You are on page 1of 20

The TQM Journal

Defining lean production: some conceptual and practical issues


J ostein Pettersen
Article information:
To cite this document:
J ostein Pettersen, (2009),"Defining lean production: some conceptual and practical issues", The TQM
J ournal, Vol. 21 Iss 2 pp. 127 - 142
Permanent link to this document:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/17542730910938137
Downloaded on: 11 September 2014, At: 10:22 (PT)
References: this document contains references to 71 other documents.
To copy this document: permissions@emeraldinsight.com
The fulltext of this document has been downloaded 8819 times since 2009*
Users who downloaded this article also downloaded:
Peter Hines, Matthias Holweg, Nick Rich, (2004),"Learning to evolve: A review of contemporary lean
thinking", International J ournal of Operations & Production Management, Vol. 24 Iss 10 pp. 994-1011
Michael A. Lewis, (2000),"Lean production and sustainable competitive advantage", International J ournal of
Operations & Production Management, Vol. 20 Iss 8 pp. 959-978
Sanjay Bhasin, Peter Burcher, (2006),"Lean viewed as a philosophy", J ournal of Manufacturing Technology
Management, Vol. 17 Iss 1 pp. 56-72
Access to this document was granted through an Emerald subscription provided by 454898 []
For Authors
If you would like to write for this, or any other Emerald publication, then please use our Emerald for
Authors service information about how to choose which publication to write for and submission guidelines
are available for all. Please visit www.emeraldinsight.com/authors for more information.
About Emerald www.emeraldinsight.com
Emerald is a global publisher linking research and practice to the benefit of society. The company
manages a portfolio of more than 290 journals and over 2,350 books and book series volumes, as well as
providing an extensive range of online products and additional customer resources and services.
Emerald is both COUNTER 4 and TRANSFER compliant. The organization is a partner of the Committee
on Publication Ethics (COPE) and also works with Portico and the LOCKSS initiative for digital archive
preservation.
*Related content and download information correct at time of download.
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

A
s
i
a
n

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
f

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y

A
t

1
0
:
2
2

1
1

S
e
p
t
e
m
b
e
r

2
0
1
4

(
P
T
)
Dening lean production: some
conceptual and practical issues
Jostein Pettersen
Division of Quality Technology and Management and
Helix VINN Excellence Centre, Linko ping University, Linko ping, Sweden
Abstract
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the denition of lean production and the
methods and goals associated with the concept as well as how it differs from other popular
management concepts.
Design/methodology/approach The paper is based on a review of the contemporary literature
on lean production, both journal articles and books.
Findings It is shown in the paper that there is no consensus on a denition of lean production
between the examined authors. The authors also seem to have different opinions on which
characteristics should be associated with the concept. Overall it can be concluded that lean production
is not clearly dened in the reviewed literature. This divergence can cause some confusion on a
theoretical level, but is probably more problematic on a practical level when organizations aim to
implement the concept. This paper argues that it is important for an organization to acknowledge the
different variations, and to raise the awareness of the input in the implementation process. It is further
argued that the organization should not accept any random variant of lean, but make active choices
and adapt the concept to suit the organizations needs. Through this process of adaptation, the
organization will be able to increase the odds of performing a predictable and successful
implementation.
Originality/value This paper provides a critical perspective on the discourse surrounding lean
production, and gives an input to the discussion of the implementation of management models.
Keywords Lean production, Total quality management
Paper type Conceptual paper
Introduction
When initiating research concerning the concept of lean production (LP) one line of
questions naturally comes to mind: What is lean? How is lean dened? How does lean
relate to other management concepts? What does lean have in common with other
management concepts? What discriminates lean from other management concepts?
Seeking answers to these questions, will lead to the realization that they are
exceedingly hard to nd. It seems logical that a management concept as popular as
lean should have a clear and concise denition. Much disappointingly, the denition of
lean production is highly elusive. Some authors have made attempts to dene the
concept (e.g. Lewis, 2000; Hines et al., 2004; Shah and Ward, 2007), while others have
raised the question of whether the concept is clearly dened (see Dahlgaard and
Dahlgaard-Park, 2006; Engstrom et al., 1996; Lewis, 2000).
A justied question is whether the convergent validity of lean actually makes any
difference does it matter how we dene lean? There are various opinions on the
effects of this.
The absence of a clear denition has a number of consequences for practitioners
seeking to implement lean as well as researchers trying to capture the essence of the
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at
www.emeraldinsight.com/1754-2731.htm
Dening lean
production
127
The TQM Journal
Vol. 21 No. 2, 2009
pp. 127-142
qEmerald Group Publishing Limited
1754-2731
DOI 10.1108/17542730910938137
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

A
s
i
a
n

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
f

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y

A
t

1
0
:
2
2

1
1

S
e
p
t
e
m
b
e
r

2
0
1
4

(
P
T
)
concept. These issues have been addressed by a number of researchers. The lack of a
denition will lead to communication difculties (Dale and Plunkett, 1991 in Boaden,
1997). It will complicate education on the subject (Boaden, 1997). Researching the
subject will be difcult (Godfrey et al., 1997; Parker, 2003) although Boaden (1997)
states that this is not essential. There will also be difculties in dening overall goals
of the concept (Andersson et al., 2006).
Parker (2003) states that the multitude of interpretations on what lean really is
makes it harder to make claims towards the effects of lean, thus increasing the
requirements that researchers specify exactly what they are researching. Karlsson and
A

hlstrom (1996) point out that the lack of a precise denition also will lead to
difculties in determining whether changes made in an organization are consistent
with LP or not, and consequently difculties in evaluating the effectiveness of the
concept itself.
Purpose of the article
The main purpose of this article is to give a presentation of what lean production is.
This will be done through a review of contemporary literature on lean and summary of
practices associated with lean as well as the stated purpose of the concept. Based on
this, an evaluation of the construct validity of lean will be made.
The paper will conclude with a discussion of the practical implications of the
construct validity of lean.
Research approach
Hackman and Wageman (1995) reviewed the TQM concept and raised the question of
whether there really is such a thing as TQM or whether it has become mainly a banner
under which a potpourri of essentially unrelated organizational changes are
undertaken. This is a valid question for any construct similar to TQM, and the
concept of lean production is no exception. Following the reasoning of Hackman and
Wageman, this question calls for the evaluation of the concepts convergent and
discriminant validity. Hackman and Wageman (1995) describe the two kinds of
validity as follows:
Convergent validity reects the degree to which [different] versions [of the concept] [. . .] share
a common set of assumptions and prescriptions. [. . .]
Discriminant validity refers to the degree to which [the concept] can be reliably distinguished
from other strategies for organizational improvement (Hackman and Wageman, 1995).
In other words, the discriminant validity tells us whether or not a concept carries any
news value compared to other existing concepts, whereas the convergent validity,
strictly speaking, tells us whether or not the concept itself really exists.
For this article, the two major citation databases ISI and Scopus have been searched for
articles containing the terms lean production or lean manufacturing in the topic,
abstract or keywords. The 20 most cited articles from each database were selected for
further study.
Through reading these and other articles on the subject, the most inuential books
were identied. This list was veried through using the citation analysis software
publish or perish.
TQM
21,2
128
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

A
s
i
a
n

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
f

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y

A
t

1
0
:
2
2

1
1

S
e
p
t
e
m
b
e
r

2
0
1
4

(
P
T
)
The reviewed literature will be compared by listing the characteristics of lean
presented by each author. The idea is that a method, tool or goal that is central to lean
will be mentioned by every author on the topic. The purpose or goal of lean should
logically be the same for all authors. Concurrence among the authors will signify a high
convergent validity. If lean passes this convergent validity criterion, an evaluation of
the discriminant validity can be made, based on a comparison with TQM. Hackman
and Wageman (1995) concluded that TQM passed the tests of both convergent and
discriminant validity, making it a good concept to compare against lean production.
Literature review
The two database searches produced a total of 37 articles (see Appendix), of which 12
of them contained presentations of techniques and/or overall goals associated with LP,
thus contributing to a conceptual discussion.
The 12 articles that are deemed suitable for a further analysis are Krafcik (1988),
Oliver et al. (1996), Sanchez and Perez (2001), Lewis (2000), Mumford (1994),
James-Moore and Gibbons (1997), MacDufe et al. (1996), Dankbaar (1997), White and
Prybutok (2001), Hayes and Pisano (1994), Jagdev and Browne (1998) and Cusumano
(1994).
A number of books turned up in the literature search. An investigation of the books
citation rankings led to a ltering process with 13 books remaining. These are
Womack et al. (1990), Womack and Jones (2003), Bicheno (2004), Ohno (1988), Monden
(1998), Liker (2004), Feld (2001), Dennis (2002), Schonberger (1982), Shingo (1984),
Rother and Shook (1998), Jones and Womack (2002) and Smalley (2004).
The publications by the Lean Enterprise Institute (Rother and Shook, 1998; Jones
and Womack, 2002; Smalley, 2004) are very specic on certain tools (mainly value
stream mapping), and were not deemed suitable for a conceptual discussion about lean
in general.
An overview of lean characteristics
Table I is a presentation of the most frequently mentioned characteristics of lean in the
reviewed books. Characteristics that have been discussed by less than three authors
have been excluded from the presentation. The characteristics in the table are sorted
based on frequency of discussion in the reviewed literature.
Looking at the table reveals some interesting aspects about the ideas surrounding
lean. The only two characteristics that all authors discuss are setup time reduction
and continuous improvement, indicating that these are central to the concept. On the
condition that pull production can be seen as a special case of just-in-time production,
all authors lift this characteristic as well. Failure prevention ( poka yoke) and
production leveling (heijunka) also seem to be central characteristics of lean
production.
Analysis
Convergent validity of lean
The characteristics listed in Table I have some relation to one another, motivating an
afnity analysis. One way of grouping these characteristics is presented in Table II.
Through grouping the characteristics a more homogeneous image of the lean
characteristics arises. For all but three of the groups all authors have discussed at least
Dening lean
production
129
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

A
s
i
a
n

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
f

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y

A
t

1
0
:
2
2

1
1

S
e
p
t
e
m
b
e
r

2
0
1
4

(
P
T
)
G
o
a
l
M
a
k
e
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
s
w
i
t
h
f
e
w
e
r
d
e
f
e
c
t
s
t
o
p
r
e
c
i
s
e
c
u
s
t
o
m
e
r
d
e
s
i
r
e
s
O
n
e
-
p
i
e
c
e

o
w
R
e
d
u
c
e
w
a
s
t
e
a
n
d
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
v
a
l
u
e
C
u
s
t
o
m
e
r
f
o
c
u
s
(
h
i
g
h
q
u
a
l
i
t
y
,
l
o
w
c
o
s
t
,
s
h
o
r
t
t
i
m
e
)
R
o
b
u
s
t
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n
o
p
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
C
o
s
t
r
e
d
u
c
t
i
o
n
E
l
i
m
i
n
a
t
e
w
a
s
t
e
a
n
d
r
e
d
u
c
e
c
o
s
t
s
I
m
p
r
o
v
e
q
u
a
l
i
t
y
a
n
d
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
v
i
t
y
C
o
s
t
r
e
d
u
c
t
i
o
n
t
h
r
o
u
g
h
w
a
s
t
e
e
l
i
m
i
n
a
t
i
o
n
(
W
o
m
a
c
k
a
n
d
J
o
n
e
s
a
n
d
W
o
m
a
c
k
e
t
a
l
.
)
L
i
k
e
r
B
i
c
h
e
n
o
D
e
n
n
i
s
F
e
l
d
O
h
n
o
M
o
n
d
e
n
S
c
h
o
n
b
e
r
g
e
r
S
h
i
n
g
o
K
a
i
z
e
n
/
c
o
n
t
i
n
u
o
u
s
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
m
e
n
t

S
e
t
u
p
t
i
m
e
r
e
d
u
c
t
i
o
n

J
u
s
t
i
n
t
i
m
e
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n

K
a
n
b
a
n
/
p
u
l
l
s
y
s
t
e
m

P
o
k
a
y
o
k
e

P
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n
l
e
v
e
l
i
n
g
(
H
e
i
j
u
n
k
a
)

S
t
a
n
d
a
r
d
i
z
e
d
w
o
r
k

V
i
s
u
a
l
c
o
n
t
r
o
l
a
n
d
m
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t

5
S
/
h
o
u
s
e
k
e
e
p
i
n
g

A
n
d
o
n

S
m
a
l
l
l
o
t
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n

T
i
m
e
/
w
o
r
k
s
t
u
d
i
e
s

W
a
s
t
e
e
l
i
m
i
n
a
t
i
o
n

I
n
v
e
n
t
o
r
y
r
e
d
u
c
t
i
o
n

S
u
p
p
l
i
e
r
i
n
v
o
l
v
e
m
e
n
t

T
a
k
t
e
d
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n

T
P
M
/
p
r
e
v
e
n
t
i
v
e
m
a
i
n
t
e
n
a
n
c
e

A
u
t
o
n
o
m
a
t
i
o
n
(
J
i
d
o
k
a
)

(
c
o
n
t
i
n
u
e
d
)
Table I.
A presentation of
characteristics associated
with lean production. The
characteristics are sorted
by accumulated
frequency
TQM
21,2
130
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

A
s
i
a
n

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
f

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y

A
t

1
0
:
2
2

1
1

S
e
p
t
e
m
b
e
r

2
0
1
4

(
P
T
)
G
o
a
l
M
a
k
e
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
s
w
i
t
h
f
e
w
e
r
d
e
f
e
c
t
s
t
o
p
r
e
c
i
s
e
c
u
s
t
o
m
e
r
d
e
s
i
r
e
s
O
n
e
-
p
i
e
c
e

o
w
R
e
d
u
c
e
w
a
s
t
e
a
n
d
i
m
p
r
o
v
e
v
a
l
u
e
C
u
s
t
o
m
e
r
f
o
c
u
s
(
h
i
g
h
q
u
a
l
i
t
y
,
l
o
w
c
o
s
t
,
s
h
o
r
t
t
i
m
e
)
R
o
b
u
s
t
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n
o
p
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
C
o
s
t
r
e
d
u
c
t
i
o
n
E
l
i
m
i
n
a
t
e
w
a
s
t
e
a
n
d
r
e
d
u
c
e
c
o
s
t
s
I
m
p
r
o
v
e
q
u
a
l
i
t
y
a
n
d
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
v
i
t
y
C
o
s
t
r
e
d
u
c
t
i
o
n
t
h
r
o
u
g
h
w
a
s
t
e
e
l
i
m
i
n
a
t
i
o
n
(
W
o
m
a
c
k
a
n
d
J
o
n
e
s
a
n
d
W
o
m
a
c
k
e
t
a
l
.
)
L
i
k
e
r
B
i
c
h
e
n
o
D
e
n
n
i
s
F
e
l
d
O
h
n
o
M
o
n
d
e
n
S
c
h
o
n
b
e
r
g
e
r
S
h
i
n
g
o
S
t
a
t
i
s
t
i
c
a
l
q
u
a
l
i
t
y
c
o
n
t
r
o
l
(
S
Q
C
)

N
O
!

T
e
a
m
w
o
r
k

W
o
r
k
f
o
r
c
e
r
e
d
u
c
t
i
o
n

1
0
0
%
i
n
s
p
e
c
t
i
o
n

L
a
y
o
u
t
a
d
j
u
s
t
m
e
n
t
s

P
o
l
i
c
y
d
e
p
l
o
y
m
e
n
t
(
H
o
s
h
i
n
k
a
n
r
i
)

I
m
p
r
o
v
e
m
e
n
t
c
i
r
c
l
e
s

R
o
o
t
c
a
u
s
e
a
n
a
l
y
s
i
s
(
5
w
h
y
)

V
a
l
u
e
s
t
r
e
a
m
m
a
p
p
i
n
g
/

o
w
c
h
a
r
t
i
n
g

E
d
u
c
a
t
i
o
n
/
c
r
o
s
s
t
r
a
i
n
i
n
g
(
O
J
T
)

E
m
p
l
o
y
e
e
i
n
v
o
l
v
e
m
e
n
t

)
L
e
a
d
t
i
m
e
r
e
d
u
c
t
i
o
n

M
u
l
t
i
-
m
a
n
n
i
n
g
(

P
r
o
c
e
s
s
s
y
n
c
h
r
o
n
i
z
a
t
i
o
n

C
e
l
l
u
l
a
r
m
a
n
u
f
a
c
t
u
r
i
n
g

)
Table I.
Dening lean
production
131
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

A
s
i
a
n

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
f

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y

A
t

1
0
:
2
2

1
1

S
e
p
t
e
m
b
e
r

2
0
1
4

(
P
T
)
one of the characteristics in the group. In the group labeled as human resource
management none of the characteristics are discussed by authors Bicheno and Shingo.
The authors Ohno and Schonberger have not discussed any of the characteristics in the
group labeled as supply chain management. Furthermore, the bundled techniques have
slightly lower gures. This indicates that the two groups human relations
management and supply chain management are not denable characteristics of lean,
contrary to the ndings of Shah and Ward (2003). However, the scores are quite high,
indicating that they are important (although not vital) parts of the lean concept.
Looking at the goals presented by the reviewed authors (Table I) raises some
questions towards the convergent validity of lean. The general opinion that the
purpose of lean is to reduce waste does not seem to hold, although some authors
(Bicheno, 2004; Monden, 1998; Shingo, 1984) argue for this. As discussed above there
are two main traditions of lean; toolbox lean and lean thinking. This is also evident
Collective term Specic characteristics
Just in time practices (100%) Production leveling (heijunka)
Pull system (kanban)
Takted production
Process synchronization
Resource reduction (100%) Small lot production
Waste elimination
Setup time reduction
Lead time reduction
Inventory reduction
Human relations management (78%) Team organization
Cross training
Employee involvement
Improvement strategies (100%) Improvement circles
Continuous improvement (kaizen)
Root cause analysis (5 why)
Defects control (100%) Autonomation (jidoka)
Failure prevention (poka yoke)
100% inspection
Line stop (andon)
Supply chain management (78%) Value stream mapping/owcharting
Supplier involvement
Standardization (100%) Housekeeping (5S)
Standardized work
Visual control and management
Scientic management (100%) Policy deployment (hoshin kanri)
Time/work studies
Multi manning
Work force reduction
Layout adjustments
Cellular manufacturing
Bundled techniques (56%, 67%) Statistical quality control (SQC)
TPM/preventive maintenance
Note: The gures in parentheses indicate the percentage of the authors that have discussed at least
one of the characteristics in the group
Table II.
A suggestion for a
grouping of lean
characteristics
TQM
21,2
132
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

A
s
i
a
n

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
f

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y

A
t

1
0
:
2
2

1
1

S
e
p
t
e
m
b
e
r

2
0
1
4

(
P
T
)
in the differences of goals in the reviewed literature. Generally speaking, there are two
different types of goals, internally focused (Liker, 2004; Feld, 2001; Ohno, 1988;
Monden, 1998; Schonberger, 1982; Shingo, 1984) and externally focused (Womack et al.,
1990; Womack and Jones, 2003; Bicheno, 2004; Dennis, 2002; Schonberger, 1982). One
could argue that the differences in formulation of purpose are very small thus making
it a minor issue. However, an internally focused cost reduction initiative will differ
substantially from an externally focused initiative to improve customer satisfaction.
The division of lean production in the two parts discussed above has led to
discussions of which one is more correct. A common statement is that lean is more
than a set of tools (Bicheno, 2004), arguing for a more philosophical approach to lean.
However, there is also another position that argues for a more practical and project
based approach to lean and that lean is a collection of waste reduction tools. This
kind of statement is hard to nd explicitly in academic texts, but very common among
certain practitioners.
Neither of the positions are more correct than the other, since lean exists at both
levels, having both strategic and operational dimensions (Hines et al., 2004). In
addition, lean can be seen as having both a philosophical as well as a practical
orientation (Shah and Ward, 2007).
Through adapting and combining the four approaches to lean suggested by Hines
et al. (2004) and Shah and Ward (2007) respectively, lean can be characterized in four
different ways. The terms practical and philosophical are substituted by the terms
performative and ostensive. The terms operational and strategic are substituted by the
terms discrete and continuous.
In Table III four different approaches to lean production are presented. The term
ostensive signies a shift of focus from general philosophy towards issues that can
only be dened by examples, whereas performative and practical focus on the things
that are done. The term discrete signies a focus on isolated events, such as individual
improvement projects using the lean toolbox (see Bicheno, 2004; Nicholas and Soni,
2006), or the nal state of leanness (see Krafcik, 1988). As a contrast, the term
continuous signies a process oriented perspective, focusing on the continuous efforts;
the philosophy of lean thinking or the Toyota way (see Womack and Jones, 2003;
Liker, 2004) or the process of becoming lean (see Liker, 1998; Karlsson andA

hlstrom,
1996).
Although the score is not perfect, lean seems to be a reasonably consistent concept
comprising just in time practices, resource reduction, improvement strategies, defects
control, standardization and scientic management techniques. However, it is hard to
formulate a clear denition that captures all the elements of lean and integrates the
various goals in the reviewed literature. In other words, lean can be said to (barely)
Discrete Continuous
(Operational) (Strategic)
Ostensive (Philosophical) Leanness Lean thinking
Performative (Practical) Toolbox lean Becoming lean
Note: The terms in parentheses are the ones suggested by Hines et al. (2004) and Shah and Ward
(2007) respectively
Table III.
An illustration of the four
denable approaches to
lean production
Dening lean
production
133
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

A
s
i
a
n

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
f

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y

A
t

1
0
:
2
2

1
1

S
e
p
t
e
m
b
e
r

2
0
1
4

(
P
T
)
pass the convergent validity test, although there is no clear agreement among the
authors as to the overall purpose of the concept.
Discriminant validity of lean
So what is then the difference between TQM and lean production? In the following
section Lean and TQM are compared based on the analysis made by Hackman and
Wageman (1995). The discussion is done with three different aspects; basic
assumptions, change principles and interventions:
(1) Basic assumptions:
.
Quality. In lean, quality does not receive the same amount of attention as in
the TQM literature. The main focus in the lean literature is on just-in-time
(JIT) production. JIT is assumed to decrease total cost, as well as highlight
problems. This is done through reducing the resources in the system, so that
buffers do not cover up the problems that arise. In the short-term
perspective, the reduction of resources implies a direct reduction of cost. In
the long run, the reduction and subsequent elimination of buffers is assumed
to highlight the problems that exist in production, thus being a vital source
of continuous improvement (e.g. Shingo, 1984; Ohno, 1988; Krafcik, 1988).
A common opinion is that the purpose of lean is waste elimination. The
literature review does not show support for this being the very purpose, but
waste elimination is denitely an important aspect of the concept. Some
authors argue that waste is reduced in order to increase the value for the
customer (e.g. Dennis, 2002; Bicheno, 2004), whereas others argue that it is a
strategy for reducing cost (e.g. Ohno, 1988; Monden, 1998). Reducing waste
is also a signicant part of TQM, but under the banner of poor-quality-costs
(see Hackman and Wageman, 1995; Sorqvist, 1998). A major difference
between TQM and lean in this aspect is the precision in dening waste. In
the majority of the lean literature, waste or muda is based on the seven
forms[1] dened by Ohno (1988), whereas TQM has a very general denition
of poor-quality-costs, including everything that could be eliminated through
improvement (Sorqvist, 1998).
.
Employees and the quality of their work. One major critique of the lean
concept is that it is generally weak concerning the employees perspective.
The proponents of lean production usually have a strong instrumental and
managerial perspective, discussing employees in terms of components in the
production system (see Kamata, 1982; Berggren, 1992, 1993).
The extensive discussion about jidoka and poka yoke in the lean literature
suggests that employees cannot be trusted to produce good quality, thus
creating a necessity for removing the possibility of human error from the
system.
.
Organizations as systems. One thing that lean and TQM have in common is
seeing the organization as a system (see Womack and Jones, 2003; Bicheno,
2004). But there is a slight difference in perspective between the two
concepts. Whereas TQM has a strong focus on the internal structure and
integration of departments within the organization, lean stresses a supply
chain perspective, seeing the internal production operations as a part of a
TQM
21,2
134
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

A
s
i
a
n

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
f

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y

A
t

1
0
:
2
2

1
1

S
e
p
t
e
m
b
e
r

2
0
1
4

(
P
T
)
value stream from the sub-suppliers to the end customer (e.g. Rother and
Shook, 1998; Jones and Womack, 2002).
.
Quality is the responsibility of senior management. This is another
perspective that lean and TQM share, but again with some differences.
TQM-managers should create structures that support the employees in
producing products of high quality (Deming, 1986; Hackman and Wageman,
1995). The idea is the same in lean, but the rationale for doing this seems to
be centered around eliminating the human factor from the system through
jidoka and poka yoke. Using the terminology of McGregor, one could argue
that TQM seems to be based on theory Y, whereas lean seems to be based on
theory X (see Ezzamel et al., 2001).
(2) Change principles:
.
Focus on processes. Within the lean concept the term value stream is usually
preferred (Womack and Jones, 2003). The term process is usually used at a
lower level of abstraction that TQM theorists would call sub-processes or
activities (see Riley, 1998). The conception that management should analyze
and improve the processes and train the employees is also shared by the two
concepts.
.
Management by fact. The literature on lean does not really stress the
management by facts explicitly. However, this is implicit in the description
of lean practices, many of which are analytical tools designed to help achieve
JIT production. Although this is a shared perspective between lean and
TQM, there is a difference. Within TQM the analysis of variability through
using statistical tools is a central concept (Hackman and Wageman, 1995). In
the lean tradition, this is not seen as equally important. In fact, some authors
argue against the use of statistical tools for analyzing production
performance, recommending alternative tools such as increased inspection
and visualization of problems (e.g. Dennis, 2002; Liker, 2004).
.
Learning and continuous improvement. In the words of Hackman and
Wageman (1995) TQM is pro-learning, with a vengeance (p. 330). The
learning aspects are not emphasized as much in literature on lean. As
discussed above, the lean literature is generally weaker on the human
behavior side, focusing more on instrumental techniques for improving
system performance. There is a clear focus on continuous improvement,
which implies that some form of learning is required. However, the question
is who is learning. TQM is focused on stimulating creativity and individual
efforts for improvement (Hackman and Wageman, 1995), whereas lean
places strong emphasis on the standardization of work and collective
learning (Niepce and Molleman, 1998; Thompson and Wallace, 1996).
(3) Interventions:
.
Analysis of customer requirements. Customer focus is one of the hallmarks of
TQM, where every improvement should be based on an investigation of the
customers requirements, whether the customer is internal or external. The
lean concept does not emphasize customer interests. Some authors argue
that the very purpose of lean is to please the customer (e.g. Dennis, 2002), but
Dening lean
production
135
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

A
s
i
a
n

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
f

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y

A
t

1
0
:
2
2

1
1

S
e
p
t
e
m
b
e
r

2
0
1
4

(
P
T
)
methods for analyzing customer requirements are extremely rare in the
reviewed literature, suggesting this is not a typical lean intervention.
.
Supplier partnerships. The suppliers are seen as important in both lean and
TQM. Both concept stress the point that long term partnerships should be
made with suppliers and that improvements should be done in collaboration
with them. Although this matter is not discussed by all authors in this
analysis, the majority of them do (see Table I).
.
Improvement teams. Quality circles have a central role in much of the TQM
literature, and can be put to use in problem solving or improvement
activities. In the lean literature, improvement teams are explicitly discussed
by just about half of the reviewed authors. However, they are often
implicated in discussions about improvement activities.
.
Scientic methods for performance measurement and improvement. Both
TQM and lean employ various scientic methods for analysis and
evaluation of performance. However, these methods differ signicantly, and
the tools associated with one concept are generally not mentioned in
literature on the other one. The purpose of measurements also differs. In
TQM measurements are done in order to identify problems and to document
improvement, whereas lean theorists argue that measurements should be
made for planning and synchronization purposes;, e.g. for setting production
rate (see Ohno, 1988; Bicheno, 2004).
.
Process management techniques. As discussed above, the term process is
used in slightly different ways by authors on TQM and lean. In the lean
literature, different techniques are presented for both overall process level
and individual activities. At an organizational level value stream mapping
(VSM) can be used for highlighting several kinds of problems in the
processes (Rother and Shook, 1998). At a more operational level, different
time/work study techniques are discussed, e.g. so-called spaghetti charts
(e.g. Bicheno, 2004).
Lean and TQM same but different
At a philosophical level, lean and TQM have many ideas in common, in particular
concerning continuous improvement and the systems perspective. However, at a more
operational level, the two concepts differ signicantly. The fundamental values of the
two concepts are also quite different, especially regarding humanistic values.
Conclusions
There is no agreed upon denition of lean that could be found in the reviewed
literature, and the formulations of the overall purpose of the concept are divergent.
Discomforting as this may seem for lean proponents, there seems to be quite good
agreement on the characteristics that dene the concept, leading to the conclusion that
the concept is dened in operational terms alone. Formulating a denition that
captures all the dimensions of lean is a formidable challenge.
According to Hines et al. (2004) lean is constantly evolving, implying that any
denition of the concept will only be a still image of a moving target, only being
valid in a certain point in time. This may be an explanation to the apparent differences
TQM
21,2
136
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

A
s
i
a
n

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
f

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y

A
t

1
0
:
2
2

1
1

S
e
p
t
e
m
b
e
r

2
0
1
4

(
P
T
)
between authors on the subject. Based on this, it is hard not to raise the question of
whether a consistent denition of lean is possible to produce. Also, one can question
whether a denition will be useful at all, regarding the ever changing nature of the type
of constructs that management concepts such as TQM and lean are. Nonetheless,
attempts have been made in this article to present the essentials of lean production and
convey its most salient philosophical elements, hopefully clearing up some of the
confusion that surrounds the concept.
Lean is also signicantly different from its closest relative TQM, leading to the
conclusion that lean is a management concept of its own. The conclusion from Shah
and Ward (2003) that TQM and other bundles are parts of lean is not supported by this
study.
Womack et al. (1990) argue that the lean principles are applicable to any industry. If
this is correct, then the Japanese should logically have distributed the knowledge of
these principles throughout all domestic Japanese industry. This does not seem to be
the case. The only true lean producers in Japan are conned to the automobile
industry, represented by, e.g. Toyota, Honda and Mazda, whereas other areas of
industry are performing at the same level as (or worse than) western competitors[2].
This was pointed out more than 20 years ago by Keys and Miller (1984), implying that
the principles constituting LP have not received any wide-spread attention outside the
auto-industry. Cooney (2002) argues that the possibility to become lean (through JIT
in particular) is highly dependent upon business conditions that are not always met,
thus limiting the universality of the concept.
When embarking on a journey towards lean, it is important to acknowledge the
different perspectives that the concept comprises. Raising the awareness of these
differences may help make the message clearer and avoid conicting opinions on
which concept the organization is implementing. The obvious fallibility of the claimed
universality of lean should help motivate an adaptational approach to implementing
the concept, aiming to nd a production concept that agrees with the contextual factors
and previous production practices that exist within the organization. Making active
choices with regard to values and techniques should increase the odds of succeeding in
the improvement of the production system.
Notes
1. Transportation, Inventory, Motion, Waiting, Overproduction, Overprocessing, Defects.
2. Shu Yamada, University of Tsukuba Seminar at Linkoping University, 2007.
References
Adler, P.S. and Cole, R.E. (1993), Designed for learning a tale of 2 auto plants,
Sloan Management Review, Vol. 34 No. 3, pp. 85-94.
Andersson, R., Eriksson, H. and Torstensson, H. (2006), Similarities and differences between
TQM, six sigma and lean, The TQM Magazine, Vol. 18 No. 3, pp. 282-96.
Benders, J. and Van Bijsterveld, M. (2000), Leaning on lean: the reception of a management
fashion in Germany, New Technology, Work and Employment, Vol. 15 No. 1, pp. 50-64.
Berggren, C. (1992), Alternatives to Lean Production: Work Organization in the Swedish Auto
Industry, ILR Press, New York, NY.
Dening lean
production
137
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

A
s
i
a
n

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
f

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y

A
t

1
0
:
2
2

1
1

S
e
p
t
e
m
b
e
r

2
0
1
4

(
P
T
)
Berggren, C. (1993), Lean production the end of history, Work Employment and Society, Vol. 7
No. 2, pp. 163-88.
Bicheno, J. (2004), The New Lean Toolbox: Towards Fast, Flexible Flow, 3rd ed., PICSIE Books,
Buckingham.
Boaden, R. (1997), What is total quality management. . .and does it matter?, Total Quality
Management & Business Excellence, Vol. 8 No. 4, pp. 153-71.
Cappelli, P. and Rogovsky, N. (1998), Employee involvement and organizational citizenship:
Implications for labor law reform and lean production, Industrial and Labor Relations
Review, Vol. 51 No. 4, pp. 633-53.
Cooney, R. (2002), Is lean a universal production system? Batch production in the automotive
industry, International Journal of Operations & Production Management, Vol. 22 No. 10,
pp. 1130-47.
Cusumano, M.A. (1994), The limits of lean, Sloan Management Review, Vol. 35 No. 4, pp. 27-32.
Cutchergershenfeld, J., Nitta, M., Barrett, B., Belhedi, N., Bullard, J. and Coutchie, C. (1994),
Japanese team-based work systems in North America explaining the diversity,
California Management Review, Vol. 37 No. 1, pp. 42-64.
Dahlgaard, J.J. and Dahlgaard-Park, S.M. (2006), Lean production, six sigma quality, TQM and
company culture, The TQM Magazine, Vol. 18 No. 3, pp. 263-81.
Dankbaar, B. (1997), Lean production: denial, conrmation or extension of sociotechnical
systems design?, Human Relations, Vol. 50 No. 5, pp. 567-83.
Delbridge, R., Lowe, J. and Oliver, N. (2000), Shopoor responsibilities under lean
teamworking, Human Relations, Vol. 53 No. 11, pp. 1459-79.
Deming, W.E. (1986), Out of the Crisis, The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
Dennis, P. (2002), Lean Production Simplied: A Plain Language Guide to the Worlds Most
Powerful Production System, Productivity Press, New York, NY.
Dyer, J.H. (1994), Dedicated assets Japan manufacturing edge, Harvard Business Review,
Vol. 72 No. 6, pp. 174-8.
Engstrom, T., Jonsson, D. and Medbo, L. (1996), Production model discourse and experiences
from the Swedish automotive industry, International Journal of Operations & Production
Management, Vol. 16 No. 2, pp. 141-58.
Ezzamel, M., Willmott, H. and Worthington, F. (2001), Power, control and resistance in the
factory that time forgot, Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 38 No. 8, pp. 1053-79.
Feld, W.M. (2001), Lean Manufacturing: Tools, Techniques, and How to Use Them, St Lucie
Press, Boca Raton, FL.
Godfrey, G., Dale, B., Marchington, M. and Wilkinson, A. (1997), Control: a contested concept in
TQM research, International Journal of Operations & Production Management, Vol. 17
No. 6, pp. 558-73.
Hackman, J.R. and Wageman, R. (1995), Total quality management: empirical, conceptual, and
practical issues, Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 40 No. 2.
Hayes, R.H. and Pisano, G.P. (1994), Beyond world-class the new manufacturing strategy,
Harvard Business Review, Vol. 72 No. 1, pp. 77-86.
Hines, P., Holweg, M. and Rich, N. (2004), Learning to evolve: a review of contemporary lean
thinking, International Journal of Operations & Production Management, Vol. 24 No. 10,
pp. 994-1011.
Jagdev, H.S. and Browne, J. (1998), The extended enterprise a context for manufacturing,
Production Planning & Control, Vol. 9 No. 3, pp. 216-29.
TQM
21,2
138
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

A
s
i
a
n

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
f

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y

A
t

1
0
:
2
2

1
1

S
e
p
t
e
m
b
e
r

2
0
1
4

(
P
T
)
James-Moore, S.M. and Gibbons, A. (1997), Is lean manufacture universally relevant?
An investigative methodology, International Journal of Operations & Production
Management, Vol. 17 No. 9, pp. 899-911.
Jones, D.T. and Womack, J.P. (2002), Seeing the Whole, Lean Enterprise Institute, Brookline, MA.
Kamata, S. (1982), Japan in the Passing Lane: An Insiders Account of Life in a Japanese Auto
Factory, Pantheon Books, New York, NY.
Karlsson, C. and A

hlstrom, P. (1996), Assessing changes towards lean production,


International Journal of Operations & Production Management, Vol. 16 No. 2, pp. 24-41.
Karlsson, C. and A

hlstrom, P. (1997), A lean and global smaller rm?, International Journal of


Operations & Production Management, Vol. 17 No. 10, pp. 940-52.
Keys, J.B. and Miller, T.R. (1984), The Japanese management theory jungle, The Academy of
Management Review, Vol. 9 No. 2, pp. 342-53.
King, A.A. and Lenox, M.J. (2001), Lean and green? an empirical examination of the relationship
between lean production and environmental performance, Production and Operations
Management, Vol. 10 No. 3, pp. 244-56.
Krafcik, J.F. (1988), Triumph of the lean production system, Sloan Management Review, Vol. 30
No. 1, pp. 41-51.
Lamming, R. (1996), Squaring lean supply with supply chain management, International
Journal of Operations & Production Management, Vol. 16 No. 2, pp. 183-96.
Lewis, M.A. (2000), Lean production and sustainable competitive advantage, International
Journal of Operations & Production Management, Vol. 20 No. 8, pp. 959-78.
Liker, J.K. (1998), Becoming Lean: Inside Stories of US Manufacturers, Productivity Press,
New York, NY.
Liker, J.K. (2004), The Toyota Way: 14 Management Principles from the Worlds Greatest
Manufacturer, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
Lowe, J., Delbridge, R. and Oliver, N. (1997), High-performance manufacturing: evidence from
the automotive components industry, Organization Studies, Vol. 18 No. 5, pp. 783-98.
MacDufe, J.P. and Helper, S. (1997), Creating lean suppliers: diffusing lean production
throughout the supply chain, California Management Review, Vol. 39 No. 4, pp. 118-19.
MacDufe, J.P., Sethuraman, K. and Fisher, M.L. (1997), Product variety and manufacturing
performance: evidence from the international automotive assembly plant study,
Management Science, Vol. 42 No. 3, pp. 350-69.
Mason-Jones, R. and Towill, D.R. (1997), Information enrichment: designing the supply chain for
competitive advantage, Supply Chain Management, Vol. 2 No. 4, pp. 137-48.
Monden, Y. (1998), Toyota Production System: An Integrated Approach to just-in-time, 2nd ed.,
Chapman & Hall, London.
Mueller, F. (1994), Societal effect, organizational effect and globalization, Organization Studies,
Vol. 15 No. 3, pp. 407-28.
Mumford, E. (1994), New treatments or old remedies: is business process reengineering really
socio-technical design?, Journal of Strategic Information Systems, Vol. 3 No. 4, pp. 313-26.
Naylor, J.B., Naim, M.M. and Berry, D. (1999), Leagility: integrating the lean and agile
manufacturing paradigms in the total supply chain, International Journal of Production
Economics, Vol. 62 Nos 1-2, pp. 107-18.
Nicholas, J. and Soni, A. (2006), The Portal to Lean Production: Principles and Practices for Doing
More with Less, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
Dening lean
production
139
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

A
s
i
a
n

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
f

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y

A
t

1
0
:
2
2

1
1

S
e
p
t
e
m
b
e
r

2
0
1
4

(
P
T
)
Niepce, W. and Molleman, E. (1998), Work design issues in lean production from a
sociotechnical systems perspective: neo-Taylorism or the next step in sociotechnical
design?, Human Relations, Vol. 51 No. 3, pp. 259-86.
Ohno, T. (1988), Toyota Production System: Beyond Large-scale Production, Productivity Press,
Portland, OR.
Oliver, N., Delbridge, R. and Lowe, J. (1996), Lean production practices: international
comparisons in the auto components industry, British Journal of Management, Vol. 7
(special issue).
Parker, S.K. (2003), Longitudinal effects of lean production on employee outcomes and the
mediating role of work characteristics, The Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 88 No. 4,
pp. 620-34.
Riley, J.F. (1998), Process management, in Juran, J.M. and Godfrey, A.B. (Eds), Jurans Quality
Handbook, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
Rother, M. and Shook, J. (1998), Learning to See: Value Stream Mapping to Create Value and
Eliminate Muda, Lean Enterprise Institute, Brookline, MA.
Sanchez, A.M. and Perez, M.P. (2001), Lean indicators and manufacturing strategies,
International Journal of Operations & Production Management, Vol. 21 No. 11, pp. 1433-51.
Scarbrough, H. (1998), The unmaking of management? Change and continuity in British
management in the 1990s, Human Relations, Vol. 51 No. 6, pp. 691-715.
Schonberger, R.J. (1982), Japanese Manufacturing Techniques: Nine Hidden Lessons in Simplicity,
Free Press, New York, NY.
Shah, R. and Ward, P.T. (2003), Lean manufacturing: context, practice bundles, and
performance, Journal of Operations Management, Vol. 21 No. 2, pp. 129-49.
Shah, R. and Ward, P.T. (2007), Dening and developing measures of lean production, Journal
of Operations Management, Vol. 25 No. 4, pp. 785-805.
Shaiken, H., Lopez, S. and Mankita, I. (1997), Two routes to team production: Saturn and
Chrysler compared, Industrial Relations, Vol. 36 No. 1, pp. 17-45.
Shingo, S. (1984), A Study of the Toyota Production System from an Industrial Engineering
Viewpoint, Japan Management Association, Tokyo.
Smalley, A. (2004), Creating Level Pull, Lean Enterprise Institute, Brookline, MA.
Sorqvist, L. (1998), Poor Quality Costing, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
Thompson, P. and Wallace, T. (1996), Redesigning production through teamworking case
studies from the Volvo Truck Corporation, International Journal of Operations
& Production Management, Vol. 16 No. 2, pp. 103-18.
Weinberg, G.M. (1992), Quality Software Management, Vol. 1: Systems Thinking, Dorset House
Publishing Co., New York, NY.
White, R.E. and Prybutok, V. (2001), The relationship between JIT practices and type of
production system, Omega, Vol. 29 No. 2, pp. 113-24.
Williams, K., Haslam, C., Williams, J., Cutler, T., Adcroft, A. and Johal, S. (1992), Against lean
production, Economy and Society, Vol. 21 No. 3, pp. 321-54.
Womack, J.P. and Jones, D.T. (1994), From lean production to the lean enterprise, Harvard
Business Review, Vol. 72 No. 2, pp. 93-103.
Womack, J.P. and Jones, D.T. (2003), Lean Thinking: Banish Waste and Create Wealth in Your
Corporation, Free Press, New York, NY.
Womack, J.P., Jones, D.T. and Roos, D. (1990), The Machine that Changed the World: The Story of
Lean Production, Rawson Associates, New York, NY.
TQM
21,2
140
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

A
s
i
a
n

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
f

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y

A
t

1
0
:
2
2

1
1

S
e
p
t
e
m
b
e
r

2
0
1
4

(
P
T
)
Wood, S. (1999), Human resource management and performance, International Journal of
Management Reviews, Vol. 1 No. 4, pp. 367-413.
Zhu, Q.H. and Sarkis, J. (2004), Relationships between operational practices and performance
among early adopters of green supply chain management practices in Chinese
manufacturing enterprises, Journal of Operations Management, Vol. 22 No. 3, pp. 265-89.
Further reading
Conti, R., Angelis, J., Cooper, C., Faragher, B. and Gill, C. (2006), The effects of lean production
on worker job stress, International Journal of Operations & Production Management,
Vol. 26 No. 9, pp. 1013-38.
Appendix
The works shown are the result of the literature search and the details may be found in the
reference list:
Adler and Cole (1993).
Benders and Van Bijsterveld (2000),.
Berggren (1993).
Cappelli and Rogovsky (1998).
Cusumano (1994).
Cutchergershenfeld et al. (1994).
Dankbaar (1997).
Delbridge et al. (2000).
Dyer (1994).
Ezzamel et al. (2001).
Godfrey et al. (1997).
Hayes and Pisano (1994).
Jagdev and Browne (1998).
James-Moore and Gibbons (1997).
Karlsson andA

hlstrom (1997).
King and Lenox (2001).
Krafcik (1988).
Lamming (1996).
Lewis (2000).
Lowe et al. (1997).
MacDufe and Helper (1997).
MacDufe et al. (1996).
Mason-Jones and Towill (1997).
Mueller (1994).
Mumford (1994).
Naylor et al. (1999).
Niepce and Molleman (1998).
Oliver et al. (1996).
Dening lean
production
141
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

A
s
i
a
n

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
f

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y

A
t

1
0
:
2
2

1
1

S
e
p
t
e
m
b
e
r

2
0
1
4

(
P
T
)
Sanchez and Perez (2001).
Scarbrough (1998).
Shah and Ward (2003).
Shaiken et al. (1997).
Thompson and Wallace (1996).
Weinberg (1992).
White and Prybutok (2001).
Williams et al. (1992).
Womack and Jones (1994).
Wood (1999).
Zhu and Sarkis (2004).
About the author
Jostein Pettersen has a MSc with specialization in Quality Management. He is currently a PhD
candidate at the Department of Quality Technology and Management as well as the HELIX
VINN Excellence Centre at Linkoping University. His research is directed towards the
dissemination and implementation of lean production. Jostein Pettersen can be contacted at:
jostein.pettersen@liu.se
TQM
21,2
142
To purchase reprints of this article please e-mail: reprints@emeraldinsight.com
Or visit our web site for further details: www.emeraldinsight.com/reprints
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

A
s
i
a
n

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
f

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y

A
t

1
0
:
2
2

1
1

S
e
p
t
e
m
b
e
r

2
0
1
4

(
P
T
)
This article has been cited by:
1. Jabbour Ana Beatriz Lopes de Sousa Prof., Omodei Junior Jos Carlos Mr., Jabbour Charbel Jos
Chiappetta Prof., Gunasekaran Angappa Prof.. 2014. Extending lean manufacturing in supply chains: A
successful case in Brazil. Benchmarking: An International Journal 21:6. . [Abstract] [PDF]
2. Emma Thirkell, Ian Ashman. 2014. Lean towards learning: connecting Lean Thinking and human
resource management in UK higher education. The International Journal of Human Resource Management
1-21. [CrossRef]
3. Fatma Pakdil, Karen Moustafa Leonard. 2014. Criteria for a lean organisation: development of a lean
assessment tool. International Journal of Production Research 52, 4587-4607. [CrossRef]
4. Naga Vamsi Krishna Jasti, Rambabu Kodali. 2014. Lean production: literature review and trends.
International Journal of Production Research 1-19. [CrossRef]
5. Protik Basu, Pranab K. Dan. 2014. Capacity augmentation with VSM methodology for lean
manufacturing. International Journal of Lean Six Sigma 5:3, 279-292. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
6. Naga Vamsi Krishna Jasti, Rambabu Kodali. 2014. A literature review of empirical research methodology
in lean manufacturing. International Journal of Operations & Production Management 34:8, 1080-1122.
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
7. Jaiprakash Bhamu, Kuldip Singh Sangwan. 2014. Lean manufacturing: literature review and research
issues. International Journal of Operations & Production Management 34:7, 876-940. [Abstract] [Full Text]
[PDF]
8. Alemu Moges Belay, Torgeir Welo, Petri Helo. 2014. Approaching lean product development using
system dynamics: investigating front-load effects. Advances in Manufacturing 2, 130-140. [CrossRef]
9. Wael Hadid, S. Afshin Mansouri. 2014. The lean-performance relationship in services: a theoretical
model. International Journal of Operations & Production Management 34:6, 750-785. [Abstract] [Full
Text] [PDF]
10. Ana Julia Dal Forno, Fernando Augusto Pereira, Fernando Antonio Forcellini, Liane M. Kipper. 2014.
Value Stream Mapping: a study about the problems and challenges found in the literature from the past
15years about application of Lean tools. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology
72, 779-790. [CrossRef]
11. Shellyanne Wilson, Nazma Ali. 2014. Product wheels to achieve mix flexibility in process industries.
Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management 25:3, 371-392. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
12. Theoni Koukoulaki. 2014. The impact of lean production on musculoskeletal and psychosocial risks: An
examination of sociotechnical trends over 20 years. Applied Ergonomics 45, 198-212. [CrossRef]
13. Naga Vamsi Krishna Jasti, Aditya Sharma. 2014. Lean manufacturing implementation using value stream
mapping as a tool. International Journal of Lean Six Sigma 5:1, 89-116. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
14. Everton Drohomeretski, Sergio E. Gouvea da Costa, Edson Pinheiro de Lima, Paula Andrea da Rosa
Garbuio. 2014. Lean, Six Sigma and Lean Six Sigma: an analysis based on operations strategy.
International Journal of Production Research 52, 804-824. [CrossRef]
15. Rehab M. Ali, Ahmed M. Deif. 2014. Dynamic Lean Assessment for Takt Time Implementation.
Procedia CIRP 17, 577-581. [CrossRef]
16. K. Govindan, S. G. Azevedo, H. Carvalho, V. Cruz-Machado. 2013. Lean, green and resilient practices
influence on supply chain performance: interpretive structural modeling approach. International Journal
of Environmental Science and Technology . [CrossRef]
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

A
s
i
a
n

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
f

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y

A
t

1
0
:
2
2

1
1

S
e
p
t
e
m
b
e
r

2
0
1
4

(
P
T
)
17. Andrew Taylor, Margaret Taylor, Andrew McSweeney. 2013. Towards greater understanding of success
and survival of lean systems. International Journal of Production Research 51, 6607-6630. [CrossRef]
18. Giuliano Almeida Marodin, Tarcisio Abreu Saurin. 2013. Implementing lean production systems: research
areas and opportunities for future studies. International Journal of Production Research 51, 6663-6680.
[CrossRef]
19. Mohamad ALNajem, Hom Dhakal, Ashraf Labib, Nick Bennett. 2013. Lean readiness level within
Kuwaiti manufacturing industries. International Journal of Lean Six Sigma 4:3, 280-320. [Abstract] [Full
Text] [PDF]
20. Susana Duarte, V. CruzMachado. 2013. Modelling lean and green: a review from business models.
International Journal of Lean Six Sigma 4:3, 228-250. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
21. Bozena Poksinska, Dag Swartling, Erik Drotz. 2013. The daily work of Lean leaders lessons from
manufacturing and healthcare. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence 24, 886-898. [CrossRef]
22. Kristina Heinonen, Anu Helkkula, Maria HolmlundRytknen, Per Carlborg, Daniel Kindstrm,
Christian Kowalkowski. 2013. A lean approach for service productivity improvements: synergy or
oxymoron?. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal 23:4, 291-304. [Abstract] [Full Text]
[PDF]
23. Andrew Charles Lyons, Keith Vidamour, Rakesh Jain, Michael Sutherland. 2013. Developing an
understanding of lean thinking in process industries. Production Planning & Control 24, 475-494.
[CrossRef]
24. Charbel Jos Chiappetta Jabbour, Ana Beatriz Lopes de Sousa Jabbour, Kannan Govindan, Adriano Alves
Teixeira, Wesley Ricardo de Souza Freitas. 2013. Environmental management and operational performance
in automotive companies in Brazil: the role of human resource management and lean manufacturing.
Journal of Cleaner Production 47, 129-140. [CrossRef]
25. Arash Azadegan, Pankaj C. Patel, Abouzar Zangoueinezhad, Kevin Linderman. 2013. The effect
of environmental complexity and environmental dynamism on lean practices. Journal of Operations
Management 31, 193-212. [CrossRef]
26. Mikael Brnnmark, Richard J. Holden. 2013. Packages of Participation: Swedish Employees Experience
of Lean Depends on How They Are Involved. IIE Transactions on Occupational Ergonomics and Human
Factors 1, 93-108. [CrossRef]
27. Jan Stentoft Arlbjrn, Per Vagn Freytag. 2013. Evidence of lean: a review of international peerreviewed
journal articles. European Business Review 25:2, 174-205. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
28. John S. Toussaint, Leonard L. Berry. 2013. The Promise of Lean in Health Care. Mayo Clinic Proceedings
88, 74-82. [CrossRef]
29. Jenny K. Rodriguez, Lesley Mearns, Jacob Lima, Angelo Martins Jr. 2012. Mobility among Latin
American migrants. Employee Relations 34:6, 594-612. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
30. Thas da C.L. Alves, Colin Milberg, Kenneth D. Walsh. 2012. Exploring lean construction practice,
research, and education. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management 19:5, 512-525.
[Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
31. Noor Azlina Mohd. Salleh, Salmiah Kasolang, Hj Ahmed Jaafar. 2012. Review study of developing an
integrated TQM with LM framework model in Malaysian automotive industry. The TQM Journal 24:5,
399-417. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

A
s
i
a
n

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
f

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y

A
t

1
0
:
2
2

1
1

S
e
p
t
e
m
b
e
r

2
0
1
4

(
P
T
)
32. Bulent Sezen, Ibrahim S. Karakadilar, Gulcin Buyukozkan. 2012. Proposition of a model for measuring
adherence to lean practices: applied to Turkish automotive part suppliers. International Journal of
Production Research 50, 3878-3894. [CrossRef]
33. Richard J. Holden, Greg Hackbart. 2012. From group work to teamwork: A case study of Lean
rapid process improvement in the ThedaCare Information Technology Department. IIE Transactions on
Healthcare Systems Engineering 2, 190-201. [CrossRef]
34. K. Medini, J.P. Bourey. 2012. SCOR-based enterprise architecture methodology. International Journal of
Computer Integrated Manufacturing 25, 594-607. [CrossRef]
35. Mikael Brnnmark, Suzanne Benn. 2012. A Proposed Model for Evaluating the Sustainability of
Continuous Change Programmes. Journal of Change Management 12, 231-245. [CrossRef]
36. Goran D. Putnik, Goran D. Putnik, Zlata Putnik. 2012. Lean vs agile in the context of complexity
management in organizations. The Learning Organization 19:3, 248-266. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
37. Richard J. Holden. 2011. In reply. Annals of Emergency Medicine 58, 399-400. [CrossRef]
38. Esben Rahbek Gjerdrum Pedersen, Mahad Huniche. 2011. Determinants of lean success and failure in
the Danish public sector. International Journal of Public Sector Management 24:5, 403-420. [Abstract]
[Full Text] [PDF]
39. Jannis Angelis, Robert Conti, Cary Cooper, Colin Gill. 2011. Building a highcommitment lean culture.
Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management 22:5, 569-586. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
40. Jens J. Dahlgaard, Jostein Pettersen, Su Mi Dahlgaard-Park. 2011. Quality and lean health care: A system
for assessing and improving the health of healthcare organisations. Total Quality Management & Business
Excellence 22, 673-689. [CrossRef]
41. Mohamed M. Naim, Jonathan Gosling. 2011. On leanness, agility and leagile supply chains. International
Journal of Production Economics 131, 342-354. [CrossRef]
42. Patrik Jonsson, Dan Andersson, Jan Stentoft Arlbjrn, Per Vagn Freytag, Henning de Haas. 2011. Service
supply chain management. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management 41:3,
277-295. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
43. Richard J. Holden. 2011. Lean Thinking in Emergency Departments: A Critical Review. Annals of
Emergency Medicine 57, 265-278. [CrossRef]
44. Bozena Poksinska, Jostein Pettersen, Mattias Elg, Jrgen Eklund, Lars Witell. 2010. Quality improvement
activities in Swedish industry: drivers, approaches, and outcomes. International Journal of Quality and
Service Sciences 2:2, 206-216. [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF]
45. Bozena Poksinska. 2010. The Current State of Lean Implementation in Health Care. Quality Management
in Health Care 19, 319-329. [CrossRef]
46. Kijpokin KasemsapThe Role of Lean Production on Organizational Performance 358-388. [CrossRef]
47. Yanzhen Li, Rapinder S. Sawhney, Joseph H. Wilck IVPrioritizing Lean Six Sigma Efforts Using Bayesian
Networks 77-91. [CrossRef]
D
o
w
n
l
o
a
d
e
d

b
y

A
s
i
a
n

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
f

T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y

A
t

1
0
:
2
2

1
1

S
e
p
t
e
m
b
e
r

2
0
1
4

(
P
T
)