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Physical Law applicable to the Separation of two-phase mixture

Normally, the suspension to be separated by way of solid/liquid separation consists of a liquid and a
dispersive solid phase characterised by varying densities.
To recall some fundamentals:
The state of matter is defined as solid, liquid or gaseous.
Density is a material property and the mass of a given substance per unit volume.
The movement of a particle through a fluid requires a density difference exits between solid particle and
fluid. !or "eparation# $lso an external force is needed to import the motion of the particle relative to the
fluid. The external force is usually gravity %eight#. %hen it is not sufficient, to intensify the force acting on
the particle &entrifugal can be used, which can be many times greater than the gravity by way of rotation.
$ basic precondition for proper separation is the difference between lifting power and weight of the solid
phase with in the liquid. 'n case the liquid is a solvent for the solid phase, the solution shall moreover be
saturated. 'f the density of the particle and the fluid are equal the buoyancy force from the immersion of the
particle in the fluid will counter balance on external force gravity# and the particle will not move through
the fluid. The greater the density difference the more effective is the separation (rocess.
To recall a basic physical law:
$ body will settle at the bottom of the liquid provided the weight of the liquid displaced is
less than the weight of the displacing body.
This is only being feasible if the specific density of liquid is always less than the specific density of
solid particle.

!ig. "hows the lifting !orce !a# and weight / gravity acting on the solid particle in the liquid . The
illustration shows that the weight of the solid particles exceeds the lifting forces, which results in
settling of the solid particles on the vessel bottom.
)ne more force which acts on the particle is Drag force !d#. 't appears whenever there is a
relative motion between the solid particle and fluid, this force adds to opposes the motion and acts
parallel with the direction of the movement but in opposite direction.#
*quation for the one+dimensional motion of particle through fluid
! , !g - !a - !d


.asically, a two+phase centrifuge operates li/e a settling basin. 0owever, the above process
parameters can normally not be influenced and the possibility to vary them will rarely be
significant. To increase the force that acts on the solid particles will have mar/ed greater effects.
!a !a
!g !g

1ravitational acceleration 2 g 2 is a criterion that allows to evaluate the separating performance of a
settling basin or a machine .!or settling basin that value is exactly 3g gravitational acceleration#
upon intensifying the force that acts on the particle, e.g. by exposing the settling basin to the effect
of centrifugal force by the way of rotation, the heavy particles will much faster to the vessel
bottom.
CENTRIF!E for the separation of solids from liquids are of two general types :
3. "edimenting centrifuges, which requires a difference in density of the two phases. for "olid +
liquid or liquid + liquid#
4. !iltering centrifuges, in which the solid phase is retained by the filter medium through which
the liquid is free to pass. for solid - liquid separation #
The use of centrifuges covers a broad range of application from separation of fine calcium
carbonate particles of less than 35 um to coarse coal of 5.536m 5.7 in#
Se"imentin# Centrifu#e: under centrifugal force, the solid phase assumed to be denser than the
liquid phase settles out to the bowl wall - sedimentation. &oncurrently, the lighter, more buoyant
liquid phase is displaced towards smaller diameter - !lotation
"ome centrifuge run with an air core, i.e., with free surface, whereas other run with slurry filled to
the centre hub or even to the axis in which pressure can be sustained.
'n "edimenting centrifuge, the separation can be in the form of clarification$ wherein solids are
separated from the liquid phase in which clarity of liquid phase is of prime concern. "eparation
can also be in the form of classification at which separation is effected by means of particle si8e
and density. !urthermore, separation can be in the form of thic%enin#$ where solids settle under
centrifugal force to form a stream with concentrated solids. 'n "ewaterin# or "eli&uorin#$ the
ob9ective is to produce dry ca/e with high solid consistency by centrifugation.
PERF'R()NCE CRITERI)
"eparation of given solid - liquid slurry is usually measured by the purity of the separated
liquid phase in the centrate and the separated solids in the wet ca/e, in sedimenting mode.
1enerally, a selected subset of the following criteria are used, depending on the ob9ective of the
process:
*+ Ca%e "ryness or (oisture content
,+ Total soli"s reco-ery
.+ Si/e reco-ery an" yiel"
0+ 1olumetric an" soli"s throu#hput
2+ Soli" purity an" 3ash ratio
4+ Power consumption
Ca%e 5ryness6 'n dewatering, usually the ca/e needs to be as dry as possible. &a/e dryness is
commonly measured by the solids fraction by weight 3. The volume fraction of the pores and
void in the wet ca/e is measured by the ca/e porosity. The volume fraction of the liquid in the
pores of the ca/e is measured by the saturation.
Total soli"s reco-ery6 The clarity of the effluent is measured indirectly by the total solids
recovered in the ca/e as
:ec. , mc %c / mf %f
%here subscripts c and f denote, respectively, the ca/e and the feed+ m is the bul/ mass flow rate
in ;g/s

Si/e reco-ery an" yiel"6 &entrifuges has been applied to classify poly dispersed fine particles. The
si8e distribution of fine particles is quantified by cumulative weight fraction ! less than
a given particle si8e d for both the feed and the centrate streams. 't is measured by a
particle si8e counter, which operates based on principles such as sedimentation or
optical scattering.
The yield < is defined as the fraction of feed particle of a given si8e below, which they report
to the centrate product.
me %e !e
< , ++++++++++++
mf %f !f
1olumetric an" soli"s throu#hput6 The maximum volumetric and solid throughput to a
centrifuge are dedicated by one or several governing factors, the most common ones are the
centrate solids, ca/e dryness and capacity Torque and (ower# of drive / gear unit The solid
throughput is also governed by other factors such as solid conveyance and discharge mechanism
for continuous and batch centrifuges.
Soli" purity an" 3ash ratio6 &a/e washing is used to remove impurities in ca/e solids. The
wash ratio is defined as the volumetric amount of wash liquid per unit void volume of in the ca/e
or per ca/e solids amount if the ca/e porosity is not available.
Power consumption6 (ower is consumed to overcome windage and bearing and seal# friction, to
accelerate feed stream from 8ero speed to full tangential speed at the pool so as to establish the
required 1+force for separation, and to convey and discharge ca/e.
The horsepower for feed acceleration is given by
(acc , 7.=>?35
+35
# sg @ : rp #
4

%here sg is the specific gravity of the feed slurry, @ the volumetric flow rate of feed in lt/sec, : is
the speed in rpm, rp in meters corresponds to the radius of the pool surface for sedimenting
centrifuge. To convert hp to ;w, multiply by 5.A?B#
The horsepower for ca/e conveyance is
(con , 3.7>A35
+7
# T del :
T, conveyance torque in N+m
del : , differential speed in rpm between bowl and conveyor.
Soli" 7 bowl or Scroll Centrifu#e6
The Soli"-bowl or scroll centrifuge consists of a solid bowl with a screw or scroll conveyor
between the solid -and the liquid -bowl heads, or hubs. .oth the bowl and the conveyor rotate at a
high speed, yet there is a difference in speed between the two, which is responsible for conveying
the sediment along the machine from the cylinder to the conical discharged end. The rotating
assembly is mounted hori8ontally with bearing on each end. The bowl has combined conical and
cylindrical sections. "lurry is introduced in to the feed accelerator /compartment through a
stationary feed pipe located proximate to the axis of the machine. The feed slurry is accelerated
through the contact with the rotating surface to angular speed in the direction of rotation# before
discharging to the separation pool through a series of ports in the conveyor hub.
'n the separation pool cylindrical section#, under centrifugal gravity the solid that are heavier
compared to the liquid settle towards the bowl wall, while the clarified liquid moves radially
towards the pool surface. "ubsequently, the liquid flows along the helical channel formed by
ad9acent blades of the conveyor to the liquid bowl head, from which it discharge over the weirs.
The annular pool can be changed by ad9usting the radial position of the weir openings, which ta/e
the form of circular holes or crescent shaped slots.
The ca/e solids ad9acent to the bowl wall are transported by the differential speed from the cylinder
up the cone, also /nown as beach. The ca/e is submerged in the pool when it is in the cylinder and
at the beginning of the beach. 'n this region, liquid buoyancy helps to reduce the effective weight
of the ca/e under centrifugal gravity, resulting in low conveyance torque. !arther up the beach, the
ca/e emerges above the pool and moves along the dry beach, where the buoyancy force is absent,
resulting in more difficult conveyance and higher torque. .ut it is also in this section that the ca/e
is dewatered, with expressed liquid returned bac/ to the pool. The centrifugal force to dewater, yet
at the same time hinders the transport of the ca/e in the dry beach. Therefore a balance in ca/e
conveyance and ca/e dewatering is the /ey in setting the pool and the 1+force for a given
application.
The cylindrical section provides clarification under high centrifugal gravity. 'n some cases, the pool
should be shallow to maximise the 1+force for separation. 'n other case, when the ca/e layer is too
thic/ in side the cylinder, the settled body especially the finer particles at the ca/e surface entrain in
to the fast moving liquid .$ slightly deeper pool becomes beneficial in these cases because there is
a thic/er liquid layer to ensure settling of resuspended solids. This can be at the expense of ca/e
dry ness due to reduction of dry beach. 't is best to determine the optimal pool for a given
application through tests so that the clear centrate will results together with well+dewatered ca/e of
matched specific application.
'n our case eight different arrangement available to ad9ust pool.
3eir 5iameter 8mm9 5am hei#ht 8mm9
>5A 353.7
>64 >=.5
>B5 *xisting# A7.5
>=3 (revious# 7=.7
=45 ?7.5
=?A 63.7
=A3 3=.7
=>= 35.7
The speed with which the ca/e transports is controlled by the differential speed. 0igh differential
speed facilitates high solid throughput where the ca/e thic/ness is /ept to a minimum so as not to
impair centrate quality due to entrainment of fine solid particles. $lso ca/e dewatering is improved
due to a reduction in the drainage path with smaller ca/e height however this is offset by the fact
that higher differential speed also reduces ca/e residence time, especially in dry beach. Therefore,
an optimal differential speed is required to balance centrate clarity and ca/e dryness.
The desirable differential speed is usually maintained using a two+stage planetary gearbox, the
housing of which rotates with the bowl speed, with a fixed first stage pinion shaft. The differential
speed is given by
Diff. "peed , .owl rpm / gear ratio
'n our case,
Diff. "peed , 3?B7 bowl rpm# / ?5 , 6A
!ear re"uction ratio : 0;6*
0igher gear ratio gives lower differential speed and vice versaC lower gear ratio gives higher
differential for higher solids capacity. The torque at the pinion shaft has been used to control the
feed rate or to signal an overload condition by shearing of a safety pin.
To protect the planetary gear unit against overload, the conveying torque of the screw is
transmitted by shearing pin mounted on gear unit. The machine will be sub9ected to )/D if it has to
tac/le excess federates or if the solid conc.in the feed increases too strongly. The friction between
the screw flights and the solid will then became so grate that solid ca/e establishes a rigid
connection between bowl and screw conveyor .the gear unit would be damaged in case of )/D
without safety device. The shearing pin will bra/e in case of )/D so that screw conveyor and .owl
can rotate at identical speed 8ero differential# with no conveyance torque and no load at the pinion.
The shearing pin will fail if the torque increases beyond the permitted limit and simultaneously
limit switch 4# is actuated which stops the machine.
$ load cell has been fastened to the holding arm C bending of the load cell is measured with a wire
strain gauge. "ince the out put signal is proportional to the gear load, machine operation can be
controlled by a downstream mounted electronic evaluation unit.
5ri-e6 The solid bowl screw centrifuge is driven by E+belts. The optimum operating speed can be
bet by changing the E+belt pulleys. The machine is driven by a motor, which drives the machine
through a turbo or fluid coupling, this allows acceleration of large mass of centrifuge rotor with
thermally overloading the motor.






F)T): !DG'D &)G(D'N1 .*DT D:'E* +++.)%D
!luid coupling is acting on the basis of dynamics of fluid inside of coupling assembly. 't
consists of two separate part i.e. static and rotary/pump part. %hen motor starts rotate, it
simultaneously rotates pump part of the assembly. (ump part gives thrusts on the fluid/lube
oil which transmits energy to rotate static part. @uantity of lube oil required in fluid
coupling is 3=.7 lit H+ 3.7 lit. Dess oil in the coupling will increase the temperature of the
assembly at running condition, ultimately damage fusible plug at3?5 deg centigrade. 'f
fusible plug damaged, all oil from assembly will be drained and static part of the
&oupling will not be rotate.

The quantity of the oil for this coupling has been determined such that the starting current and
coupling slip are not excessive and bowl is accelerated to operating speed with in time. 'nsufficient
oil results in too long starting time and oil will heated up due to slip, also results in less rpm even in
case of proper run. *xcessive oil filling will reduce run up time causing a high starting current.
Centrifu#al )cceleration <! = 6 %hen a body of a fluid rotates in a solid body mode, the
tangential or circumferential velocity is linearly proportional to radius
E, %r
%, $ngular velocity
r , .owl inner radius
$cceleration , velocity / time , velocity#
4
/ radius , E
4
/ r
,%
4
I r
4
/ r , %
4
r
&entrifugal acceleration ! is measured in multiples of earth gravity g
1 / g , %
4
r / g
%ith the speed of centrifuge % in rpm and the .owl diameter D in met.
! > # : ;+;;;22? 3
,
5
In our case: 1/g , 5.55577=I3?B7#
4
I 3.53
! : *,**+@. # 8*,*; # appox+9
AA Mitsui tried on several values of centrifugal force to check their effect and found that the
centrifugal force of 1200 g is most satisfactory for separation of polymer and mother liquor + AA
Tor&ue6 The gearbox is designed for Torque max.# , 4A555 N+m
Torque , !orce I length of rod
Dength of rod , 5.?A m
Torque conveyance# , Torque (inion# I 1ear ratio
4A555 , load I =.>3I5.?A# I ?5
Doad , 3?B.? ;g "hear (in .rea/ (oint#
II The maximum load for which centrifuge is calibrated is ,365 /g



Factor Influencin# the Separation Performance
3 Bi#h soli" concentration in the fee" : $n increase of the solid conc. in the feed suspension
results in an increase of the solid level. Thus the centrate can have a higher solid conc., in other
wards the separation performance decreases unless the differential speed is increased
proportionally to higher solid conc. Foreover in case of compressible solids the dry substance
content of the discharged ca/e will increase as a result of the growing mass pressure of the solid.
(rovided .owl speed, differential speed, weir dia., and feed rate
remain constant the following interdependencies results
D" conc. of the discharged ca/e

"eparation performance
"olid conc. in feed
,+ Bi#h superfine particles in fee"6 Gpon an increase in the quantity of superfine particles,
dewatering of the suspension became more difficult ass more liquid will be retained by the
increased surface area of solid, this results in higher residual moisture and for low dry substance
content of discharged ca/e and possibly a higher centrate solid content.
$ higher ca/e discharge volume will result in an increased solid level, there by deteriorating the
centrate and separation efficiency. These can be counteracted by
$# :educing the feed rate
.# "uitably adopted the differential speed of the screw conveyor.
(rovided .owl speed, differential speed,
"eparation (erformance weir dia., and feed rate remain constant
&entrate load the following interdependencies results
D.". conc. of discharged ca/e
"olid volume, superfine particle in feed
.+ Bi#her fee" rate 6 The higher feed rate means that the machine will be sub9ected to a higher
solid load thereby raising the product level . This will entail a deteriorated centrate, which can be
cancelled out by increasing the differential speed of the screw conveyor. Foreover in case of
compressible solids the dry substance content of the discharged ca/e may slightly increase as a
result of the growing mass pressure .

&entrate load

D.". conc. of discharged ca/e
"eparation performance
!eed rate

0+Increase" Cowl Spee"6 The increase in bowl speed will enhance the dry substance content of the
discharged ca/e to the point where 2Down hill 2 force acting to the conical section becomes so
large that the solids are no longer transported upward the conical section but instead accumulate in
the machine and clog it. The centrate quality will initially improve but then all of sudden changes
and became poor. The higher ! force generates more intense friction forces at the screw flights and
a higher torque for solid transportation. This will entails more pronounced wear and a greater stress
on the gear unit. The (ower demand will growC therefore it is recommended to have the bowl speed
/ept as low as possible.
&entrate Doad (rovided feed rate, solid conc.,diff.speed,J
%eir dia. :emain constant, following
'nterdependencies results#
D." content of dis. ca/e

&entrate load
.owl speed
&entrate
"olids
!eed axis nb ,, ns
"olids
&entrate
Schematic 5ia#ram of a Soli" 7 Cowl screw centrifu#e

Technical Specification
Capacity: Normal Fax. 1uarantee
0D(* (owder 6 37.6 T/ hr 3A.5 T/hr
n+0K H D.(. 6 74.5 m6 / hr 7A.5 m6/hr
Rotor "imensions: 'nside .owl Diameter : 3535 mm
.owl length : 3755 mm
.owl wall Thic/ness : 3B mm
&one angle : 35 deg.
"crew &onveyor gap : 3 mm

Spee"s: max. .owl "peed : 3B55 rpm
Fax. $cceleration : 3??7g
.owl speed may be ad9usted by changing a pulley on the drive side
!or pulley si8e, dw , ?B5 mm
)perating .owl speed : 3?B7 rpm
&entrifugal acceleration : 3435g
Differential speed : 6A rpm
!or pulley si8e, dw , ?>7 mm
)perating .owl speed : 3775 rpm
&entrifugal acceleration : 3677g
Differential speed : 6= rpm
'peratin# Con"itions:
5esi#n Normal
)perating Temperature >5 deg.& B5 deg.&
)perating (ressure 5.6 ;g/cm4 g# .5B ;g/cm4 g#
(aterial 5ata:

!eed "uspension : 0D(* H 0x
Fax. !eed temperature: >5 deg.c
Fax !eed Density : 5.A gm/cc
Fax solid Density : 5.=A gm/cc
Fax liquid Density : 5.B7 gm/cc
Pro"uct Con"itions 85esire"9:
%etness of solid : 65L
"olid conc. )f !iltrate: 5.4L by weight
Physical properties of pow"er:
True Density : 5.=?> - 5.=A5 gm/cc
.ul/ density : 5.6A5 - 5.?55 gm/cc
"pecific 0eat : 5.7 ;cal/;g I deg&
"oftening (oint : 335 - 365
$ngle of repose: A5 deg
Physical properties of filtrate6
Density : 5.B65 gm/cc at B5 deg&#
Eiscosity : 5.44 &p at B5 deg&#
DStart p Proce"uresE
DCS:
3# 0"M4A56D at "/D panel to be switched to Deactivate position to open KEM6353,
hexane supply to &entrifuge#.
Field:
4# &hec/ the panel purge open instrument air valve#.
6# $fter the purge pressure lamp on yellow#, change the override /ey to 2)N DineN
position.
?# Docal *"D switch pull to normal.
7# (ut 2&ontrol voltage )NN.
B# :eset 2Disturbance @uiteN till all alarms are released.
A# "tart Dube )il pump any one#. &hec/ flow rate J pressure. They should be 3.> -
4.B Dt/min.J =+35 /g minimum, respectively.
># "tart N4 supply to all three flow feed, bowl, gear box#.
=# "tart hexane supply to gearbox J feed Do not start hexane flow to .owl#.
35# "tart the &entrifuge.
33# %ait till current become stable, after that start hexane flow to .owl.
34# $t D&" O:*"*TP 0"M4A54: "+7# on 4
nd
!lush Drum page.
36# $fter getting 0"M4A54: 2:*"*TN, $ctivate 0"M4A56D for KEM6353#.
N'TE6
'f step -34# is not followed i.e. S!"# is not reset, then 45min.after starting the
&entrifuge, the centrifuge will trip even though the step 36# is followed. 't is
important that the sequence of first resetting the S!"# and changing the position
of 0"M4A56D is followed.

Centrifuge $larms and %rips
&itrogen Flo':
Normal )larm Trip
.owl: ?.5 Nm
6
/hr 4.7 Nm
6
/hr 3.5 Nm
6
/hr
!eed: ?.5 Nm
6
/hr 4.7 Nm
6
/hr 3.5 Nm
6
/hr
1earbox: ?.5 Nm
6
/hr 4.7 Nm
6
/hr 3.5 Nm
6
/hr
&itrogen (ressure:

4.5 /g/cm
4
5.3 /g/cm
4
5.5? /g/cm
4
)u*e oil flo':
4.4+4.B lt/min. + 3.5 lt/min
+i*ration:
4.7+6.5 mm/sec + 45mm/sec for 7sec
,earing %emperature:

77+B5
5
& >7
5
& =7
5
&
%orque:
!eed cut off , 35? /g+m>5L thermal load#
Trip , 35? /g+m>5L thermal load# for 35 sec.
Trip ,33A /g+m=5L thermal load#
Torque calibration, 355L ,365/g
"0*$: ('N .:*$; ,3?B.? /g