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You are on page 1of 29

DLP/BOE-II/ I/1692001

CHAPTER - 1

Fundamentals of Physics

1.1 Units for measurement

Physical measurement always requires specification of both a value (i.e., a

number representing how much) and a unit (i.e., of what). Systems of

measurement are formal strategies for indexing amounts of specified physical

quantities.

1.1.1 Unit:

To express the magnitude of a physical quantity a standard is chosen which is

of the same kind as physical quantity. This standard is taken as reference to

measure a physical quantity which is known as unit.

Therefore the process of measurement of a physical quantity involves.

i) The selection of the unit and

ii) Number of times the unit is contained in that physical quantity

In general,

measure of a physical quantity = numerical value of the quantity X size of its

unit

1.1.2 Fundamental and derived units:

Fundamental units are those units, which can neither be derived from one

another, nor can they be further resolved into any other units.

The three fundamental units are

(i) Mass (ii) Length and (iii) Time

Derived units are units of all such physical quantities which can be expressed

in terms of the fundamental units of mass, length and time.

Ex. unit of area = (metre)2

unit of volume = (metre)3

hence all derived units can be obtained by writing it in terms of fundamental

units.

1.1.3 System of Units:

The common system of units are:

(i) CGS system: It was set up in France and is based on centimetre, gram and

second as the fundamental units of length, mass and time respectively. It is a

metric system of unit

(ii) FPS system or British system of units: - It is based on foot, pound and

second as the fundamental units of length mass and time.

(iii) MKS system: It was also set up in France and is based on metre, kilogram

and second as the fundamental units of mass, length and time.

Page 1 of 29

TUTORIAL FOR SECOND CLASS BOILER ENGINEERS PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION

DLP/BOE-II/ I/1692001

1.1.4

SI system of unit:

In 1960 The General Conference of Weights and Measures introduced a new

system of, units known as SI units. It is based on seven basic and two

supplementary units given as:

Name

of

the Unit of Measurement

Property

Length

metre

Mass

kilogram

Time

second

Electric Current

ampere

Thermodynamic

kelvin

Temperature

Amount of Substance

mole

Luminous Intensity

candela

Symbol

m

kg

s

A

K

mol

cd

Name

of

Property

Plane angle

Solid angle

radian

steradian

Symbol

rad

sr

All properties of interest to a Boiler Engineer can be derived from the above

Base and Supplementary Units as can be seen from the following:

1.1.4.3 Derived Units:

Name

of

Property

Acceleration

Area

Density

Energy

Entropy

Specific entropy

Force

Power (Rate of Work)

Pressure

Quantity of Heat

Stress

(Same

as

Pressure)

square metre

kilogram per cubic metre

joules

joules per kelvin

joule per kilogram kelvin

newton

watt

pascal

joules

pascal

Symbol

m/s2

m2

kg/m2

J = N.m

J/K

J/(kgK)

N = kg.m/s2

W J/s

Pa = N/m2

J = N.m

Pa = N/m2

Page 2 of 29

TUTORIAL FOR SECOND CLASS BOILER ENGINEERS PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION

DLP/BOE-II/ I/1692001

Velocity

Work

Moment of force

specific energy

joules

newton meter

joule per kilogram

m/s

J = N.m

Nm

J/kg

1.1.4.4 Advantage of SI

(i) It is a rational system of units - Its makes use of only one unit for one

physical quantity. Ex. all types of energies are expressed in Joules. Whereas in

MKS system different units are used for different types of energies. For ex.

mechanical energy is measured in Joule, heat energy in calorie and electrical

energy in watt hour.

(ii) SI is a coherent system of units i.e all derived units can be obtained by

dividing and multiplying the basic and supplementary units and no numerical

factors are introduced as used to be the case with certain units of the CGS and

MKS systems.

(iii) SI is a metric system. The multiples and sub-multiples can be expressed

as the powers of 10.

1.1.4.5 The Prefixes of the S I

The S I allows the sizes of units to be made bigger or smaller by the use of

appropriate prefixes. For example, the electrical unit of a watt is not a big unit

even in terms of ordinary household use, so it is generally used in terms of

1000 watts at a time. The prefix for 1000 is kilo so we use kilowatts[kW] as

our unit of measurement. For makers of electricity, or bigger users such as

industry, it is common to use megawatts [MW] or even gigawatts [GW]. The

full range of prefixes with their [symbols or abbreviations] and their

multiplying factors are given below.

yotta [Y] = 1024

zetta [Z] = 1021

exa [E] = 1018

peta [P] = 1015

tera [T] = 1012

giga [G] = 109

mega [M] = 106

kilo [k] = 1000

hecto [h] = 100

deca [da] = 10

1 deci [d] = 0.1

1 centi [c] = 0.01

1 milli [m] = 0.001

1 micro [] = 10-6

1 nano [n] = 10-9

1 pico [p] = 10-12

1 femto [f] = 10-15

1 atto [a] = 10-18

1 zepto [z] = 10-21

1 yocto [y] = 10-24

(a million)

(a thousand)

(a thousandth)

(a millionth)

(a thousand millionth)

Page 3 of 29

TUTORIAL FOR SECOND CLASS BOILER ENGINEERS PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION

DLP/BOE-II/ I/1692001

1.1.5

Rules

a. Derived units, when written in words, are not written with a capital letter

unless they are at the beginning of a sentence. The exception is the Celsius

degree which is always written with a capital letter.

Symbols are written with the following:

no full stop except at the end of a sentence;

as singular even though the written term is plural;

a space between the numerical value and the symbol, e.g. 12 m; 1.2

kg/m 3 and 0.12 rad;

in lower case unless the symbol has been taken from a proper name, e.g.

ampere is written as "A"; kelvin as "K"; and volt as "V";

in lower case unless the prefix is mega, giga, tera, peta or exa, e.g.

megawatt is written as MW; gigamole as Gmol and petahertz as PHz;

the product in a compound unit should be indicated by "." eg "N.m"; and

"cd.sr";

"." and "/" are only used with symbols and not with unit names written

in full eg m/s and not "metre/second"; and kW.s and not

"kilowatt.second"; and

when a unit involves the division of one symbol by another it can be

written in one of three ways eg "m/s"; "m.s-1"; and " m "

b. The combination of a prefix and a unit is written as one word, eg,

millimetre, microgram or nanosecond.

c. Prefixes are generally used in combination with the units so that, for

convenience, the number portion of the measurement is greater than 0.1

and usually below 1,000. For example, 0.005 grams is written as 5

milligrams or 5 mg.

d. When writing a numerical measurement, the symbol for the prefix is placed

in front of the symbol for the unit eg, ninety nine millimetres = 99 mm,

nine point nine micrograms = 9.9 mg and nine nanoseconds = 9 ns.

e. Where a compound unit has both a numerator and a denominator, any

prefix is preferably attached to the symbol in the numerator eg kJ/mol and

not J/mmol; and mA/mol and not A/kmol.

1.1.6

To obtain

Multiply

By

Pressure ( 1 bar =106 pascal = 106 N/m2 )

bar

Kg/cm2

0.981

atm

1.013

lb/in2

0.069

mm Hg

1.33 x 10-3

Reciprocal

1.02

0.987

14.504

750.1

Page 4 of 29

TUTORIAL FOR SECOND CLASS BOILER ENGINEERS PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION

DLP/BOE-II/ I/1692001

To obtain

Multiply

By

in Hg

0.034

mm WC

98.07 x 10-4

Heat Work and Energy

MJ

k cal

4.187 x 10-3

Btu

1.055 x 10-3

kg m

9.807 x 10-8

ft lb

1.356 x 10-6

kW h

3.60

Power

MJ/s

k cal/s

4.187 x 10-3

Btu/min

17.57 x 10-6

To obtain

Multiply

By

kg m/s

9.807 x 10-8

ft lb/s

1.356 x 10-6

metric hp

0.7355 x 10-3

Calorific value and Specific Enthalpy

MJ/kg

k cal/kg

4.187 x 10-3

Btu/lb

2.326 x 10-3

kg m/kg

9.807 x 10-6

ft lb/lb

2.989 x 10-8

kW h/kg

3.60

Heat Transfer Coefficient

W/m2K

k cal/h m2 oC

1.163

Btu/h ft2 oF

5.878

Heat Flux

W/m2

k cal/h m2

10163

Btu/h ft2

3.155

Mass flow rate

kg/s

lb/h

0.126 x 10-3

t/h

0.28224

g/s

10-3

Specific heat and Specific Entropy

kJ/kg K

Kcal/kgoC

4.1868

Btu/lboF

4.1868

Dynamic Viscosity

N s/m2

lb/ft h

0.41338 x 10-3

lb/ft s

1.4882

poise

0.10

Kinematic Viscosity

m2/s

ft2/h

25.806 x 10-6

stoke

10-4

Torque

Nm

kgf m

9.806

ft lb

1.355

1.2

Reciprocal

29.53

10.2 x 103

238.85

948.0

101.97 x 103

737.6 x 103

1360

238.85

56.8 x 103

Reciprocal

101.97 x 103

73.76 x 103

1360

238.85

429.92 x 103

101.97 x 103

334.55 x 103

0.278

0.860

0.176

0.860

0.317

7.9365 x 103

3.5431

1000

0.2388

0.2388

2.420 x 103

0.6720

10

38.7506 x 103

10000

0.102

0.737

Matter:

The Matter exists in three states:

Page 5 of 29

TUTORIAL FOR SECOND CLASS BOILER ENGINEERS PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION

DLP/BOE-II/ I/1692001

All matter comprises of atoms and molecules. The extent to which these atoms

are bonded to each other decides the state of the matter. As long as the

bonding force between the atoms is large, the matter remains Solid and retains

its shape and tends to oppose any cause, which tends to change its shape. This

is the reason that solids have the property of elasticity and are stressed if

strained. The Bonding Forces are of several types such as gravitational pull

between atoms and Covalent Bonds.

The atoms and molecules of any matter is in a constant state of random

vibrations and the vibrations amplitude increases with temperature of the

matter. Depending on temperature the Inter-atomic Distance varies and when

the Inter-atomic Distance is such that force of attraction between tow atoms

equals force of repulsion, a threshold state is reached when state of matter

changes from Solid to Liquid and the matter no longer exhibits the property

of elasticity and does not resist a change in its shape.

At a further higher temperature the atoms and molecules reach a state of

vibration when there exist no cohesive force between its atoms or molecules.

At such a temperature the matter changes its state from Liquid to Vapour.

The temperature at which a solid matter changes its state to liquid is called its

Melting Point and the temperature at which the matter in Liquid state changes

to Vapour is called Boiling Point. These temperatures depend upon pressure.

To the extent that the three phases of matter relate to the subject of Boiler

Technology and Engineering, the reader is advised to recall that Water is Solid

when it is Ice. When heated, Ice (which is water in solid state) changes its

state to Liquid (Water) and when further heated, water changes to the third

state, which is vapour and called Steam.

Under atmospheric pressure Melting Point of Ice is 00C or 320F and Boiling

Point of Water is 1000C or 2120F. However, these points of temperature

depend on pressure. The change in melting point of ice is not relevant to

boilers and steam engines and turbines hence we will not deal with it further.

However, the boiling point of water varies greatly with its pressure.

This matter is covered in greater details under Properties of Steam in this

tutorial. The characteristics of change of state or phase of water to steam are

derived experimentally and are published by various renowned international

bodies (such as ASME) as Steam Tables.

It is considered relevant here to mention that in a boiler just above the surface

of water in the boiler drum, contains tiny particles of water which though

suspended above the surface of water in the drum, is not actually in vapour

state and needs to absorb heat in order to get converted into vapour or steam.

That is why the steam just above the water surface in boiler drums is called

wet steam. When each and every tiny water particle has got fully converted

into vapour or steam it is called dry saturated steam.

Page 6 of 29

TUTORIAL FOR SECOND CLASS BOILER ENGINEERS PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION

DLP/BOE-II/ I/1692001

1.2.1

Volume:

Volume of gas or any substance is defined as the space, which it occupies.

Unit of volume of any substance is cubic centimeter or cubic meter.

The volume is also expressed in litre.

1 liter = 1000 cm3 =106 mm3 = 10-3 m3

1.2.2

Specific volume:

The specific volume of a substance is its volume per unit mass i.e m3/kg.

The unit of specific volume is m3/kg.

One kilogram of air at 00 C and under an absolute pressure of 1.0332 kg/cm2

(760 mm of Hg) has volume of 0.7734 m3.

Therefore the specific volume of air under these conditions is 0.7734 m3/kg. It

is denoted by v

1.2.3

Density of a substance signifies how densely it is packed with mass.

Mathematically it is expressed as mass per unit volume i.e kg/m 3 it also

termed as Mass density and denoted by .

Density or Mass density, = m/v

Depending upon the Units of Measurements, the Density is expressed in

various units such as gm/cc r kg/ m 3 or lb/ ft3. For example water has a

Density of 1 gm/cc or 1000 kg/m3 or 62.4 lb/cft. Thus the numeric

value of Density of a substance is different for the same substance in different

Units of Measurements.

The Specific Gravity of a substance is its density compared with that of

water. Since Specific Gravity is only a comparison of Density of a substance

with the Density of water, it has no unit and its value remains same

irrespective of the Units of Measurement. Specific Gravity is generally used

for liquids.

1.2.4

Concentration:

Concentration is the amount of a substance contained in a given volume.

"Amount of a substance" and "given volume" can take many forms.

1.2.4.1 Mole/Volume

when a known number of moles of a substance is dissolved or dispersed in a

liquid to give a known volume of solution or suspension.

Moles per litre (mol/L) and moles per cubic centimetre (mol/cc) express

concentration in the terms of mole per unit volume (mol/v).

Five mol/L is equal to five mole of substance in one litre of solution.

Page 7 of 29

TUTORIAL FOR SECOND CLASS BOILER ENGINEERS PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION

DLP/BOE-II/ I/1692001

molarity of that solution.

1.2.4.2 Mass/Volume

when a mass of a substance is dissolved or suspended in a liquid to give a

known volume of solution or suspension.

Kilograms per litre (kg/L), grams per litre (g/L), milligrams per litre (mg/L)

and grams per cubic centimetre ( g/cc) express concentration in the terms of

mass per unit volume which is usually referred to as weight/volume (w/v).

1.2.4.3 Mass/Mass

when a mass of substance is dispersed in another mass to give a known

resultant mass.

Grams per kilogram (g/kg) and milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) express

concentration in the terms of mass per unit mass, which is usually referred to

as weight/weight (w/w).

1.2.4.4 Volume/Volume

when a volume of substance is dispersed in another volume of substance to

give a known resultant volume.

Millilitres per litre expresses concentration in the terms of volume per unit

volume, which is usually referred to as volume/volume (v/v).

Thus, if 80 millilitres of alcohol is diluted to 2000 millilitres with water the

result is a solution of 2000 millilitres or 2 litres.

1.2.4.5 Parts Per Million (ppm)

A part per million is one of a quantity in one million of another quantity. Parts

per million is abbreviated to "ppm".

To convert a concentration from v/v to ppm the concentration must be in

ml/ml, L/L, etc... and then multiply by 106 to get ppm v/v.

In the same way w/w concentration can only be converted to ppm using the

factor "106" if the concentration is expressed in grams per gram (g/g),

kilograms per kilograms (kg/kg), etc.

The volume of a substance in the gaseous form can be equated to the mass of

the substance if the exact volume is known. Thus, the volume /volume

concentration of a substance can be equated to the mass/volume concentration

of that substance.

1.2.4.6 Percent

Percent (%) is also used to express concentration much the same as parts per

million (ppm). The difference is that percent relates to one in a hundred

compared to ppm, which relates to one in a million.

1.2.5

Pressure:

Page 8 of 29

TUTORIAL FOR SECOND CLASS BOILER ENGINEERS PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION

DLP/BOE-II/ I/1692001

Pressure is defined as Force per Unit Area. Take a jar of glass with a flat

bottom, filled with water and keep it over a table. The weight of water in the

jar exerts a force on the surface of the table. If this force is measured over a

unit area of the surface, then it is called the pressure. Therefore pressure can

be defined as the force exerted by an object over the surface of unit Area.

i.e. pressure = force / area

In practice it is expressed or measured in following units:

N/m2

Kg/cm2

Lb/in2

bar (1 bar=105N/m2)

pascal (1Pascal= 1 N/m2)

height of liquid column (Normally water & Mercury)

1.2.6

Atmospheric Pressure:

The atmosphere, surrounding the earth, exerts a pressure on its surface

equivalent to the weight of air acting over unit area of the earth's surface and it

is known as atmospheric pressure. At sea level, the weight of air over a weight

of unit area of earths surface is equivalent to weight of a column of 76 cm

(760 mm) of mercury column (Hg) at 0 0C. It is taken as the standard

barometric pressure. This is also known as a physical atmosphere or

barometric atmosphere.

The density of mercury is 13. 595 grams per cubic centimeter

Therefore standard barometric pressure = 76 x 13. 595 = 1033. 32 grams / sq.

cm. i.e. 1.03322 kg/sq.cm

One metric or technical atmosphere (1 kg/cm2) = 760 /1.0332 =735.6 mm of

Hg

Pressure is also measured in the unit of mm of water column. One

Atmospheric pressure is equivalent to 760x13.595mm of water column. That

is 10332.2mm of water. This is 10.332 meter of water.

1kg/cm2 = 735.6mm of Hg = 735.6x13.595 = 10meter of water

We know that the atmosphere exerts pressure as mentioned. However, if we

take a pressure gauge in our hand, it reads Zero, even though the atmospheric

pressure is present. Thus pressure Gauge measures the pressure with reference

to Atmospheric pressure (Ref. Fig.-1). The pressure indicated by the gauge

above atmosphere is known as gauge pressure. The pressure indicated by the

gauge when the system pressure is less than atmospheric is termed as

Vacuum, which is generally measured in mm of water or mercury column and

the gauges are known as vacuum gauges.

Absolute Pressure

= Atm. Pressure + Gauge Pressure

Gauge Pressure

Atmospheric Pressure

1.0332 kg/cm2

Vacuum =

Atm. Pressure - Absolute Pressure

Absolute Pressure

= Atm. Pressure - Vacuum

Page 9 of 29

Absolute zero Pressure

TUTORIAL FOR SECOND CLASS BOILER ENGINEERS PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION

DLP/BOE-II/ I/1692001

Fig. 1

Thus the Absolute pressure = Atmospheric pressure + Gauge pressure

Pab

=

Pat

+ Pg

or

Absolute pressure = Atmospheric pressure Vacuum

Pab

=

Pat

- Vacuum

1.2.7

Barometer:

The barometer is the simplest instrument for measuring atmospheric pressure.

The earth's atmosphere at sea level has a weight of 14.7 pounds over a square

inch of surface. This is the weight of a column of air that extends from sea

level at the earth's surface to the edge of the atmosphere. This weight changes

as the temperature and composition of the air mass changes. A barometer uses

a substitute column of mercury fluid in place of the air. One atmosphere in a

mercury barometer is equaled by a column of only 760 mm Hg.

h = 760 mm of Hg

Fig.2

1.2.8

Manometer:

The manometer is one of the simplest tools for measuring gas pressure

differences. A manometer is a u-tube. One side of the "U" is open to

atmosphere and the other side is connected to a closed container. The "U" is

filled with a fluid. If both sides of the "U" have the same liquid levels then the

pressure inside and the pressure outside are the same. The difference between

the liquid levels equals the pressure difference between inside and outside.

The mercury level will be lower on the side with greater pressure. The higher

pressure "pushes" the mercury down. The Manometer measures the Gauge

Page 10 of 29

TUTORIAL FOR SECOND CLASS BOILER ENGINEERS PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION

DLP/BOE-II/ I/1692001

barometers) because at room temperature it has low vapor pressure, does not

wet glass, and has a high density.

pressure is than the pressure in the

atmosphere

pressure is than the pressure in

the atmosphere

GA

S

GAS

GA

S

GAS

Fig-3

Manometer

1.2.9.1 The Kinetic Molecular Theory

The Kinetic Molecular Theory is the basis of the many properties of gases.

The five postulates to the Kinetic Theory are as follows:

average distance between them.

Molecules move randomly in straight lines in all directions and at various

speeds.

The forces of attraction or repulsion between two molecules in a gas are very

weak or negligible, except when they collide.

When molecules collide with one another, the collisions are elastic; no kinetic

energy is lost.

The average kinetic energy of a molecule is proportional to the absolute

temperature.

Page 11 of 29

TUTORIAL FOR SECOND CLASS BOILER ENGINEERS PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION

DLP/BOE-II/ I/1692001

Boyle's Law states the volume of a definite quantity of dry gas is inversely

proportional to the pressure, provided the temperature remains constant.

Mathematically Boyle's law can be expressed as P1V1 = P2V2

V1 is the original volume

V2 is the new volume

P1 is original pressure

P2 is the new pressure

1.2.9.3 Charles's Law

Charles's Law can be stated as the volume occupied by any sample of gas at a

constant pressure is directly proportional to the absolute temperature.

V / T =constant

V is the volume

T is the absolute temperature (measured in Kelvin)

Charles's Law can be rearranged into two other useful equations.

V1 / T1 = V2 / T2 & V2 = V1 (T2 / T1)

V1 is the initial volume

T1 is the initial temperature

V2 is the final volume

T2 is the final temperature

Charles's Law only works when the pressure is constant.

Note: Charles's Law is fairly accurate but gases tend to deviate from it at very

high and low pressures.

1.2.9.4 STP

STP is Standard Temperature and Pressure. STP is 0o Celcius and 1

atmosphere of pressure. Gases properties can be compared using STP as a

reference.

1.2.9.5 Combined Law

The combined gas law is a combination of Boyle's Law and Charles's Law;

hence its name the combined gas law. In the combined gas law, the volume of

gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature and inversely

proportional to the pressure.

This can be written as PV / T = constant.

Therefore we can write P1V1 / T1 = P2V2 / T2.

P1 is the initial pressure

V1 is the initial volume

T1 is the initial temperature (in Kelvin)

P2 is the final pressure

V2 is the final volume

T2 is the final temperature (in Kelvin)

Also Vt = V0 { 1 + t / 273 }.

Where V0 is the volume at 00C andt is the temperature in 0C

Page 12 of 29

TUTORIAL FOR SECOND CLASS BOILER ENGINEERS PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION

DLP/BOE-II/ I/1692001

The ideal gas law is a combination of all the gas laws. The ideal gas law can

be expressed as PV = mRT.

P is the pressure in atm

V is the volume in liters

m is the mass of the gas considered

R is a constant

T is the temperature in Kelvin

This equation is known as Characteristic equation of a gas.

Sometimes R is called the Characteristic or specific gas constant.

1.2.9.7 Universal gas constant:

If the molecular mass of any gas is multiplied by its specific gas constant R it

will be found that the product is the same for all gases. This constant is termed

as Universal gas constant.

For IS system the value of universal gas constant is 8.3143 kJ/kg mol K.

Thus M.R = 8.3143, kJ/kg mol K.

Where M is the molecular mass of the gas and R is the specific gas constant.

[It should be noted that in any calculations involving the gas laws, absolute

pressures and absolute temperatures must be used.]

1.2.9.8 Perfect Gas: A perfect gas or ideal gas may be considered as one that obeys

the laws of Boyle and Charles and the Characteristic equation of a gas which

is obtained by combining the above laws.

No gas is perfect, but many gases can approach this standard within the

temperature limits of applied thermodynamics.

1.3

Temperature:

Temperature is the measure of the relative warmth or coolness of an object.

The temperature of a substance does not measure its heat content but rather

the average kinetic energy of its molecules resulting from their motions. A

one-pound block of iron and a two-pound block of iron at the same

temperature do not have the same heat content. Because they are at the same

temperature the average kinetic energy of the molecules is the same; however,

the two-pound block has more molecules than the one-pound block and thus

has greater heat energy.

For measurement of Temperature there are two scales of measurements, one is

Fahrenheit and the other is Centigrade or Celsius. The arbitrary

reference taken is the freezing point of water under atmospheric conditions.

This point at which water freezes to a solid state is considered as ZERO in

Celsius or Centigrade Scale. Again the point of reference of water boiling at

atmospheric condition and transforming to vapor stage is taken as 100 in

Page 13 of 29

TUTORIAL FOR SECOND CLASS BOILER ENGINEERS PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION

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to temperature at freezing of water is taken as 32, for water boiling point as

212

In MKS systems, the unit of temperature is degree Centigrade (C)

In FPS system the unit of temperature is degree. Fahrenheit (F)

In SI system the unit of temperature is degree Celsius (C)

10 Centigrade = 10 Celsius.

A temperature reading on one scale can be converted into a reading on the

other scale by the following formula:

C/100 = (F+32)/180

or C=5/9 (F-32) or F= 9/5 x (C+32)

where, C is temperature in Celsius or Centigrade and F is temperature in

Fahrenheit.

1.3.1

We know that temperature is the effect causes by internal energy of a

substance due to random motion of molecules of a substance. A body that is

hotter has its molecules moving more vigorously than that of a body which is

colder. Thus, there can be a state when there is absolutely no random motion

of the molecules of a substance. There is one particular temperature at which

the molecular random motion of each substance totally stops. This

temperature is called Absolute Zero because there can not be a temperature

lower than this (since the molecules can not be more stationery than being in

no motion at all).

Absolute zero is the temperature at which all vibratory, translatory and

rotational motions of the molecule of a substance is supposed to cease i.e.

when internal energy becomes zero. A gas on cooling will contract in volume

as the temperature falls. Charles found with perfect gases, the decrease in

volume per degree Centigrade decrease in temperature is 1/273rd of its initial

volume at 00C, pressure remaining constant. Thus, the volume of gas will be

zero at temperature 2730C. This temperature 2730 C below 00 C (or -2720C)

is called the Absolute Zero of temperature. The absolute temperature is the

temperature measured above the point of Absolute Zero. Absolute temperature

is expressed by the capital latter K and the scale using the Absolute Zero is

called Kelvin Scale. By adding 273 to the temperature in degree Centigrade

we get the temperature in degrees of the Kelvin scale or 0K.

Temperature K = Temperature 0C+ 273

i.e.

K = C + 273

Absolute temperature in degree Fahrenheit is known as degree Rankine or 0R

and the Absolute Zero in degree Fahrenheit occurs at 4600F.

Thus, Temperature 0R = Temperature 0F + 460

i.e.

R = F + 460

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1.3.2 Thermometer:

An instrument used for measuring temperature is called a thermometer and is

constructed by using one of the following principles:

the change of length, such as length of a mercury column,

the change of volume, such as volume of a fixed mass of gas at constant

pressure,

the change of pressure, such as pressure of a fixed mass of gas at constant

volume,

the change in electric resistance, as in a thermistor,

the flow of electricity due to Seebeck effect, as in a thermocouple,

the radiation, as in radiation pyrometers.

1.3.2.1 Glass Bulb (Mercury thermometer): Most common for measuring air

temperature is the liquid-in-glass thermometer, which consists of a glass tube

enlarged at the bottom into a bulb that is partially filled with mercury(or

organic liquid). The tube's bore is extremely smallless than 0.02 inch (0.5

millimeter) in diameter. Thus a small amount of expansion or contraction of

the mercury in the bulb, caused by heating or cooling, produces a noticeable

rise or fall in its level in the tube.

1.3.2.2 Bimetal thermometer: Two different metals are bonded together with one

end attached to an indicating needle which aligns with a circular scale on the

face of the instrument. Since the metals expand at different rates, movement

occurs depending on the temperature fluctuation and the needle moves.

1.3.2.3 Indicating Material: A variety of crayons and pellets are available that

melt at specific temperatures. These do not really measure temperature

directly, but do indicate the maximum temperature that a material was

exposed to.

1.3.2.4 Vapor/Gas Filled: Such thermometer operates on a similar principle to the

glass bulb type thermometer.

1.3.2.5 Galileo thermometer: These tend to be used in decorative settings around

the home or office. These interesting models operate based on principles of

specific gravity.

1.3.2.6 RTD and Thermistor: These are based on the change in resistance of a

conductor when the temperature of the wire changes. In both the instruments

temperatures are digitally displayed and have better accuracies.

1.3.2.7 Thermocouple: These operate based on the temperature change that occurs

at the junction of two dissimilar wires. When the temperature changes a small

current is generated by the junction. This current is then compared to a

reference junction (calibrated standard or ice water bath) and converted to a

temperature by electric or electronic means. So the system includes the

thermocouple itself, connecting wiring and some method (Generally a digital

meter) to display the temperature reading.

Another significant advantage of the thermocouple is that the indicating

instrument can be a very long distance from the thermocouple environment.

Once the system is calibrated and the current from the thermocouple is

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information to a display unit.

1.3.3

radiation emitted from an object to determine surface temperature. Pyrometer

is derived from the Greek word pyro, meaning fire.

The temperature of a material, affects the color. The infrared light spectrum

works very well for this and is the basis for the infrared thermometer or

pyrometer. These units do not require a contact with the material and are

available as hand held units. They can sense a very high range of

temperatures.

Some applications of pyrometers

Item

Instrument used to measure temperature

Boiler combustion space

Optical pyrometer

Economiser, feed water heaters and Base metal thermo-couple

chimney gases

Incandescent filaments

Optical pyrometer

Incandescent gas mantels

Radiation pyrometer

1.4

Work:

If a heavy mass is to be moved from one place to other, one has to apply force

or spend energy. The Force applied to a body multiplied by the distance

moved is the amount of work done or amount of energy spent.

Work = Force x distance (traveled in the direction of force)

Work only involves the useful part of a force, namely the part that is effective

in causing the motion.

[Suppose a pail of water weighing 7 N is carried over a distance of 10 m. In

order to hold the pail up against gravity a vertical force of 7 N is exerted on

the pail. The motion, however, is horizontal, and the force exerted does no

work, even though one might get tired of holding the pail after a while.]

In SI system, the unit for work done is Newton-metre (Nm), which is the

product of a unit force (one Newton) acting through a 1-metre distance. This

unit of work done is also called joules (J).

1 J = 1 Nm

1 kg.m = 9.81 Nm = 9.81 Joules (J)

Work can also be measured in foot pounds or Kg metres

1.5 Power:

Suppose a weight is lifted off the floor at a fixed a distance. The work done in

this case would be the product of the force exerted times the distance covered,

independent of how fast the weight was lifted. Now if the same weight is

lifted faster that is in lesser period, then one might be tempted to say that more

``work'' is done. Actually the work done in both the cases is same and it is the

Power that is different.

The power exerted by a force is defined as change in work done over a period.

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1.6

The SI Unit for Power is Watt. In other words Jules/sec = Watt.

In British Units the Unit of Power is Horse Power or hp, which

corresponds to a rate of work of 550 ft-lb/sec or.

1 hp = 746 Watts.

Energy:

In mechanics is defined as capacity of doing work. Units of Energy and

Work are same. Energy exists in two forms, namely, Potential Energy and

Kinetic Energy.

1.6.1 Potential Energy is possessed by a body due to its position relative to

other body or of parts of the same body under the action of a force or forces

tending to alter their relative position. For example, a body which is allowed

to fall towards earth may be made to do work; hence before it begins to fall it

possesses potential energy, or energy due to its position relative to earth.

PE=mgh

Gravitational

Potential Energy

PE=0

Fig 4

resume its unstrained form it can be made to do work. Likewise compressed

air possesses potential energy. The energy stored in a piece of coal is potential

energy, and under favourable conditions the atoms of the constituents of the

coal and atoms of oxygen of the air will rush together and produce heat which

may be converted into work. . If a body of W kg weight is allowed to fall from

an elevation L2 to an elevation L1, the change in potential energy.

PE = PE 2 - PE 1 = W (L2 L1)

The unit of potential energy is Kilograms meter (MKS) and Newton metre

(SIS)

1.6.2

Kinetic Energy of a body is due to its being in motion with respect to another

body. A kilogram of water at rest at a height of 100 metres above level of the

sea possesses 100 kg.m of potential energy and if this water is allowed to fall

freely to the level of the sea, without doing work on the way it will in every

position of its fall possess 100 kg.m of energy, but as it descends its potential

energy will diminish, and the remainder of 100 kg.m will be stored in water as

kinetic energy. When the 1kg of water would have fallen 25 metres its

potential energy would be reduced by 25 kg.m to be only 75 kg.m and its

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Energy) + 25 kg.m (Kinetic Energy) = 100 kg.m.

A body of weight w kg, moving with a velocity v possesses a certain

amount of kinetic energy (KE) with reference to earth gravitational force,

K.E = w. v2/2g.

The unit of K.E. is also kg.m in MKS and Newton metre in SIS.

Other forms of energy are also different manifestations of these two forms.

For example Electricity stored in a Capacitor having a Capacitance of C

Farads and charged to a Voltage of V Volts is a Potential Energy and its value

is CV2 Joules. Similarly, the Energy in an Inductor having Inductance of L

Henry (and passing an electrical current of I Amps)has a Kinetic Energy equal

to LI2 Joules.

All other forms of energy such as Magnetic, Light etc. are similarly

explainable

in

terms

of

Potential

or

Kinetic

Energy.

1.7

The movement of molecules is more in gases than in liquids. Even when a gas

is stored in a closed vessel and is stagnant, that is not moving, it possesses a

considerable amount of internal Kinetic Energy due to motion of its molecules

within the limits of its containing vessel. In addition of the Internal Kinetic

Energy substances also have Internal Potential Energy due to the relative

position of their molecules. Thus, the Internal Energy, E of a substance may be

defined as the algebraic sum of Internal Kinetic Energy and Internal Potential

Energy of its molecules.

The internal energy of substance increases with increases of temperature of

substance due to increases of molecular activity. Thus Internal Energy is a

function of Temperature and its value increases or decreases by adding heat to

or subtracting heat from the substance.

1.8

Torque:

Torque is a measure of the 'strength' being used in turning (or attempting to

turn) something.

A common example is that of a spanner being used to move a nut. A force is

being applied at one end of the spanner. That force is multiplied by the

distance between it and the turning-point (which, in this case, is the centre of

the nut) to give a measure of the torque which is being applied. This seems to

be the same as for work which is also a force being multiplied by a distance

but look closely, in the definition for torque there is no mention of the force

moving as there is in the full definition for work.

So, they are different things even though the units are the same, and no work

is done until, in this case, the spanner moves - and even then it is a matter of

how far the force moves, and not its distance from the centre.

The SI preferred unit for torque is newton metres [Nm] and for work is

joules [J].

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1.9

Specific Energy :

This is a measure of the amount of energy contained in a unit quantity of some

substance. The unit quantity may be either of mass or of volume. For unit

mass, usually referred to as Specific Energy, Its units are [J/kg] or [kJ/kg]

For unit volume, usually referred to as Calorific Value, units such as [kJ/m]

or [MJ/m]. should be used .

1.10

from one form into another. In a heat engine the heat produced by combustion

of the fuel used is converted into the work done by the engine. When the

brakes are applied to the wheels of a moving train, in order to bring it to rest,

the kinetic energy of the train is converted into heat at the rubbing surfaces of

the brake blocks and wheels, or if the wheels skid the heat is produced at the

rubbing surfaces of wheels and rails. Careful experiments have shown that a

certain definite number J or foot pound of work is equivalent to one unit of

heat.

In British Units J is 778 ft.lb. for 1 Btu.

and in metric units, 4.187 Kilojoules = 1 Kilocalories &

1 Kilocalories = 427 kg-m

1.11

1.11.1 Heat

Heat is believed to be a mode of motion. It is supposed that a body

possessing heat has its particles or molecules in a state of motion, the rate of

motion increasing as the body gets warmer and diminishing as the body cools.

As to the character of motion of the molecules it may be imagined to be an

oscillatory motion in the case of solids and liquids, but in the case of gases it

is supposed to be a motion of translation.

It is found that all the phenomenon of Heat may be explained by this theory.

For example, it is well known that in general the effect of heat on matter is to

enlarge it. A piece of iron when heated gets longer, wider and thicker (due to

thermal expansion). Now it is natural to expect that if the molecule of iron

have more motion as the iron gets hotter they will require more room and will

therefore push one another further apart and consequently cause the whole

body to get larger, just as a crowd of people take up more space when they

jostle one another than they do when standing still or when jostling to a less

extent.

For the purpose of explaining how heat is transmitted through space the latter

is supposed to be filled or permeated with an invisible imponderable (and

imaginary) fluid called the ether which takes up the motion of the molecules

of a body and transmits them to the molecules of other bodies in space, just as

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motion is given to a cork floating in the water at the same distance.

Different units of measurement of heat are as given bellow.

In British System:

British Thermal Unit (BTU):

The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water

through 1F is defined as a BTU.

In MKS Units:

Centigrade Heat Unit (CHU):

The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water

through 1C is defined as a CHU.

The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilograms of

water through 1C is defined as one Kilo-Calorie

Since the amount of heat required per degree centigrade varies at different

points on the temperature scale, a more precise definition is the amount of

heat required to raise the temperature of one kg of water initially at 14.5c to

15.5c while maintained at constant pressure of 760mm of hg.

1 Kcal = 2.205 CHU = 3.696 BTU

The unit for heat in SI system is measured in Joules (J)

1 Kcal = 4187 Joules = 4.187 Kilo Joules

1.11.2 Specific Heat of a substance may be defined as the amount of heat that must

be supplied to the substance to raise the temperature of unit mass of the

substance through one degree. When a body is heated, the heat energy is used

to speed up the internal motion of its molecules and also to provide the work

necessary to expend the body. In a solid or a liquid, the amount of expansion

is very small and the work of expansion is similarly small. When a gas is

heated, expansion is considerably more and values of specific heat will

depend on nature of heating process i.e., whether the heating is at Constant

Volume or at Constant Pressure. Thus gas has a two important types of

Specific Heat, namely:

(1)

Specific Heat at constant volume ( Cv)

(2) Specific Heat at constant pressure (Cp)

1.11.2.1 Specific Heat at Constant Volume: Consider 1 kg of gas being heated in a

closed vessel so that no expansion of gas is allowed. The number of kcal

required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of gas through 1 0C under these

condition is called the Specific Heat at Constant Volume and is denoted by

Cv.

In this case there is no work due to expansion of gas, because the gas is

contained in closed vessel and all the heat supplied is used only to increase the

Internal Energy i.e. Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy of molecules of the

gas.

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cylinder fitted with a movable piston which exerts a constant pressure on the

gas. When the gas is heated it will expand and move the piston through some

distance in this case. Therefore, in this case, in addition to the heat required

for increasing the kinetic energy of the molecules, further heat must be added

to perform the work of moving the piston through the distance. The Specific

Heat at Constant Pressure is denoted by Cp.

The value of the specific heat of gas at constant pressure will therefore always

be greater than that at constant volume by the amount of expansive work

done.

The unit of specific heat in MKS System of units is kcal/kg 0C and in the SI

system of units it is KJ/ kg 0K.

1.11.2.3 Ratio of specific heats: The ratio of two specific heats, Cp and Cv of any

given gas is assumed to be constant. It is expressed by the symbol

(gamma). It is called Gas Constant and is an universal constant for ideal

gases. It has no units for measurement.

= Cp/Cv

For air, Cp = 0.24 kcal/kg 0C or 1.0035 kJ/ kg 0K

and

Cv = 0.172 kcal/kg 0C or 0.7165 kJ/kg 0K

hence, = 0.24/0.172 = 1.4

1.11.3 Enthalpy (H) or Total Heat or Heat Content: Enthalpy is nothing but total

heat energy content in a substance. It is denoted by H and is defined as

follows:

H = E + (PV/J) kcal

Where, E is the Internal Energy, P is the Absolute Pressure, V is the Volume in

m3 and J = 427 kg-m.

1.11.4 HEAT TRANSFER:

In Boiler heat energy is released from the combustion of fossil fuels and the

heat is transferred to different fluids in the system and a part of it is lost or left

out as unutilized. It is therefore essential to study the general principle of heat

transfer for understanding the behaviour of boiler in relation to heat transfer

during different conditions of operation.

Let us take an example of a kettle of water being heated under fire. When fire

is applied the water in the kettle gets heated. Heat to water is passed through

the metal wall of the kettle. Now remove fire. The water in the kettle cools

down. The heat is now given to the air which surrounds the kettle.

In this process the heat is transferred from fire to kettle then to the water. On

cooling the transfer has taken place from water to kettle and from kettle to

surrounding air. The transfer of heat first has taken by way of Conduction

within the Kettle walls and then heat by the process of Convection transferred

to water in centre of the Kettle from the water immediately in contact with

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walls of the kettle. When the fire is put out, the water started cooling down as

transfer of heat in water occurs by Convection from centre of the Kettle to the

water layer immediately in contact with Kettle walls and by Conduction

within walls of the Kettle. Outer surface of the Kettle transfers heat to the

surroundings by way of Convection & Radiation.

.

In Boiler generally the heat transfer takes place in all the three modes of heat

transfer process namely Conduction, Convection and the Radiation.

The general equation for heat flow rate by any of the above three modes of

heat transfer from one media to other may be written as

q = US t

Where q = heat flow rate in K.Cal/hr

S = Surface area involved in the heat transfer in m2

t = Temperature difference causing heat flow in C

U = Overall heat transfer coefficient in K.cal/m2/hr/C

= 1/R where R is overall resistance

1.11.4.1 Conduction:

Conduction is the process of transfer of heat through solids from one part of

the body to the other, by physical contact, without the molecules moving, but

imparting vibration from one molecule to the neighbouring one.

In a Boiler the water tubes are exposed to fire. The heat travels by Conduction

from outer surface to inner surface of water tubes and then transfers to water

at centre of the tubes and in the drum from the water immediately in contact

with inner surface of the tubes by convection. In a metal the heat transfer

takes place by passing on heat from particle to particle by contact without any

physical movement of the particles themselves.

The quantity of heat conducted depends on:

a. the differential temperature between combustion chamber and the water

inside the tube,

b. the thickness of the tube,

c. surface area of the tube,

d. the characteristics of the metal and

e. the cleanliness of the surface.

If a flat plate is heated on one side and cooled on other side, heat will flow

from hot side to the cold. The heat flow rate q can be expressed as below:

q = KS (t1 t2) / l

Where q = rate of heat flow K.Cal/hr

K = Thermal conductivity for 1 cm thickness K.cal/m2/hr/C

S = Heating surface in m2

t = temperature difference causing heat flow (t1 t2) in C

l = length or thickness of the plate in cm.

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1.11.4.2 Convection:

This process can occur only in fluids or gases. This process of heat transfer

takes place when the molecules are displaced physically. The fluid or gas

when heated expands, becomes less dense and raises up causing movement

and allowing the colder and more dense gas or liquid to replace it. In the

Boiler the heat from tube metal goes to water flowing inside. Similarly when

gas or liquid is heated, it expands, becomes less dense and rises up causing

movement and allowing the colder and denser gas or liquid to replace it.

Mainly in Superheater, Reheater and Economizer the heat from hot gas is

getting transferred to metal outer surface by way of convection process.

Heat transfer by convection depends on the specific characteristics of the

medium i.e. gas or liquid.

Heat transfer by convection between a fluid and a solid such as in a boiler

tube is expressed as below:

qc = Uc S t .. (3)

Where qc = rate of heat flow by convection in K.Cal/hr

U = Convection film conductance in K.cal/m2/hr/C

S = heat transfer surface in m2

t = temperature difference between fluid bulk temperature

and solid surface temperature in C.

1.11.4.3 Radiation:

Heat when it travels from source to another substance through an empty space

(often imagined as ether) or through vacuum or gas or air in straight lines, the

process of heat transfer is called radiation. The tube metal surface at the top of

the furnace of a Boiler gets heat by way of radiation. We get heat from Sun by

radiation.

All substances emit heat energy by radiation depending on their temperature.

Radiation emitted by a body depends upon its surface area and temperature.

The relationship between them is given by Stefan-Boltzman law

q = S T4

q rate of heat flow

Stefan-Boltzman constant

S surface area of body

T absolute temperature of the emitter

For bodies other than black bodies whose emissivity will be less than 1, the

formula will be changed as

q = ES T4

where E is emissivity of the body

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If we consider two parallel planes of infinite size and they are black bodies,

then heat transfer from the hot plane (at T1 K) to the other plane (at T2 K) is

given by the formula

q = S (T14 T24)

If all the radiation emitted by one does not fall on the other it is essential to

introduce an angle factor in the formula

In boiler the radiation becomes luminous by entrained particles such as

pulverised coal, soot etc. and calculation of luminous radiation is complex.

The gases such as oxygen and nitrogen absorbs or emit only slight amount of

radiation. But water vapours, carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and carbon

monoxide which are part of flue gases in the boiler also absorb and emit. They

emit and radiate only in certain wave length bands that lie outside of the

visible range and are called as non-luminous gas radiation.

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Examples

1. Question: Defined absolute temperature scale

(Feb-88, Aug-89)

Answer:

Absolute temperature scale or Kelvin temperature scale is based on absolute zero of

temperature. Absolute zero, or 0K, is the temperature at which molecular energy is a

minimum and it corresponds to a temperature of 273.15 on the Celsius temperature

scale. At absolute temperature a perfect gas is considered to have a zero volume.

Absolute temperature is expressed by the capital latter K and at this scale the

freezing point of water (0C) is 273.15 K, and the boiling point of water (100C), is

373.15 K, respectively.

2. Question: Give in a tabular form a list of devices which are used to measure the

temperatures between that of liquid air (- 1830C) and the melting point of

Platinum ( 17700C) and show the range of temperature over which each can be

used

Answer:

Devices

Mercury in glass thermometer

Mercury thermometers, fused silica

Gas expansion thermometer (N2)

Metal expansion thermometer

Resistance pyrometer

Thermoelectric pyrometer (le-Chateleir)

Thermo-electric pyrometer (base metal)

Seger cones

Radiation pyrometer

Optical pyrometer

Temperature

range in 0C

- 40 to 525

- 40 to 650

260 to 1600

0 to 500

- 180 to 1000

0 to 1500

0 to 1000

600 to 2000

400 upwards

650 upwards

Effect utilised

Expansion of fluid

Expansion of fluid

Expansion of fluid

Expansion of solid

Change of electrical resistance

Thermo-electric effect

Thermo-electric effect

Fusion (softening)

Radiation (total)

Radiation (mono-chromatic)

leaving the economiser is 80C. If the rate of flow of water is 500 kg per minute, how

much quantity of heat is supplied in the economiser? Specific heat of water may be

taken as 4.182 kJ/kg.

Answer:

Quantity of water flowing = 500 kg/minute

Rise in temperature of circulating water = 80 20 = 60C.

Specific heat of water is 4.182 kJ/kg

Therefore, quantity of heat supplied to water in the economiser per minute

= 500 x 4.182 x 60 = 125460 kJ/minute i.e.

125.46 MJ/minute.

4. Question: A certain gas occupies 3 cubic metre at a temperature of 150C. The

pressure of the gas is 7 bar. The gas expands in such a manner that the volume

becomes 9 cu metre and the temperature is 10C. What is the pressure of the gas?

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Answer:

When the mass of the gas is not known, we use the equation

p1V1/ T1 = p2V2/ T2

p1 = 7 x 105 N/m2; V1 = 3 cu metre; V2 = 9 cu metre

T1 = 150 + 273 = 423 K and T2 = 273 + 10 = 283 K

Therefore, (700000 x 3) / 423 = p2 x 9 / 283

or

p2 = 156200 N/m2

or

p2 = 1.562 bar.

5. Question: The compression ratio of an engine is 12 to 1, the pressure at the

commencement of the compression stroke is 100 kN/m2 and the temperature

115C. Calculate the absolute pressure at the end of compression stroke if the

temperature has then risen to 180C.

Answer:

We know,

p1V1/ T1 = p2V2/ T2

We have,

p1 = 100 kN/m2 ; T1 = 115 + 273 = 388 K ;

V2 = V1/12

On substitution of values, we get

100 x V1 / 388 = p2 x V1/(12 x 453)

or p2 = 1401 kN/m2 (14.01 bar) absolute

6. Question: Calculate the molecular volume of all gases at 200 kN/m2 and 30C.

According to the characteristic equation of a gas we have pV = mRT where p is

the pressure of the gas in N/m2, V is the volume of mass m kg of gas in cu metre,

R is the characteristic gas constant and T is the absolute temperature of the gas in

kelvin.

Answer:

If V is the molecular volume, then m will be molecular mass of the gas and

mR = 8314.3 J/kg mole/K

We have, P = 200 x 103 N/m2 ; T = 273 + 30 = 303 K

Therefore, 200 x x V = 8314.3 x 303

V = (8314.3 x 303) / (200 x 103) =12.596 m3

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1. Question: Differentiate between the manometer & barometer.

(Feb-88, Aug-89, Feb-95)

2. Question: Differentiate between pressure gauge and vacuum gauge.

3. Question: What are the different systems of units?

4. Question: What do understand by absolute pressure and absolute or

Thermodynamic temperature?

5. Question: Fill the gap (Oct-95)

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

h.

6.

1kW = -------HP

1lb = -------- Grain

1000 cm3 = ------ dm3

1m3/hr = 0.59 CFM

1 bar = 14.50 lb/sq. in 102 kn/M2

1dm3/sec = 0.0353 cubic feet/s

1kW h = 860 Kcal.

i)

1 kg/cm2 = --------- lb/M, 1 bar = --------- lb/D

ii)

Temperature K = Temp ----------- + ---------Temperature R = Temp ---------------- + -------------iii)

1 metric horse power = --------- watts

1 British horse power = ------------- watts

i. Vacuum of 720 MM of Hg.

ii. 10 G Pa

(Feb.95)

Page 27 of 29

TUTORIAL FOR SECOND CLASS BOILER ENGINEERS PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION

DLP/BOE-II/ I/1692001

ASSESSMENT SHEET

1.

30 C is equal to 80 F

Specific gravity of water is 1

40 C is equal to 104 F

10 C = 60 F

-40 F is equal to 40 C

( Aug-96, Oct-95 & 97, June-98)

Mercury is 11 Times heavier than water

Internal energy of a gas is a function of the pressure only (96)

1Kg force = 9.81x105 Newton.

1 bar = 0.1 M pa

1.0 bar = 1.01972 kg/cm2

The internal energy of a perfect Gas is the function of temperature only

Mercury is ten times heavier than water

Barometer is used to measure boiler draught.

+40 C = -40 F

5.9 kW = 9.0 H.P.

4.5 bar = 4500 N/m2

-40 C = +40 F (Aug-99,Feb-2000)

At the critical point the specific volume of water is equal to 0.00317 m3/kg

1 bar = 10 x 104 N/m2

At critical pressure, the latent heat of vaporization is zero

Mechanical equivalent of heat for 1 Kcal or Joules equivalent is equal

to 421 Kg m. ( Aug.94)

The reciprocal of specific volume is known as mass

One Pascal is equal to 1 x 105 N/m2

All specific properties are extensive properties as they are related to unit volume

of substance.

1 KWH = 3600 MJ

The pressure and temperature at which combination of ice and water can coexist

are independent of each other. (96)

One kg-mol of hydrogen mean one kg of hydrogen (96)

1 kg. force = 9.81 x 105 newton. (97)

The maximum temperature to which water can be heated in an economiser is

100C below the steam formation temperature not corresponding to the working

pressure of the boiler.( 98 )

Page 28 of 29

TUTORIAL FOR SECOND CLASS BOILER ENGINEERS PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION

DLP/BOE-II/ I/1692001

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

the (a) Moon where gravitational acceleration is 1.7M/sec 2 (b) Sun where

gravitational acceleration is 270 M/sec2

Question: A thermometer immersed in fluid the value of

temperature in F and C shows same what will be value of temp.? Express this

value of temp. in deg.R & deg.K.

Question: A vacuum gauges reads the vacuum in a chamber

as 300 MM of Hg, what is the absolute pressure in the chamber if the

atmospheric pressure is 760 mm of Hg. The specific weight of mercury at this

temp. is 13550 kg/M3

(Feb.91).

Question: A manometer joined to a gas cylinder indicates 20

kPa, while the barometer reads 760 mm of mercury. What will be the reading of

the manometer if the barometric pressure drops to 730 mm mercury?

Question: A steam power plant develops 4460 kW. What is

the equivalent of this power in thermal unit?

Question: The gas used in gas engine trial was tested in a

Boys calorimeter. The pressure of gas supply was 70 mm of water column.

What is the absolute pressure of the gas if the barometric pressure is 760 mm of

mercury?

Question: Define a new temperature scale, say oD in which

the boiling and freezing points of water are 300oD and 100oD respectively.

Correlate this scale with the Centigrade scale. The oD reading on this scale is a

certain number of degrees on a corresponding absolute temperature scale. What

is this absolute temperature at oD?

Page 29 of 29

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