
! Saw logs
! Cums, resln and olls
! ulpwood
! lywood and veneer
! lndusLrlal chemlcals
! Medlclnes
! Cenes for crops
! 1ourlsm
o Lcologlcal uses
! WaLershed proLecLlon
! llood and landsllde proLecLlon
! Soll eroslon conLrol
! CllmaLe regulaLlon (carbon slnk)
o SubslsLence uses
! luel wood and charcoal
! lodder for agrlculLure
! 8ulldlng poles
! lL-sawlng and saw-mllllng
! Weavlng maLerlals and dyes
! 8earlng sllkworms and bee-keeplng
! Speclal woods and ashes
! lrulLs and nuLs
- ueforesLaLlon of Lroplcal ralnforesL
o uesLroyed aL raLe over 11 mllllon hecLares a year
o lncreaslngly scaLLered and fragmenLed
o Amazon ralnforesL ls excepLlon, alLhough lL ls lmplodlng
o Causes of deforesLaLlon ln 8razll
! AgrlculLural colonlzaLlon by landless mlgranLs and speculaLlve developers along
hlghways and agrlculLural growLh areas
! Converslon of foresL Lo caLLle pasLures, especlally ln easLern and souLh-easLern
ara and norLhern MaLo Crosso
! Mlnlng (example CreaLer Caras ro[ecL ln souLh-easLern Amazonla, lncludlng a
900 km rallway and exLenslve deforesLaLlon Lo provlde charcoal Lo smelL Lhe
lron ore, anoLher LhreaL comes from small-scale lnformal gold mlnes, also
causlng conLamlnaLed waLer supplles)
! Large -scale hydroelecLrlc power schemes such as 1ucurul uam on Lhe
1ocanLlns 8lver
! uroughL (lncreases rlsk)
! CllmaLe change (can cause droughL)
! 1lmber explolLaLlon (flres used Lo overcome laws abouL clearlng Llmber for sale)
! SelecLlve logglng (arLlflclally dry foresLs by openlng up canopy)
! LlghLnlng
! Land clearlng
o 1rends of 8razll deforesLaLlon
! 8ecenL
! arLly promoLed by governmenL pollcles
! Wlde range of causes
! new areas of deforesLaLlon as well as exLenslon of prevlously deforesLed areas
! Land speculaLlon and granLlng of land LlLles Lo Lhose who occupy parLs of Lhe
ralnforesL ls ma[or cause of deforesLaLlon
- LffecLs of deforesLaLlon
o ulsrupLlon of clrculaLlon and sLorage of nuLrlenLs
o Surface eroslon and compacLlon of solls
o SandlflcaLlon (raln wash away flner parLlcles, leavlng behlnd coarser and heavler sand)
o lncreased flood levels and sedlmenL conLenL of rlvers (ln dry season, rlvers
o CllmaLlc change (reducLlon of waLer LhaL ls re-evaporaLed from vegeLaLlon, recycllng of
waLer dlmlsh)
o Loss of blodlverslLy
- Amazon's rescue reversed
o 3233 km
of ralnforesL were losL beLween AugusL and uecember 2007, because of soy
planLlng and caLLle ranchlng
o 20 has already been desLroyed mosLly slnce Lhe 70s
o A furLher 40 could be losL by 2030 lf Lhe Lrend ls noL reversed
- 1he cosL of envlronmenLal lnacLlon ln nlgerla
o 8ecause of Lhe hlgh cosL of underLaklng envlronmenLal proLecLlon measures, nlgerlan
governmenL and prlvaLe secLor have been relucLanL Lo Lake Lhese measures
o Powever Lhere are also economlc, soclal and ecologlcal cosLs Lo noL acLlng
o 8ecenL sLudy by World 8ank shows rlsks and cosLs lf no remedlal acLlons ls Laken
o Long-Lerm losses Lo nlgerla of noL acLlng are esLlmaLed Lo be around $ 3 bllllon annually

D%''(&*# "* H(#04&>( L0*#41$'"0*2
=>0,06">%, W00'$&"*'#2
- CalculaLlng ecologlcal fooLprlnL
o LveryLhlng used for our dally needs comes from naLural resources
o Lcologlcal fooLprlnL measured ln acres or hecLares, calculaLes amounL of earLh`s blo
producLlve space needed Lo keep a populaLlon aL lLs currenL level of resource
o CalculaLlon Lakes lnLo accounL:
! Arable land
AmounL of land requlred for growlng crops
! asLure land:
8esources requlred for growlng anlmals for all forms of consumpLlon
! loresLs:
lor fuel, furnlLure eLc., also provldlng many ecosysLem servlces such as
cllmaLe sLablllLy, eroslon prevenLlon
! Cceans:
lor marlne producLs
! lnfrasLrucLure needs:
8ased on bullL-up land used for Lhese needs
! Lnergy cosLs:
Land requlred for absorblng carbon dloxlde emlsslons and oLher energy
- Lcologlcal fooLprlnL, global and naLlonal
o laneL`s blologlcal producLlve capaclLy (blocapaclLy)ls esLlmaLed aL 1.9 ha per person
o CurrenLly, counLrles are uslng up Lo 2.2 ha per person, beyond Lhe planeL`s blocapaclLy
Lo susLaln us by 13
o ueflclL ls showlng up as falllng naLural ecosysLems - foresLs, oceans, soll, waLer eLc.
o laneL`s blo capaclLy affecLed by global populaLlon as well as raLe of consumpLlon
o lncreased consumpLlon depleLes planeL's carrylng, renewal and regeneraLlon capaclLles
o Lcologlcal fooLprlnL esLlmaLed avallable Lo each person would bhae reduced Lo 1.3 ha
o lf we conLlnue aL Lhe consumpLlon raLes of Lhe rlch WesLern counLrles, we wlll need 4 Lo
3 earLhs Lo susLaln ourselves
o uSA ls counLry wlLh largesL per caplLa fooLprlnL ln Lhe world - 9.37
o lf everyone llved llke Amerlcans, LarLh could only supporL 1.2 bllllon people, buL lf
everyone was llke Lhose ln 8angladesh, lL could supporL 22 bllllon people (fooLprlnL of
0.3 ha)
o Clobal ecologlcal fooLprlnL grew from abouL 70 of capaclLy ln 1961 Lo 120 ln 1999
o luLure pro[ecLlon show growLh Lo abouL 180 Lo 220 by 2030
=*/"&0*1(*'%, P4#'%"*%7","'@2
- LnvlronmenL susLalnablllLy lndex
o LSl produced by a Leam of envlronmenLal experLs ln ?ale and Colubla
o uslng 21 lndlcaLors and 76 measuremenLs lncludlng naLural resource endowmenLs, pasL
and presenL polluLlon levels, and pollcy efforLs, Lhe reporL creaLes a susLalnablllLy
score" for each counLry, wlLh hlgher scores lndlcaLlng beLLer envlronmenLal
o 10 mosL susLalnable counLrles as ranked by Lhe LSl are domlnaLed by wealLh, sparsely
populaLed naLlons wlLh an abundance of naLural resources
o llnland ranks flrsL, wlLh norway, Sweden and lceland all ln Lhe Lop 3
o 1he only developlng naLlons ln Lhe Lop 10 are uruguay and Cuyana, whlch have
relaLlvely low pop. denslLles and an abundance of naLural resources
o Conversely, only densely populaLed counLrles LhaL have recelved above-average
ranklngs are !apan, Cermany, Lhe neLherland and lLaly, some of Lhe rlchesL counLrles on
Lhe llsL
o LnvlronmenLal susLalnablllLy ls essenLlal ln aldlng Lhe poor
o Plghly dependenL on Lhe envlronmenL and lLs resources whlch provlde roughly Lwo-
Lhlrds of household lncome for Lhe rural poor
o CllmaLe change ls dramaLlcally reshaplng Lhe envlronmenL on whlch poor people
o CllmaLe change lncreases ralnfall varlablllLy (droughLs and floods), food securlLy, spread
of dlsease, lncreased rlsk of accldenLs and damage Lo lnfrasLrucLure
o oor are mosL vulnerable Lo Lhese changes and have llmlLed capablllLy Lo respond Lo
o Cverflshlng has led Lo Lhe collapse of many flsherles, and one quarLer of global marlne
flsh sLocks are currenLly overexplolLed or slgnlflcanLly depleLed
o AbouL 60 of Lhe ecosysLem servlces resources evaluaLed by Lhe un's Mlllennlum
LcosysLem AssessmenL (a measure of how ecosysLems beneflL people), are belng
degraded or are belng used unsusLalnably
o 8eLween 10 and 30 of mammal, blrd and amphlblan specles face exLlncLlon
o Clobal Llmber producLlon has lncreased by 60 ln Lhe pasL four decades, meanlng
roughly 40 of foresL area has been losL, and deforesLaLlon conLlnues aL a raLe of 13
mllllon ha per annum
- Challenges and soluLlons
o LnvlronmenLal concerns are fundamenLal Lo long-Lerm susLalnable developmenL
o LfforLs musL be made Lo lmprove undersLandlng of envlronmenLal lmpacL of
developmenL sLraLegles and Lo recognlze Lhe llnk beLween envlronmenLal degradaLlon
and poverLy
o 1he poor, who are mosL dependenL on naLural resources and are mosL affecLed by
envlronmenLal degradaLlon, lack Lhe lnformaLlon or access Lo parLlclpaLe ln declslon-
maklng and pollcy developmenL
o ln conLrasL, Lhose who have lnfluence ln pollcy developmenL have llLLle undersLandlng of
Lhe cosLs and beneflLs assoclaLed wlLh envlronmenLal pollcy
o Lconomlc growLh and envlronmenL are ofLen sLlll vlewed as compeLlng ob[ecLlves
o 8uL lnvesLlng ln envlronmenLal managemenL can be cosL-effecLlve, and lL conLrlbuLes Lo
lmprovlng llvellhoods
- Managlng Lhe korup naLlonal park
o CreaLed ln 1986 by Lhe governmenL of Cameroon wlLh Lhe supporL of Lhe WWl
o under law, human acLlvlLy ln Lhe park ls llmlLed Lo Lourlsm, research and recreaLlon
o ro[ecL alms Lo lnLegraLe Lhe naLlonal ark lnLo Lhe local economy and reglonal
developmenL plans
o Lxample of susLalnable developmenL ln korup ls LhaL of communlLy foresLs
o 1hese are large areas of foresL ln whlch vlllagers obLaln and manage a parL of Lhe
communal foresL ln a susLalnable way (revlewed regularly by governmenL and WWl)
o ManagemenL of korup ls lmporLanL, conLalns over 400 specles of Lrees, 423 specles of
blrds, 120 specles of flsh and 100 mammal specles
o Cver 60 specles occur only ln korup, and 170 are consldered Lo be endangered or
3%,'-4#Q V0#(&4$ %*. '-( X"1"'# '0 9&0F'-2
- MalLhus
o ln 1798 1homas MalLhus produced hls essay on Lhe prlnclple of populaLlon
o Pe belleved Lhere was a flnlLe opLlmum populaLlon slze ln relaLlon food supply, and LhaL
any lncrease ln populaLlon beyond Lhls polnL would lead Lo a decllne ln Lhe sLandard of
llvlng Lo war, famlne and dlsease
o Pls Lheory was LhaL populaLlon grows aL a geomeLrlcal raLe (exponenLlal), and LhaL food
supply grows aL an arlLhmeLlc raLe
o SuggesLed prevenLlve and poslLlve checks as Lo ways by whlch populaLlon could be
curbed once Lhe celllng had been reached
o revenLaLlve check lncluded absLlnence from marrlage, a delay ln Lhe Llme of marrlage
and absLlnence from sex wlLhln marrlage
o oslLlve checks lnclude lack of food, dlsease and war all dlrecLly affecLs populaLlon and
correcLs lL.
- lncreaslng Lhe carrylng capaclLy: 8oserup
o A dlfferenL vlew was LhaL of LsLher 8oserup, who belleved LhaL people have Lhe
resources of knowledge and Lechnology Lo lncrease food producLlon and LhaL when a
need arlses somebody wlll flnd a soluLlon
o She suggesLed LhaL an lncrease ln populaLlon sLlmulaLed a change ln agrlculLural
Lechnlques so LhaL more food could be produced, and hence Lhls wlll always occur when
populaLlon lncreased and a hlgher food supply was needed, LhaL lnnovaLlon would occur
o Many Lhlngs have been done slnce Lhe Llme of MalLhus Lo lncrease food producLlon,
such as hlgh-yleld varleLy planLs, maklng new foods such as soy, pesLlcldes, ferLlllzers,
cross breedlng of caLLle eLc.
- LlmlLs Lo growLh model
o Lxamlned flve baslc facLors LhaL deLermlnlng and ulLlmaLely llmlLlng growLh on Lhe
planeL: populaLlon, agrlculLural producLlon, naLural resources, lndusLrlal producLlon, and
o Many of Lhese facLors were observed Lo grow aL an exponenLlal raLe
o lood producLlon and populaLlon grew exponenLlally unLll Lhe rapldly dlmlnlshlng
resource base forces a slowdown ln lndusLrlal growLh
o 8ecause of naLural delays ln Lhe sysLem, boLh populaLlon and polluLlon conLlnue Lo
lncrease afLer peak of lndusLrlallzaLlon
o op. growLh flnally halLed by rlse ln deaLh raLe due Lo decreased food, waLer and
medlcal servlces
o 1eam concluded LhaL lf Lrends conLlnue, llmlLs Lo growLh reached by 2070
L-%*6"*6 $%''(&*# 05 0", $&0.4>'"0* %*. >0*#41$'"0*2
- roducLlon
o 2003, global oll producLlon aL 70 mllllon barrels per day
o LlghL producers, Saudl Arabla, uSA, 8ussla, lran, Chlna, venezuela, Mexlco and norway
accounLed for over 30 of producLlon
o Cll producLlon llmlLed or non-exlsLenL ln many counLrles, noLably Afrlca
- Cll reflnlng
o Cver 80 reflnlng Lake place ln Lurope, norLh Amerlca and !apan
o SeparaLlon beLween producLlon and reflnlng causes problems
o Cll was consldered cheap fuel and many counLrles became dependenL on lL, buL as a
resulL of Lhe oll prlce rlse ln 1972, many counLrles had Lo reassess Lhelr energy pollcy
o Cll reserves
! lound ln geologlcal sLrucLures such as anLlcllnes, faulL Lraps and salL domes
! AL presenL raLes of producLlon/consumpLlon, could lasL anoLher 40 years
! nearly 2/3 of world's reserves found ln Mlddle LasL, followed by LaLln Amerlca
- 1he geographlc lmpllcaLlon of mlddle easL oll
o lmporLance of Mlddle LasL as suppller of oll ls crlLlcal
o lnvolvemenL ln Culf War ls a case ln polnL
o 1he organlzaLlon of peLroleum exporLlng counLrles (CLC) conLrols Lhe prlce of crude oll,
and Lhls has lncreased lLs economlc and pollLlcal power
o Pas also lncreased dependency on Lhe Mlddle LasL by all oLher reglons
o rovldes lncenLlve for rlch counLrles Lo lncrease energy conservaLlon or develop
alLernaLlve forms of energy:
! CounLrles need Lo malnLaln good pollLlcal llnk wlLh Mlddle LasL and sLrlve for
pollLlcal sLablllLy ln reglon
! lnvolve Mlddle LasL ln economlc co-operaLlon
! 8eassess coal and nuclear power as energy opLlons
- ConsumpLlon
o Seven counLrles, Lhe uSA, !apan, Chlna, Cermany , 8ussla, lLaly and lrance accounL for
over 30 of global oll demand
o Cll demand roughly a funcLlon of populaLlon and level of developmenL
o Cll consumpLlon nearly Lrlpled slnce 1963
o 2006, demand was almosL 84 mllllon barrels a day
o SlgnlflcanL share of oll demand assumed by aclflc Aslan naLlons golng Lhrough rapld
lndusLrlallzaLlon, parLlcularly Chlna (second blggesL oll lmporLer Lo uSA)
- LnvlronmenLal lmpllcaLlon
o lmporLance of oll as world's leadlng fuels has had many negaLlve effecLs on Lhe naLural
o lor example
! Cll sllcks from Lankers such as Lhe 8raer (1993)
! uamage Lo coasLllnes, flsh sLocks and communlLles dependenL on Lhe sea
! WaLer polluLlon caused by Lankers lllegally washlng/cleanlng ouL Lanks ln norLh
! Culf War damage - sLorage of oll and oll wells can be LargeLs for desLrucLlon
causlng lmmeasurable envlronmenLal damage
! Cll sllcks hazard Lo wlldllfe
:-( >-%*6"*6 "1$0&'%*>( 05 %,'(&*%'"/( (*(&6@ #04&>(#2
- 8enewable resources
o lnclude hydroelecLrlc power, solar, wlnd and Lldal
o World poLenLlal renewable energy
! Wlnd Lnergy Lhe smallesL, mosLly ln norLh Amerlca, norLhern Lurope, !apan
AusLralla and new Zealand, SouLh Amerlca, Chlna, lndla
! 8lomass blggesL, mosLly SouLh Amerlca, norLh Amerlca, lormer SovleL unlon
and LasLern Lurope, SouLhern Afrlca, norLhern Lurope
! PydroelecLrlclLy second largesL, mosLly norLh Amerlca, SouLh Amerlca, norLhern
Lurope, lormer SovleL unlon and LasLern Lurope
! Solar energy lowesL wlLh slmllar counLrles possesslng Lhe poLenLlal Lo use lL
- 1rends ln renewable energy sources
o 8enewable energy ls growlng fasL
o 8aLes of developmenL of renewable energy sources are far exceedlng Lhose of fossll
fuels such as oll, coal and naLural gas
o 2006, wlnd and solar developmenL grew by 20 and 40 respecLlvely
o MarkeL for renewable energy sources was abouL $33 bllllon worldwlde 2006, forecasLed
growLh Lo $226 bllllon by 2016
B,'(&*%'"/( (*(&6@2
- Solar power
o Lnergy from Lhe sun ls clean, renewable, and so abundanL LhaL Lhe amounL of energy
recelved by Lhe earLh ln 30 mlnuLes ls Lhe equlvalenL Lo all Lhe power used by humans ln
one year
o ln uk, solar energy falllng on bulldlngs could meeL Lwo-Lhlrds of elecLrlclLy needs
o AdvanLages
! no flnlLe resources lnvolved - less envlronmenLal damage
! no aLmospherlc polluLlon
! SulLable for small scale producLlon
o ulsadvanLages
! AffecLed by cloud, seasons, nlghL Llme
! noL always posslble when demand exlsLs
! Plgh cosLs
o Plgh cosLs of solar power make lL dlfflculL for Lhe lndusLry Lo achleve full poLenLlal
o Lach unlL of elecLrlclLy generaLed by solar energy cosLs 4-10 Llmes as much as LhaL
derlved from fossll fuels (does noL make a slgnlflcanL conLrlbuLlon Lo energy efflclency)
o lncreaslng aL raLe of 13-20 per year, buL annual producLlon of phoLovolLalc cells ls
enough only Lo power a small clLy
- Wlnd power
o Cood for small scale producLlon
o needs exposed slLe such as hlllslde, flaL land or proxlmlLy Lo coasL
o CondlLlons found aL AlLamonL ass, Callfornla for example
o AdvanLages
! no polluLlon of alr, ground/waLer
! no flnlLe resources
! 8educLlon ln envlronmenLal damage
! SulLable for small-scale producLlon
o ulsadvanLages
! Plgh cosL
! nolsy
! Wlnds unrellable
o Large scale developmenL hampered by hlgh cosL of developmenL (wlnd pumps,
Lransmlsslon glrds)
o SulLable locaLlons dlsLanL from cenLres of demand
- 1ldal power
o 8enewable, clean energy source
o lunnel-shaped esLuary, wlLh a large Lldal range
o 8lver 8ance ln 8rlLLany has necessary physlcal condlLlons
o Large scale producLlon llmlLed
! Plgh cosL of developmenL
! LlmlLed number of sulLable slLes
! LnvlronmenLal damage Lo esLuarlne slLes
! Long perlod of developmenL
! osslble effecLs on porLs and lndusLrles upsLream
- nuclear power
o AlLhough noL renewable, very llmlLed amounL requlred Lo produce large quanLlLles of
o AdvanLages
! Cheap, rellable and abundanL source of energy
! lenLy of uranlum avallable
! uranlum fuel ls avallable from all counLrles and would noL have Lo rely on oLher
counLrles for fuel
! Lu ln favour of nuclear power and esLlmaLes 40 of Lu's elecLrlclLy wlll be
provlded by nuclear power (13 of LoLal enegy)
o ulsadvanLages
! 8adloacLlve so faced wlLh hazards of wasLe dlsposal and decommlsslonlng of old
planLs and reacLors
! 8lslng envlronmenLal fears concernlng lLs safeLy are based on experlences of
dlsasLers such as Chernobyl, 1986
! 8ecesslon ln 1990's and 2000s has reduced demand for energy
M@.&0(,(>'&"> $0F(&2
- PydroelecLrlc power
o 8enewable form of energy LhaL harnesses fasL-flowlng waLer wlLh a sufflclenL head
o LocaLlon depends on:
! 8ellef: namely a valley LhaL can be damned
! Ceology: sLable, lmpermeable bedrock
! 8lver reglme: rellable supply of waLer
! CllmaLe: a rellable supply of waLer
! MarkeL demand: Lo be proflLable
! 1ransporL faclllLles: Lo LransporL Lhe energy
o SlLe depends on:
! Local valley shape (narrow and deep)
! Local geology (sLrong lmpermeable rocks)
! Lake poLenLlal (large head of waLer)
! Local land-use (non-resldenLlal)
! Local plannlng (lack of resLrlcLlons)
o ulfflculLles wlLh PL
! very cosLly
! lew places have sufflclenL heads of waLer
! MarkeLs are crlLlcal (planL needs Lo run aL full capaclLy Lo be economlcal)
! Some cases markeLs are creaLed (alumlnum smelLers locaLed close Lo use up
exLra energy)
- lmpacLs of Lhree gorges dam
o ueclslon Lo bulld 1hree Corges uam on ?angLze ln Chlna hlghllghLed some confllcLs
apparenL ln Lhe way people use Lhe rlver (compleLed ln 2009)
o lacLs
! Cver 2 km long and 100 m hlgh
! Lake over 600 km long
! 1 mllllon people moved Lo make way for dam and lake
! ?angLze provldes 66 of Chlna`s rlce and conLalns 400 mllllon people
! ?angLze dralns 1.8 mllllon km
and dlscharges 700 km
of waLer annually
o AdvanLages
! CeneraLes up Lo 18 000 megawaLLs, elghL Llmes more Lhan LgypL's Aswan uam
and 30 more Lhan Lhe world's largesL exlsL PL dam, Lhe lLalpu ln araguay
! Lnable Chlna Lo reduce dependency on coal
! Supply energy Lo Shanghal (13 mllllon people) and Chongqlng (3 mllllon)
! roLecL 10 mllllon from floodlng (over 300 000 people dled ln Chlna as a resulL
of floodlng ln Lhe 20
! Allow shlpplng above Lhe 1hree Corges: dams have ralsed waLer level by 90 m
and Lurned raplds ln Lhe gorge Lo a lake
! CeneraLed Lhousands of [obs
o ulsadvanLages
! MosL floods ln recenL years come from rlvers whlch [oln Lhe ?agLze below Lhe
1hree Corges ua
! 8eglon ls selsmlcally acLlve and landslldes are frequenL
! Much of land avallable for reseLLlemenL ls over 800 m above sea level, and ls
colder, wlLh lnferLlle Lhln solls on relaLlvely sLeep slopes
! uozens of Lowns had Lo be flooded (Wanxlan and lullng)
! 330 mllllon Lonnes of sllL carrled Lhrough Corge annually
! 1o reduce sllL load, afforesLaLlon needed, buL Lhe reseLLlemenL of people wlll
cause greaLer pressure on Lhe slopes above Lhe dam
! lnLerferes wlLh aquaLlc llfe (Slberlan crane and whlLe flag dolphln LhreaLened)
! Archaeologlcal Lreasures drowned, such as Zhang lel Lemple
! CosL 70 bllllon
L0*#(&/%'"0*Q F%#'( &(.4>'"0*Q &(>@>,"*6 %*. #47#'"'4'"0*2
- ueflnlLlons
o 8ecycllng
! refers Lo Lhe processlng of lndusLrlal and household wasLes (such as paper, glass
and some meLals and plasLlcs) so LhaL maLerlals can be reused
! Saves scare raw maLerlals and helps reduce polluLlon
! uk fallen behlnd oLher Lu counLrles wlLh recycllng because Lhere are more
landflll slLes whlch are cheaper Lo use (has recycllng LargeL of 33 by 2013)
o 8euse
! 8efers Lo mulLlple use of a producL by reLurnlng lL Lo Lhe manufacLurer or
processor each Llme (more energy and resource efflclenL Lhan recycllng)
o 8educLlon
! uslng less energy, such as Lurnlng llghLs off when you don'L need Lhem
o SubsLlLuLlon
! uslng one resource raLher Lhan anoLher (renewable verse non-renewable)
o Landflll
! 8urylng of wasLe ln Lhe ground, and Lhen coverlng over Lhe fllled plL wlLh soll
and oLher maLerlal
! Cheap buL noL always healLhy (mosLly domesLlc wasLe, some hazardous wasLe
allowed as well)
o lly-Llpplng
! When people/companles dump wasLe/old equlpmenL
! lncreaslng problem
! uone because of lncreased cosLs of landfllls
! Also more goods, such as 1vs, compuLers and refrlgeraLors classlfled as
hazardous and sub[ecL Lo resLrlcLlons on how Lhey are dlsposed of
! lnLroducLlon of sLrlcL new Lu regulaLlons means hlgh proporLlon of new
producLs musL be recycled (cosLly Lo manufacLurers and purchasers)
- WasLe lmporLs ln Chlna
o lalrly new envlronmenLal problem ls dumplng of old compuLer equlpmenL
o Maklng a new C requlres aL leasL 10 Llmes lLs welghL ln fossll fuels and chemlcals
o Can be as hlgh as 240 kg fossll fuels, 22 kg chemlcals and 1300 kg clean waLer
o Cld Cs ofLen shlpped Lo LLuCs for recycllng of small quanLlLles of copper, gold and
o laced ln baLhs of acld Lo sLrlp meLals from Lhe clrculL boards, a process hlghly damaglng
Lo Lhe envlronmenL and Lhe workers LhaL carry lL ouL
o lmporLs more Lhan 3 mllllon Lonnes of wasLe plasLlc and 13 mllllon Lonnes of paper and
cardboard each year
o 8ecause of cheaper labour, Chlna lmporLs wasLe producLs and recycles
o 1hlrd of uk's wasLe plasLlc and paper ls exporLed Lo Chlna each year
Y%'"0*%, %*. 6,07%, "*"'"%'"/(#2
- lnLernaLlonal pollcy Lo proLecL cllmaLe
o ln 1988 1oronLo conference on cllmaLe change called for Lhe reducLlon of CC
by 20 of Lhe 1988 levels b 2003
o Also ln 1988 Lhe lnLergovernmenLal panel on cllmaLe change (lCC) was esLabllshed by
Lhe unlLed naLlons envlronmenL programme (unL) and Lhe world MeLeorologlcal
o un conference on Lhe envlronmenL and developmenL (unCLu) was held ln 1992 ln 8lo
de !anelro
o Covered range of sub[ecLs and Lhere were a number of sLaLemenLs, lncludlng Lhe
framework convenLlon on cllmaLe change (lCCC)
o Came lnLo force ln March 1994
o ulLlmaLe ob[ecLlve ls Lo achleve sLablllzaLlon of greenhouse gas concenLraLlons ln Lhe
aLmosphere aL a level LhaL would prevenL dangerous anLhropogenlc lnLerference wlLh
Lhe cllmaLe sysLem
o kyoLo roLocol
! 1997
! ln addlLlon Lo Lhe 8lo convenLlon
! Cave all MLuCs legally blndlng LargeLs for cuLs ln emlsslons from Lhe 1990 level
by 2008-12
! Lu agreed Lo cuL emlsslons by 8, !apan by 7 and Lhe uSA by 6
! 1hree maln ways for counLrles Lo keep Lo Lhe kyoLo LargeL wlLhouL cuLLlng
domesLlc emlsslons
lanL foresLs Lo absorb carbon or change agrlculLural pracLlces (fewer
lnsLall clean Lechnology ln oLher counLrles and clalm carbon credlLs for
8uy carbon credlLs from counLrles such as 8ussla where LradlLlonal
heavy lndusLrles have decllned and Lhe naLlonal carbon llmlLs are
Lven lf greenhouse gas ls cuL by beLween 60 and 80, Lhere ls sLlll
enough greenhouse gas ln Lhe aLmosphere Lo ralse LemperaLures by 3

kyoLo proLocol only mean Lo be Lhe beglnnlng of a long0Lerm process
lL excludes for example carbon emlsslons from lnLernaLlonal fllghLs and
shlpplng, because Lhey are classlfled separaLe from Lhelr counLry
! lurLhermore, guldellnes for measurlng and cuLLlng CPCs were noL flnlshed ln
! lor example, noL declded Lo whaL exLenL Lhe planLlng of foresLs and carbon
Lradlng could be relled upon
! Ceorge W 8ush re[ecLed proLocol because could hurL Lhey uS economy
! AlLhough resL of world could proceed wlLhouL Lhem, counLry emlLs 23 of Lhe
world's CPCs
! So wlLhouL uSA, and LLuCs such as Chlna and lndla, reducLlon of carbon
emlsslons would be serlously hampered
! Accordlng Lo kyoLo rules, 33 counLrles musL agree Lo make lL legally blndlng
worldwlde and 33 emlsslons reduced come from Lhe MLuCs
! ?WlLhouL Lhe uSA, AusLralla and Canada, Lhls would be dlfflculL Lo achleve
! Powever ln november 2007, AusLralla [olned Lhe cause
! ueclslon Look place on Lhe flrsL day of un conference ln 8all
! uSA sLlll backlng volunLary LargeLs Lo flghL cllmaLe change
! 8all, 2007
LxlsLlng global LreaLy on CPCs, agreed ln kyoLo, explres ln 2012
1hus ln november 2007, under Lhe ausplces of Lhe un, delegaLes from
180 counLrles meL ln 8all, lndonesla Lo seL an agenda and sLarL
negoLlaLlons on a new lnLernaLlonal cllmaLe change agreemenL
un wanLed an agreemenL Lo llmlL earLh's average LemperaLure lncrease
Lo no more Lhan 2
C above pre-lndusLrlal levels
1hls foresees emlsslons peaklng ln Lhe nexL 10-13 years Lhen belng cuL
rapldly Lo by 30 of Lhe 1990 levels by 2030
negoLlaLlons lncluded proposals of legally blndlng cuLs ln carbon
emlsslons for rlch counLrles and a conLrlbuLlon from large developlng
naLlons such as Chlna and lndla
8all agreemenL sLarLed Lwo years of lnLense negoLlaLlons over how Lo
prevenL a posslble 4
C rlse ln global LemperaLures Lhls cenLury, whlch
would LhreaLen Lhe food and waLer supplles of bllllon people and drlve
Lhousands of specles Lo exLlncLlon
CommlL counLrles Lo agree a new deal by 2009, whlch would come lnLo
force ln 2013
Luropeans wanLed lL Lo sLaLe clearly LhaL rlch counLrles needed o slash
carbon emlsslons of 1990 levels by 20-43 by 2020
ln Lhe end Lhey may have Lo seLLle for a 30 cuL globally on 2000 levels
by 2030
ueveloplng counLrles such as Chlna and lndla wlll noL seL blndlng
LargeLs, buL wlll probably be asked Lo adopL volunLary goals on energy
conservaLlon , and posslbly on polluLlon from cerLaln lndusLrles