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CHAPTER - 1
Fundamentals of Physics
1.1 Units for measurement
Physical measurement always requires specification of both a value (i.e., a
number representing how much) and a unit (i.e., of what). Systems of
measurement are formal strategies for indexing amounts of specified physical
quantities.
1.1.1 Unit:
To express the magnitude of a physical quantity a standard is chosen which is
of the same kind as physical quantity. This standard is taken as reference to
measure a physical quantity which is known as unit.
Therefore the process of measurement of a physical quantity involves.
i) The selection of the unit and
ii) Number of times the unit is contained in that physical quantity
In general,
measure of a physical quantity = numerical value of the quantity X size of its
unit
1.1.2 Fundamental and derived units:
Fundamental units are those units, which can neither be derived from one
another, nor can they be further resolved into any other units.
The three fundamental units are
(i) Mass (ii) Length and (iii) Time
Derived units are units of all such physical quantities which can be expressed
in terms of the fundamental units of mass, length and time.
Ex. unit of area = (metre)2
unit of volume = (metre)3
hence all derived units can be obtained by writing it in terms of fundamental
units.
1.1.3 System of Units:
The common system of units are:
(i) CGS system: It was set up in France and is based on centimetre, gram and
second as the fundamental units of length, mass and time respectively. It is a
metric system of unit
(ii) FPS system or British system of units: - It is based on foot, pound and
second as the fundamental units of length mass and time.
(iii) MKS system: It was also set up in France and is based on metre, kilogram
and second as the fundamental units of mass, length and time.

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1.1.4

SI system of unit:
In 1960 The General Conference of Weights and Measures introduced a new
system of, units known as SI units. It is based on seven basic and two
supplementary units given as:

1.1.4.1 Base Units:


Name
of
the Unit of Measurement
Property
Length
metre
Mass
kilogram
Time
second
Electric Current
ampere
Thermodynamic
kelvin
Temperature
Amount of Substance
mole
Luminous Intensity
candela

Symbol
m
kg
s
A
K
mol
cd

1.1.4.2 Supplementary Units:


Name
of
Property
Plane angle
Solid angle

the Unit of Measurement


radian
steradian

Symbol
rad
sr

All properties of interest to a Boiler Engineer can be derived from the above
Base and Supplementary Units as can be seen from the following:
1.1.4.3 Derived Units:
Name
of
Property
Acceleration
Area
Density
Energy
Entropy

the Unit of Measurement

Specific entropy

Force
Power (Rate of Work)
Pressure
Quantity of Heat
Stress
(Same
as
Pressure)

metre per sec2


square metre
kilogram per cubic metre
joules
joules per kelvin
joule per kilogram kelvin

newton
watt
pascal
joules
pascal

Symbol
m/s2
m2
kg/m2
J = N.m
J/K
J/(kgK)

N = kg.m/s2
W J/s
Pa = N/m2
J = N.m
Pa = N/m2
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Velocity
Work
Moment of force
specific energy

metre per second


joules
newton meter
joule per kilogram

m/s
J = N.m
Nm
J/kg

1.1.4.4 Advantage of SI
(i) It is a rational system of units - Its makes use of only one unit for one
physical quantity. Ex. all types of energies are expressed in Joules. Whereas in
MKS system different units are used for different types of energies. For ex.
mechanical energy is measured in Joule, heat energy in calorie and electrical
energy in watt hour.
(ii) SI is a coherent system of units i.e all derived units can be obtained by
dividing and multiplying the basic and supplementary units and no numerical
factors are introduced as used to be the case with certain units of the CGS and
MKS systems.
(iii) SI is a metric system. The multiples and sub-multiples can be expressed
as the powers of 10.
1.1.4.5 The Prefixes of the S I
The S I allows the sizes of units to be made bigger or smaller by the use of
appropriate prefixes. For example, the electrical unit of a watt is not a big unit
even in terms of ordinary household use, so it is generally used in terms of
1000 watts at a time. The prefix for 1000 is kilo so we use kilowatts[kW] as
our unit of measurement. For makers of electricity, or bigger users such as
industry, it is common to use megawatts [MW] or even gigawatts [GW]. The
full range of prefixes with their [symbols or abbreviations] and their
multiplying factors are given below.
yotta [Y] = 1024
zetta [Z] = 1021
exa [E] = 1018
peta [P] = 1015
tera [T] = 1012
giga [G] = 109
mega [M] = 106
kilo [k] = 1000
hecto [h] = 100
deca [da] = 10
1 deci [d] = 0.1
1 centi [c] = 0.01
1 milli [m] = 0.001
1 micro [] = 10-6
1 nano [n] = 10-9
1 pico [p] = 10-12
1 femto [f] = 10-15
1 atto [a] = 10-18
1 zepto [z] = 10-21
1 yocto [y] = 10-24

(a thousand millions = a billion)


(a million)
(a thousand)

(a thousandth)
(a millionth)
(a thousand millionth)

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1.1.5

Rules of working with Units of Measure:


Rules
a. Derived units, when written in words, are not written with a capital letter
unless they are at the beginning of a sentence. The exception is the Celsius
degree which is always written with a capital letter.
Symbols are written with the following:
no full stop except at the end of a sentence;
as singular even though the written term is plural;
a space between the numerical value and the symbol, e.g. 12 m; 1.2
kg/m 3 and 0.12 rad;
in lower case unless the symbol has been taken from a proper name, e.g.
ampere is written as "A"; kelvin as "K"; and volt as "V";
in lower case unless the prefix is mega, giga, tera, peta or exa, e.g.
megawatt is written as MW; gigamole as Gmol and petahertz as PHz;
the product in a compound unit should be indicated by "." eg "N.m"; and
"cd.sr";
"." and "/" are only used with symbols and not with unit names written
in full eg m/s and not "metre/second"; and kW.s and not
"kilowatt.second"; and
when a unit involves the division of one symbol by another it can be
written in one of three ways eg "m/s"; "m.s-1"; and " m "
b. The combination of a prefix and a unit is written as one word, eg,
millimetre, microgram or nanosecond.
c. Prefixes are generally used in combination with the units so that, for
convenience, the number portion of the measurement is greater than 0.1
and usually below 1,000. For example, 0.005 grams is written as 5
milligrams or 5 mg.
d. When writing a numerical measurement, the symbol for the prefix is placed
in front of the symbol for the unit eg, ninety nine millimetres = 99 mm,
nine point nine micrograms = 9.9 mg and nine nanoseconds = 9 ns.
e. Where a compound unit has both a numerator and a denominator, any
prefix is preferably attached to the symbol in the numerator eg kJ/mol and
not J/mmol; and mA/mol and not A/kmol.

1.1.6

Conversion Factors for SI Units:


To obtain
Multiply
By
Pressure ( 1 bar =106 pascal = 106 N/m2 )
bar
Kg/cm2
0.981
atm
1.013
lb/in2
0.069
mm Hg
1.33 x 10-3

Reciprocal
1.02
0.987
14.504
750.1
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To obtain

Multiply
By
in Hg
0.034
mm WC
98.07 x 10-4
Heat Work and Energy
MJ
k cal
4.187 x 10-3
Btu
1.055 x 10-3
kg m
9.807 x 10-8
ft lb
1.356 x 10-6
kW h
3.60
Power
MJ/s
k cal/s
4.187 x 10-3
Btu/min
17.57 x 10-6
To obtain
Multiply
By
kg m/s
9.807 x 10-8
ft lb/s
1.356 x 10-6
metric hp
0.7355 x 10-3
Calorific value and Specific Enthalpy
MJ/kg
k cal/kg
4.187 x 10-3
Btu/lb
2.326 x 10-3
kg m/kg
9.807 x 10-6
ft lb/lb
2.989 x 10-8
kW h/kg
3.60
Heat Transfer Coefficient
W/m2K
k cal/h m2 oC
1.163
Btu/h ft2 oF
5.878
Heat Flux
W/m2
k cal/h m2
10163
Btu/h ft2
3.155
Mass flow rate
kg/s
lb/h
0.126 x 10-3
t/h
0.28224
g/s
10-3
Specific heat and Specific Entropy
kJ/kg K
Kcal/kgoC
4.1868
Btu/lboF
4.1868
Dynamic Viscosity
N s/m2
lb/ft h
0.41338 x 10-3
lb/ft s
1.4882
poise
0.10
Kinematic Viscosity
m2/s
ft2/h
25.806 x 10-6
stoke
10-4
Torque
Nm
kgf m
9.806
ft lb
1.355

1.2

Reciprocal
29.53
10.2 x 103
238.85
948.0
101.97 x 103
737.6 x 103
1360
238.85
56.8 x 103
Reciprocal
101.97 x 103
73.76 x 103
1360
238.85
429.92 x 103
101.97 x 103
334.55 x 103
0.278
0.860
0.176
0.860
0.317
7.9365 x 103
3.5431
1000
0.2388
0.2388
2.420 x 103
0.6720
10
38.7506 x 103
10000
0.102
0.737

Matter:
The Matter exists in three states:
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Solid, Liquid and Vapour.


All matter comprises of atoms and molecules. The extent to which these atoms
are bonded to each other decides the state of the matter. As long as the
bonding force between the atoms is large, the matter remains Solid and retains
its shape and tends to oppose any cause, which tends to change its shape. This
is the reason that solids have the property of elasticity and are stressed if
strained. The Bonding Forces are of several types such as gravitational pull
between atoms and Covalent Bonds.
The atoms and molecules of any matter is in a constant state of random
vibrations and the vibrations amplitude increases with temperature of the
matter. Depending on temperature the Inter-atomic Distance varies and when
the Inter-atomic Distance is such that force of attraction between tow atoms
equals force of repulsion, a threshold state is reached when state of matter
changes from Solid to Liquid and the matter no longer exhibits the property
of elasticity and does not resist a change in its shape.
At a further higher temperature the atoms and molecules reach a state of
vibration when there exist no cohesive force between its atoms or molecules.
At such a temperature the matter changes its state from Liquid to Vapour.
The temperature at which a solid matter changes its state to liquid is called its
Melting Point and the temperature at which the matter in Liquid state changes
to Vapour is called Boiling Point. These temperatures depend upon pressure.
To the extent that the three phases of matter relate to the subject of Boiler
Technology and Engineering, the reader is advised to recall that Water is Solid
when it is Ice. When heated, Ice (which is water in solid state) changes its
state to Liquid (Water) and when further heated, water changes to the third
state, which is vapour and called Steam.
Under atmospheric pressure Melting Point of Ice is 00C or 320F and Boiling
Point of Water is 1000C or 2120F. However, these points of temperature
depend on pressure. The change in melting point of ice is not relevant to
boilers and steam engines and turbines hence we will not deal with it further.
However, the boiling point of water varies greatly with its pressure.
This matter is covered in greater details under Properties of Steam in this
tutorial. The characteristics of change of state or phase of water to steam are
derived experimentally and are published by various renowned international
bodies (such as ASME) as Steam Tables.
It is considered relevant here to mention that in a boiler just above the surface
of water in the boiler drum, contains tiny particles of water which though
suspended above the surface of water in the drum, is not actually in vapour
state and needs to absorb heat in order to get converted into vapour or steam.
That is why the steam just above the water surface in boiler drums is called
wet steam. When each and every tiny water particle has got fully converted
into vapour or steam it is called dry saturated steam.
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1.2.1

Volume:
Volume of gas or any substance is defined as the space, which it occupies.
Unit of volume of any substance is cubic centimeter or cubic meter.
The volume is also expressed in litre.
1 liter = 1000 cm3 =106 mm3 = 10-3 m3

1.2.2

Specific volume:
The specific volume of a substance is its volume per unit mass i.e m3/kg.
The unit of specific volume is m3/kg.
One kilogram of air at 00 C and under an absolute pressure of 1.0332 kg/cm2
(760 mm of Hg) has volume of 0.7734 m3.
Therefore the specific volume of air under these conditions is 0.7734 m3/kg. It
is denoted by v

1.2.3

Density & Specific Gravity:


Density of a substance signifies how densely it is packed with mass.
Mathematically it is expressed as mass per unit volume i.e kg/m 3 it also
termed as Mass density and denoted by .
Density or Mass density, = m/v
Depending upon the Units of Measurements, the Density is expressed in
various units such as gm/cc r kg/ m 3 or lb/ ft3. For example water has a
Density of 1 gm/cc or 1000 kg/m3 or 62.4 lb/cft. Thus the numeric
value of Density of a substance is different for the same substance in different
Units of Measurements.
The Specific Gravity of a substance is its density compared with that of
water. Since Specific Gravity is only a comparison of Density of a substance
with the Density of water, it has no unit and its value remains same
irrespective of the Units of Measurement. Specific Gravity is generally used
for liquids.

1.2.4

Concentration:
Concentration is the amount of a substance contained in a given volume.
"Amount of a substance" and "given volume" can take many forms.

1.2.4.1 Mole/Volume
when a known number of moles of a substance is dissolved or dispersed in a
liquid to give a known volume of solution or suspension.
Moles per litre (mol/L) and moles per cubic centimetre (mol/cc) express
concentration in the terms of mole per unit volume (mol/v).
Five mol/L is equal to five mole of substance in one litre of solution.
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The number of moles of a substance in one litre of solution is called the


molarity of that solution.
1.2.4.2 Mass/Volume
when a mass of a substance is dissolved or suspended in a liquid to give a
known volume of solution or suspension.
Kilograms per litre (kg/L), grams per litre (g/L), milligrams per litre (mg/L)
and grams per cubic centimetre ( g/cc) express concentration in the terms of
mass per unit volume which is usually referred to as weight/volume (w/v).
1.2.4.3 Mass/Mass
when a mass of substance is dispersed in another mass to give a known
resultant mass.
Grams per kilogram (g/kg) and milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) express
concentration in the terms of mass per unit mass, which is usually referred to
as weight/weight (w/w).
1.2.4.4 Volume/Volume
when a volume of substance is dispersed in another volume of substance to
give a known resultant volume.
Millilitres per litre expresses concentration in the terms of volume per unit
volume, which is usually referred to as volume/volume (v/v).
Thus, if 80 millilitres of alcohol is diluted to 2000 millilitres with water the
result is a solution of 2000 millilitres or 2 litres.
1.2.4.5 Parts Per Million (ppm)
A part per million is one of a quantity in one million of another quantity. Parts
per million is abbreviated to "ppm".
To convert a concentration from v/v to ppm the concentration must be in
ml/ml, L/L, etc... and then multiply by 106 to get ppm v/v.
In the same way w/w concentration can only be converted to ppm using the
factor "106" if the concentration is expressed in grams per gram (g/g),
kilograms per kilograms (kg/kg), etc.
The volume of a substance in the gaseous form can be equated to the mass of
the substance if the exact volume is known. Thus, the volume /volume
concentration of a substance can be equated to the mass/volume concentration
of that substance.
1.2.4.6 Percent
Percent (%) is also used to express concentration much the same as parts per
million (ppm). The difference is that percent relates to one in a hundred
compared to ppm, which relates to one in a million.
1.2.5

Pressure:
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Pressure is defined as Force per Unit Area. Take a jar of glass with a flat
bottom, filled with water and keep it over a table. The weight of water in the
jar exerts a force on the surface of the table. If this force is measured over a
unit area of the surface, then it is called the pressure. Therefore pressure can
be defined as the force exerted by an object over the surface of unit Area.
i.e. pressure = force / area
In practice it is expressed or measured in following units:
N/m2
Kg/cm2
Lb/in2
bar (1 bar=105N/m2)
pascal (1Pascal= 1 N/m2)
height of liquid column (Normally water & Mercury)
1.2.6

Atmospheric Pressure:
The atmosphere, surrounding the earth, exerts a pressure on its surface
equivalent to the weight of air acting over unit area of the earth's surface and it
is known as atmospheric pressure. At sea level, the weight of air over a weight
of unit area of earths surface is equivalent to weight of a column of 76 cm
(760 mm) of mercury column (Hg) at 0 0C. It is taken as the standard
barometric pressure. This is also known as a physical atmosphere or
barometric atmosphere.
The density of mercury is 13. 595 grams per cubic centimeter
Therefore standard barometric pressure = 76 x 13. 595 = 1033. 32 grams / sq.
cm. i.e. 1.03322 kg/sq.cm
One metric or technical atmosphere (1 kg/cm2) = 760 /1.0332 =735.6 mm of
Hg
Pressure is also measured in the unit of mm of water column. One
Atmospheric pressure is equivalent to 760x13.595mm of water column. That
is 10332.2mm of water. This is 10.332 meter of water.
1kg/cm2 = 735.6mm of Hg = 735.6x13.595 = 10meter of water
We know that the atmosphere exerts pressure as mentioned. However, if we
take a pressure gauge in our hand, it reads Zero, even though the atmospheric
pressure is present. Thus pressure Gauge measures the pressure with reference
to Atmospheric pressure (Ref. Fig.-1). The pressure indicated by the gauge
above atmosphere is known as gauge pressure. The pressure indicated by the
gauge when the system pressure is less than atmospheric is termed as
Vacuum, which is generally measured in mm of water or mercury column and
the gauges are known as vacuum gauges.
Absolute Pressure
= Atm. Pressure + Gauge Pressure

Pressure Gauge Reading


Gauge Pressure
Atmospheric Pressure
1.0332 kg/cm2

Vacuum =
Atm. Pressure - Absolute Pressure

Vacuum Gauge Pressure


Absolute Pressure
= Atm. Pressure - Vacuum

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Fig. 1
Thus the Absolute pressure = Atmospheric pressure + Gauge pressure
Pab
=
Pat
+ Pg
or
Absolute pressure = Atmospheric pressure Vacuum
Pab
=
Pat
- Vacuum
1.2.7

Barometer:
The barometer is the simplest instrument for measuring atmospheric pressure.
The earth's atmosphere at sea level has a weight of 14.7 pounds over a square
inch of surface. This is the weight of a column of air that extends from sea
level at the earth's surface to the edge of the atmosphere. This weight changes
as the temperature and composition of the air mass changes. A barometer uses
a substitute column of mercury fluid in place of the air. One atmosphere in a
mercury barometer is equaled by a column of only 760 mm Hg.

h = 760 mm of Hg

A simple Mercury Barometer

Fig.2
1.2.8

Manometer:
The manometer is one of the simplest tools for measuring gas pressure
differences. A manometer is a u-tube. One side of the "U" is open to
atmosphere and the other side is connected to a closed container. The "U" is
filled with a fluid. If both sides of the "U" have the same liquid levels then the
pressure inside and the pressure outside are the same. The difference between
the liquid levels equals the pressure difference between inside and outside.
The mercury level will be lower on the side with greater pressure. The higher
pressure "pushes" the mercury down. The Manometer measures the Gauge
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pressure. Mercury is particularly convenient for use in manometers (and


barometers) because at room temperature it has low vapor pressure, does not
wet glass, and has a high density.

h is how much lower the gas


pressure is than the pressure in the
atmosphere

h is how much higher the gas


pressure is than the pressure in
the atmosphere

GA
S

GAS
GA
S

GAS

Fig-3
Manometer

1.2.9 Properties of Gases


1.2.9.1 The Kinetic Molecular Theory
The Kinetic Molecular Theory is the basis of the many properties of gases.
The five postulates to the Kinetic Theory are as follows:

Gases are composed of molecules whose size is negligible compared to the


average distance between them.
Molecules move randomly in straight lines in all directions and at various
speeds.
The forces of attraction or repulsion between two molecules in a gas are very
weak or negligible, except when they collide.
When molecules collide with one another, the collisions are elastic; no kinetic
energy is lost.
The average kinetic energy of a molecule is proportional to the absolute
temperature.
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1.2.9.2 Boyle's Law


Boyle's Law states the volume of a definite quantity of dry gas is inversely
proportional to the pressure, provided the temperature remains constant.
Mathematically Boyle's law can be expressed as P1V1 = P2V2
V1 is the original volume
V2 is the new volume
P1 is original pressure
P2 is the new pressure
1.2.9.3 Charles's Law
Charles's Law can be stated as the volume occupied by any sample of gas at a
constant pressure is directly proportional to the absolute temperature.
V / T =constant
V is the volume
T is the absolute temperature (measured in Kelvin)
Charles's Law can be rearranged into two other useful equations.
V1 / T1 = V2 / T2 & V2 = V1 (T2 / T1)
V1 is the initial volume
T1 is the initial temperature
V2 is the final volume
T2 is the final temperature
Charles's Law only works when the pressure is constant.
Note: Charles's Law is fairly accurate but gases tend to deviate from it at very
high and low pressures.
1.2.9.4 STP
STP is Standard Temperature and Pressure. STP is 0o Celcius and 1
atmosphere of pressure. Gases properties can be compared using STP as a
reference.
1.2.9.5 Combined Law
The combined gas law is a combination of Boyle's Law and Charles's Law;
hence its name the combined gas law. In the combined gas law, the volume of
gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature and inversely
proportional to the pressure.
This can be written as PV / T = constant.
Therefore we can write P1V1 / T1 = P2V2 / T2.
P1 is the initial pressure
V1 is the initial volume
T1 is the initial temperature (in Kelvin)
P2 is the final pressure
V2 is the final volume
T2 is the final temperature (in Kelvin)
Also Vt = V0 { 1 + t / 273 }.
Where V0 is the volume at 00C andt is the temperature in 0C
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1.2.9.6 Ideal Gas Law


The ideal gas law is a combination of all the gas laws. The ideal gas law can
be expressed as PV = mRT.
P is the pressure in atm
V is the volume in liters
m is the mass of the gas considered
R is a constant
T is the temperature in Kelvin
This equation is known as Characteristic equation of a gas.
Sometimes R is called the Characteristic or specific gas constant.
1.2.9.7 Universal gas constant:
If the molecular mass of any gas is multiplied by its specific gas constant R it
will be found that the product is the same for all gases. This constant is termed
as Universal gas constant.
For IS system the value of universal gas constant is 8.3143 kJ/kg mol K.
Thus M.R = 8.3143, kJ/kg mol K.
Where M is the molecular mass of the gas and R is the specific gas constant.
[It should be noted that in any calculations involving the gas laws, absolute
pressures and absolute temperatures must be used.]
1.2.9.8 Perfect Gas: A perfect gas or ideal gas may be considered as one that obeys
the laws of Boyle and Charles and the Characteristic equation of a gas which
is obtained by combining the above laws.
No gas is perfect, but many gases can approach this standard within the
temperature limits of applied thermodynamics.
1.3

Temperature:
Temperature is the measure of the relative warmth or coolness of an object.
The temperature of a substance does not measure its heat content but rather
the average kinetic energy of its molecules resulting from their motions. A
one-pound block of iron and a two-pound block of iron at the same
temperature do not have the same heat content. Because they are at the same
temperature the average kinetic energy of the molecules is the same; however,
the two-pound block has more molecules than the one-pound block and thus
has greater heat energy.
For measurement of Temperature there are two scales of measurements, one is
Fahrenheit and the other is Centigrade or Celsius. The arbitrary
reference taken is the freezing point of water under atmospheric conditions.
This point at which water freezes to a solid state is considered as ZERO in
Celsius or Centigrade Scale. Again the point of reference of water boiling at
atmospheric condition and transforming to vapor stage is taken as 100 in
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Celsius or Centigrade Scale. In the Fahrenheit Scale the point corresponding


to temperature at freezing of water is taken as 32, for water boiling point as
212
In MKS systems, the unit of temperature is degree Centigrade (C)
In FPS system the unit of temperature is degree. Fahrenheit (F)
In SI system the unit of temperature is degree Celsius (C)
10 Centigrade = 10 Celsius.
A temperature reading on one scale can be converted into a reading on the
other scale by the following formula:
C/100 = (F+32)/180
or C=5/9 (F-32) or F= 9/5 x (C+32)
where, C is temperature in Celsius or Centigrade and F is temperature in
Fahrenheit.
1.3.1

Absolute temperature scale:


We know that temperature is the effect causes by internal energy of a
substance due to random motion of molecules of a substance. A body that is
hotter has its molecules moving more vigorously than that of a body which is
colder. Thus, there can be a state when there is absolutely no random motion
of the molecules of a substance. There is one particular temperature at which
the molecular random motion of each substance totally stops. This
temperature is called Absolute Zero because there can not be a temperature
lower than this (since the molecules can not be more stationery than being in
no motion at all).
Absolute zero is the temperature at which all vibratory, translatory and
rotational motions of the molecule of a substance is supposed to cease i.e.
when internal energy becomes zero. A gas on cooling will contract in volume
as the temperature falls. Charles found with perfect gases, the decrease in
volume per degree Centigrade decrease in temperature is 1/273rd of its initial
volume at 00C, pressure remaining constant. Thus, the volume of gas will be
zero at temperature 2730C. This temperature 2730 C below 00 C (or -2720C)
is called the Absolute Zero of temperature. The absolute temperature is the
temperature measured above the point of Absolute Zero. Absolute temperature
is expressed by the capital latter K and the scale using the Absolute Zero is
called Kelvin Scale. By adding 273 to the temperature in degree Centigrade
we get the temperature in degrees of the Kelvin scale or 0K.
Temperature K = Temperature 0C+ 273
i.e.
K = C + 273
Absolute temperature in degree Fahrenheit is known as degree Rankine or 0R
and the Absolute Zero in degree Fahrenheit occurs at 4600F.
Thus, Temperature 0R = Temperature 0F + 460
i.e.
R = F + 460
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1.3.2 Thermometer:
An instrument used for measuring temperature is called a thermometer and is
constructed by using one of the following principles:
the change of length, such as length of a mercury column,
the change of volume, such as volume of a fixed mass of gas at constant
pressure,
the change of pressure, such as pressure of a fixed mass of gas at constant
volume,
the change in electric resistance, as in a thermistor,
the flow of electricity due to Seebeck effect, as in a thermocouple,
the radiation, as in radiation pyrometers.
1.3.2.1 Glass Bulb (Mercury thermometer): Most common for measuring air
temperature is the liquid-in-glass thermometer, which consists of a glass tube
enlarged at the bottom into a bulb that is partially filled with mercury(or
organic liquid). The tube's bore is extremely smallless than 0.02 inch (0.5
millimeter) in diameter. Thus a small amount of expansion or contraction of
the mercury in the bulb, caused by heating or cooling, produces a noticeable
rise or fall in its level in the tube.
1.3.2.2 Bimetal thermometer: Two different metals are bonded together with one
end attached to an indicating needle which aligns with a circular scale on the
face of the instrument. Since the metals expand at different rates, movement
occurs depending on the temperature fluctuation and the needle moves.
1.3.2.3 Indicating Material: A variety of crayons and pellets are available that
melt at specific temperatures. These do not really measure temperature
directly, but do indicate the maximum temperature that a material was
exposed to.
1.3.2.4 Vapor/Gas Filled: Such thermometer operates on a similar principle to the
glass bulb type thermometer.
1.3.2.5 Galileo thermometer: These tend to be used in decorative settings around
the home or office. These interesting models operate based on principles of
specific gravity.
1.3.2.6 RTD and Thermistor: These are based on the change in resistance of a
conductor when the temperature of the wire changes. In both the instruments
temperatures are digitally displayed and have better accuracies.
1.3.2.7 Thermocouple: These operate based on the temperature change that occurs
at the junction of two dissimilar wires. When the temperature changes a small
current is generated by the junction. This current is then compared to a
reference junction (calibrated standard or ice water bath) and converted to a
temperature by electric or electronic means. So the system includes the
thermocouple itself, connecting wiring and some method (Generally a digital
meter) to display the temperature reading.
Another significant advantage of the thermocouple is that the indicating
instrument can be a very long distance from the thermocouple environment.
Once the system is calibrated and the current from the thermocouple is
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captured, a variety of electrical options are available for getting the


information to a display unit.
1.3.3

Pyrometer: It is a non-contacting device intercepting and measuring thermal


radiation emitted from an object to determine surface temperature. Pyrometer
is derived from the Greek word pyro, meaning fire.
The temperature of a material, affects the color. The infrared light spectrum
works very well for this and is the basis for the infrared thermometer or
pyrometer. These units do not require a contact with the material and are
available as hand held units. They can sense a very high range of
temperatures.
Some applications of pyrometers
Item
Instrument used to measure temperature
Boiler combustion space
Optical pyrometer
Economiser, feed water heaters and Base metal thermo-couple
chimney gases
Incandescent filaments
Optical pyrometer
Incandescent gas mantels
Radiation pyrometer

1.4

Work:
If a heavy mass is to be moved from one place to other, one has to apply force
or spend energy. The Force applied to a body multiplied by the distance
moved is the amount of work done or amount of energy spent.
Work = Force x distance (traveled in the direction of force)
Work only involves the useful part of a force, namely the part that is effective
in causing the motion.
[Suppose a pail of water weighing 7 N is carried over a distance of 10 m. In
order to hold the pail up against gravity a vertical force of 7 N is exerted on
the pail. The motion, however, is horizontal, and the force exerted does no
work, even though one might get tired of holding the pail after a while.]
In SI system, the unit for work done is Newton-metre (Nm), which is the
product of a unit force (one Newton) acting through a 1-metre distance. This
unit of work done is also called joules (J).
1 J = 1 Nm
1 kg.m = 9.81 Nm = 9.81 Joules (J)
Work can also be measured in foot pounds or Kg metres
1.5 Power:
Suppose a weight is lifted off the floor at a fixed a distance. The work done in
this case would be the product of the force exerted times the distance covered,
independent of how fast the weight was lifted. Now if the same weight is
lifted faster that is in lesser period, then one might be tempted to say that more
``work'' is done. Actually the work done in both the cases is same and it is the
Power that is different.
The power exerted by a force is defined as change in work done over a period.
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1.6

Power exerted = work / time = force x distance / time = force x velocity.


The SI Unit for Power is Watt. In other words Jules/sec = Watt.
In British Units the Unit of Power is Horse Power or hp, which
corresponds to a rate of work of 550 ft-lb/sec or.
1 hp = 746 Watts.
Energy:
In mechanics is defined as capacity of doing work. Units of Energy and
Work are same. Energy exists in two forms, namely, Potential Energy and
Kinetic Energy.
1.6.1 Potential Energy is possessed by a body due to its position relative to
other body or of parts of the same body under the action of a force or forces
tending to alter their relative position. For example, a body which is allowed
to fall towards earth may be made to do work; hence before it begins to fall it
possesses potential energy, or energy due to its position relative to earth.
PE=mgh

Gravitational
Potential Energy

PE=0

Fig 4

A compressed spiral spring has potential energy because if it is allowed to


resume its unstrained form it can be made to do work. Likewise compressed
air possesses potential energy. The energy stored in a piece of coal is potential
energy, and under favourable conditions the atoms of the constituents of the
coal and atoms of oxygen of the air will rush together and produce heat which
may be converted into work. . If a body of W kg weight is allowed to fall from
an elevation L2 to an elevation L1, the change in potential energy.
PE = PE 2 - PE 1 = W (L2 L1)
The unit of potential energy is Kilograms meter (MKS) and Newton metre
(SIS)
1.6.2

Kinetic Energy of a body is due to its being in motion with respect to another
body. A kilogram of water at rest at a height of 100 metres above level of the
sea possesses 100 kg.m of potential energy and if this water is allowed to fall
freely to the level of the sea, without doing work on the way it will in every
position of its fall possess 100 kg.m of energy, but as it descends its potential
energy will diminish, and the remainder of 100 kg.m will be stored in water as
kinetic energy. When the 1kg of water would have fallen 25 metres its
potential energy would be reduced by 25 kg.m to be only 75 kg.m and its
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kinetic energy would then be 25 kg.m so that total is 75 kg.m (Potential


Energy) + 25 kg.m (Kinetic Energy) = 100 kg.m.
A body of weight w kg, moving with a velocity v possesses a certain
amount of kinetic energy (KE) with reference to earth gravitational force,
K.E = w. v2/2g.
The unit of K.E. is also kg.m in MKS and Newton metre in SIS.
Other forms of energy are also different manifestations of these two forms.
For example Electricity stored in a Capacitor having a Capacitance of C
Farads and charged to a Voltage of V Volts is a Potential Energy and its value
is CV2 Joules. Similarly, the Energy in an Inductor having Inductance of L
Henry (and passing an electrical current of I Amps)has a Kinetic Energy equal
to LI2 Joules.
All other forms of energy such as Magnetic, Light etc. are similarly
explainable
in
terms
of
Potential
or
Kinetic
Energy.
1.7

Internal Energy: The molecules of all substances are continuously in motion.


The movement of molecules is more in gases than in liquids. Even when a gas
is stored in a closed vessel and is stagnant, that is not moving, it possesses a
considerable amount of internal Kinetic Energy due to motion of its molecules
within the limits of its containing vessel. In addition of the Internal Kinetic
Energy substances also have Internal Potential Energy due to the relative
position of their molecules. Thus, the Internal Energy, E of a substance may be
defined as the algebraic sum of Internal Kinetic Energy and Internal Potential
Energy of its molecules.
The internal energy of substance increases with increases of temperature of
substance due to increases of molecular activity. Thus Internal Energy is a
function of Temperature and its value increases or decreases by adding heat to
or subtracting heat from the substance.

1.8

Torque:
Torque is a measure of the 'strength' being used in turning (or attempting to
turn) something.
A common example is that of a spanner being used to move a nut. A force is
being applied at one end of the spanner. That force is multiplied by the
distance between it and the turning-point (which, in this case, is the centre of
the nut) to give a measure of the torque which is being applied. This seems to
be the same as for work which is also a force being multiplied by a distance
but look closely, in the definition for torque there is no mention of the force
moving as there is in the full definition for work.
So, they are different things even though the units are the same, and no work
is done until, in this case, the spanner moves - and even then it is a matter of
how far the force moves, and not its distance from the centre.
The SI preferred unit for torque is newton metres [Nm] and for work is
joules [J].
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1.9

Specific Energy :
This is a measure of the amount of energy contained in a unit quantity of some
substance. The unit quantity may be either of mass or of volume. For unit
mass, usually referred to as Specific Energy, Its units are [J/kg] or [kJ/kg]
For unit volume, usually referred to as Calorific Value, units such as [kJ/m]
or [MJ/m]. should be used .

1.10

Mechanical Equivalent Of Heat: Heat and Work are mutually convertible


from one form into another. In a heat engine the heat produced by combustion
of the fuel used is converted into the work done by the engine. When the
brakes are applied to the wheels of a moving train, in order to bring it to rest,
the kinetic energy of the train is converted into heat at the rubbing surfaces of
the brake blocks and wheels, or if the wheels skid the heat is produced at the
rubbing surfaces of wheels and rails. Careful experiments have shown that a
certain definite number J or foot pound of work is equivalent to one unit of
heat.
In British Units J is 778 ft.lb. for 1 Btu.
and in metric units, 4.187 Kilojoules = 1 Kilocalories &
1 Kilocalories = 427 kg-m

1.11

HEAT AND HEAT TRANSFER

1.11.1 Heat
Heat is believed to be a mode of motion. It is supposed that a body
possessing heat has its particles or molecules in a state of motion, the rate of
motion increasing as the body gets warmer and diminishing as the body cools.
As to the character of motion of the molecules it may be imagined to be an
oscillatory motion in the case of solids and liquids, but in the case of gases it
is supposed to be a motion of translation.
It is found that all the phenomenon of Heat may be explained by this theory.
For example, it is well known that in general the effect of heat on matter is to
enlarge it. A piece of iron when heated gets longer, wider and thicker (due to
thermal expansion). Now it is natural to expect that if the molecule of iron
have more motion as the iron gets hotter they will require more room and will
therefore push one another further apart and consequently cause the whole
body to get larger, just as a crowd of people take up more space when they
jostle one another than they do when standing still or when jostling to a less
extent.
For the purpose of explaining how heat is transmitted through space the latter
is supposed to be filled or permeated with an invisible imponderable (and
imaginary) fluid called the ether which takes up the motion of the molecules
of a body and transmits them to the molecules of other bodies in space, just as
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when a body is made to move up and down in a trough of water a similar


motion is given to a cork floating in the water at the same distance.
Different units of measurement of heat are as given bellow.
In British System:
British Thermal Unit (BTU):
The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water
through 1F is defined as a BTU.
In MKS Units:
Centigrade Heat Unit (CHU):
The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water
through 1C is defined as a CHU.
The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilograms of
water through 1C is defined as one Kilo-Calorie
Since the amount of heat required per degree centigrade varies at different
points on the temperature scale, a more precise definition is the amount of
heat required to raise the temperature of one kg of water initially at 14.5c to
15.5c while maintained at constant pressure of 760mm of hg.
1 Kcal = 2.205 CHU = 3.696 BTU
The unit for heat in SI system is measured in Joules (J)
1 Kcal = 4187 Joules = 4.187 Kilo Joules
1.11.2 Specific Heat of a substance may be defined as the amount of heat that must
be supplied to the substance to raise the temperature of unit mass of the
substance through one degree. When a body is heated, the heat energy is used
to speed up the internal motion of its molecules and also to provide the work
necessary to expend the body. In a solid or a liquid, the amount of expansion
is very small and the work of expansion is similarly small. When a gas is
heated, expansion is considerably more and values of specific heat will
depend on nature of heating process i.e., whether the heating is at Constant
Volume or at Constant Pressure. Thus gas has a two important types of
Specific Heat, namely:
(1)
Specific Heat at constant volume ( Cv)
(2) Specific Heat at constant pressure (Cp)
1.11.2.1 Specific Heat at Constant Volume: Consider 1 kg of gas being heated in a
closed vessel so that no expansion of gas is allowed. The number of kcal
required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of gas through 1 0C under these
condition is called the Specific Heat at Constant Volume and is denoted by
Cv.
In this case there is no work due to expansion of gas, because the gas is
contained in closed vessel and all the heat supplied is used only to increase the
Internal Energy i.e. Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy of molecules of the
gas.
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1.11.2.2 Specific Heat at Constant Pressure: Consider 1 kg of gas being heated in a


cylinder fitted with a movable piston which exerts a constant pressure on the
gas. When the gas is heated it will expand and move the piston through some
distance in this case. Therefore, in this case, in addition to the heat required
for increasing the kinetic energy of the molecules, further heat must be added
to perform the work of moving the piston through the distance. The Specific
Heat at Constant Pressure is denoted by Cp.
The value of the specific heat of gas at constant pressure will therefore always
be greater than that at constant volume by the amount of expansive work
done.
The unit of specific heat in MKS System of units is kcal/kg 0C and in the SI
system of units it is KJ/ kg 0K.
1.11.2.3 Ratio of specific heats: The ratio of two specific heats, Cp and Cv of any
given gas is assumed to be constant. It is expressed by the symbol
(gamma). It is called Gas Constant and is an universal constant for ideal
gases. It has no units for measurement.
= Cp/Cv
For air, Cp = 0.24 kcal/kg 0C or 1.0035 kJ/ kg 0K
and
Cv = 0.172 kcal/kg 0C or 0.7165 kJ/kg 0K
hence, = 0.24/0.172 = 1.4
1.11.3 Enthalpy (H) or Total Heat or Heat Content: Enthalpy is nothing but total
heat energy content in a substance. It is denoted by H and is defined as
follows:
H = E + (PV/J) kcal
Where, E is the Internal Energy, P is the Absolute Pressure, V is the Volume in
m3 and J = 427 kg-m.
1.11.4 HEAT TRANSFER:
In Boiler heat energy is released from the combustion of fossil fuels and the
heat is transferred to different fluids in the system and a part of it is lost or left
out as unutilized. It is therefore essential to study the general principle of heat
transfer for understanding the behaviour of boiler in relation to heat transfer
during different conditions of operation.
Let us take an example of a kettle of water being heated under fire. When fire
is applied the water in the kettle gets heated. Heat to water is passed through
the metal wall of the kettle. Now remove fire. The water in the kettle cools
down. The heat is now given to the air which surrounds the kettle.
In this process the heat is transferred from fire to kettle then to the water. On
cooling the transfer has taken place from water to kettle and from kettle to
surrounding air. The transfer of heat first has taken by way of Conduction
within the Kettle walls and then heat by the process of Convection transferred
to water in centre of the Kettle from the water immediately in contact with
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walls of the kettle. When the fire is put out, the water started cooling down as
transfer of heat in water occurs by Convection from centre of the Kettle to the
water layer immediately in contact with Kettle walls and by Conduction
within walls of the Kettle. Outer surface of the Kettle transfers heat to the
surroundings by way of Convection & Radiation.
.
In Boiler generally the heat transfer takes place in all the three modes of heat
transfer process namely Conduction, Convection and the Radiation.
The general equation for heat flow rate by any of the above three modes of
heat transfer from one media to other may be written as
q = US t
Where q = heat flow rate in K.Cal/hr
S = Surface area involved in the heat transfer in m2
t = Temperature difference causing heat flow in C
U = Overall heat transfer coefficient in K.cal/m2/hr/C
= 1/R where R is overall resistance
1.11.4.1 Conduction:
Conduction is the process of transfer of heat through solids from one part of
the body to the other, by physical contact, without the molecules moving, but
imparting vibration from one molecule to the neighbouring one.
In a Boiler the water tubes are exposed to fire. The heat travels by Conduction
from outer surface to inner surface of water tubes and then transfers to water
at centre of the tubes and in the drum from the water immediately in contact
with inner surface of the tubes by convection. In a metal the heat transfer
takes place by passing on heat from particle to particle by contact without any
physical movement of the particles themselves.
The quantity of heat conducted depends on:
a. the differential temperature between combustion chamber and the water
inside the tube,
b. the thickness of the tube,
c. surface area of the tube,
d. the characteristics of the metal and
e. the cleanliness of the surface.
If a flat plate is heated on one side and cooled on other side, heat will flow
from hot side to the cold. The heat flow rate q can be expressed as below:
q = KS (t1 t2) / l
Where q = rate of heat flow K.Cal/hr
K = Thermal conductivity for 1 cm thickness K.cal/m2/hr/C
S = Heating surface in m2
t = temperature difference causing heat flow (t1 t2) in C
l = length or thickness of the plate in cm.
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K/l is expressed as conductance and hence l/K is the resistivity.


1.11.4.2 Convection:
This process can occur only in fluids or gases. This process of heat transfer
takes place when the molecules are displaced physically. The fluid or gas
when heated expands, becomes less dense and raises up causing movement
and allowing the colder and more dense gas or liquid to replace it. In the
Boiler the heat from tube metal goes to water flowing inside. Similarly when
gas or liquid is heated, it expands, becomes less dense and rises up causing
movement and allowing the colder and denser gas or liquid to replace it.
Mainly in Superheater, Reheater and Economizer the heat from hot gas is
getting transferred to metal outer surface by way of convection process.
Heat transfer by convection depends on the specific characteristics of the
medium i.e. gas or liquid.
Heat transfer by convection between a fluid and a solid such as in a boiler
tube is expressed as below:
qc = Uc S t .. (3)
Where qc = rate of heat flow by convection in K.Cal/hr
U = Convection film conductance in K.cal/m2/hr/C
S = heat transfer surface in m2
t = temperature difference between fluid bulk temperature
and solid surface temperature in C.
1.11.4.3 Radiation:
Heat when it travels from source to another substance through an empty space
(often imagined as ether) or through vacuum or gas or air in straight lines, the
process of heat transfer is called radiation. The tube metal surface at the top of
the furnace of a Boiler gets heat by way of radiation. We get heat from Sun by
radiation.
All substances emit heat energy by radiation depending on their temperature.
Radiation emitted by a body depends upon its surface area and temperature.
The relationship between them is given by Stefan-Boltzman law
q = S T4
q rate of heat flow
Stefan-Boltzman constant
S surface area of body
T absolute temperature of the emitter
For bodies other than black bodies whose emissivity will be less than 1, the
formula will be changed as
q = ES T4
where E is emissivity of the body
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If we consider two parallel planes of infinite size and they are black bodies,
then heat transfer from the hot plane (at T1 K) to the other plane (at T2 K) is
given by the formula
q = S (T14 T24)
If all the radiation emitted by one does not fall on the other it is essential to
introduce an angle factor in the formula
In boiler the radiation becomes luminous by entrained particles such as
pulverised coal, soot etc. and calculation of luminous radiation is complex.
The gases such as oxygen and nitrogen absorbs or emit only slight amount of
radiation. But water vapours, carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and carbon
monoxide which are part of flue gases in the boiler also absorb and emit. They
emit and radiate only in certain wave length bands that lie outside of the
visible range and are called as non-luminous gas radiation.

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Examples
1. Question: Defined absolute temperature scale
(Feb-88, Aug-89)
Answer:
Absolute temperature scale or Kelvin temperature scale is based on absolute zero of
temperature. Absolute zero, or 0K, is the temperature at which molecular energy is a
minimum and it corresponds to a temperature of 273.15 on the Celsius temperature
scale. At absolute temperature a perfect gas is considered to have a zero volume.
Absolute temperature is expressed by the capital latter K and at this scale the
freezing point of water (0C) is 273.15 K, and the boiling point of water (100C), is
373.15 K, respectively.
2. Question: Give in a tabular form a list of devices which are used to measure the
temperatures between that of liquid air (- 1830C) and the melting point of
Platinum ( 17700C) and show the range of temperature over which each can be
used
Answer:
Devices
Mercury in glass thermometer
Mercury thermometers, fused silica
Gas expansion thermometer (N2)
Metal expansion thermometer
Resistance pyrometer
Thermoelectric pyrometer (le-Chateleir)
Thermo-electric pyrometer (base metal)
Seger cones
Radiation pyrometer
Optical pyrometer

Temperature
range in 0C
- 40 to 525
- 40 to 650
260 to 1600
0 to 500
- 180 to 1000
0 to 1500
0 to 1000
600 to 2000
400 upwards
650 upwards

Effect utilised
Expansion of fluid
Expansion of fluid
Expansion of fluid
Expansion of solid
Change of electrical resistance
Thermo-electric effect
Thermo-electric effect
Fusion (softening)
Radiation (total)
Radiation (mono-chromatic)

3. Question: The temperature of water while entering an economiser is 20C, while


leaving the economiser is 80C. If the rate of flow of water is 500 kg per minute, how
much quantity of heat is supplied in the economiser? Specific heat of water may be
taken as 4.182 kJ/kg.
Answer:
Quantity of water flowing = 500 kg/minute
Rise in temperature of circulating water = 80 20 = 60C.
Specific heat of water is 4.182 kJ/kg
Therefore, quantity of heat supplied to water in the economiser per minute
= 500 x 4.182 x 60 = 125460 kJ/minute i.e.
125.46 MJ/minute.
4. Question: A certain gas occupies 3 cubic metre at a temperature of 150C. The
pressure of the gas is 7 bar. The gas expands in such a manner that the volume
becomes 9 cu metre and the temperature is 10C. What is the pressure of the gas?
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Answer:
When the mass of the gas is not known, we use the equation
p1V1/ T1 = p2V2/ T2
p1 = 7 x 105 N/m2; V1 = 3 cu metre; V2 = 9 cu metre
T1 = 150 + 273 = 423 K and T2 = 273 + 10 = 283 K
Therefore, (700000 x 3) / 423 = p2 x 9 / 283
or
p2 = 156200 N/m2
or
p2 = 1.562 bar.
5. Question: The compression ratio of an engine is 12 to 1, the pressure at the
commencement of the compression stroke is 100 kN/m2 and the temperature
115C. Calculate the absolute pressure at the end of compression stroke if the
temperature has then risen to 180C.
Answer:
We know,
p1V1/ T1 = p2V2/ T2
We have,
p1 = 100 kN/m2 ; T1 = 115 + 273 = 388 K ;
V2 = V1/12
On substitution of values, we get
100 x V1 / 388 = p2 x V1/(12 x 453)
or p2 = 1401 kN/m2 (14.01 bar) absolute

T2 = 180 + 273 = 453 K

6. Question: Calculate the molecular volume of all gases at 200 kN/m2 and 30C.
According to the characteristic equation of a gas we have pV = mRT where p is
the pressure of the gas in N/m2, V is the volume of mass m kg of gas in cu metre,
R is the characteristic gas constant and T is the absolute temperature of the gas in
kelvin.
Answer:
If V is the molecular volume, then m will be molecular mass of the gas and
mR = 8314.3 J/kg mole/K
We have, P = 200 x 103 N/m2 ; T = 273 + 30 = 303 K
Therefore, 200 x x V = 8314.3 x 303
V = (8314.3 x 303) / (200 x 103) =12.596 m3

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TUTORIAL FOR SECOND CLASS BOILER ENGINEERS PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION

DLP/BOE-II/ I/1692001

Examples for practice


1. Question: Differentiate between the manometer & barometer.
(Feb-88, Aug-89, Feb-95)
2. Question: Differentiate between pressure gauge and vacuum gauge.
3. Question: What are the different systems of units?
4. Question: What do understand by absolute pressure and absolute or
Thermodynamic temperature?
5. Question: Fill the gap (Oct-95)
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
6.

1m3 = -------Cubic Feet


1kW = -------HP
1lb = -------- Grain
1000 cm3 = ------ dm3
1m3/hr = 0.59 CFM
1 bar = 14.50 lb/sq. in 102 kn/M2
1dm3/sec = 0.0353 cubic feet/s
1kW h = 860 Kcal.

Question: Fill in the gap (Aug-96)


i)
1 kg/cm2 = --------- lb/M, 1 bar = --------- lb/D
ii)
Temperature K = Temp ----------- + ---------Temperature R = Temp ---------------- + -------------iii)
1 metric horse power = --------- watts
1 British horse power = ------------- watts

7. Question: Convert the following in kg/cm2ab


i. Vacuum of 720 MM of Hg.
ii. 10 G Pa
(Feb.95)

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TUTORIAL FOR SECOND CLASS BOILER ENGINEERS PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION

DLP/BOE-II/ I/1692001

ASSESSMENT SHEET
1.

Question: State True or False :( If false correct and rewrite them.)

The specific gravity of kerosene oil is 1.2


30 C is equal to 80 F
Specific gravity of water is 1
40 C is equal to 104 F
10 C = 60 F
-40 F is equal to 40 C
( Aug-96, Oct-95 & 97, June-98)
Mercury is 11 Times heavier than water
Internal energy of a gas is a function of the pressure only (96)
1Kg force = 9.81x105 Newton.
1 bar = 0.1 M pa
1.0 bar = 1.01972 kg/cm2
The internal energy of a perfect Gas is the function of temperature only
Mercury is ten times heavier than water
Barometer is used to measure boiler draught.
+40 C = -40 F
5.9 kW = 9.0 H.P.
4.5 bar = 4500 N/m2
-40 C = +40 F (Aug-99,Feb-2000)
At the critical point the specific volume of water is equal to 0.00317 m3/kg
1 bar = 10 x 104 N/m2
At critical pressure, the latent heat of vaporization is zero
Mechanical equivalent of heat for 1 Kcal or Joules equivalent is equal
to 421 Kg m. ( Aug.94)
The reciprocal of specific volume is known as mass
One Pascal is equal to 1 x 105 N/m2
All specific properties are extensive properties as they are related to unit volume
of substance.
1 KWH = 3600 MJ
The pressure and temperature at which combination of ice and water can coexist
are independent of each other. (96)
One kg-mol of hydrogen mean one kg of hydrogen (96)
1 kg. force = 9.81 x 105 newton. (97)
The maximum temperature to which water can be heated in an economiser is
100C below the steam formation temperature not corresponding to the working
pressure of the boiler.( 98 )

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TUTORIAL FOR SECOND CLASS BOILER ENGINEERS PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION

DLP/BOE-II/ I/1692001

2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.

8.

Question: A body weights 50kg on earth. Find its weight on


the (a) Moon where gravitational acceleration is 1.7M/sec 2 (b) Sun where
gravitational acceleration is 270 M/sec2
Question: A thermometer immersed in fluid the value of
temperature in F and C shows same what will be value of temp.? Express this
value of temp. in deg.R & deg.K.
Question: A vacuum gauges reads the vacuum in a chamber
as 300 MM of Hg, what is the absolute pressure in the chamber if the
atmospheric pressure is 760 mm of Hg. The specific weight of mercury at this
temp. is 13550 kg/M3
(Feb.91).
Question: A manometer joined to a gas cylinder indicates 20
kPa, while the barometer reads 760 mm of mercury. What will be the reading of
the manometer if the barometric pressure drops to 730 mm mercury?
Question: A steam power plant develops 4460 kW. What is
the equivalent of this power in thermal unit?
Question: The gas used in gas engine trial was tested in a
Boys calorimeter. The pressure of gas supply was 70 mm of water column.
What is the absolute pressure of the gas if the barometric pressure is 760 mm of
mercury?
Question: Define a new temperature scale, say oD in which
the boiling and freezing points of water are 300oD and 100oD respectively.
Correlate this scale with the Centigrade scale. The oD reading on this scale is a
certain number of degrees on a corresponding absolute temperature scale. What
is this absolute temperature at oD?

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