You are on page 1of 42

HTTP Basics

All HTTP transactions follow the same general format. Each client request and server
response has three parts: the request or response line, a header section, and the entity
body. The client initiates a transaction as follows:
. The client contacts the server at a designated port number !by default, "#$.
Then it sends a document request by specifying an HTTP command called a
method, followed by a document address, and an HTTP version number. %or
e&ample:
2. GET /index.html HTTP/1.0
uses the GET method to request the document index.html using version .# of
HTTP. HTTP methods are discussed in more detail later in this chapter.
'. (e&t, the client sends optional header information to inform the server of its
configuration and the document formats it will accept. All header information
is given line by line, each with a header name and value. )hapter *, HTTP
Headers lists the valid HTTP headers. %or e&ample, this header information
sent by the client indicates its name and version number and specifies several
document preferences:
4. User-Agent: Mozill/2.02Gold !"in#T$ %&
'. A((e)t: imge/gi*+ imge/x-x,itm)+ imge/-)eg+ imge/)-)eg+
./.
The client sends a blan+ line to end the header.
,. After sending the request and headers, the client may send additional data.
This data is mostly used by )-. programs using the P/0T method. .t may
also be used by clients li+e (etscape (avigator1-old, to publish an edited
page bac+ onto the 2eb server.
The server responds in the following way to the client3s request:
. The server replies with a status line containing three fields: HTTP version,
status code, and description. The HTTP version indicates the version of HTTP
that the server is using to respond. The status code is a three digit number that
indicates the server3s result of the client3s request. The description following
the status code is 4ust human1readable te&t that describes the status code. %or
e&ample, this status line:
2. HTTP/1.0 200 /0
indicates that the server uses version .# of HTTP in its response. A status
code of 5## means that the client3s request was successful and the requested
data will be supplied after the headers. )hapter ", Server Response Codes
contains a listing of the status codes and their descriptions.
'. After the status line, the server sends header information to the client about
itself and the requested document. HTTP headers are covered in )hapter *,
HTTP Headers. %or e&ample:
4. 1te: 2ri+ 20 3e) 1445 06:17:'6 GMT
'. 3er8er: #93A/1.'.2
5. :st-modi*ied: Mon+ 17 ;<n 1445 21:'=:06 GMT
7. 9ontent-t>)e: text/html
6. 9ontent-length: 2462
A blan+ line ends the header.
*. .f the client3s request is successful, the requested data is sent. This data may be
a copy of a file, or the response from a )-. program. .f the client3s request
could not be fulfilled, additional data may be a human1readable e&planation of
why the server could not fulfill the request.
.n HTTP .#, after the server has finished sending the requested data, it
disconnects from the client and the transaction is over unless a Connection:
Key Admin header is sent. .n HTTP ., however, the default is for the server
to maintain the connection and allow the client to ma+e additional requests.
0ince many documents embed other documents as inline images, frames,
applets, etc., this saves the overhead of the client having to repeatedly connect
to the same server 4ust to draw a single page. 6nder HTTP ., therefore, the
transaction might cycle bac+ to the beginning, until either the client or server
e&plicitly closes the connection.
7eing a stateless protocol, HTTP does not maintain any information from one
transaction to the ne&t, so the ne&t transaction needs to start all over again. The
advantage is that an HTTP server can serve a lot more clients in a given period
of time, since there3s no additional overhead for trac+ing sessions from one
connection to the ne&t. The disadvantage is that more elaborate )-. programs
need to use hidden input fields !as described in )hapter #, HTML Form Tas$
or e&ternal tools such as (etscape coo+ies !as described in )hapter 5,
Coo!ies$ to maintain information from one transaction to the ne&t.
Client Requests
)lient requests are bro+en up into three sections. The first line of a message always
contains an HTTP command called a method, a 68. that identifies the file or resource
the client is querying, and the HTTP version number. The following lines of a client
request contain header information, which provides information about the client and
the data entity it is sending the server. The third part of a client request is the entity
body, the data being sent to the server.
68. !6niform 8esource .dentifier$ is 4ust a general term for all valid formats of
addressing schemes supported on the 2orld 2ide 2eb. The one in common use now
is 689 !6niform 8esource 9ocator$ addressing scheme. 0ee )hapter , "ntrod#ction,
for more information on 689s.
Methods
A method is an HTTP command that begins the first line of a client request. The
method tells the server the purpose of the client request. There are three main methods
defined for HTTP: -ET, HEA:, and P/0T. /ther methods are also defined, but are
not as widely supported by servers as -ET, HEA:, and P/0T !although the other
methods will be used more often in the future, not less$. ;ethods are case sensitive,
so a <-ET< is different than a <get.<
The GET method
-ET is a request for information located at a specified 68. on the server. .t is the
most commonly used method by browsers to retrieve documents for viewing. The
result of a -ET request can be generated in many different ways. .t could be a file
accessible by the server, the output of a program or )-. script, the output from a
hardware device, etc.
2hen a client uses the -ET method in its request, the server responds with a status
line, headers, and the requested data. .f the server cannot process the request due to an
error or lac+ of authori=ation, the server usually sends a te&tual e&planation in the data
portion of the response.
The entity1body portion of a -ET request is always empty. -ET is basically used to
say <-ive me this file.< The file or program that the client requests is usually
identified by its full path name on the server.
Here is an e&ample of a successful -ET request to retrieve a file. The client sends:
GET /index.html HTTP/1.0
9onne(tion: 0ee)-Ali8e
User-Agent: Mozill/2.02Gold !"in#T$ %&
Host: ???.or.(om
A((e)t: imge/gi*+ imge/x-x,itm)+ imge/-)eg+ imge/)-)eg+ ./.
The server responds with:
HTTP/1.0 200 1o(<ment *ollo?s
1te: 2ri+ 20 3e) 1445 06:17:'6 GMT
3er8er: #93A/1.'.2
:st-modi*ied: Mon+ 17 ;<n 1445 21:'=:06 GMT
9ontent-t>)e: text/html
9ontent-length: 2462
(body of document here)
The -ET method is also used to send input to programs li+e )-. through form tags.
0ince -ET requests have empty entity1bodies, the input data is appended to the 689
in the -ET line of the request. 2hen a @*ormA tag specifies the methodBCGETC
attribute value, +ey1value pairs representing the input from the form are appended to
the 689 following a question mar+ !>$. Pairs are separated by an ampersand !?$. %or
e&ample:
GET /(gi-,in/,irthd>.)lDmonthB<g<stEdteB24 HTTP/1.0
causes the server to send the $irthday.pl )-. program the month and dte values
specified in a form on the client. The input data at the end of the 689 is encoded to
)-. specifications. %or literal use of special characters, the client uses he&adecimal
notation. The character encoding is described in )hapter *, C%" &vervie'.
The -ET method can also supply extra(path in)ormation in the same manner. This is
achieved by adding the e&tra path after the 689, i.e., /(gi-,in/
dis)l>.)l/(gi/(giFdo(.txt. The server gauges where the program3s name ends
!dis)l>.)l$. Everything after that is read as the e&tra path.
The HEAD method
The HEA: method is functionally li+e -ET e&cept that the server will not send
anything in the data portion of the reply. The HEA: method requests only the header
information on a file or resource. The header information from a HEA: request
should be the same as that from a -ET request.
This method is used when the client wants to find out information about the document
and not retrieve it. ;any applications e&ist for the HEA: method. %or e&ample, the
client may desire the following information:
;odification time of a document, useful for cache1related queries
The si=e of a document, useful for page layout, estimating arrival time, or
determining whether to request a smaller version of the document
The type of the document, to allow the client to e&amine only documents of a
certain type
The type of server, to allow customi=ed server queries
.t is important to note that most of the header information provided by a server is
optional and may not be given by all servers. A good design for 2eb clients is to
allow fle&ibility in the server response and ta+e default actions when desired header
information is not given by the server.
The following is an e&ample HTTP transaction using the HEA: request. The client
sends:
HEA1 /index.html HTTP/1.0
9onne(tion: 0ee)-Ali8e
User-Agent: Mozill/2.02Gold !"in#T$ %&
Host: ???.or.(om
A((e)t: imge/gi*+ imge/x-x,itm)+ imge/-)eg+ imge/)-)eg+ ./.
The server responds with:
HTTP/1.0 200 1o(<ment *ollo?s
1te: 2ri+ 20 3e) 1445 06:17:'6 GMT
3er8er: #93A/1.'.2
:st-modi*ied: Mon+ 17 ;<n 1445 21:'=:06 GMT
9ontent-t>)e: text/html
9ontent-length: 2462
!(o entity body is sent in response to a HEA: request.$
The POST method
The P/0T method allows data to be sent to the server in a client request. The data is
directed to a data handling program that the server has access to !e.g., a )-. script$.
The P/0T method can be used for many applications. %or e&ample, it can be used to
provide input for:
(etwor+ services, such as newsgroup postings
)ommand1line interface programs
Annotation of documents on the server
:atabase operations
The data sent to the server is in the entity1body section of the client3s request. After
the server processes the P/0T request and headers, it passes the entity1body to the
program specified by the 68.. The encoding scheme most commonly used with
P/0T is 6891encoding, which allows form data to be translated into a list of
variables and values for )-. processing. )hapter *, C%" &vervie' provides details on
)-. and 6891encoded data.
Here is a quic+ e&ample of a client request using the P/0T method to send birthdate
data from a form:
P/3T /(gi-,in/,irthd>.)l HTTP/1.0
User-Agent: Mozill/2.02Gold !"in#T$ %&
A((e)t: imge/gi*+ imge/x-x,itm)+ imge/-)eg+ imge/)-)eg+ ./.
Host: ???.or.(om
9ontent-t>)e: ))li(tion/x-???-*orm-<rlen(oded
9ontent-length: 20
monthB<g<stEdteB24
Other methods
The following methods are also defined, although not as frequentlly used.
9.(@
8equests that header information is associated with a document on the server.
6(9.(@
8equests dissociation of header information from a document on the server.
P6T
8equests that the entity1body of the request be stored at the specified 68..
:E9ETE
8equests the removal of data at a 68. on the server.
/PT./(0
8equests information about communications options available on the server.
The request 68. can be substituted with an asteris+ !.$ to indicate the server
as a whole.
T8A)E
8equests the request entity body be returned intact. 6sed for debugging.
Server Responses
The server3s response to a client request is grouped into three parts. The first line is
the server response line, which contains the HTTP version number, a number
indicating the status of the request, and a short phrase describing the status. The
response line is followed by the header information and an entity body if there is one.
HTML Overview
Contents:
HT;9 :ocument 0tructure
HT;9 Tag 0ynta&
HT;9 !Hyperte&t ;ar+up 9anguage$ is the language used to encode 2orld 2ide
2eb documents. .t is a document1layout and hyperlin+1specification language that
defines the synta& and placement of special, embedded directions that aren3t displayed
by a 2eb browser, but tell it how to display the contents of the document, including
te&t, images, and other supported media. The language also tells you how to ma+e a
document interactive through special hyperte&t lin+s, which connect your document
with other documents on your local system, the 2orld 2ide 2eb, and other .nternet
resources such as %TP and -opher.
The basic synta& and semantics of HT;9 are defined in the HT;9 standard. The
HT;9 standard and all other 2eb1related standards issues are developed under the
authority of the 2orld 2ide 2eb )onsortium !2')$. 0tandards specifications and
drafts of new proposals can be found at http:AAwww.w'.org.
The most recent wor+ by the HT;9 wor+ing group at the 2') is a wor+ing draft for
HT;9 '.5. 0till, the most definitive implementations of HT;9 for a 2eb author
come from the tag sets that the most popular browsers use.
This section of the boo+ summari=es the current state of HT;9 in seven chapters, as
listed below. %or more information on HT;9, we recommend HTML: The *e)initive
%#ide by )huc+ ;usciano and 7ill @ennedy, published by /38eilly ? Associates,
.nc.
This chapter !)hapter 5, HTML &vervie'$ introduces you to the bac+ground
and general synta& of HT;9.
)hapter ', HTML Tas, describes the synta& of HT;9 tags and documents
with descriptions of all the HT;9 tags in current use.
%or authors who want to use frames in HT;9, )hapter B, Frames, covers the
frame tags in more detail and shows e&amples of using them.
%or authors using tables, )hapter C, Ta$les, covers the table tags in more
detail.
)hapter ,, Color +ames and ,al#es, contains listings of valid color values !for
tags with attributes for specifying color$.
)hapter D, Character -ntities, contains a listing of common character entities
recogni=ed in HT;9 documents.
)hapter ", .ro'ser Comparison, describes the most important differences
between the most popular browsers, (etscape (avigator and ;icrosoft
.nternet E&plorer.
!" HT#$ Document Structure
An HT;9 document consists of te&t, which comprises the content of the document,
and tags, which define the structure and appearance of the document. The structure of
an HT;9 document is simple, consisting of an outer @htmlA tag enclosing the
document header and body:
@htmlA
@hedA
@titleAGre,ones HTM: 1o(<ment@/titleA
@/hedA
@,od>A
This ill<strtes in 8er> @iAsim)le@/iA ?>+
the ,si( str<(t<re o* n HTM: do(<ment.
@/,od>A
@/htmlA
Each document has a head and a $ody, delimited by the @hedA and @,od>A tags. The
head is where you give your HT;9 document a title and where you indicate other
parameters the browser may use when displaying the document. The body is where
you put the actual contents of the HT;9 document. This includes the te&t for display
and document control mar+ers !tags$ that advise the browser how to display the te&t.
Tags also reference special1effects files li+e graphics and sound, and indicate the hot
spots !hyperlin!s or anchors$ that lin+ your document to other documents.
HT#$ Ta% S&nta'
%or the most part, HT;9 document tags are simple to understand and use since they
are made up of common words, abbreviations, and notations. Every HT;9 tag
consists of a tag name, sometimes followed by an optional list of tag attri$#tes, all
placed between opening and closing brac+ets !E and F$. The simplest tags are nothing
more than the tag name enclosed in brac+ets, such as @hedA and @iA. ;ore
complicated tags have attributes, which may have specific values defined by the
author to modify the behavior of a tag.
Tag attributes belong after the tag name, each separated by one or more tab, space, or
return charactesr. The order of attributes in a single tag is not important. An attribute3s
value, if it has one, follows an equal sign after the attribute name. .f an attribute3s
value is a single word or number, you may simply add it after the equal sign. All other
values should be enclosed in single or double quotation mar+s, especially if they
contain several words separated by spaces. The length of an attribute3s value is limited
to #5B characters. Here are some e&amples of tags with attributes:
@ hre*BChtt)://???.or.(om/(tlog.htmlCA
@<l (om)(tA
@in)<t nmeB*ilenme sizeB24 mxlengthB60A
@linH titleBCT,le o* 9ontentsCA
Tag and attribute names are not case1sensitive, but attribute values can be. %or
e&ample, it is especially important to use the proper capitali=ation when referencing
the 689s of other documents with the hre* attribute.
;ost HT;9 tags consist of start and end tags that enclose te&t and other elements of
a document. An end tag is the same as a start tag e&cept it has a forward slash !A$
before the tag name. End tags never contain attributes. %or e&ample, to italici=e te&t,
you enclose it within the @iA tags:
@iAThis text in itli(s.@/iA
Gou should ta+e care when nesting tagged elements in a document. Gou must end
nested tags starting with the most recent one and wor+ your way bac+ out. .n this
e&ample, a phrase in bold !@,A$ appears in the te&t of a lin+ !@ hre*B...A$
contained in some body te&t:
@,od>A
This is some text in the ,od>+ ?ith
@ hre*BCnotherFdo(.htmlCAlinH+ )ortion o* ?hi(h
is @,Aset in ,old@/,A@/A
@/,od>A
There are a handful of HT;9 tags that do not have end tags because they are
standalone elements. %or e&ample, the image tag !@imgA$ inserts a single graphic into
a document and does not require an end tag. /ther standalone tags include the
linebrea+ !@,rA$, hori=ontal rule !@hrA$, and tags that provide information about a
document that doesn3t affect its displayed content such as the @metA and @,seA
tags.
.n some cases, end tags can be omitted in a document. 7rowsers often assume the end
of one element when another begins. The most common e&ample of this is with the
paragraph tag !@)A$. 0ince it is so often used in a document, a @)A tag usually only
appears at the beginning of each paragraph. 2hen one paragraph ends, another @)A
tag signals the browser to end the paragraph and start another. ;ost authors do not use
an end paragraph tag. There are other end tags that browsers function fine without,
such as an ending @/htmlA tag. However, it is best to include the end tags as much as
possible to avoid confusion and mista+es in displaying your document.
HTML Tags
Contents:
HT;9 Tag and Attribute :escriptions
This section lists the +nown HT;9 tags and attributes currently available for use in
2eb documents. There are many different browsers out there, and they do not all
support the same set of tags.
.f +eeping trac+ of all the browsers and all their differences ma+es your head spin, no
fear. (etscape (avigator and ;icrosoft3s .nternet E&plorer are the two most popular
browsers, and are responsible for almost all of the non1standard e&tensions to HT;9.
)hapter ", .ro'ser Comparison, discusses the most important differences between
the latest versions of these two browsers.
The most recent version of (etscape (avigator is '.#. Tags and attributes specific to
this browser have +/ at the beginning of their descriptions. ;icrosoft3s .nternet
E&plorer is also currently at version '.#. .t will be indicated by "-/. 7rowser1specific
tags for the earlier versions of the browsers !e.g., "-0 or +0$ are assumed to be
supported in the later versions.
(!" HT#$ Ta% and Attri)ute Descriptions
<a>
)reate a hyperlin+ !hre* attribute$ or fragment identifier !nme attribute$ within a
document.
Attri)utes
hre*H#rl
0pecify the 689 of a hyperlin+ target !required if not a name anchor$.
methodsHlist
0pecify a comma1separated list of browser1dependent presentation methods.
nmeHstrin
0pecify the name of a fragment identifier !required if not a hyperte&t reference
anchor$.
relHrelationship
.ndicate the relationship from this document to the target.
re8Hrelationship
.ndicate the reverse relationship of the target to this document.
trgetHname
:efine the name of the frame or window to receive the referenced document.
titleHstrin
Provide a title for the target document.
<rnH#rn
0pecify the location1independent 6niform 8esource (ame for this hyperlin+.
E'ample
To create an anchor named in*o at some point in a document called doc.html, use the
@A tag with the nme attribute:
@ nmeBCin*oCA%n*ormtion@/A
To provide a hyperlin+ to that point in doc.html, use the @A tag with the hre*
attribute appending the anchor name to the filename using a hash mar+ !I$:
@ hre*BCdo(.htmlIin*oCA:inH to in*ormtion@/A
<address>
The enclosed te&t is an address.
<applet>
:efine an e&ecutable applet within a te&t flow.
Attri)utes
lignHposition
Align the @))letA region to either the to), middle, ,ottom !default$+ le*t+
right, ,smiddle, ,seline, or ,s,ottom of the te&t in the line.
ltHstrin
0pecify alternative te&t to replace the @))letA region within browsers that
support the @))letA tag, but cannot e&ecute the application.
(odeHclass
0pecify the class name of the code to be e&ecuted !required$.
(ode,seH#rl
689 from which the code is retrieved.
heightHn
0pecify the height, in pi&els, of the @))letA region.
hs)(eHn
0pecify additional space, in pi&els, to the left and right of the @))letA
region.
nmeHstrin
0pecify the name of this particular instance of the @))letA.
8s)(eHn
0pecify additional space, in pi&els, above and below the @))letA region.
?idthHn
0pecify the width, in pi&els, of the @))letA region.
<area>
:efine a mouse1sensitive area in a client1side image map.
Attri)utes
(oordsHlist
0pecify a comma1separated list of shape1dependent coordinates that define the
edge of this area.
hre*H#rl
0pecify the 689 of a hyperlin+ target associated with this area.
nohre*
.ndicate that no document is associated with this areaJ clic+ing in the area has
no effect.
sh)eHshape
:efine the region3s shape to be either (ir(, (ir(le, )ol>, )ol>gon, re(t, or
re(tngle.
<b>
%ormat the enclosed te&t using a )old typeface.
<base>
0pecify the base 689 for all relative 689s in this document.
Attri)utes
hre*H#rl
0pecify the base 689.
trgetHname
:efine the default target window of all @A lin+s in the document. ;ostly used
for redirecting a lin+ to other frames. There are four special values: F,lnH,
F)rent, Fsel*, and Fto). These values are described in )hapter B, Frames.
<basefont>
0pecify the font si=e for subsequent te&t.
Attri)utes
sizeHval#e
0et the basefont si=e of to D !requiredJ default is '$.
<bgsound>
"-0 and later. :efine bac+ground audio for the document.
Attri)utes
loo)Hval#e
0et the number of times to play the audioJ val#e may be an integer or the value
in*inite.
sr(H#rl
Provide the 689 of the audio file to be played.
<big>
%ormat the enclosed te&t using a bigger typeface.
<blockquote>
The enclosed te&t is a bloc+ quotation.
<body>
:elimit the beginning and end of the document body.
Attri)utes
linHHcolor
0et the color of active hyperte&t lin+s in the document.
,(Hgro<ndH#rl
0pecify the 689 of an image to be tiled in the document bac+ground.
,g(olorHcolor
0et the bac+ground color of the document.
,g)ro)ertiesHval#e
"-0 and later. 2hen set to *ixed, prevent the bac+ground image from
scrolling with the document content.
le*tmrginHval#e
"-0 and later. 0et the si=e, in pi&els, of the document3s left margin.
linHHcolor
0et the color of unvisited hyperte&t lin+s in the document.
textHcolor
0et the color of regular te&t in the document.
to)mrginHval#e
"-0 and later. 0et the si=e, in pi&els, of the document3s top margin.
8linHHcolor
0et the color of visited lin+s in the document.
<br>
7rea+ the current te&t flow, resuming at the beginning of the ne&t line.
Attri)utes
(lerHmarin
7rea+ the flow and move downward until the desired margin, either le*t,
right, or ll, is clear.
<caption>
:efine a caption for a table.
Attri)utes
lignHposition
%or (etscape, set the vertical position of the caption to either to) or ,ottom.
:efault is top, centered. %or .nternet E&plorer, set the hori=ontal alignment of
the caption to either le*t, (enter, or right, or even the vertical position to
to) or ,ottom. The default is top, centered. Gou cannot set both the hori=ontal
and vertical position with this attribute alone. 0ee )hapter ", .ro'ser
Comparison, for more information.
8lignHposition
"-0 and later. 0et the vertical position of the caption to either to) or ,ottom.
:efault is top. 6se this with a hori=ontal specification to lign to set both
vertical and hori=ontal caption position in .nternet E&plorer.
0ee )hapter C, Ta$les, for more information on using tables.
<center>
)enter the enclosed te&t.
<cite>
The enclosed te&t is a citation.
<code>
The enclosed te&t is a code sample.
<col>
"-0 and later. 0et properties for a column !or columns$ within a @(olgro<)A of a
table.
Attri)utes
lignHval#e
0pecify alignment of te&t in the cells of a column. Kalue can be (enter, le*t,
or right.
s)nHn
0pecify the number of columns to be affected by the @(olA settings.
<colgroup>
"-0 and later. 0et properties for designated column or columns within a table Also
indicates where vertical rules will be drawn when r<lesBgro<)s is set in the
@t,leA tag.
Attri)utes
lignHval#e
0pecify alignment of te&t in the cells of columns in the @(olgro<)A. Kalues
can be (enter, le*t, or right.
s)nHn
0pecify the number of columns in the @(olgro<)A.
<comment>
"-0 and later. Place a comment in the document. )omments will be visible in all
other browsers. )omments can be placed within @J- 1 comment text 1 -A for all
browsers.
<dd>
:efine the definition portion of an element in a definition list.
<dfn>
%ormat the enclosed te&t as a definition.
<dir>
)reate a directory list containing @liA tags.
Attri)utes
(om)(t
;a+e the list more compact if possible.
<div>
)reate a division within a document.
Attri)utes
lignHtype
Align the te&t within the division to le*t, (enter, or right.
<dl>
)reate a definition list containing @dtA and @ddA tags.
Attri)utes
(om)(t
;a+e the list more compact if possible.
<dt>
:efine the definition term portion of an element in a definition list.
<em>
%ormat the enclosed te&t with additional emphasis.
<embed>
Embed an ob4ect into a document. Additional parameters to those listed here may be
included depending on the embedded ob4ect.
Attri)utes
sr(H#rl
0pecify the 689 of the ob4ect to be embedded !required$.
heightHn
0pecify the height of the area the embedded ob4ect will occupy.
nmeHname
0pecify the name of the embedded ob4ect.
?idthHn
0pecify the width of the area the embedded ob4ect will occupy.
<font>
0et the si=e, color, or typeface of the enclosed te&t.
Attri)utes
(olorHcolor
0et the color of the enclosed te&t. te&t<
*(eHlist
0et the typeface of the enclosed te&t to the first available font in the comma1
separated list of font names.
sizeHval#e
0et the si=e to an absolute value ! to D$, or relative to the @,se*ontA si=e
using Kn or -n.
<form>
:elimit a form.
Attri)utes
(tionH#rl
0pecify the 689 of the application that will process the form. The default is
the current 689.
en(t>)eHencodin
0pecify how the form element values will be encoded.
methodHstyle
0pecify the parameter1passing style, either get or )ost The default is et.
trgetHname
"-/ only. 0pecify a target window for results of form submission to be loaded.
The special attributes F,ottom, Fto), F)rent, and Fsel* may be used. They
are described in )hapter B, Frames.
0ee )hapter #, HTML Form Tas, for more information on using forms.
<frame>
:efine a frame within a frameset.
Attri)utes
,order(olorHcolor
+/ only. 0et color for frame border if border is turned on with
*rme,orderB>es.
*rme,orderHL1M0N
"-/ only. Enable or disable the displaying of a '1: border for a frame. :efault
is 1, which inserts the border. The value 0 turns the border off.
*rme,orderHL>esMnoN
+/ only. Enable or disable the displaying of a '1: border for a frame or a plain
border. The default is >es !for '1: borders$.
mrginheightHn
Place n pi&els of space above and below the frame contents.
mrgin?idthHn
Place n pi&els of space to the left and right of the frame contents.
nmeHstrin
:efine the name of the frame.
noresize
:isable user resi=ing of the frame.
s(rollingHtype
Always add scrollbars !>es$, never add scrollbars !no$, or add scrollbars when
needed !<to$.
sr(H#rl
:efine the 689 of the source document for this frame.
0ee )hapter B, Frames for more information on using frames.
<frameset>
:efine a collection of frames or other framesets.
Attri)utes
,orderHn
+/ only. 0et si=e in pi&els of frame borders within a frameset. :efault border
width is C pi&els.
,order(olorHcolor
+/ only. 0et color for frame borders in a frameset.
(olsHlist
0pecify the number and width of frames within a frameset.
*rme,orderHL>esMnoN
+/ only. Enable or disable the displaying of '1: borders or regular borders for
frames. The default is >es !'1: borders$.
*rme,orderHL1M0N
"-/ only. Enable or disable the displaying of '1: borders for frames within a
frameset. The default is 1 !borders on$.
*rmes)(ingHn
"-/ only. Add additional space between ad4acent frames in pi&els.
ro?sHlist
0pecify the number and height of frames within a frameset.
0ee )hapter B, Frames for more information on using frames.
<hn>
The enclosed te&t is a level n headerJ for level n from to ,.
Attri)utes
lignHtype
0pecify the heading alignment as either le*t !default$, (enter, or right.
<head>
:elimit the beginning and end of the document head.
<hr>
7rea+ the current te&t flow and insert a hori=ontal rule.
Attri)utes
lignHtype
0pecify the rule alignment as either le*t, (enter !default$, or right.
noshde
:o not use '1: shading to render the rule.
sizeHpixels
0et the thic+ness of the rule to an integer number of pi&els.
?idthHval#e
0et the width of the rule to either an integer number of pi&els or a percentage
of the page width.
<html>
:elimit the beginning and end of the entire HT;9 document.
Attri)utes
8ersionHstrin
.ndicate the HT;9 version used to create this document.
<i>
%ormat the enclosed te&t in an italic typeface.
<iframe>
"-/ only. :efine a floating frame within a document with similar placement to @imgA.
This element requires a closing tag.
Attri)utes
lignHtype
Align the floating frame to either the to), middle, ,ottom !default$, le*t, or
right of the te&t in the line.
*rme,orderHL1M0N
Enable or disable the displaying of a '1: border for a frame. :efault is 1,
which inserts the border. The value 0 turns the border off.
heightHn
0pecify the height of the frame in pi&els or as a percentage of the window si=e.
hs)(eHn
0pecify the space, in pi&els, to be added to the left and right of the image.
mrginheightHn
Place n pi&els of space above and below the frame contents.
mrgin?idthHn
Place n pi&els of space to the left and right of the frame contents.
nmeHstrin
:efine the name of the frame.
noresize
:isable user resi=ing of the frame.
s(rollingHtype
Always add scrollbars !>es$, never add scrollbars !no$, or add scrollbars when
needed !<to$.
sr(H#rl
:efine the 689 of the source document for this frame.
8s)(eHn
0pecify the vertical space, in pi&els, added at the top and bottom of the image.
?idthHn
0pecify the width of the frame in pi&els or as a percentage of the window si=e.
0ee )hapter B, Frames for more information on using frames.
<img>
.nsert an image into the current te&t flow.
Attri)utes
ltHtext
Provide alternative te&t for non1image1capable browsers.
,orderHn
0et the pi&el thic+ness of the border around images contained within
hyperlin+s.
(ontrols
"-0 and later. Add playbac+ controls for embedded video clips.
d>nsr(H#rl
"-0 and later. 0pecify the 689 of a video clip to be displayed.
heightHn
0pecify the height of the image in pi&els.
hs)(eHn
0pecify the space, in pi&els, to be added to the left and right of the image.
ism)
.ndicate that the image is mouse1selectable when used within an @A tag.
loo)Hval#e
"-0 and later. 0et the number of times to play the videoJ val#e may be an
integer or the value in*inite.
lo?sr(H#rl
+0 and later. 0pecify a low1resolution image to be loaded by the browser first,
followed by the image specified by the @sr(A attribute.
sr(H#rl
0pecify the source 689 of the image to be displayed !required$.
strtHstart
"-0 and later. 0pecify when to play the video clip, either *ileo)en or
mo<seo8er.
<sem)H#rl
0pecify the map of coordinates and lin+s that define the hyperte&t lin+s within
this image.
8s)(eHn
0pecify the vertical space, in pi&els, added at the top and bottom of the image.
?idthHn
0pecify the width of the image in pi&els.
<input typecheckbo!>
)reate a chec+bo& input element within a @*ormA.
Attri)utes
(he(Hed
;ar+ the element as initially selected.
nmeHstrin
0pecify the name of the parameter to be passed to the form1processing
application if the input element is selected !required$.
8l<eHstrin
0pecify the value of the parameter sent to the form1processing application if
this form element is selected !required$.
0ee )hapter #, HTML Form Tas, for more information on using forms.
<input typefile>
)reate a file1selection element within a @*ormA.
Attri)utes
mxlengthHn
0pecify the ma&imum number of characters to accept for this element.
nmeHstrin
0pecify the name of the parameter that is passed to the form1processing
application for this input element !required$.
sizeHn
0pecify the number of characters to display for this element.
0ee )hapter #, HTML Form Tas for more information on using forms.
<input typehidden>
)reate a hidden element within a @*ormA.
Attri)utes
mxlengthHn
0pecify the ma&imum number of characters to accept for this element.
nmeHstrin
0pecify the name of the parameter that is passed to the form1processing
application for this input element !required$.
sizeHn
0pecify the number of characters to display for this element.
8l<eHstrin
0pecify the value of this element that is passed to the form1processing
application.
0ee )hapter #, HTML Form Tas for more information on using forms.
<input typeimage>
)reate an image input element within a @*ormA.
Attri)utes
lignHtype
Align the image to either the to), middle, or ,ottom of the form element3s
te&t.
nmeHstrin
0pecify the name of the parameter to be passed to the form1processing
application for this input element !required$.
sr(H#rl
0pecify the source 689 of the image !required$.
0ee )hapter #, HTML Form Tas for more information on using forms.
<input typepassword>
)reate a content1protected te&t1input element within a @*ormA.
Attri)utes
mxlengthHn
0pecify the ma&imum number of characters to accept for this element.
nmeHstrin
0pecify the name of the parameter to be passed to the form1processing
application for this input element !required$.
sizeHn
0pecify the number of characters to display for this element.
8l<eHstrin
0pecify the initial value for this element.
0ee )hapter #, HTML Form Tas for more information on using forms.
<input typeradio>
)reate a radio1button input element within a @*ormA.
Attri)utes
(he(Hed
;ar+ the element as initially selected.
nmeHstrin
0pecify the name of the parameter that is passed to the form1processing
application if this input element is selected !required$.
8l<eHstrin
0pecify the value of the parameter that is passed to the form1processing
application if this element is selected !required$.
0ee )hapter #, HTML Form Tas for more information on using forms.
<input typereset>
)reate a reset button within a @*ormA.
Attri)utes
8l<eHstrin
0pecify an alternate label for the reset button.
0ee )hapter #, HTML Form Tas for more information on using forms.
<input typesubmit>
)reate a submit button within a @*ormA.
Attri)utes
nmeHstrin
0pecify the name of the parameter that is passed to the form1processing
application for this input element !required$.
8l<eHstrin
0pecify an alternate label for the submit button, as well as the value passed to
the form1processing application for this parameter if this button is clic+ed.
0ee )hapter #, HTML Form Tas for more information on using forms.
<input typete!t>
)reate a te&t input element within a @*ormA. !This is the default input type.$
Attri)utes
mxlengthHn
0pecify the ma&imum number of characters to accept for this element.
nmeHstrin
0pecify the name of the parameter that is passed to the form1processing
application for this input element !required$.
sizeHn
0pecify the number of characters to display for this element.
8l<eHstrin
0pecify the initial value for this element.
0ee )hapter #, HTML Form Tas for more information on using forms.
<isinde!>
)reate a <searchable< HT;9 document.
Attri)utes
(tionH#rl
"-0 and later. Provide the 689 of the program that will perform the searching
action.
)rom)tHstrin
Provide an alternate prompt for the input field.
<kbd>
The enclosed te&t is +eyboard1li+e input.
<li>
:elimit a list item in an ordered !@olA$ or unordered !@<lA$ list.
Attri)utes
t>)eH)ormat
0et the type of this list element to the desired format. %or @liA within @olA: A
!capital letters$, !lowercase letters$, % !capital 8oman numerals$, i
!lowercase 8oman numerals$, or 1 !Arabic numeralsJ default$. %or @liA within
@<lA: (ir(le, dis( !default$, or sO<re.
8l<eHn
0et the number for this list item to n.
<link>
:efine a lin+ in the document @hedA between this document and another document.
Attri)utes
hre*H#rl
0pecify the hyperte&t reference 689 of the target document.
methodsHlist
0pecify a browser1dependent list of comma1separated display methods for this
lin+.
relHrelation
.ndicate the relationship from this document to the target. %or .nternet
E&plorer '.#, relBst>le indicates the e&istence of an e&ternal style sheet.
re8Hrelation
.ndicate the reverse relationship from the target to this document.
sr(H#rl
"-/ only. 0pecify the 689 for the e&ternal style sheet to be used in formatting
the document.
titleHstrin
Provide a title for the target document.
t>)eHtext/(ss
"-/ only. 0how type of outside lin+ to be an e&ternal cascading style sheet.
<rnH#rn
Provide the location1independent 6niform 8esource (ame for the target
document.
<listing>
0ame as @)re ?idthB1=2A ... @/)reAJ deprecated: don3t use.
<map>
:efine a map containing hotspots in a client1side image map.
Attri)utes
nmeHstrin
:efine the name of this map !required$.
<marquee>
"-0 and later. )reate a scrolling1te&t marquee.
Attri)utes
lignHposition
Align the marquee to the to), middle, or ,ottom of the surrounding te&t.
,eh8iorHstyle
:efine marquee style to be s(roll, slide, or lternte.
,g(olorHcolor
0et the bac+ground color of the marquee.
dire(tionHdir
:efine the direction, le*t or right, the te&t is to scroll.
heightHval#e
:efine the height, in pi&els, of the marquee area.
hs)(eHval#e
:efine the space, in pi&els, to be inserted left and right of the marquee.
loo)Hval#e
0et the number of times to animate the marqueeJ value is an integer or
in*inite.
s(rollmo<ntHval#e
0et the number of pi&els to move the te&t for each scroll movement.
s(rolldel>Hval#e
0pecify the delay, in milliseconds, between successive movements of the
marquee te&t.
8s)(eHval#e
:efine the space, in pi&els, to be inserted above and below the marquee.
?idthHval#e
:efine the width, in pi&els, of the marquee area.
<menu>
:efine a menu list containing @liA tags.
Attri)utes
(om)(t
;a+e the list more compact.
<meta>
Provides additional information about a document.
Attri)utes
(ontentHstrin
0pecify the value for the meta1information !required$. %or client pulls,
(ontentBCnJurlH#rlC tells the browser to load the specified #rl after n
seconds. .f no 689 is specified, the source document will be reloaded. ;ust
be used with htt)-eO<i8BCre*reshC within @metA.
htt)-eO<i8Hstrin
0pecify the HTTP equivalent name for the meta1information and cause the
server to include the name and content in the HTTP header for this document
when it is transmitted to the client. A value of re*resh creates a <client1pull<
within a document.
nmeHstrin
0pecify the name of the meta1information.
<multicol>
+/ only. %ormat enclosed HT;9 and te&t in multicolumn format. Te&t and elements
will flow across specified number of columns to give them appro&imately equal
length.
Attri)utes
(olsHn
0pecify number of columns !required$.
g<tterHn
0pecify amount of space in pi&els between columns. :efault is # pi&els.
?idthHn
0pecify width of columns in pi&els.
<ne!tid>
:efine the labeling start point for automatic document1generation tools.
Attri)utes
nHn
.ndicate the starting label number !required$.
<nobr>
(o brea+s allowed in the enclosed te&t.
<noframes>
:efine content to be presented by browsers that do not support frames.
0ee )hapter B, Frames for more information on using frames.
<noscript>
+/ only. 0pecify alternative content for browsers that do not support Lava0cript. 0ee
)hapter 5, 1avaScript 2#ic! Re)erence, for more information on Lava0cript.
<ob"ect>
"-/ only. .nsert an ob4ect into the document. This tag is used to specify applets, /9E
controls, and other media ob4ects.
Attri)utes
lignHval#e
0pecify how the ob4ect is aligned with other elements in the document. Kalues
include: ,seline, (enter, le*t, middle, right, text,ottom, textmiddle,
and textto).
,orderHn
0et the width of the ob4ect3s border if it is a hyperlin+.
(lssidH#rl
.dentify the class identifier of the ob4ect. The 689 synta& of the 689 depends
on the ob4ect type.
(ode,seH#rl
.dentify the 689 of the ob4ect3s codebase. The synta& of the 689 depends on
the ob4ect.
(odet>)eHcodetype
0pecify the media type of the code.
dtH#rl
0pecify the 689 of the data used for the ob4ect. The synta& of the 689
depends on the ob4ect.
de(lre
:eclare an ob4ect without instantiating it.
heightHn
0pecify the height of the ob4ect in pi&els.
hs)(eHn
0pecify the amount of space in pi&els between the sides of the ob4ect and the
surrounding elements.
nmeH#rl
0pecify the name of the ob4ect.
sh)es
.ndicate shaped hyperlin+s in ob4ect.
stnd,>Hmessae
0pecify message to display during ob4ect loading.
t>)eHtype
0pecify the media type for data.
<sem)H#rl
0pecify image map to use with ob4ect.
8s)(eHn
0pecify the amount of space in pi&els above and below ob4ect.
?idthHn
0pecify ob4ect width.
<ol>
:efine an ordered list containing numbered !ascending$ @liA elements.
Attri)utes
(om)(t
Present the list in a more compact manner.
strtHn
0tart numbering the list at n, instead of .
t>)eH)ormat
0et the numbering format for this list to either A !capital letters$, !lowercase
letters$, % !capital 8oman numerals$, i !lowercase 8oman numerals$, or 1
!Arabic numeralsJ default$.
<option>
:efine an option within a @sele(tA item in a @*ormA.
Attri)utes
sele(ted
;a+e this item initially selected.
8l<eHstrin
8eturn the specified value to the form1processing application instead of the
@o)tionA contents.
0ee )hapter #, HTML Form Tas for more information on using forms.
<p>
0tart and end a paragraph.
Attri)utes
lignHtype
Align the te&t within the paragraph to le*t, (enter, or right.
<param>
0upply a parameter to the @))letA or @o,-e(tA surrounding this tag.
Attri)utes
nmeHstrin
:efine the name of the parameter.
8l<eHstrin
:efine the value of the parameter.
8l<et>)eHtype
"-/ only. .ndicate the type of value. )an be one of three types: dt indicates
that the parameter3s value is data !default$J re* indicates that the parameter3s
value is a 689J o,-e(t indicates that the value is a 689 of another ob4ect in
the document.
t>)eHtype
"-/ only. 0pecify the media type.
<plainte!t>
8ender the remainder of the document as preformatted plain te&t.
<pre>
8ender the enclosed te&t in its original, preformatted style, honoring line brea+s and
spacing verbatim.
Attri)utes
?idthHn
0i=e the te&t, if possible, so that n characters fit across the display window.
<s>
The enclosed te&t is struc+ through with a hori=ontal line.
<samp>
The enclosed te&t is a sample.
<script>
0pecify enclosed script in a supported scripting language to be used in the document.
Attri)utes
lng<geHlan
.dentify language of the script, e.g., ;83(ri)t or PG3(ri)t.
sr(H#rl
+/ only. 0pecify the 689 of an outside file containing the script to be loaded
and run with the document.
0ee )hapter 5, 1avaScript 2#ic! Re)erence, for more information on Lava0cript.
<select>
:efine a multiple1choice menu or scrolling list within a @*ormA, containing one or
more @o)tionA tags.
Attri)utes
m<lti)le
Allow user to select more than one @o)tionA within the @sele(tA.
nmeHstrin
:efine the name for the selected @o)tionA values that, if selected, are passed
to the form1processing application !required$.
sizeHn
:isplay items using a pulldown menu for sizeB1 !without m<lti)le
specified$ and a scrolling list of n items otherwise.
0ee )hapter #, HTML Form Tas for more information on using forms.
<small>
%ormat the enclosed te&t using a smaller typeface.
<spacer>
+/ only. .nsert a whitespace element in a document.
Attri)utes
t>)eHtype
0pecify what type of spacer to use. 8erti(l inserts space between two lines
of te&t. horizontl inserts space between words or characters. ,lo(H inserts
a rectangular space li+e an @imgA ob4ect.
sizeHn
0pecify si=e in pi&els for either width of horizontl spacer, or height of
8erti(l spacer.
?idthHn
0pecify width in pi&els of ,lo(H spacer.
heightHn
0pecify height in pi&els of ,lo(H spacer.
lignHval#e
0pecify alignment of ,lo(H spacer with surrounding te&t. Kalues are the same
as for the @imgA tag.
<span>
"-/ only. 0pecify style1sheet formatting to te&t between tags.
Attri)utes
st>leHelements
0pecify cascading style sheet elements for te&t in the span.
<strike>
The enclosed te&t is struc+ through with a hori=ontal line.
<strong>
0trongly emphasi=e the enclosed te&t.
<style>
"-/ only. 0urrounds list of style elements to be used in formatting of document. The
@st>leA bloc+ comes before the @,od>A tag and outside all other elements e&cept
@htmlA ... @/htmlA.
<sub>
%ormat the enclosed te&t as a subscript.
<sup>
%ormat the enclosed te&t as a superscript.
<table>
:efine a table.
Attri)utes
lignHposition
Align the table either le*t or right with the surrounding te&t flow.
,(Hgro<ndH#rl
0pecify an image to be tiled in the bac+ground of the table.
,g(olorHcolor
+/3 "-0 and later. :efine the bac+ground color for the entire table.
,orderHn
)reate a border n pi&els wide.
,order(olorHcolor
"-0 and later. :efine the border color for the entire table.
,order(olordrHHcolor
"-0 and later. :efine the dar+ border1highlighting color for the entire table.
,order(olorlightHcolor
"-0 and later. :efine the light border1highlighting color for the entire table.
(ell)ddingHn
Place n pi&els of padding around each cell3s contents.
(ells)(ingHn
Place n pi&els of spacing between cells.
*rmeHL8oidM,o8eM,elo?MhsidesMlhsMrhsM8sidesM ,oxM,orderN
"-/ only. 0pecify which sides of a table3s outer border will be drawn. 8oid
removes outer borders. ,ox and ,order display all. hsides draws hori=ontal
sides, 8sides draws vertical sides. lhs draws left side, rhs right side.
hs)(eHn
0pecify the hori=ontal space, in pi&els, added at the left and right of the table.
r<lesHLllM(olsMgro<)sMnoneMro?sN
"-/ only. Turn off !none$ or turn on rules between table cells by (ols, ro?s,
gro<)s, or ll.
8s)(eHn
0pecify the vertical space, in pi&els, added at the top and bottom of the table.
?idthHn
0et the width of the table to n pi&els or a percentage of the window width.
0ee )hapter C, Ta$les for more information on tables.
<tbody>
"-0 and later. 0pecify the rows in a table to be grouped as the main table body.
8equires no ending tag. This element is used to indicate where rules will be drawn
when r<lesBgro<)s is used in the @t,leA tag.
<td>
:efine a table data cell.
Attri)utes
lignHtype
Align the cell contents to the le*t, (enter, or right.
,(Hgro<ndH#rl
0pecify an image to be tiled in the bac+ground of the cell.
,g(olorHcolor
+/3 "-0 and later. :efine the bac+ground color for the cell.
,order(olorHcolor
"-0 and later. :efine the border color for the cell.
,order(olordrHHcolor
"-0 and later. :efine the dar+ border highlighting color for the cell.
,order(olorlightHcolor
"-0 and later. :efine the light border highlighting color for the cell.
(ols)nHn
Have this cell straddle n ad4acent columns.
no?r)
:o not automatically wrap and fill te&t in this cell.
ro?s)nHn
Have this cell straddle n ad4acent rows.
8lignHtype
Kertically align this cell3s contents to the to), (enter, ,ottom, or ,seline of
the cell.
?idthHn
0et the width of this cell to n pi&els or a percentage of the table width.
0ee )hapter C, Ta$les for more information on tables.
<te!tarea>
:efine a multiline te&t input area within a @*ormAJ content of the @textreA tag is
the initial, default value.
Attri)utes
(olsHn
:isplay n columns of te&t within the te&t area.
nmeHstrin
:efine the name for the te&t1area value that is passed to the form1processing
application !required$.
ro?sHn
:isplay n rows of te&t within the te&t area.
?r)Hstyle
+0 and later. 0et word wrapping within the te&t area to o**, 8irt<l !display
wrap, but do not transmit to server$, or )h>si(l !display and transmit wrap$.
0ee )hapter #, HTML Form Tas for more information on forms.
<tfoot>
"-0 and later. 0pecify the rows that will be grouped as the table footer. 8equires no
ending tag. 6sed to indicate where rules will be drawn when r<lesBgro<)s is set in
the @t,leA tag. 0ee )hapter C, Ta$les for more on tables.
<th>
:efine a table header cell.
Attri)utes
lignHtype
Align the cell contents to the le*t, (enter, or right.
,(Hgro<ndH#rl
0pecify an image to be tiled in the bac+ground of the cell.
,g(olorHcolor
+/3 "-0 and later. :efine the bac+ground color for the cell.
,order(olorHcolor
"-0 and later. :efine the border color for the cell.
,order(olordrHHcolor
"-0 and later. :efine the dar+ border1highlighting color for the cell.
,order(olorlightHcolor
"-0 only. :efine the light border1highlighting color for the cell.
(ols)nHn
Have this cell straddle n ad4acent columns.
no?r)
:o not automatically wrap and fill te&t in this cell.
ro?s)nHn
Have this cell straddle n ad4acent rows.
8lignHtype
Kertically align this cell3s contents to the to), (enter, ,ottom, or ,seline of
the cell.
?idthHn
0et the width of this cell to n pi&els or a percentage of the table width.
0ee )hapter C, Ta$les for more information on tables.
<thead>
"-0 and later. 0pecifies the rows that will be grouped as the table header. 8equires no
ending tag. This element is used to indicate where rules will be drawn when
r<lesBgro<)s is set in the EtableF tag. 0ee )hapter C, Ta$les for more information
on tables.
<title>
:efine the HT;9 document3s title.
<tr>
:efine a row of cells within a table.
Attri)utes
lignHtype
Align the cell contents in this row to the le*t, (enter, or right.
,(Hgro<ndH#rl
0pecify an image to be tiled in the bac+ground of the cell.
,g(olorHcolor
+/3 "-0 and later. :efine the bac+ground color for this row.
,orderHn
)reate a border n pi&els wide.
,order(olorHcolor
"-0 and later. :efine the border color for this row.
,order(olordrHHcolor
"-0 and later. :efine the dar+ border1highlighting color for this row.
,order(olorlightHcolor
"-0 and later. :efine the light border1highlighting color for this row.
8lignHtype
Kertically align the cell contents in this row to the to), (enter, ,ottom, or
,seline of the cell.
0ee )hapter C, Ta$les for more information on tables.
<tt>
%ormat the enclosed te&t in typewriter1style !monospaced$ font.
<ul>
:efine an unordered list of bulleted @liA elements.
Attri)utes
(om)(t
:isplay the list in a more compact manner.
t>)eH$#llet
+0 and later. 0et the bullet style for this list to either (ir(le, dis( !default$,
or sO<re.
<var>
The enclosed te&t is a variable3s name.
<wbr>
.ndicate a potential word brea+ point within a @no,rA section.
<!mp>
0ame as @)re ?idthB60A ... @/)reAJ deprecated, do not use.