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Applications of Taylor's Series Notes.

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Lecture Notes

These notes discuss three important applications of Taylor series:

1. Using Taylor series to find the sum of a series.

2. Using Taylor series to evaluate limits.

3. Using Taylor polynomials to approximate functions.

Evaluating Infinite Series

It is possible to use Taylor series to find the sums of many different infinite series. The

following examples illustrate this idea.

EXAMPLE 1 Find the sum of the following series:

"

8!

_

" " " " "

8x "x #x $x %x

"

SOLUTION Recall the Taylor series for : /

B

" B B B B /

" " " "

"x #x $x %x

# $ % B

.

The sum of the given series can be obtained by substituting in : B "

" /

" " " "

"x #x $x %x

.

In the above example, note that we get a different series for every value of that we plug in. For B

example,

" /

# # # #

"x #x $x %x

# $ %

#

.

and

" /

" " " " " "

"x #x $x %x 8x /

"

a b

8!

_ 8

"

.

EXAMPLE 2 Find the sums of the following series:

(a) . (b) " "

" " " " " " " "

# $ % & $ & ( *

SOLUTION

(a) Recall that

B " B

B B B B

# $ % &

lna b.

Substituting in yields B "

" #

" " " "

# $ % &

lna b.

(b) Recall that

B B

B B B B

$ & ( *

tan

"

a b.

Substituting in yields B "

" "

" " " "

$ & ( * %

tan

"

a b

1

.

This is known as the for . Gregory-Leibniz formula 1

Limits Using Power Series

When taking a limit as , you can often simplify things by substituting in a power series that B !

you know.

EXAMPLE 3 Evaluate . lim

sin

B!

$

B B

B

SOLUTION We simply plug in the Taylor series for : sin B

lim lim

sin

lim

lim

B! B!

$ $

$ & (

B!

$ & (

$

B!

# %

B B

B B

B B B B B

" " "

$x &x (x

B B B

" " "

$x &x (x

B

B B

" " " " "

$x &x (x $x '

cos B!

# B

B /

B "

SOLUTION We simply plug in the Taylor series for and : / B

B

cos

lim lim

cos

lim

lim

B! B!

# B

# #

# % '

B!

# $ %

# % '

B!

#

%

B /

B "

B " B B

"

#

" B B B "

" " "

# %x 'x

B B B

"

#

B B B

" " "

# %x 'x

" B B

"

#

B

" " "

# #% 'x

B

#

"

"#

#

Sometimes a limit will involve a more complicated function, and you must determine the Taylor

series:

EXAMPLE 5 Evaluate . lim

ln cos

B!

#

a b B

B

SOLUTION Using the Taylor series formula, the first few terms of the Taylor series for

ln cos a b B are:

ln cos a b B B B

" "

# "#

# %

.

(Really, we only need that first term.) Therefore,

lim lim lim

ln cos

B! B! B!

# #

# %

#

a b B " " "

B B # "# #

B

B B

" "

# "#

Limits as can be obtained using a Taylor series centered at : B + B +

EXAMPLE 6 Evaluate . lim

ln

B"

B

B "

SOLUTION Recall that

ln B B " B " B "

" "

# $

a b a b a b

# $

Plugging this in gives

lim lim

ln

lim

B" B"

# $

B"

#

B

B " B "

" "

# $

" B " B " "

" "

# $

a b a b a b

a b a b

Taylor Polynomials

A partial sum of a Taylor series is called a Taylor polynomial. For example, the Taylor

polynomials for are: /

B

X B "

X B " B

X B " B B

"

#

X B " B B B

" "

# '

!

"

#

#

$

# $

a b

a b

a b

a b

You can approximate any function by its Taylor polynomial: 0 B a b

0 B X B a b a b

8

If you use the Taylor polynomial centered at , then the approximation will be particularly good +

near . B +

TAYLOR POLYNOMIALS

Let be a function. The for centered at are: 0 B 0 B B + a b a b Taylor polynomials

X B 0 +

X B 0 + 0 + B +

X B 0 + 0 + B + B +

0 +

#x

!

"

w

#

w

ww

#

a b a b

a b a b a b a b

a b a b a ba b a b

a b

You can approximate using a Taylor polynomial. 0 B a b

Note that the 1st-degree Taylor polynomial is just the tangent line to at : 0 B B + a b

X B 0 + 0 + B +

"

w

a b a b a b a b

This is often called the linear approximation to near , i.e. the tangent line to the 0 B B + a b

graph. Taylor polynomials can be viewed as a generalization of linear approximations. In

particular, the 2nd-degree Taylor polynomial is sometimes called the , quadratic approximation

the 3rd-degree Taylor polynomial is the , and so on. cubic approximation

EXAMPLE 7

(a) Find the 5th-degree Taylor polynomial for . sin B

(b) Use the answer from part (a) to approximate . sina b !$

SOLUTION

(a) This is just all term terms of the Taylor series up to : B

&

X B B B B B B B

" " " "

$x &x ' "#!

&

$ & $ &

a b

(b) sina b a b a b a b a b !$ X !$ !$ !$ !$ !#*& &#! #&

" "

' "#!

&

$ &

EXERCISES

12 Find the sum of the given series.

1. "

" " "

$x &x (x

2. "

#x %x 'x

1 1 1

# % '

312 Evaluate the following limits.

3. 4. lim lim

cos

B! B!

# $B

B " B

B / "

5. 6. lim lim

ln

tan B! B!

#

# "

a b

a b

" B B

B %B

7. 8. lim lim

sin cos

B! B!

"

#

#

%

a b %B

B B

B " B

9. 10. lim lim

sin sin

tan

B! B!

#B "

/ " B B

B B B

a b

a b

11. 12. lim lim

cos ln

B

#

B" 1

" B B

B B " a b

1

(a) Find the 3rd-degree Taylor polynomial for the function 13.

0 B B + " a b ln centered at .

(b) Use your answer from part (a) to approximate . lna b ""&

14. (a) Find the 4th-degree Taylor polynomial for . /

B

(b) Use your answer from part (a) to approximate . /

!$

(a) Find the quadratic approximation for the function 15.

0 B B + % a b

$#

centered at .

(b) Use your answer from part (a) to approximate . a b %#

$#

(a) Find the quadratic approximation for the function 16.

0 B B + ) a b

$

centered at .

(b) Use your answer from part (a) to approximate .

$

)'

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