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0675-0749- Iohannes Damascenus On the orthodox Faith

JOHN OF DAMASCUS: AN EXACT EXPOSITION OF THE ORTHODOX FAITH, BOOK I


AN EXA! EX"O#I!ION OF !$E O%!$ODOX FAI!$
&OO' I
$A"!E% I(
!hat the Deit) is incom*rehensi+,e- and that .e ou/ht not to *r) into and medd,e .ith tire thin/s .hich
ha0e not +een de,i0ered to us +) the ho,) "ro*hets- and A*ost,es- and E0an/e,ists(
No one hath seen God at an t!"e# the On$%&e'otten Son, (h!)h !s !n the &oso" o* the Fathe+, He hath de)$a+ed
H!",-./ The De!t, the+e*o+e, !s !ne**a&$e and !n)o"0+ehens!&$e/ Fo+ no one 1no(eth the Fathe+, sa2e the Son,
no+ the Son, sa2e the Fathe+,3./ And the Ho$ S0!+!t, too, so 1no(s the th!n's o* God as the s0!+!t o* the "an
1no(s the th!n's that a+e !n h!",4./ Mo+eo2e+, a*te+ the *!+st and &$essed nat5+e no one, not o* "en on$, &5t
e2en o* s50+a"5ndane 0o(e+s, and the Che+5&!", I sa, and Se+a0h!" the"se$2es, has e2e+ 1no(n God, sa2e he
to (ho" He +e2ea$ed H!"se$*/
God, ho(e2e+, d!d not $ea2e 5s !n a&so$5te !'no+an)e/ Fo+ the 1no($ed'e o* God6s e7!sten)e has &een !"0$anted
& H!" !n a$$ & nat5+e/ Th!s )+eat!on, too, and !ts "a!ntenan)e, and !ts 'o2e+n"ent, 0+o)$a!" the "a8est o* the
D!2!ne nat5+e,9./ Mo+eo2e+, & the :a( and the P+o0hets,;. !n *o+"e+ t!"es and a*te+(a+ds & H!s On$%
&e'otten Son, o5+ :o+d and God and Sa2!o5+ Jes5s Ch+!st, He d!s)$osed to 5s the 1no($ed'e o* H!"se$* as that
(as 0oss!&$e *o+ 5s/ A$$ th!n's, the+e*o+e, that ha2e &een de$!2e+ed to 5s & :a( and P+o0hets and A0ost$es and
E2an'e$!sts (e +e)e!2e, and 1no(, and hono5+,<., see1!n' *o+ noth!n' &eond these/ Fo+ God, &e!n' 'ood, !s the
)a5se o* a$$ 'ood, s5&8e)t ne!the+ to en2 no+ to an 0ass!on,=./ Fo+ en2 !s *a+ +e"o2ed *+o" the D!2!ne nat5+e,
(h!)h !s &oth 0ass!on$ess and on$ 'ood/ As 1no(!n' a$$ th!n's, the+e*o+e, and 0+o2!d!n' *o+ (hat !s 0+o*!ta&$e
*o+ ea)h, He +e2ea$ed that (h!)h !t (as to o5+ 0+o*!t to 1no(# &5t (hat (e (e+e 5na&$e,>. to &ea+ He 1e0t se)+et/
?!th these th!n's $et 5s &e sat!s*!ed, and $et 5s a&!de & the", not +e"o2!n' e2e+$ast!n' &o5nda+!es, no+
o2e+0ass!n' the d!2!ne t+ad!t!on,@./
$A"!E% II(
oncernin/ thin/s uttera+,e and thin/s unuttera+,e- and thin/s 1no.a+,e and thin1s un1no.a+,e(
It !s ne)essa+, the+e*o+e, that one (ho (!shes to s0ea1 o+ to hea+ o* God sho5$d 5nde+stand )$ea+$ that a$!1e !n
the do)t+!ne o* De!t and !n that o* the In)a+nat!on,-., ne!the+ a+e a$$ th!n's 5n5tte+a&$e no+ a$$ 5tte+a&$e# ne!the+
a$$ 5n1no(a&$e no+ a$$ 1no(a&$e,3./ B5t the 1no(a&$e &e$on's to one o+de+, and the 5tte+a&$e to anothe+# 85st as
!t !s one th!n' to s0ea1 and anothe+ th!n' to 1no(/ Man o* the th!n's +e$at!n' to God, the+e*o+e, that a+e d!"$
5nde+stood )annot &e 05t !nto *!tt!n' te+"s, &5t on th!n's a&o2e 5s (e )annot do e$se than e70+ess o5+se$2es
a))o+d!n' to o5+ $!"!ted )a0a)!t# as, *o+ !nstan)e, (hen (e s0ea1 o* God (e 5se the te+"s s$ee0, and (+ath, and
+e'a+d$essness, hands, too, and *eet, $and s5)h $!1e e70+ess!ons/
?e, the+e*o+e, &oth 1no( and )on*ess that God !s (!tho5t &e'!nn!n', (!tho5t end, ete+na$ and e2e+$ast!n',
5n)+eate, 5n)han'ea&$e, !n2a+!a&$e, s!"0$e, 5n)o"0o5nd, !n)o+0o+ea$, !n2!s!&$e, !"0a$0a&$e, 5n)!+)5"s)+!&ed,
!n*!n!te, !n)o'n!sa&$e, !nde*!na&$e, !n)o"0+ehens!&$e, 'ood, 85st, "a1e+ o* a$$ th!n's )+eated, a$"!'ht, a$$%+5$!n',
a$$%s5+2e!n', o* a$$ o2e+see+, so2e+e!'n, 85d'e# and that God !s One, that !s to sa, one essen)es# and that He !s
1no(n,9., and has H!s &e!n' !n th+ee s5&s!sten)es, !n Fathe+, I sa, and Son and Ho$ S0!+!t# and that the Fathe+
and the Son and the Ho$ S0!+!t a+e one !n a$$ +es0e)ts, e7)e0t !n that o* not &e!n' &e'otten, that o* &e!n'
&e'otten, and that o* 0+o)ess!on# and that the On$%&e'otten Son and ?o+d o* God and God, !n H!s &o(e$s o*
"e+), *o+ o5+ sa$2at!on, & the 'ood 0$eas5+e o* God and the )o%o0e+at!on o* the Ho$ S0!+!t, &e!n' )on)e!2ed
(!tho5t seed, (as &o+n 5n)o++50ted$ o* the Ho$ A!+'!n and Mothe+ o* God, Ma+, & the Ho$ S0!+!t, and
&e)a"e o* he+ 0e+*e)t Man# and that the Sa"e !s at on)e 0e+*e)t God and 0e+*e)t Man, o* t(o nat5+es, Godhead
and Manhood, and !n t(o nat5+es 0ossess!n' !nte$$!'en)e, (!$$ and ene+', and *+eedo", and, !n a (o+d, 0e+*e)t
a))o+d!n' to the "eas5+e and 0+o0o+t!on 0+o0e+ to ea)h, at on)e to the d!2!n!t, I sa, and to the h5"an!t, et to
one )o"0os!te 0e+sons,;.# and that He s5**e+ed h5n'e+ and th!+st and (ea+!ness, and (as )+5)!*!ed, and *o+ th+ee
das s5&"!tted to the e70e+!en)e o* death and &5+!a$, and as)ended to hea2en, *+o" (h!)h a$so He )a"e to 5s,
and sha$$ )o"e a'a!n/ And the Ho$ S)+!0t5+e !s (!tness to th!s and the (ho$e )ho!+ o* the Sa!nts/
B5t ne!the+ do (e 1no(, no+ )an (e te$$, (hat the essen)e,<. o* God !s, o+ ho( !t !s !n a$$, o+ ho( the On$%
&e'otten Son and God, ha2!n' e"0t!ed H!"se$*, &e)a"e Man o* 2!+'!n &$ood, "ade & anothe+ $a( )ont+a+ to
nat5+e, o+ ho( He (a$1ed (!th d+ *eet 50on the (ate+s,=./ It !s not (!th!n o5+ )a0a)!t, the+e*o+e, to sa
anth!n' a&o5t God o+ e2en to th!n1 o* H!", &eond the th!n's (h!)h ha2e &een d!2!ne$ +e2ea$ed to 5s, (hethe+
& (o+d o+ & "an!*estat!on, & the d!2!ne o+a)$es at on)e o* the O$d Testa"ent and o* the Ne(,>./
$A"!E% III(
"roo2 that there is a 3od(
That the+e !s a God, then, !s no "atte+ o* do5&t to those (ho +e)e!2e the Ho$ S)+!0t5+es, the O$d Testa"ent, I
"ean, and the Ne(# no+ !ndeed to "ost o* the G+ee1s/ Fo+, as (e sa!d,@., the 1no($ed'e o* the e7!sten)e o* God
!s !"0$anted !n 5s & nat5+e/ B5t s!n)e the (!)1edness o* the E2!$ One has 0+e2a!$ed so "!'ht!$ a'a!nst "an6s
nat5+e as e2en to d+!2e so"e !nto den!n' the e7!sten)e o* God, that "ost *oo$!sh and (oe%*5$est 0!t o*
-
dest+5)t!on ,(hose *o$$ Da2!d, +e2ea$e+ o* the D!2!ne "ean!n', e70osed (hen he sa!d,@., The *oo$ sa!d !n h!s
hea+t, The+e !s no God., so the d!s)!0$es o* the :o+d and H!s A0ost$es, "ade (!se & the Ho$ S0!+!t and (o+1!n'
(onde+s !n H!s 0o(e+ and '+a)e, too1 the" )a0t!2e !n the net o* "!+a)$es and d+e( the" 50 o5t o* the de0ths o*
!'no+an)e,-. to the $!'ht o* the 1no($ed'e o* God/ In $!1e "anne+ a$so the!+ s5))esso+s !n '+a)e and (o+th, &oth
0asto+s and tea)he+s, ha2!n' +e)e!2ed the en$!'hten!n' '+a)e o* the S0!+!t, (e+e (ont, a$!1e & the 0o(e+ o*
"!+a)$es and the (o+d o* '+a)e, to en$!'hten those (a$1!n' !n da+1ness and to &+!n' &a)1 the (ande+e+s !nto the
(a/ B5t as *o+ 5s (ho,3. a+e not +e)!0!ents e!the+ o* the '!*t o* "!+a)$es o+ the '!*t o* tea)h!n' ,*o+ !ndeed (e
ha2e +ende+ed o5+se$2es 5n(o+th o* these & o5+ 0ass!on *o+ 0$eas5+e., )o"e, $et 5s !n )onne)t!on (!th th!s
the"e d!s)5ss a *e( o* those th!n's (h!)h ha2e &een de$!2e+ed to 5s on th!s s5&8e)t & the e70o5nde+s o* '+a)e,
)a$$!n' on the Fathe+, the Son, and the Ho$ S0!+!t/
A$$ th!n's, that e7!st, a+e e!the+ )+eated o+ 5n)+eated/ I*, then, th!n's a+e )+eated, !t *o$$o(s that the a+e a$so
(ho$$ "5ta&$e/ Fo+ th!n's, (hose e7!sten)e o+!'!nated !n )han'e, "5st a$so &e s5&8e)t to )han'e, (hethe+ !t &e
that the 0e+!sh o+ that the &e)o"e othe+ than the a+e & a)t o* (!$$s/ B5t !* th!n's a+e 5n)+eated the "5st !n
a$$ )ons!sten) &e a$so (ho$$ !""5ta&$e/ Fo+ th!n's (h!)h a+e o00osed !n the nat5+e o* the!+ e7!sten)e "5st a$so
&e o00osed !n the "ode o* the!+ e7!sten)e, that !s to sa, "5st ha2e o00os!te 0+o0e+t!es: (ho, then, (!$$ +e*5se to
'+ant that a$$ e7!st!n' th!n's, not on$ s5)h as )o"e (!th!n the 0+o2!n)e o* the senses, &5t e2en the 2e+ an'e$s,
a+e s5&8e)t to )han'e and t+ans*o+"at!on and "o2e"ent o* 2a+!o5s 1!ndsB Fo+ the th!n's a00e+ta!n!n' to the
+at!ona$ (o+$d, I "ean an'e$s and s0!+!ts and de"ons, a+e s5&8e)t to )han'es o* (!$$, (hethe+ !t !s a 0+o'+ess!on
o+ a +et+o'+ess!on !n 'oodness, (hethe+ a st+5''$e o+ a s5++ende+# (h!$e the othe+s s5**e+ )han'es o* 'ene+at!on
and dest+5)t!on, o* !n)+ease and de)+ease, o* C5a$!t and o* "o2e"ent !n s0a)e/ Th!n's then that a+e "5ta&$e a+e
a$so (ho$$ )+eated/ B5t th!n's that a+e )+eated "5st &e the (o+1 o* so"e "a1e+, and the "a1e+ )annot ha2e
&een )+eated/ Fo+ !* he had &een )+eated, he a$so "5st s5+e$ ha2e &een )+eated & so"e one, and so on t!$$ (e
a++!2e at so"eth!n' 5n)+eated/ The C+eato+, then, &e!n' 5n)+eated, !s a$so (ho$$ !""5ta&$e/ And (hat )o5$d th!s
&e othe+ than De!tB
And e2en the 2e+ )ont!n5!t o* the )+eat!on, and !ts 0+ese+2at!on and 'o2e+n"ent, tea)h 5s that the+e does e7!st
a De!t, (ho s500o+ts and "a!nta!ns and 0+ese+2es and e2e+ 0+o2!des *o+ th!s 5n!2e+se/ Fo+ ho(,9. )o5$d
o00os!te nat5+es, s5)h as *!+e and (ate+, a!+ and ea+th, ha2e )o"&!ned (!th ea)h othe+ so as to *o+" one )o"0$ete
(o+$d, and )ont!n5e to a&!de !n !nd!sso$5&$e 5n!on, (e+e the+e not so"e o"n!0otent 0o(e+ (h!)h &o5nd the"
to'ethe+ and a$(as !s 0+ese+2!n' the" *+o" d!sso$5t!onB
?hat !s !t that 'a2e o+de+ to th!n's o* hea2en and th!n's o* ea+th, and a$$ those th!n's that "o2e !n the a!+ and !n
the (ate+, o+ +athe+ to (hat (as !n e7!sten)e &e*o+e these, 2!D/, to hea2en and ea+th and a!+ and the e$e"ents o*
*!+e and (ate+B ?hat,;. (as !t that "!n'$ed and d!st+!&5ted theseB ?hat (as !t that set these !n "ot!on and 1ee0s
the" !n the!+ 5n)eas!n' and 5nh!nde+ed )o5+se,<.B ?as !t not the A+t!*!)e+ o* these th!n's, and He ?ho hath
!"0$anted !n e2e+th!n' the $a( (he+e& the 5n!2e+se !s )a++!ed on and d!+e)tedB ?ho then !s the A+t!*!)e+ o*
these th!n'sB Is !t not He ?ho )+eated the" and &+o5'ht the" !nto e7!sten)e/ Fo+ (e sha$$ not att+!&5te s5)h a
0o(e+ to the s0ontaneo5s,=./ Fo+, s500os!n' the!+ )o"!n' !nto e7!sten)e (as d5e to the s0ontaneo5s# (hat o* the
0o(e+ that 05t a$$ !n o+de+s,>.B And $et 5s '+ant th!s, !* o5 0$ease/ ?hat o* that (h!)h has 0+ese+2ed and 1e0t
the" !n ha+"on (!th the o+!'!na$ $a(s o* the!+ e7!sten)e,@.B C$ea+$ !t !s so"eth!n' C5!te d!st!n)t *+o" the
s0ontaneo5s,-./And (hat )o5$d th!s &e othe+ than De!t,3.B
$A"!E% I4(
oncernin/ the nature o2 Deit)5 that it is incom*rehensi+,e(
It !s 0$a!n, then, that the+e !s a God/ B5t (hat He !s !n H!s essen)e ant! nat5+e !s a&so$5te$ !n)o"0+ehens!&$e and
5n1no(a&$e/ Fo+ !t !s e2!dent that He !s !n)o+0o+ea$,4./ Fo+ ho( )o5$d that 0ossess &od (h!)h !s !n*!n!te, and
&o5nd$ess, and *o+"$ess, and !ntan'!&$e and !n2!s!&$e, !n sho+t, s!"0$e and not )o"0o5ndB Ho( )o5$d that &e
!""5ta&$e,9. (h!)h !s )!+)5"s)+!&ed and s5&8e)t to 0ass!onB And ho( )o5$d that &e 0ass!on$ess (h!)h !s
)o"0osed o* e$e"ents and !s +eso$2ed a'a!n !nto the"B Fo+ )o"&!nat!on,;. !s the &e'!nn!n' o* )on*$!)t, and
)on*$!)t o* se0a+at!on, and se0a+at!on o* d!sso$5t!on, and d!sso$5t!on !s a$to'ethe+ *o+e!'n to God,<./
A'a!n, ho( (!$$ !t a$so &e "a!nta!ned,=. that God 0e+"eates and *!$$s the 5n!2e+seB as the S)+!0t5+es sa, Do not
I *!$$ hea2en and ea+th, sa!th the :o+ds,>.B Fo+ !t !s an !"0oss!&!$!t,@. that one &od sho5$d 0e+"eate othe+
&od!es (!tho5t d!2!d!n' and &e!n' d!2!ded, and (!tho5t &e!n' en2e$o0ed and )ont+asted, !n the sa"e (a as a$$
*$5!ds "!7 and )o""!n'$e/
B5t !* so"e sa that the &od !s !""ate+!a$, !n thee sa"e (a as the *!*th &od,-. o* (h!)h the G+ee1
0h!$oso0he+s s0ea1 ,(h!)h &od !s an !"0oss!&!$!t., !t (!$$ &e (ho$$ s5&8e)t to "ot!on $!1e the hea2en/ Fo+ that
!s (hat the "ean & the *!*th &od/ ?ho then !s !t that "o2es !tB Fo+ e2e+th!n' that !s "o2ed !s "o2ed &
anothe+ th!n'/ And (ho a'a!n !s !t that "o2es thatB and so on to !n*!n!t t!$$ (e at $en'th a++!2e at so"eth!n'
"ot!on$ess/ Fo+ the *!+st "o2e+ !s "ot!on$ess, and that !s the De!t/ And "5st not that (h!)h !s "o2ed &e
)!+)5"s)+!&ed !n s0a)eB The De!t, then, a$one !s "ot!on$ess, "o2!n' the 5n!2e+se & !""o&!$!t,3./ So then !t
"5st &e ass5"ed that the De!t !s !n)o+0o+ea$/
B5t e2en th!s '!2es no t+5e !dea o* H!s essen)e, to sa that He !s 5n&e'otten, and (!tho5t &e'!nn!n', )han'e$ess
and !"0e+!sha&$e, and 0ossessed o* s5)h othe+ C5a$!t!es as (e a+e (ont to as)+!&e to God and H!s en2!+on"ents/
3
Fo+ these do not !nd!)ate (hat He !s, &5t (hat He !s not,9./ B5t (hen (e (o5$d e70$a!n (hat the essen)e o*
anth!n' !s, (e "5st not s0ea1 on$ ne'at!2e$/ In the )ase o* God, ho(e2e+, !t !s !"0oss!&$e to e70$a!n (hat He
!s !n H!s essen)e, and !t &e*!ts 5s the +athe+ to ho$d d!s)o5+se a&o5t H!s a&so$5te se0a+at!on *+o" a$$ th!n's,;./
Fo+ He does not &e$on' to the )$ass o* e7!st!n' th!n's: not that He has no e7!sten)e,<., &5t that He !s a&o2e a$$
e7!st!n' th!n's, na e2en a&o2e e7!sten)e !tse$*/ Fo+ !* a$$ *o+"s o* 1no($ed'e ha2e to do (!th (hat e7!sts,
ass5+ed$ that (h!)h !s a&o2e 1no($ed'e "5st )e+ta!n$ &e a$so a&o2e essen)e,=.: and, )on2e+se$, that (h!)h !s
a&o2e essen)e,=. (!$$ a$so &e a&o2e 1no($ed'e/
God then !s !n*!n!te and !n)o"0+ehens!&$e and a$$ that !s )o"0+ehens!&$e a&o5t H!" !s H!s !n*!n!t and
!n)o"0+ehens!&!$!t/ B5t a$$ that (e )an a**!+" )on)e+n!n' God does not she( *o+th God6s nat5+e, &5t on$ the
C5a$!t!es o* H!s nat5+e,>./ Fo+ (hen o5 s0ea1 o* H!" as 'ood, and 85st, and (!se, and so *o+th, o5 do not te$$
God6s nat5+e &5t on$ the C5a$!t!es o* H!s nat5+e,@./ F5+the+ the+e a+e so"e a**!+"at!ons (h!)h (e "a1e
)on)e+n!n' God (h!)h ha2e the *o+)e o* a&so$5te ne'at!on: *o+ e7a"0$e, (hen (e 5se the te+" da+1ness, !n
+e*e+en)e to God, (e do not "ean da+1ness !tse$*, &5t that He !s not $!'ht &5t a&o2e $!'ht: and (hen (e s0ea1 o*
H!" as $!'ht, (e "ean that He !s not da+1ness/
$A"!E% 4(
"roo2 that 3od is one and not man)(
?e ha2e, then, adeC5ate$ de"onst+ated that the+e !s a God, and that H!s essen)e !s !n)o"0+ehens!&$e/ B5t that
God !s one,-. and not "an !s no "atte+ o* do5&t to those (ho &e$!e2e !n the Ho$ S)+!0t5+es/ Fo+ the :o+d sas
!n the &e'!nn!n' o* the :a(: I a" the :o+d th God, (h!)h ha2e &+o5'ht thee o5t o* the $and o* E'0t/ Tho5
sha$$ ha2e no othe+ Gods &e*o+e Me,3./ And a'a!n He sas, Hea+, O Is+ae$, the :o+d o5+ God !s one :o+d,4./ And
!n Isa!ah the 0+o0het (e +ead Fo+ I a" the *!+st God and I a" the $ast and &es!de Me the+e !s no God/ Be*o+e Me
the+e (as not an God, no+ a*te+ Me (!$$ the+e &e an God, and &es!de Me the+e !s no God,9./ And the :o+d, too,
!n the ho$ 'os0e$s s0ea1eth these (o+ds to H!s Fathe+, And th!s !s $!*e ete+na$, that the "a 1no( Thee the on$
t+5e God,;./ B5t (!th those that do not &e$!e2e !n the Ho$ S)+!0t5+es (e (!$$ +eason th5s/
The De!t !s 0e+*e)t,<., and (!tho5t &$e"!sh !n 'oodness, and (!sdo", and 0o(e+, (!tho5t &e'!nn!n', (!tho5t
end, e2e+$ast!n', 5n)!+)5"s)+!&ed,=., and !n sho+t, 0e+*e)t !n a$$ th!n's/ Sho5$d (e sa, then, that the+e a+e "an
Gods, (e "5st +e)o'n!se d!**e+en)e a"on' the "an/ Fo+ !* the+e !s no d!**e+en)e a"on' the", the a+e one
+athe+ than "an/ B5t !* the+e !s d!**e+en)e a"on' the", (hat &e)o"es o* the 0e+*e)tnessB Fo+ that (h!)h )o"es
sho+t o* 0e+*e)t!on, (hethe+ !t &e !n 'oodness, o+ 0o(e+, o+ (!sdo", o+ t!"e, o+ 0$a)e, )o5$d not &e God/ B5t !t !s
th!s 2e+ !dent!t !n a$$ +es0e)ts that she(s that the De!t !s one and not "an,>./
A'a!n, !* the+e a+e "an Gods, ho( )an one "a!nta!n that God !s 5n)!+)5"s)+!&edB Fo+ (he+e the one (o5$d &e,
the othe+ )o5$d not &e,@./
F5+the+, ho( )o5$d the (o+$d &e 'o2e+ned & "an and sa2ed *+o" d!sso$5t!on and dest+5)t!on, (h!$e st+!*e !s
seen to +a'e &et(een the +5$e+sB Fo+ d!**e+en)e !nt+od5)es st+!*e,-./ And !* an one sho5$d sa that ea)h +5$es
o2e+ a 0a+t, (hat o* that (h!)h esta&$!shed th!s o+de+ and 'a2e to ea)h h!s 0a+t!)5$a+ +ea$"B Fo+ th!s (o5$d the
+athe+ &e God/ The+e*o+e, God !s one, 0e+*e)t, 5n)!+)5"s)+!&ed, "a1e+ o* the 5n!2e+se, and !ts 0+ese+2e+ and
'o2e+no+, e7)eed!n' and 0+e)ed!n' a$$ 0e+*e)t!on/
Mo+eo2e+, !t !s a nat5+a$ ne)ess!t that d5a$!t sho5$d o+!'!nate !n 5n!t,3./
$A"!E% 4I(
oncernin/ the 6ord and the #an o2 3od5 a reasoned *roo2(
So then th!s one and on$ God !s not ?o+d$ess,4./ And 0ossess!n' the ?o+d, He (!$$ ha2e !t not as (!tho5t a
s5&s!sten)e, no+ as ha2!n' had a &e'!nn!n', no+ as dest!ned to )ease to &e/ Fo+ the+e ne2e+ (as a t!"e (hen God
(as not ?o+d: &5t He e2e+ 0ossesses H!s o(n ?o+d, &e'otten o* H!"se$*, not, as o5+ (o+d !s, (!tho5t a
s5&s!sten)e and d!sso$2!n' !nto a!+, &5t ha2!n' a s5&s!sten)e !n H!" and $!*e and 0e+*e)t!on, not 0+o)eed!n' o5t o*
H!"se$* &5t e2e+ e7!st!n' (!th!n H!"se$*,9./ Fo+ (he+e )o5$d !t &e, !* !t (e+e to 'o o5ts!de H!"B Fo+ !nas"5)h
as o5+ nat5+e !s 0e+!sha&$e and eas!$ d!sso$2ed, o5+ (o+d !s a$so (!tho5t s5&s!sten)e/ B5t s!n)e God !s
e2e+$ast!n' and 0e+*e)t, He (!$$ ha2e H!s ?o+d s5&s!stent !n H!", and e2e+$ast!n' t+od $!2!n', and 0ossessed o*
a$$ the att+!&5tes o* the Be'ette+/ Fo+ 85st as o5+ (o+d, 0+o)eed!n' as !t *$oes o5t o* the "!nd, !s ne!the+ (ho$$
!dent!)a$ (!th the "!nd no+ 5tte+$ d!2e+se *+o" !t ,*o+ so *a+ as !t 0+o)eeds o5t o* the "!nd !t !s d!**e+ent *+o" !t,
(h!$e so *a+ as !t +e2ea$s the "!nd, !t !s no $on'e+ a&so$5te$ d!2e+se *+o" the "!nd, &5t &e!n' one !n nat5+e (!th
the "!nd, !t !s et to the s5&8e)t d!2e+se *+o" !t., so !n the sa"e "anne+ a$so the ?o+d o* Gods !n !ts !nde0endent
s5&s!sten)e !s d!**e+ent!ated,<. *+oth H!" *+o" ?ho" !t de+!2es !ts s5&s!sten)e,=.: &5t !nas"5)h as !t d!s0$as !n
!tse$* the sa"e att+!&5tes as a+e seen !n God, !t !s o* the sa"e nat5+e as God/ Fo+ 85st as a&so$5te 0e+*e)t!on !s
)onte"0$ated !n the Fathe+, so a$so !s !t )onte"0$ated !n the ?o+d that !s &e'otten o* H!"/
$A"!E% 4II(
oncernin/ the $o,) #*irit- a reasoned *roo2(
Mo+eo2e+ the ?o+d "5st a$so 0ossess S0!+!t,>./ Fo+ !n *a)t e2en o5+ (o+d !s not dest!t5te o* s0!+!t# &5t !n o5+ )ase
the s0!+!t !s so"eth!n' d!**e+ent *+o" o5+ essen)e,@./ Fo+ the+e !s an att+a)t!on and "o2e"ent o* the a!+ (h!)h !s
d+a(n !n and 0o5+ed *o+th that the &od "a &e s5sta!ned/ And !t !s th!s (h!)h !n the "o"ent o* 5tte+an)e
&e)o"es the a+t!)5$ate (o+d, +e2ea$!n' !n !tse$* the *o+)e o* the (o+d,-./,3. B5t !n the )ase o* the d!2!ne nat5+e,
4
(h!)h !s s!"0$e and 5n)o"0o5nd, (e "5st )on*ess !n a$$ 0!et that the+e e7!sts a S0!+!t o* God, *o+ the ?o+d !s
not "o+e !"0e+*e)t than o5+ o(n (o+d/ No( (e )annot, !n 0!et, )ons!de+ the S0!+!t to &e so"eth!n' *o+e!'n that
'a!ns ad"!ss!on !nto God *+o" (!tho5t, as !s the )ase (!th )o"0o5nd nat5+es $!1e 5s/ Na, 85st as, (hen (e
hea+d,4. o* the ?o+d o* God, (e )ons!de+ed !t to &e not (!tho5t s5&s!sten)e, no+ the 0+od5)t o* $ea+n!n', no+ the
"e+e 5tte+an)e o* 2o!)e, no+ as 0ass!n' !nto the a!+ and 0e+!sh!n', &5t as &e!n' essent!a$$ s5&s!st!n', endo(ed
(!th *+ee 2o$!t!on, and ene+', and o"n!0oten)e: so a$so, (hen (e ha2e $ea+nt a&o5t the S0!+!t o* God, (e
)onte"0$ate !t as the )o"0an!on o* the ?o+d and the +e2ea$e+ o* H!s ene+', and not as "e+e &+eath (!tho5t
s5&s!sten)e/ Fo+ to )on)e!2e o* the S0!+!t that d(e$$s !n God as a*te+ the $!1eness o* o5+ o(n s0!+!t, (o5$d &e to
d+a' do(n the '+eatness o* the d!2!ne nat5+e to the $o(est de0ths o* de'+adat!on/ B5t (e "5st )onte"0$ate !t as
an essent!a$ 0o(e+, e7!st!n' !n !ts o(n 0+o0e+ and 0e)5$!a+ s5&s!sten)e, 0+o)eed!n' *+o" the Fathe+ ant! +est!n' !n
the ?o+d,9., and she(!n' *o+th the ?o+d, ne!the+ )a0a&$e o* d!s85n)t!on *+o" God !n ?ho" !t e7!sts, and the
?o+d ?hose )o"0an!on !t !s, no+ 0o5+ed *o+th to 2an!sh !nto noth!n'ness,;., &5t &e!n' !n s5&s!sten)e !n the
$!1eness o* the ?o+d, endo(ed (!th $!*e, *+ee 2o$!t!on, !nde0endent "o2e"ent, ene+', e2e+ (!$$!n' that (h!)h !s
'ood, and ha2!n' 0o(e+ to 1ee0 0a)e (!th the (!$$ !n a$$ !ts de)+ees,<., ha2!n' no &e'!nn!n' and no end/ Fo+
ne2e+ (as the Fathe+ at an t!"e $a)1!n' !n the ?o+d, no+ the ?o+d !n the S0!+!t/
Th5s &e)a5se o* the 5n!t !n nat5+e, the e++o+ o* the G+ee1s !n ho$d!n' that God !s "an, !s 5tte+$ dest+oed: and
a'a!n & o5+ a))e0tan)e o* the ?o+d and the S0!+!t, the do'"a o* the Je(s !s o2e+th+o(n: and the+e +e"a!ns o*
ea)h 0a+t,=. on$ (hat !s 0+o*!ta&$e,>./ On the one hand o* the Je(!sh !dea (e ha2e the 5n!t o* God6s nat5+e,
ant! on the othe+, o* the G+ee1, (e ha2e the d!st!n)t!on !n s5&s!sten)es and that on$,@./
B5t sho5$d the Je( +e*5se to a))e0t the ?o+d and the S0!+!t, $et the d!2!ne S)+!0t5+e )on*5te h!" and )5+& h!s
ton'5e/ Fo+ )on)e+n!n' the ?o+d, the d!2!ne Da2!d sas, Fo+ e2e+, O :o+d, Th ?o+d !s sett$ed !n hea2en,-./ And
a'a!n , He sent H!s ?o+d and hea$ed the",3./ B5t the (o+d that !s 5tte+ed !s not sent, no+ !s !t *o+ e2e+ sett$ed,4./
And )on)e+n!n' the S0!+!t, the sa"e Da2!d sas, Tho5 sendest *o+th Th S0!+!t, the a+e )+eated,9./ And a'a!n,
B the (o+d o* the :o+d (e+e the hea2ens "ade: and a$$ the host o* the" & the &+eath o* H!s "o5th,;./ Jo&, too,
sas, The S0!+!t o* God hath "ade "e, and the &+eath o* the A$"!'ht hath '!2en "e $!*e,<./ No( the S0!+!t
(h!)h !s sent and "a1es and sta&$!shes and )onse+2es, !s not "e+e &+eath that d!sso$2es, an "o+e than the "o5th
o* God !s a &od!$ "e"&e+/ Fo+ the )on)e0t!on o* &oth "5st &e s5)h as ha+"on!Des (!th the D!2!ne nat5+e,=./
$A"!E% 4III(
oncernin/ the $o,) !rinit)(
?e &e$!e2e, then, !n One God, one &e'!nn!n',>., ha2!n' no &e'!nn!n', 5n)+eate, 5n&e'otten, !"0e+!sha&$e and
!""o+ta$, e2e+$ast!n', !n*!n!te, 5n)!+)5"s)+!&ed, &o5nd$ess, o* !n*!n!te 0o(e+, s!"0$e, 5n)o"0o5nd, !n)o+0o+ea$,
(!tho5t *$57, 0ass!on$ess, 5n)han'ea&$e, 5na$te+a&$e, 5nseen, the *o5nta!n o* 'oodness and 85st!)e, the $!'ht o*
the "!nd, !na))ess!&$e# a 0o(e+ 1no(n & no "eas5+e, "eas5+a&$e on$ & H!s o(n (!$$ a$one ,*o+ a$$ th!n's that
He (!$$s He )an,@.., )+eato+ o* a$$ )+eated th!n's, seen o+ 5nseen, o* a$$ the "a!nta!ne+ and 0+ese+2e+, *o+ a$$ the
0+o2!de+, "aste+ and $o+d and 1!n' o2e+ a$$, (!th an end$ess and !""o+ta$ 1!n'do": ha2!n' no )ont+a+, *!$$!n'
a$$, & noth!n' en)o"0assed, &5t +athe+ H!"se$* the en)o"0asse+ and "a!nta!ne+ and o+!'!na$ 0ossesso+ o* the
5n!2e+se, o))50!n',-. a$$ essen)es !nta)t,3. and e7tend!n' &eond a$$ th!n's, and &e!n' se0a+ate *+o" a$$
essen)e as &e!n' s50e+%essent!a$,4. and a&o2e a$$ th!n's and a&so$5te God, a&so$5te 'oodness, and a&so$5te
*5$ness,9.: dete+"!n!n' a$$ so2e+e!'nt!es and +an1s, &e!n' 0$a)ed a&o2e a$$ so2e+e!'nt and +an1, a&o2e essen)e
and $!*e and (o+d and tho5'ht: &e!n' H!"se$* 2e+ $!'ht and 'oodness and $!*e and essen)e, !nas"5)h as He does
not de+!2e H!s &e!n' *+o" anothe+, that !s to sa, o* those th!n's that e7!st: &5t &e!n' H!"se$* the *o5nta!n o*
&e!n' to a$$ that !s, o* $!*e to the $!2!n', o* +eason to those that ha2e +eason# to a$$ the )a5se o* a$$ 'ood: 0e+)e!2!n'
a$$ th!n's e2en &e*o+e the ha2e &e)o"e: one essen)e, one d!2!n!t, one 0o(e+, one (!$$, one ene+', one
&e'!nn!n', one a5tho+!t, one do"!n!on, one so2e+e!'nt, "ade 1no(n !n th+ee 0e+*e)t s5&s!sten)es ant! ado+ed
(!th one ado+at!on, &e$!e2ed !n and "!n!ste+ed to & a$$ +at!ona$ )+eat!on,;., 5n!ted (!tho5t )on*5s!on and
d!2!ded (!tho5t se0a+at!on ,(h!)h !ndeed t+ans)ends tho5'ht./ ,?e &e$!e2e. !n Fathe+ and Son and Ho$ S0!+!t
(he+e!nto a$so (e ha2e &een &a0t!Ded,<./ Fo+ so o5+ :o+d )o""anded the A0ost$es to &a0t!De, sa!n', Ba0t!D!n'
the" !n the na"e o* the Fathe+, Son, and Ho$ S0!+!t,=./
,?e &e$!e2e. !n one Fathe+, the &e'!nn!n',>., and )a5se o* a$$: &e'otten o* no one: (!tho5t )a5se o+ 'ene+at!on,
a$one s5&s!st!n': )+eato+ o* a$$: &5t Fathe+ o* one on$ & nat5+e, H!s On$%&e'otten Son and o5+ :o+d and God
and Sa2!o5+ Jes5s Ch+!st, and P+od5)e+,@. o* the "ost Ho$ S0!+!t/ And !n one Son o* God, the On$%&e'otten,
o5+ :o+d, Jes5s Ch+!st: &e'otten o* the Fathe+, &e*o+e a$$ the a'es: :!'ht o* :!'ht, t+5e God o* t+5e God: &e'otten,
not "ade, )ons5&stant!a$ (!th the Fathe+, th+o5'h ?ho" a$$ th!n's a+e "ade: and (hen (e sa He (as &e*o+e a$$
the a'es (e she( that H!s &!+th !s (!tho5t t!"e o+ &e'!nn!n': *o+ the Son o* God (as not &+o5'ht !nto &e!n' o5t
o* noth!n',-., He that !s the e**5$'en)e o* the '$o+, the !"0+ess o* the Fathe+6s s5&s!sten)e,3., the $!2!n' (!sdo"
and 0o(e+,4., the ?o+d 0ossess!n' !nte+!o+ s5&s!sten)e,9., the essent!a$ and 0e+*e)t and $!2!n' !"a'e s o* the
5nseen God/ B5t a$(as He (as (!th the Fathe+ and !n H!",<., e2e+$ast!n'$ and (!tho5t &e'!nn!n' &e'otten o*
H!"/ Fo+ the+e ne2e+ (as a t!"e (hen the Fathe+ (as and the Son (as not, &5t a$(as the Fathe+ and a$(as the
Son, ?ho (as &e'otten o* H!", e7!sted to'ethe+/ Fo+ He )o5$d not ha2e +e)e!2ed the na"e Fathe+ a0a+t *+o" the
Son: *o+ !* He (e+e (!tho5t the Son,=., He )o5$d not &e the Fathe+: and !* He the+ea*te+ had the Son, the+ea*te+
9
He &e)a"e the Fathe+, not ha2!n' &een the Fathe+ 0+!o+ to th!s, and He (as )han'ed *+o" that (h!)h (as not the
Fathe+ and &e)a"e the Fathe+/ Th!s !s the (o+st *o+" o* &$as0he",>./ Fo+ (e "a not s0ea1 o* God as dest!t5te
o* nat5+a$ 'ene+at!2e 0o(e+: and 'ene+at!2e 0o(e+ "eans, the 0o(e+ o* 0+od5)!n' *+o" one6s se$*, that !s to sa,
*+o" one6s o(n 0+o0e+ essen)e, that (h!)h !s $!1e !n nat5+e to one6s se$*,@./
In t+eat!n', then, o* the 'ene+at!on o* the Son, !t !s an a)t o* !"0!et,-. to sa that t!"e )o"es !nto 0$a and that
the e7!sten)e o* the Son !s o* $ate+ o+!'!n than the Fathe+/ Fo+ (e ho$d that !t !s *+o" H!", that !s, *+o" the
Fathe+6s nat5+e, that the Son !s 'ene+ated/ And 5n$ess (e '+ant that the Son )o%e7!sted *+o" the &e'!nn!n' (!th
the Fathe+, & ?ho" He (as &e'otten, (e !nt+od5)e )han'e !nto the Fathe+6s s5&s!sten)e, &e)a5se, not &e!n' the
Fathe+, He s5&seC5ent$ &e)a"e the Fathe+,3./ Fo+ the )+eat!on, e2en tho5'h !t o+!'!nated $ate+, !s ne2e+the$ess
not de+!2ed *+o" the essen)e o* God, &5t !s &+o5'ht !nto e7!sten)e o5t o* noth!n' & H!s (!$$ and 0o(e+, and
)han'e does not to5)h God6s nat5+e/ Fo+ 'ene+at!on "eans that the &e'ette+ 0+od5)es o5t o* h!s essen)e o**s0+!n'
s!"!$a+ !n essen)e/ B5t )+eat!on and "a1!n' "ean that the )+eato+ and "a1e+ 0+od5)es *+o" that (h!)h !s
e7te+na$, and not o5t o* h!s o(n essen)e, a )+eat!on o* an a&so$5te$ d!ss!"!$a+ nat5+e,4./
?he+e*o+e !n God, ?ho a$one !s 0ass!on$ess and 5na$te+a&$e, and !""5ta&$e, and e2e+ so )ont!n5eth, &oth
&e'ett!n' and )+eat!n' a+e 0ass!on$ess,9./ Fo+ &e!n' & nat5+e 0ass!on$ess and not $!a&$e to *$57, s!n)e He !s
s!"0$e and 5n)o"0o5nd, He !s not s5&8e)t to 0ass!on o+ *$57 e!the+ !n &e'ett!n' o+ !n )+eat!n', no+ has He need
o* an )o%o0e+at!on/ B5t 'ene+at!on !n H!" !s (!tho5t &e'!nn!n' and e2e+$ast!n', &e!n' the (o+1 o* nat5+e and
0+od5)!n' o5t o* H!s o(n essen)e, that the Be'ette+ "a not 5nde+'o )han'e, and that He "a not &e God *!+st
and God $ast, no+ +e)e!2e an a))ess!on: (h!$e )+eat!on !n the )ase o* God,;., &e!n' the (o+1 o* (!$$, !s not )o%
ete+na$ (!th God/ Fo+ !t !s not nat5+a$ that that (h!)h !s &+o5'ht !nto e7!sten)e o5t o* noth!n' sho5$d &e )o%
ete+na$ (!th (hat !s (!tho5t &e'!nn!n' and e2e+$ast!n'/ The+e !s th!s d!**e+en)e !n *a)t &et(een "an6s "a1!n' and
God6s/ Man )an &+!n' noth!n' !nto e7!sten)e o5t o* noth!n',<., &5t a$$ that he "a1es +eC5!+es 0+e%e7!st!n' "atte+
*o+ !ts &as!s,=., and he does not )+eate !t & (!$$ on$, &5t th!n1s o5t *!+st (hat !t !s to &e and 0!)t5+es !t !n h!s
"!nd, and on$ then *ash!ons !t (!th h!s hands, 5nde+'o!n' $a&o5+ and t+o5&$es,>., and o*ten "!ss!n' the "a+1
and *a!$!n' to 0+od5)e to h!s sat!s*a)t!on that a*te+ (h!)h he st+!2es/ B5t God, th+o5'h the e7e+)!se o* (!$$ a$one,
has &+o5'ht a$$ th!n's !nto e7!sten)e o5t o* noth!n'/ No( the+e !s the sa"e d!**e+en)e &et(een God and "an !n
&e'ett!n' and 'ene+at!n'/ Fo+ !n God, ?ho !s (!tho5t t!"e and &e'!nn!n', 0ass!on$ess, not $!a&$e to *$57,
!n)o+0o+ea$, a$one and (!tho5t end,-., 'ene+at!on !s (!tho5t t!"e and &e'!nn!n', 0ass!on$ess and not $!a&$e to
*$57, no+ de0endent on the 5n!on o* t(o,3.: no+ has H!s o(n !n)o"0+ehens!&$e 'ene+at!on &e'!nn!n' o+ end/ And
!t !s (!tho5t &e'!nn!n' &e)a5se He !s !""5ta&$e: (!tho5t *$57 &e)a5se He !s 0ass!on$ess and !n)o+0o+ea$:
!nde0endent o* the 5n!on o* t(o a'a!n &e)a5se He !s !n)o+0o+ea$ &5t a$so &e)a5se He !s the one and on$ God,
and stands !n need o* no )o%o0e+at!on: and (!tho5t end o+ )essat!on &e)a5se He !s (!tho5t &e'!nn!n', o+ t!"e, o+
end, and e2e+ )ont!n5es the sa"e/ Fo+ that (h!)h has no &e'!nn!n' has no end: &5t that (h!)h th+o5'h '+a)e !s
end$ess !s ass5+ed$ not (!tho5t &e'!nn!n', as, (!tness, the an'e$s,4./
A))o+d!n'$ the e2e+$ast!n' God 'ene+ates H!s o(n ?o+d (h!)h !s 0e+*e)t, (!tho5t &e'!nn!n' and (!tho5t end,
that God, ?hose nat5+e and e7!sten)e a+e a&o2e t!"e, "a not en'ende+ !n t!"e/ B5t (!th "an )$ea+$ !t !s
othe+(!se, *o+ 'ene+at!on !s (!th h!" a "atte+ o* se7, and dest+5)t!on and *$57 and !n)+ease and &od )$othe h!"
+o5nd a&o5t,9., and he 0ossesses a nat5+e (h!)h !s "a$e o+ *e"a$e/ Fo+ the "a$e +eC5!+es the ass!stan)e o* the
*e"a$e/ B5t "a He ?ho s5+0asses a$$, and t+ans)ends a$$ tho5'ht and )o"0+ehens!on, &e '+a)!o5s to 5s/
The ho$ )atho$!) and a0osto$!) Ch5+)h, then, tea)hes the e7!sten)e at on)e o* a Fathe+: and o* H!s On$%&e'otten
Son, &o+n o* H!" (!tho5t t!"e and *$57 and 0ass!on, !n a "anne+ !n)o"0+ehens!&$e and 0e+)e!2ed & the God o*
the 5n!2e+se a$one: 85st as (e +e)o'n!se the e7!sten)e at on)e o* *!+e and the $!'ht (h!)h 0+o)eeds *+o" !t: *o+
the+e !s not *!+st *!+e and the+ea*te+ $!'ht, &5t the e7!st to'ethe+/ And 85st as $!'ht !s e2e+ the 0+od5)t o* *!+e, and
e2e+ !s !n !t and at no t!"e !s se0a+ate *+o" !t, so !n $!1e "anne+ a$so the Son !s &e'otten o* the Fathe+ and !s
ne2e+ !n an (as se0a+ate *+o" H!", &5t e2e+ !s !n H!",<./ B5t (he+eas the $!'ht (h!)h !s 0+od5)ed *+o" *!+e
(!tho5t se0a+at!on, and a&!deth e2e+ !n !t, has no 0+o0e+ s5&s!sten)e o* !ts o(n d!st!n)t *+o" that o* *!+e ,*o+ !t !s
a nat5+a$ C5a$!t o* *!+e., the On$%&e'otten Son o* God, &e'otten o* the Fathe+ (!tho5t se0a+at!on and d!**e+en)e
and e2e+ a&!d!n' !n H!", has a 0+o0e+ s5&s!sten)e o* !ts o(n d!st!n)t *+oth that o* the Fathe+/
The te+"s, 6?o+d6 and 6e**5$'en)e,6 then, a+e 5sed &e)a5se He !s &e'otten o* the Fathe+ (!tho5t the 5n!on o* t(o,
o+ 0ass!on, o+ t!"e, o+ *$57, o+ se0a+at!on,=.: and the te+"s 6Son6 and 6!"0+ess o* the Fathe+6s s5&s!sten)e,6
&e)a5se He !s 0e+*e)t and has s5&s!sten)e s and !s !n a$$ +es0e)ts s!"!$a+ to the Fathe+, sa2e that the Fathe+ !s not
&e'otten,@.: and the te+" 6On$%&e'otten6,-. &e)a5se He a$one (as &e'otten a$one o* the Fathe+ a$one/ Fo+ no
othe+ 'ene+at!on !s $!1e to the 'ene+at!on o* the Son o* God, s!n)e no othe+ !s Son o* God/ Fo+ tho5'h the Ho$
S0!+!t 0+o)eedeth *+o" the Fathe+, et th!s !s not 'ene+at!2e !n )ha+a)te+ &5t 0+o)ess!ona$/ Th!s !s a d!**e+ent "ode
o* e7!sten)e, a$!1e !n)o"0+ehens!&$e and 5n1no(n, 85st as !s the 'ene+at!on o* the Son/ ?he+e*o+e a$$ the
C5a$!t!es the Fathe+ has a+e the Son6s, sa2e that the Fathe+ !s 5n&e'otten,3., and th!s e7)e0t!on !n2o$2es no
d!**e+en)e !n essen)e no+ d!'n!t,4., &5t on$ a d!**e+ent "ode o* )o"!n' !nto e7!sten)e,9./ ?e ha2e an ana$o'
!n Ada", (ho (as not &e'otten ,*o+ God H!"se$* "o5$ded h!"., and Seth, (ho (as &e'otten ,*o+ he !s Ada"6s
son., and E2e, (ho 0+o)eeded o5t o* Ada"6s +!& ,*o+ she (as not &e'otten./ These do not d!**e+ *+o" ea)h othe+
!n nat5+e, *o+ the a+e h5"an &e!n's: &5t the d!**e+ !n the "ode o* )o"!n' !nto e7!sten)e,;./
;
Fo+ one "5st +e)o'n!se that the (o+d E'+ee1Fa'enhGonEG'+ee1F (!th on$ one 6E'+ee1FnEG'+ee1F6 s!'n!*!es
H5n)+eateH o+ Hnot ha2!n' &een "ade,H (h!$e E'+ee1Fa'ennhGonEG'+ee1F (+!tten (!th do5&$e
6E'+ee1FnEG'+ee1F6 "eans H5n&e'otten/H A))o+d!n' to the *!+st s!'n!*!)an)e essen)e d!**e+s *+o" essen)e: *o+ one
essen)e !s 5n)+eate, o+ E'+ee1Fa'enhGonEG'+ee1F (!th one 6E'+ee1FnEG'+ee1F,6 and anothe+ !s )+eate o+
E'+ee1F'enhGhEG'+ee1F/ B5t !n the se)ond s!'n!*!)an)e the+e !s no d!**e+en)e &et(een essen)e and essen)e/ Fo+
the *!+st s5&s!sten)e o* a$$ 1!nds o* $!2!n' )+eat5+es !s E'+ee1Fa'ennhGosEG'+ee1F &5t not
E'+ee1Fa'enhGosEG'+ee1F/ Fo+ the (e+e )+eated & the C+eato+, &e!n' &+o5'ht !nto &e!n' & H!s ?o+d, &5t
the (e+e not &e'otten, *o+ the+e (as no 0+e%e7!st!n' *o+" $!1e the"se$2es *+o" (h!)h the "!'ht ha2e &een
&o+n/
So then !n the *!+st sense o* the (o+d the th+ee a&so$5te$ d!2!ne s5&s!sten)es o* the Ho$ Godhead a'+ee,<.: *o+
the e7!st as one !n essen)e and 5n)+eate,=./ B5t (!th the se)ond s!'n!*!)at!on !t !s C5!te othe+(!se/ Fo+ the
Fathe+ a$one !s !n'ene+ate,>., no othe+ s5&s!sten)e ha2!n' '!2en H!" &e!n'/ And the Son a$one !s 'ene+ate, *o+
He (as &e'otten o* the Fathe+6s essen)e (!tho5t &e'!nn!n' and (!tho5t t!"e/ And on$ the Ho$ S0!+!t
0+o)eedeth *+o" the Fathe+6s essen)e, not ha2!n' &een 'ene+ated &5t s!"0$ 0+o)eed!n',@./ Fo+ th!s !s the
do)t+!ne o* Ho$ S)+!0t5+e/ B5t the nat5+e o* the 'ene+at!on and the 0+o)ess!on !s C5!te &eond )o"0+ehens!on/
And th!s a$so !t &eho2es,-. 5s to 1no(, that the na"es Fathe+hood, Sonsh!0 and P+o)ess!on, (e+e not a00$!ed to
the Ho$ Godhead & 5s: on the )ont+a+, the (e+e )o""5n!)ated to 5s & the Godhead, as the d!2!ne a0ost$e
sas, ?he+e*o+e I &o( the 1nee to the Fathe+, *+o" ?ho" !s e2e+ *a"!$ !n hea2en and on ea+th,3./ B5t !* (e
sa,4. that the Fathe+ !s the o+!'!n o* the Son and '+eate+ than the Son, (e do not s5''est an 0+e)eden)e !n t!"e
o+ s50e+!o+!t !n nat5+e o* the Fathe+ o2e+ the Son,9. ,*o+ th+o5'h H!s a'en) He "ade the a'es,;.., o+
s50e+!o+!t !n an othe+ +es0e)t sa2e )a5sat!on/ And (e "ean & th!s, that the Son !s &e'otten o* the Fathe+ and
not the Fathe+ o* the Son, and that the Fathe+ nat5+a$$ !s the )a5se o* the Son: 85st as (e sa !n the sa"e (a not
that *!+e 0+o)eedeth *+o" $!'ht, &5t +athe+ $!'ht *+o" *!+e/ So then, (hene2e+ (e hea+ !t sa!d that the Fathe+ !s the
o+!'!n o* the Son and '+eate+ than the Son, $et 5s 5nde+stand !t to "ean !n +es0e)t o* )a5sat!on/ And 85st as (e do
not sa that *!+e !s o* one essen)e and $!'ht o* anothe+, so (e )annot sa that the Fathe+ !s o* one essen)e and the
Son o* anothe+: &5t &oth a+e o* one and the sa"e essen)e,<./ And 85st as (e sa that *!+e has &+!'htness,=.
th+o5'h the $!'ht 0+o)eed!n' *+o" !t, and do not )ons!de+ the $!'ht o* the *!+e as an !nst+5"ent "!n!ste+!n' to the
*!+e, &5t +athe+ as !ts nat5+a$ *o+)e: so (e sa that the Fathe+ )+eates a$$ that He )+eates th+o5'h H!s On$%&e'otten
Son, not as tho5'h the Son (e+e a "e+e !nst+5"ent se+2!n',>. the Fathe+6s ends, &5t as H!s nat5+a$ and
s5&s!stent!a$ *o+)e,@./ And 85st as (e sa &oth that the *!+e sh!nes and a'a!n that the $!'ht o* the *!+e sh!nes, So a$$
th!n's (hatsoe2e+ the Fathe+ doeth, these a$so doeth the Son $!1e(!se,@a./ B5t (he+eas $!'ht 0ossesses no 0+o0e+
s5&s!sten)e o* !ts o(n, d!st!n)t *+o" that o* the *!+e, the Son !s a 0e+*e)t s5&s!sten)e,-., !nse0a+a&$e *+o" the
Fathe+6s s5&s!sten)e, as (e ha2e she(n a&o2e/ Fo+ !t !s C5!te !"0oss!&$e to *!nd !n )+eat!on an !"a'e that (!$$
!$$5st+ate !n !tse$* e7a)t$ !n a$$ deta!$s the nat5+e o* the Ho$ T+!n!t/ Fo+ ho( )o5$d that (h!)h !s )+eate and
)o"0o5nd, s5&8e)t to *$57 and )han'e, )!+)5"s)+!&ed, *o+"ed and )o++50t!&$e, )$ea+$ she( *o+th the s50e+%
essent!a$ d!2!ne essen)e, 5na**e)ted as !t !s !n an o* these (asB No( !t !s e2!dent that a$$ )+eat!on !s $!a&$e to
"ost o* these a**e)t!ons, and a$$ *+o" !ts 2e+ nat5+e !s s5&8e)t to )o++50t!on/
:!1e(!se (e &e$!e2e a$so !n one Ho$ S0!+!t, the :o+d and G!2e+ o* :!*e: ?ho 0+o)eedeth *+o" the Fathe+ and
+esteth !n the Son: the o&8e)t o* eC5a$ ado+at!on and '$o+!*!)at!on (!th the Fathe+ and Son, s!n)e He !s )o%
essent!a$ and )o%ete+na$,3.: the S0!+!t o* God, d!+e)t, a5tho+!tat!2e,4., the *o5nta!n o* (!sdo", and $!*e, and
ho$!ness: God e7!st!n' and add+essed a$on' (!th Fathe+ and Son: 5n)+eate, *5$$, )+eat!2e, a$$%+5$!n', a$$%e**e)t!n',
a$$%0o(e+*5$, o* !n*!n!te 0o(e+, :o+d o* a$$ )+eat!on and not 5nde+ an $o+d,9.: de!*!n', not de!*!ed,;.: *!$$!n',
not *!$$ed: sha+ed !n, not sha+!n' !n: san)t!*!n', not san)t!*!ed: the !nte+)esso+, +e)e!2!n' the s500$!)at!ons o* a$$:
!n a$$ th!n's $!1e to the Fathe+ and Son: 0+o)eed!n' *+o" the Fathe+ and )o""5n!)ated th+o5'h the Son, and
0a+t!)!0ated !n & a$$ )+eat!on, th+o5'h H!"se$* )+eat!n', and !n2est!n' (!th essen)e and san)t!*!n', and
"a!nta!n!n' the 5n!2e+se: ha2!n' s5&s!sten)e, e7!st!n' !n !ts o(n 0+o0e+ and 0e)5$!a+ s5&s!sten)e, !nse0a+a&$e
and !nd!2!s!&$e *+o" Fathe+ and Son, and 0ossess!n' a$$ the C5a$!t!es that the Fathe+ and Son 0ossess, sa2e that o*
not &e!n' &e'otten o+ &o+n/ Fo+ the Fathe+ !s (!tho5t )anst and 5n&o+n: *o+ He !s de+!2ed *+o" noth!n', &5t
de+!2es *+o" H!"se$* H!s &e!n', no+ does He de+!2e a s!n'$e C5a$!t *+o" anothe+,<./ Rathe+ He !s H!"se$* the
&e'!nn!n' and )a5se o* the e7!sten)e o* a$$ th!n's !n a de*!n!te and nat5+a$ "anne+/ B5t the Son !s de+!2ed *+o"
the Fathe+ a*te+ the "anne+ o* 'ene+at!on, and the Ho$ S0!+!t $!1e(!se !s de+!2ed *+o" the Fathe+, et not a*te+
the "anne+ o* 'ene+at!on, &5t a*te+ that o* 0+o)ess!on/ And (e ha2e $ea+ned that the+e !s a d!**e+en)e,=. &et(een
'ene+at!on and 0+o)ess!on, &5t the nat5+e o* that d!**e+en)e (e !n no (!se 5nde+stand/ F5+the+, the 'ene+at!on o*
the Son *+o" the Fathe+ and the 0+o)ess!on o* the Ho$ S0!+!t a+e s!"5$taneo5s/
A$$ then that the Son and the S0!+!t ha2e !s *+o" the Fathe+, e2en the!+ 2e+ &e!n',>.: and 5n$ess the Fathe+ !s,
ne!the+ the Son no+ the S0!+!t !s/ And 5n$ess the Fathe+ 0ossesses a )e+ta!n att+!&5te, ne!the+ the Son no+ the S0!+!t
0ossesses !t: and th+o5'h the Fathe+,@., that !s, &e)a5se o* the Fathe+6s e7!sten)e,-., the Son and the S0!+!t
e7!st,3., and th+o5'h the Fathe+, that !s, &e)a5se o* the Fathe+ ha2!n' the C5a$!t!es, the Son and the S0!+!t ha2e a$$
the!+ C5a$!t!es, those o* &e!n' 5n&e'otten, and o* &!+th and o* 0+o)ess!on &e!n' e7)e0ted,4./ Fo+ !n these
<
h0ostat!) o+ 0e+sona$ 0+o0e+t!es a$one do the th+ee ho$ s5&s!sten)es,4. d!**e+ *+o" ea)h othe+, &e!n' !nd!2!s!&$
d!2!ded not & essen)e &5t & the d!st!n'5!sh!n' "a+1 o* the!+ 0+o0e+ and 0e)5$!a+ s5&s!sten)e/
F5+the+ (e sa that ea)h o*,9. the th+ee has a 0e+*e)t s5&s!sten)e, that (e "a 5nde+stand not one )o"0o5nd
0e+*e)t nat5+e "ade 50 o* th+ee !"0e+*e)t e$e"ents, &5t one s!"0$e essen)e, s5+0ass!n' and 0+e)ed!n' 0e+*e)t!on,
e7!st!n' !n th+ee 0e+*e)t s5&s!sten)es,;./ Fo+ a$$ that !s )o"0osed o* !"0e+*e)t e$e"ents "5st ne)essa+!$ &e
)o"0o5nd/ B5t *+o" 0e+*e)t s5&s!sten)es no )o"0o5nd )an a+!se/ ?he+e*o+e (e do not s0ea1 o* the *o+" as
*+o" s5&s!sten)es, &5t as !n s5&s!sten)es,<./ B5t (e s0ea1 o* those th!n's as !"0e+*e)t (h!)h do not 0+ese+2e the
*o+" o* that (h!)h !s )o"0$eted o5t o* the"/ Fo+ stone and (ood and !+on a+e ea)h 0e+*e)t !n !ts o(n nat5+e, &5t
(!th +e*e+en)e to the &5!$d!n' that !s )o"0$eted o5t o* the" ea)h !s !"0e+*e)t: *o+ none o* the" !s !n !tse$* a
ho5se/
The s5&s!sten)es then (e sa a+e 0e+*e)t, that (e "a not )on)e!2e o* the d!2!ne nat5+e as )o"0o5nd/ Fo+
)o"0o5ndness !s the &e'!nn!n' o* se0a+at!on/ And a'a!n (e s0ea1 o* the th+ee s5&s!sten)es as &e!n' !n ea)h
othe+,=., that (e "a not !nt+od5)e a )+o(d and "5$t!t5de o* Gods,>./ O(!n' to the th+ee s5&s!sten)es, the+e !s
no )o"0o5ndness o+ )on*5s!on: (h!$e, o(!n' to the!+ ha2!n' the sa"e essen)e and d(e$$!n' !n one anothe+, and
&e!n' the sa"e !n (!$$, and ene+', and 0o(e+, and a5tho+!t, and "o2e"ent, so to s0ea1, (e +e)o'n!se the
!nd!2!s!&!$!t and the 5n!t o* God/ Fo+ 2e+!$ the+e !s one God, and H!s (o+d and S0!+!t/
7ar/( 7#( oncernin/ the distinction o2 the three su+sistences5 and concernin/ the thin/ itse,2 and our
reason and thou/ht in re,ation to it(
One o5'ht, "o+eo2e+, to +e)o'n!se that !t !s one th!n' to $oo1 at a "atte+ as !t !s, and anothe+ th!n' to $oo1 at !t !n
the $!'ht o* +eason and tho5'ht/ In the )ase o* a$$ )+eated th!n's, the d!st!n)t!on o* the s5&s!sten)es !s o&se+2ed !n
a)t5a$ *a)t/ Fo+ !n a)t5a$ *a)t Pete+ !s seen to &e se0a+ate *+o" Pa5$/ B5t the )o""5n!t and )onne)t!on and 5n!t
a+e a00+ehended & +eason and tho5'ht/ Fo+ !t !s & the "!nd that (e 0e+)e!2e that Pete+ and Pa5$ a+e o* the sa"e
nat5+e and ha2e one )o""on nat5+e,@./ Fo+ &oth a+e $!2!n' )+eat5+es, +at!ona$ and "o+ta$: and &oth a+e *$esh,
endo(ed (!th the s0!+!t o* +eason and 5nde+stand!n',-./ It !s, then, & +eason that th!s )o""5n!t o* nat5+e !s
o&se+2ed/ Fo+ he+e !ndeed the s5&s!sten)es do not e7!st one (!th!n the othe+/ B5t ea)h 0+!2ate$ and !nd!2!d5a$$,
that !s to sa, !n !tse$*, stands C5!te se0a+ate, ha2!n' 2e+ "an 0o!nts that d!2!de !t *+o" the othe+/ Fo+ the a+e
&oth se0a+ated !n s0a)e and d!**e+ !n t!"e, and a+e d!2!ded !n tho5'ht, and 0o(e+, and sha0e, o+ *o+", and ha&!t,
and te"0e+a"ent and d!'n!t, and 05+s5!ts, and a$$ d!**e+ent!at!n' 0+o0e+t!es, &5t a&o2e a$$, !n the *a)t that the
do not d(e$$ !n one anothe+ &5t a+e se0a+ated/ Hen)e !t )o"es that (e )an s0ea1 o* t(o, th+ee, o+ "an "en/
And th!s "a &e 0e+)e!2ed th+o5'ho5t the (ho$e o* )+eat!on, &5t !n the )ase o* the ho$ and s50e+essent!a$ and
!n)o"0+ehens!&$e T+!n!t, *a+ +e"o2ed *+o" e2e+th!n', !t !s C5!te the +e2e+se/ Fo+ the+e the )o""5n!t and 5n!t
a+e o&se+2ed !n *a)t, th+o5'h the )o%ete+n!t o* the s5&s!sten)es, and th+o5'h the!+ ha2!n' the sa"e essen)e and
ene+' and (!$$ and )on)o+d o* "!nd,3., and then &e!n' !dent!)a$ !n a5tho+!t and 0o(e+ and 'oodness%%I do not
sa s!"!$a+ &5t !dent!)a$%%and then "o2e"ent & one !"05$se,4./ Fo+ the+e !s one essen)e, one 'oodness, one
0o(e+, one (!$$, one ene+', one a5tho+!t, one and the sa"e, I +e0eat, not th+ee +ese"&$!n' ea)h othe+/ B5t the
th+ee s5&s!sten)es ha2e one and the sa"e "o2e"ent/ Fo+ ea)h one o* the" !s +e$ated as )$ose$ to the othe+ as to
!tse$*: that !s to sa that the Fathe+, the Son, and the Ho$ S0!+!t a+e one !n a$$ +es0e)ts, sa2e those o* not &e!n'
&e'otten, o* &!+th and o* 0+o)ess!on/ B5t !t !s & tho5'ht that the d!**e+en)e !s 0e+)e!2ed,9./ Fo+ (e +e)o'n!se one
God: &5t on$ !n the att+!&5tes o* Fathe+hood, Sonsh!0, and P+o)ess!on, &oth !n +es0e)t o* )a5se and e**e)t and
0e+*e)t!on o* s5&s!sten)e, that !s, "anne+ o* e7!sten)e, do (e 0e+)e!2e d!**e+en)e,;./ Fo+ (!th +e*e+en)e to the
5n)!+)5"s)+!&ed De!t (e )annot s0ea1 o* se0a+at!on !n s0a)e, as (e )an !n o5+ o(n )ase/ Fo+ the s5&s!sten)es
d(e$$ !n one anothe+, !n no (!se )on*5sed &5t )$ea2!n' to'ethe+, a))o+d!n' to the (o+d o* the :o+d, I a" !n the
*athe+, and the *athe+ !n Me,<.: no+ )an one ad"!t d!**e+en)e !n (!$$ o+ 85d'"ent o+ ene+' o+ 0o(e+ o+ anth!n'
e$se (hatsoe2e+ (h!)h "a 0+od5)e a)t5a$ and a&so$5te se0a+at!on !n o5+ )ase/ ?he+e*o+e (e do not s0ea1 o*
th+ee Gods, the Fathe+, the Son, and the Ho$ S0!+!t, &5t +athe+ o* one God, the ho$ T+!n!t, the Son and S0!+!t
&e!n' +e*e++ed to one )a5se,=., and not )o"0o5nded o+ )oa$es)ed a))o+d!n' to the snae+es!s o* Sa&e$$!5s/ Fo+, as
(e sa!d, the a+e "ade one not so as to )o""!n'$e, &5t so as to )$ea2e to ea)h othe+, and the ha2e the!+ &e!n' !n
ea)h othe+,>. (!tho5t an )oa$es)en)e o+ )o""!n'$!n'/ No+ do the Son and the S0!+!t stand a0a+t, no+ a+e the
s5nde+ed !n essen)e a))o+d!n' to the d!ae+es!s o* A+!as,@./ Fo+ the De!t !s 5nd!2!ded a"on'st th!n's d!2!ded, to
05t !t )on)!se$: and !t !s 85st $!1e th+ee s5ns )$ea2!n' to ea)h othe+ (!tho5t se0a+at!on and '!2!n' o5t $!'ht
"!n'$ed and )on8o!ned !nto one/ ?hen, then, (e t5+n o5+ ees to the D!2!n!t, and the *!+st )a5se and the
so2e+e!'nt and the oneness ant! sa"eness, so to s0ea1, o* the "o2e"ent and (!$$ o* the D!2!n!t, and the
!dent!t !n essen)e and 0o(e+ and ene+' and $o+dsh!0, (hat !s seen & 5s !s 5n!t,-./ B5t (hen (e $oo1 to those
th!n's !n (h!)h the D!2!n!t !s, o+, to 05t !t "o+e a))5+ate$, (h!)h a+e the D!2!n!t, and those th!n's (h!)h a+e !n
!t th+o5'h the *!+st )a5se (!tho5t t!"e o+ d!st!n)t!on !n '$o+ o+ se0a+at!on, that !s to sa, the s5&s!sten)es o* the
Son and the S0!+!t, !t see"s to 5s a T+!n!t that (e ado+e,3./ The Fathe+ !s one Fathe+, and (!tho5t &e'!nn!n', that
!s, (!tho5t )a5se: *o+ He !s not de+!2ed *+o" anth!n'/ The Son !s one Son, &5t not (!tho5t &e'!nn!n', that !s, not
(!tho5t )a5se: *o+ He !s de+!2ed *+o" the Fathe+/ B5t !* o5 e$!"!nate the !dea o* a &e'!nn!n' *+o" t!"e, He !s
a$so (!tho5t &e'!nn!n': *o+ the )+eato+ o* t!"es )annot &e s5&8e)t to t!"e/ The Ho$ S0!+!t !s one S0!+!t, 'o!n'
*o+th *+o" the Fathe+, not !n the "anne+ o* Sonsh!0 &5t o* 0+o)ess!on# so that ne!the+ has the Fathe+ $ost H!s
=
0+o0e+t o* &e!n' 5n&e'otten &e)a5se He hath &e'otten, no+ has the Son $ost H!s 0+o0e+t o* &e!n' &e'otten
&e)a5se He (as &e'otten o* that (h!)h (as 5n&e'otten ,*o+ ho( )o5$d that &e soB., no+ does the S0!+!t )han'e
e!the+ !nto the Fathe+ o+ !nto the Son &e)a5se He hath 0+o)eeded and !s God/ Fo+ a 0+o0e+t !s C5!te )onstant/ Fo+
ho( )o5$d a 0+o0e+t 0e+s!st !* !t (e+e 2a+!a&$e, "o2ea&$e, and )o5$d )han'e !nto so"eth!n' e$seB Fo+ !* the
Fathe+ !s the Son, He !s not st+!)t$ the Fathe+: *o+ the+e !s st+!)t$ one Fathe+/ And !* the Son !s the Fathe+, He !s
not st+!)t$ the Son: *o+ the+e !s st+!)t$ one Son and one Ho$ S0!+!t/
F5+the+, !t sho5$d &e 5nde+stood that (e do not s0ea1 o* the Fathe+ as de+!2ed *+o" an one, &5t (e s0ea1 o* H!"
as the Fathe+ o* the Son/ And (e do not s0ea1 o* the Son as Ca5se,4. o+ Fathe+, &5t (e s0ea1 o* H!" &oth as
*+o" the Fathe+, and as the Son o* the Fathe+/ And (e s0ea1 $!1e(!se o* the Ho$ S0!+!t as *+o" the Fathe+, and
)a$$ H!" the S0!+!t o* the Fathe+/ And (e do not s0ea1 o* the S0!+!t as *+o" the Son,9.: s &5t et (e )a$$ H!" the
S0!+!t o* the Son/ Fo+ !* an one hath not the S0!+!t o* Ch+!st, he !s none o* H!s,<., sa!th the d!2!ne a0ost$e/ And
(e )on*ess that He !s "an!*ested and !"0a+ted to 5s th+o5'h the Son/ Fo+ He &+eathed 50on H!s D!s)!0$es, sas
he, and sa!d, Re)e!2e e the Ho$ S0!+!t,=./ It !s 85st the sa"e as !n the )ase o* the s5n *+o" (h!)h )o"e &oth the
+a and the +ad!an)e ,*o+ the s5n !tse$* !s the so5+)e o* &oth the +a and the +ad!an)e., and !t !s th+o5'h the +a
that the +ad!an)e !s !"0a+ted to 5s, and !t !s the +ad!an)e !tse$* & (h!)h (e a+e $!'htened and !n (h!)h (e
0a+t!)!0ate/ F5+the+ (e do not s0ea1 o* the Son o* the S0!+!t, o+ o* the Son as de+!2ed *+o" the S0!+!t,>./
$A"!E% IX(
oncernin/ .hat is a22irmed a+out 3od(
The De!t !s s!"0$e and 5n)o"0o5nd/ B5t that (h!)h !s )o"0osed o* "an and d!**e+ent e$e"ents !s )o"0o5nd/
I*, then, (e sho5$d s0ea1 o* the C5a$!t!es o* &e!n' 5n)+eate and (!tho5t &e'!nn!n' and !n)o+0o+ea$ and !""o+ta$
and e2e+$ast!n' and 'ood and )+eat!2e and so *o+th as essent!a$ d!**e+en)es !n the )ase o* God, that (h!)h !s
)o"0osed o* so "an C5a$!t!es (!$$ not &e s!"0$e &5t "5st &e )o"0o5nd/ B5t th!s !s !"0!o5s !n the e7t+e"e/
Ea)h then o* the a**!+"at!ons a&o5t God sho5$d &e tho5'ht o* as s!'n!*!n' not (hat He !s !n essen)e, &5t e!the+
so"eth!n' that !t !s !"0oss!&$e to "a1e 0$a!n, o+ so"e +e$at!on to so"e o* those th!n's (h!)h a+e )ont+asts o+
so"e o* those th!n's that *o$$o( the nat5+e, o+ an ene+',@./
It a00ea+s then,@a. that the "ost 0+o0e+ o* a$$ the na"es '!2en to God !s HHe that !s,H as He H!"se$* sa!d !n
ans(e+ to Moses on the "o5nta!n, Sa to the sons o* Is+ae$, He that !s hath sent Me,-./ Fo+ He 1ee0s a$$ &e!n' !n
H!s o(n e"&+a)e,3., $!1e a sea o* essen)e !n*!n!te and 5nseen/ O+ as the ho$ D!ons!5s sas, HHe that !s
'ood,4./H Fo+ one )annot sa o* God that He has &e!n' !n the *!+st 0$a)e and 'oodness !n the se)ond/
The se)ond na"e o* God !s E'+ee1FoEG'+ee1F E'+ee1FCeosEG'+ee1F, de+!2ed *+o" E'+ee1FCee!nEG'+ee1F,9., to
+5n, &e)a5se He )o5+ses th+o5'h a$$ th!n's, o+ *+o" E'+ee1Fa!Ce!nEG'+ee1F, to &5+n: Fo+ God !s a *!+e )ons5"!n'
a$$ e2!$s,;.: o+ *+o" E'+ee1FCeasCa!EG'+ee1F, &e)a5se He !s a$$%see!n',<.: *o+ noth!n' )an es)a0e H!", and o2e+
a$$ He 1ee0eth (at)h/ Fo+ He sa( a$$ th!n's &e*o+e the (e+e, ho$d!n' the" t!"e$ess$ !n H!s tho5'hts# and ea)h
one )on*o+"a&$ to H!s 2o$5nta+ ant! t!"e$ess tho5'ht,=., (h!)h )onst!t5tes 0+edete+"!nat!on and !"a'e and
0atte+n, )o"es !nto e7!sten)e at the 0+edete+"!ned t!"e,>./
The *!+st na"e then )on2es the not!on o* H!s e7!sten)e and o* the nat5+e o* H!s e7!sten)e: (h!$e the se)ond
)onta!ns the !dea o* ene+'/ F5+the+, the te+"s 6(!tho5t &e'!nn!n',6 6 !n)o++50t!&$e,6 65n&e'otten,6 as a$so 65n)+eate,6
6!n)o+0o+ea$,6 65nseen,6 and so *o+th, e70$a!n (hat He !s not: that !s to sa, the te$$ 5s that H!s &e!n' had no
&e'!nn!n', that He !s not )o++50t!&$e, no+ )+eated, no+ )o+0o+eaI, no+ 2!s!&$e,@./ A'a!n, 'oodness and 85st!)e and
0!et and s5)h $!1e na"es &e$on' to the nat5+e,-., &5t do not e70$a!n H!s a)t5a$ essen)e/ F!na$$, :o+d and K!n'
and na"es o* that )$ass !nd!)ate a +e$at!onsh!0 (!th the!+ )ont+asts: *o+ the na"e :o+d has +e*e+en)e to those o2e+
(ho" the $o+d +5$es, and the na"e K!n' to those 5nde+ 1!n'$ a5tho+!t, and the na"e C+eato+ to the )+eat5+es,
and the na"e She0he+d to the shee0 he tends/
$A"!E% X(
oncernin/ di0ine union and se*aration(
The+e*o+e a$$ these na"es "5st &e 5nde+stood as )o""on to de!t as a (ho$e, and as )onta!n!n' the not!ons o*
sa"eness and s!"0$!)!t and !nd!2!s!&!$!t and 5n!on: (h!$e the na"es Fathe+, Son and S0!+!t, and )a5se, $ess and
)a5sed, and 5n&e'otten and &e'otten, and 0+o)ess!on )onta!n the !dea o* se0a+at!on: *o+ these te+"s do not
e70$a!n H!s essen)e, &5t the "5t5a$ +e$at!onsh!0,3. and "anne+ o* e7!sten)e,4./
?hen, then, (e ha2e 0e+)e!2ed these th!n's and a+e )ond5)ted *+o" these to the d!2!ne essen)e, (e do not
a00+ehend the essen)e !tse$* &5t on$ the att+!&5tes o* the essen)e: 85st as (e ha2e not a00+ehended the essen)e
o* the so5$ e2en (hen (e ha2e $ea+nt that !t !s !n)o+0o+ea$ and (!tho5t "a'n!t5de and *o+": no+ a'a!n, the
essen)e o* the &od (hen (e 1no( that !t !s (h!te o+ &$a)1, &5t on$ the att+!&5tes o* the essen)e/ F5+the+, the
t+5e do)t+!ne,9. tea)heth that the De!t !s s!"0$e and has one s!"0$e ene+', 'ood and ene+'!s!n' !n a$$ th!n's,
85st as the s5n6s +a, (h!)h (a+"s a$$ th!n's and ene+'!ses !n ea)h !n ha+"on (!th !ts nat5+a$ a0t!t5de and
+e)e0t!2e 0o(e+, ha2!n' o&ta!ned th!s *o+" o* ene+' *+o" God, !ts Ma1e+/
B5t C5!te d!st!n)t !s a$$ that 0e+ta!ns to the d!2!ne and &en!'nant !n)a+nat!on o* the d!2!ne ?o+d/ Fo+ !n that
ne!the+ the Fathe+ no+ the S0!+!t ha2e an 0a+t at a$$, 5n$ess so *a+ as +e'a+ds a00+o2a$ and the (o+1!n' o*
!ne70$!)a&$e "!+a)$es (h!)h the God%?o+d, ha2!n' &e)o"e "an,;. $!1e 5s, (o+1ed, as 5n)han'ea&$e God and
son o* God,<./
>
$A"!E% XI(
oncernin/ .hat is a22irmed a+out 3od as thou/h $e had +od)(
S!n)e (e *!nd "an te+"s 5sed s"&o$!)a$$ !n the S)+!0t5+es )on)e+n!n' God (h!)h a+e "o+e a00$!)a&$e to that
(h!)h has &od, (e sho5$d +e)o'n!se that !t !s C5!te !"0oss!&$e *o+ 5s "en )$othed a&o5t (!th th!s dense
)o2e+!n' o* *$esh to 5nde+stand o+ s0ea1 o* the d!2!ne and $o*t and !""ate+!a$ ene+'!es o* the Godhead, e7)e0t
& the 5se o* !"a'es and t0es and s"&o$s de+!2ed *+o" o5+ o(n $!*e,=./ So then a$$ the state"ents )on)e+n!n'
God, that !"0$ &od, a+e s"&o$s, &5t ha2e a h!'he+ "ean!n': *o+ the De!t !s s!"0$e and *o+"$ess/ Hen)e &
God6s ees and ee$!ds and s!'ht (e a+e to 5nde+stand H!s 0o(e+ o* o2e+see!n' a$$ th!n's and H!s 1no($ed'e,
that noth!n' )an es)a0e: *o+ !n the )ase o* 5s th!s sense "a1es o5+ 1no($ed'e "o+e )o"0$ete and "o+e *5$$ o*
)e+ta!nt/ B God6s ea+s and hea+!n' !s "eant H!s +ead!ness to &e 0+o0!t!ated and to +e)e!2e o5+ 0et!t!ons: *o+ !t !s
th!s sense that +ende+s 5s a$so 1!nd to s500$!ants, !n)$!n!n' o5+ ea+ to the" "o+e '+a)!o5s$/ God6s "o5th and
s0ee)h a+e H!s "eans o* !nd!)at!n' H!s (!$$# *o+ !t !s & the "o5th and s0ee)h that (e "a1e )$ea+ the tho5'hts
that a+e !n the hea+t: God6s *ood and d+!n1 a+e o5+ )on)5++en)e to H!s (!$$, *o+ (e, too, sat!s* the ne)ess!t!es o*
o5+ nat5+a$ a00et!te th+o5'h the sense o* taste/ And God6s sense o* s"e$$ !s H!s a00+e)!at!on o* o5+ tho5'hts o*
and 'ood (!$$ to(a+ds H!", *o+ !t !s th+o5'h th!s sense that (e a00+e)!ate s(eet *+a'+an)e/ And God6s
)o5ntenan)e !s the de"onst+at!on and "an!*estat!on o* H!"se$* th+o5'h H!s (o+1s, *o+ o5+ "an!*estat!on !s
th+o5'h the )o5ntenan)e/ And God6s hands "ean the e**e)t5a$ nat5+e o* H!s ene+', *o+ !t !s (!th o5+ o(n hands
that (e a))o"0$!sh o5+ "ost 5se*5$ and 2a$5a&$e (o+1/ And H!s +!'ht hand !s H!s a!d !n 0+os0e+!t, *o+ !t !s the
+!'ht hand that (e a$so 5se (hen "a1!n' anth!n' o* &ea5t!*5$ sha0e o+ o* '+eat 2a$5e, o+ (he+e "5)h st+en'th !s
+eC5!+ed/ H!s hand$!n' !s H!s 0o(e+ o* a))5+ate d!s)+!"!nat!on and e7a)t!on, e2en !n the "!n5test and "ost
se)+et deta!$s, *o+ those (ho" (e ha2e hand$ed )annot )on)ea$ *+o" 5s a5'ht (!th!n the"se$2es/ H!s *eet and
(a$1 a+e H!s ad2ent and 0+esen)e, e!the+ *o+ the 05+0ose o* &+!n'!n' s5))o5+ to the need, o+ 2en'ean)e a'a!nst
ene"!es, o+ to 0e+*o+" an othe+ a)t!on, *o+ !t !s & 5s!n' o5+ *eet that (e )o"e to a++!2e at an 0$a)e/ H!s oath !s
the 5n)han'ea&$eness o* H!s )o5nse$, *o+ !t !s & oath that (e )on*!+" o5+ )o"0a)ts (!th one anothe+/ H!s an'e+
and *5+ a+e H!s hat+ed o* and a2e+s!on to a$$ (!)1edness, *o+ (e, too, hate that (h!)h !s )ont+a+ to o5+ "!nd
and &e)o"e en+a'ed the+eat,>./ H!s *o+'et*5$ness and s$ee0 and s$5"&e+!n' a+e H!s de$a !n ta1!n' 2en'ean)e on
H!s ene"!es and the 0ost0one"ent o* the a))5sto"ed he$0 to H!s o(n/ And to 05t !t sho+t$, a$$ the state"ents
"ade a&o5t God that !"0$ &od ha2e so"e h!dden "ean!n' and tea)h 5s (hat !s a&o2e 5s & "eans o*
so"eth!n' *a"!$!a+ to o5+se$2es, (!th the e7)e0t!on o* an state"ent )on)e+n!n' the &od!$ so8o5+n o* the God%
?o+d/ Fo+ He *o+ o5+ sa*et too1 50on H!"se$* the (ho$e nat5+e o* "an,@., the th!n1!n' s0!+!t, the &od, and a$$
the 0+o0e+t!es o* h5"an nat5+e, e2en the nat5+a$ and &$a"e$ess 0ass!ons/
$A"!E% XII(
oncernin/ the #ame(
The *o$$o(!n', then, a+e the "ste+!es (h!)h (e ha2e $ea+ned *+o" the ho$ o+a)$es, as the d!2!ne D!ons!5s the
A+eo0a'!te sa!d,-.: that God !s the )a5se and &e'!nn!n' o* a$$: the essen)e o* a$$ that ha2e essen)e: the $!*e o* the
$!2!n': the +eason o* a$$ +at!ona$ &e!n's: the !nte$$e)t o* a$$ !nte$$!'ent &e!n's: the +e)a$$!n' and +esto+!n' o* those
(ho *a$$ a(a *+o" H!": the +eno2at!on and t+ans*o+"at!on o* those that )o++50t that (h!)h !s nat5+a$: the ho$
*o5ndat!on o* those (ho a+e tossed !n 5nho$!ness: the stead*astness o* those (ho ha2e stood *!+": the (a o*
those (hose )o5+se !s d!+e)ted to H!" and the hand st+et)hed *o+th to '5!de the" 50(a+ds/ And I sha$$ add He !s
a$so the Fathe+ o* a$$ H!s )+eat5+es ,*o+ God, ?ho &+o5'ht 5s !nto &e!n' o5t o* noth!n', !s !n a st+!)te+ sense o5+
Fathe+ than a+e o5+ 0a+ents (ho ha2e de+!2ed &oth &e!n' and &e'ett!n' *+o" H!",3..: the she0he+d o* those (ho
*o$$o( and a+e tended & H!": the +ad!an)e o* those (ho a+e en$!'htened: the !n!t!at!on o* the !n!t!ated: the
de!*!)at!on o* the de!*!ed: the 0ea)e o* those at d!s)o+d: the s!"0$!)!t o* those (ho $o2e s!"0$!)!t: the 5n!t o*
those (ho (o+sh!0 5n!t: o* a$$ &e'!nn!n' the &e'!nn!n', s50e+%essent!a$ &e)a5se a&o2e a$$ &e'!nn!n's: and the
'ood +e2e$at!on o* (hat !s h!dden, that !s, o* the 1no($ed'e o* H!" so *a+ as that !s $a(*5$ *o+ and atta!na&$e &
ea)h/
Further and more accurate,) concernin/ di0ine names849(
The De!t &e!n' !n)o"0+ehens!&$e !s a$so ass5+ed$ na"e$ess/ The+e*o+e s!n)e (e 1no( not H!s essen)e, $et 5s
not see1 *o+ a na"e *o+ H!s essen)e/ Fo+ na"es a+e e70$anat!ons o* a)t5a$ th!n's,;./ B5t God, ?ho !s 'ood and
&+o5'ht 5s o5t o* noth!n' !nto &e!n' that (e "!'ht sha+e !n H!s 'oodness, and ?ho 'a2e 5s the *a)5$t o*
1no($ed'e, not on$ d!d not !"0a+t to 5s H!s essen)e, &5t d!d not e2en '+ant 5s the 1no($ed'e o* H!s essen)e/
Fo+ !t !s !"0oss!&$e *o+ nat5+e to 5nde+stand *5$$ the s50e+nat5+a$,<./ Mo+eo2e+, !* 1no($ed'e !s o* th!n's that
a+e,=., ho( )an the+e &e 1no($ed'e o* the s50e+%essent!a$B Th+o5'h H!s 5ns0ea1a&$e 'oodness, then, !t 0$eased
H!" to &e )a$$ed & na"es that (e )o5$d 5nde+stand, that (e "!'ht not &e a$to'ethe+ )5t o** *+o" the 1no($e'e
o* H!" &5t sho5$d ha2e so"e not!on o* H!", ho(e2e+ 2a'5e/ Inas"5)h, then, as He !s !n)o"0+ehens!&$e, He !s
a$so 5nna"ea&$e/ B5t !nas"5)h as He !s the )a5se o* a$$ and )onta!ns !n H!"se$* the +easons and )a5ses o* a$$
that !s, He +e)e!2es na"es d+a(n *+o" a$$ that !s, e2en *+o" o00os!tes: *o+ e7a"0$e, He !s )a$$ed $!'ht and
da+1ness, (ate+ and *!+e: !n o+de+ that (e "a 1no( that these a+e not o* H!s essen)e &5t that He !s s50e+%
essent!a$ and 5nna"ea&$e: &5t !nas"5)h as He !s the )a5se o* a$$, He +e)e!2es na"es *+o" a$$ H!s e**e)ts/
@
?he+e*o+e, o* the d!2!ne na"es, so"e ha2e a ne'at!2e s!'n!*!)at!on, and !nd!)ate that He !s s50e+%essent!a$,>.:
s5)h a+e Hnon%essent!a$,@.,H Ht!"e$ess,H H(!tho5t &e'!nn!n',H H!n2!s!&$eH: not that God !s !n*e+!o+ to anth!n' o+
$a)1!n' !n anth!n' ,*o+ a$$ th!n's a+e H!s and ha2e &e)o"e *+o" H!" and th+o5'h H!" and end5+e !n H!",@..,
&5t that He !s 0+e%e"!nent$ se0a+ated *+o" a$$ that !s/ Fo+ He !s not one o* the th!n's that a+e, &5t o2e+ a$$ th!n's/
So"e a'a!n ha2e an a**!+"at!2e s!'n!*!)at!on, as !nd!)at!n' that He !s the )a5se o* a$$ th!n's/ Fo+ as the )a5se o*
a$$ that !s and o* a$$ essen)e, He !s )a$$ed &oth Ens and Essen)e/ And as the )a5se o* a$$ +eason and (!sdo", o*
the +at!ona$ and the (!se, He !s )a$$ed &oth +eason and +at!ona$, and (!sdo" and (!se/ S!"!$a+$ He !s s0o1en o*
as Inte$$e)t and Inte$$e)t5a$, :!*e and :!2!n', Po(e+ and Po(e+*5$, and so on (!th a$$ the +est/ O+ +athe+ those
na"es a+e "ost a00+o0+!ate to H!" (h!)h a+e de+!2ed *+o" (hat !s "ost 0+e)!o5s and "ost a1!n to H!"se$*/ That
(h!)h !s !""ate+!a$ !s "o+e 0+e)!o5s and "o+e a1!n to H!"se$* than that (h!)h !s "ate+!a$, and the 05+e than the
!"05+e, and the ho$ than the 5nho$: *o+ the ha2e '+eate+ 0a+t !n H!"/ So then, s5n and $!'ht (!$$ &e "o+e a0t
na"es *o+ H!" than da+1ness, and da than n!'ht, and $!*e than death, and *!+e and s0!+!t and (ate+, as ha2!n'
$!*e, than ea+th, and a&o2e a$$, 'oodness than (!)1edness: (h!)h !s 85st to sa, &e!n' "o+e than not &e!n'/ Fo+
'oodness !s e7!sten)e and the )a5se o* e7!sten)e, &5t (!)1edness !s the ne'at!on o* 'oodness, that !s, o*
e7!sten)e/ These, then, a+e the a**!+"at!ons and the ne'at!ons, &5t the s(eetest na"es a+e a )o"&!nat!on o* &oth:
*o+ e7a"0$e, the s50e+%essent!a$ essen)e, the Godhead that !s "o+e than God, the &e'!nn!n' that !s a&o2e
&e'!nn!n' and s5)h $!1e/ F5+the+ the+e a+e so"e a**!+"at!ons a&o5t God (h!)h ha2e !n a 0+e%e"!nent de'+ee the
*o+)e o* den!a$: *o+ e7a"0$e, da+1ness: *o+ th!s does not !"0$ that God !s da+1ness &5t that He !s not $!'ht, &5t
a&o2e $!'ht/
God then !s )a$$ed M!nd and Reason and S0!+!t and ?!sdo" and Po(e+, as the )a5se o* these, and as !""ate+!a$,
and "a1e+ o* a$$, and o"n!0otent,@&./ And these na"es a+e )o""on to the (ho$e Godhead, (hethe+ a**!+"at!2e
o+ ne'at!2e/ And the a+e a$so 5sed o* ea)h o* the s5&s!sten)es o* the Ho$ T+!n!t !n the 2e+ sa"e and !dent!)a$
(a and (!th the!+ *5$$ s!'n!*!)an)e,-./ Fo+ (hen I th!n1 o* one o* the s5&s!sten)es, I +e)o'n!se !t to &e 0e+*e)t
God and 0e+*e)t essen)e: &5t (hen I )o"&!ne and +e)1on the th+ee to'ethe+, I 1no( one 0e+*e)t God/ Fo+ the
Godhead !s not )o"0o5nd &5t !n th+ee 0e+*e)t s5&s!sten)es, one 0e+*e)t !nd!2!s!&$e and 5n)o"0o5nd God/ And
(hen I th!n1 o* the +e$at!on o* the th+ee s5&s!sten)es to ea)h othe+, I 0e+)e!2e that the Fathe+ !s s50e+%essent!a$
S5n, so5+)e o* 'oodness, *atho"$ess sea o* essen)e, +eason, (!sdo", 0o(e+, $!'ht, d!2!n!t: the 'ene+at!n' and
0+od5)t!2e so5+)e o* 'ood h!dden !n !t/ He H!"se$* then !s "!nd, the de0th o* +eason, &e'ette+ o* the ?o+d, and
th+o5'h the ?o+d the P+od5)e+,3. o* the +e2ea$!n' S0!+!t/ And to 05t !t sho+t$, the Fathe+ has no +eason,4.,
(!sdo", 0o(e+, (!$$,9., sa2e the Son ?ho !s the on$ 0o(e+ o* the Fathe+ the !""ed!ate,;. )a5se o* the )+eat!on
o* the 5n!2e+se: as 0e+*e)t s5&s!sten)e &e'otten o* 0e+*e)t s5&s!sten)e !n a "anne+ 1no(n to H!"se$*, ?ho !s and
!s na"ed the Son/ And the Ho$ S0!+!t !s the 0o(e+ o* the Fathe+ +e2ea$!n' the h!dden "ste+!es o* H!s D!2!n!t,
0+o)eed!n' *+o" the Fathe+ th+o5'h the Son !n a "anne+ 1no(n to H!"se$*, &5t d!**e+ent *+o" that o* 'ene+at!on/
?he+e*o+e the Ho$ S0!+!t !s the 0e+*e)te+ o* the )+eat!on o* the 5n!2e+se/ A$$ the te+"s, then, that a+e a00+o0+!ate
to the Fathe+, as )a5se, so5+)e, &e'ette+, a+e to &e as)+!&ed to the Fathe+ a$one: (h!$e those that a+e a00+o0+!ate to
the )a5sed, &e'otten Son, ?o+d, !""ed!ate 0o(e+, (!$$, (!sdo", a+e to &e as)+!&ed to the Son: and those that a+e
a00+o0+!ate to the )a5sed, 0+o)ess!ona$, "an!*est!n', 0e+*e)t!n' 0o(e+, a+e to &e as)+!&ed to the Ho$ S0!+!t/ The
Fathe+ !s the so5+)e and )a5se o* the Son and the Ho$ S0!+!t: Fathe+ o* the Son a$one and 0+od5)e+ o* the Ho$
S0!+!t/ The Son !s Son, ?o+d, ?!sdo", Po(e+, I"a'e, E**5$'en)e, I"0+ess o* the Fathe+ and de+!2ed *+o" the
Fathe+/ B5t the Ho$ S0!+!t !s not the Son o* the Fathe+ &5t the S0!+!t o* the Fathe+ as 0+o)eed!n' *+o" the Fathe+/
Fo+ the+e !s no !"05$se (!tho5t S0!+!t/ And (e s0ea1 a$so o* the S0!+!t o* the Son, not as th+o5'h 0+o)eed!n'
*+o" H!", &5t as 0+o)eed!n' th+o5'h H!" *+o" the Fathe+/ Fo+ the Fathe+ a$one !s )a5se/
$A"!E% XIII(
oncernin/ the *,ace o2 3od5 and that the Deit) a,one is uncircumscri+ed(
Bod!$ 0$a)e !s the $!"!t o* that (h!)h )onta!ns, & (h!)h that (h!)h !s )onta!ned !s )onta!ned,<.: *o+ e7a"0$e,
the a!+ )onta!ns &5t the &od !s )onta!ned,=./ B5t !t !s not the (ho$e o* the )onta!n!n' a!+ (h!)h !s the 0$a)e o* the
)onta!ned &od, &5t the $!"!t o* the )onta!n!n' a!+, (he+e !t )o"es !nto )onta)t (!th the )onta!ned &od: and the
+eason !s )$ea+$ &e)a5se that (h!)h )onta!ns !s not (!th!n that (h!)h !t )onta!ns/
B5t the+e !s a$so "enta$ 0$a)e (he+e "!nd !s a)t!2e, and "enta$ and !n)o+0o+ea$ nat5+e e7!sts: (he+e "!nd d(e$$s
and ene+'!ses and !s )onta!ned not !n a &od!$ &5t !n a "enta$ *ash!on/ Fo+ !t !s (!tho5t *o+", and so )annot &e
)onta!ned as a &od !s/ God, then, &e!n' !""ate+!a$,>. and 5n)!+)5"s)+!&ed, has not 0$a)e/ Fo+ He !s H!s o(n
0$a)e, *!$$!n' a$$ th!n's and &e!n' a&o2e a$$ th!n's, and H!"se$* "a!nta!n!n' a$$ th!n's,@./ Iet (e s0ea1 o* God
ha2!n' 0$a)e and the 0$a)e o* God (he+e H!s ene+' &e)o"es "an!*est/ Fo+ He 0enet+ates e2e+th!n' (!tho5t
"!7!n' (!th !t, and !"0a+ts to a$$ H!s ene+' !n 0+o0o+t!on to the *!tness and +e)e0t!2e 0o(e+ o* ea)h: and & th!s
I "ean, a 05+!t &oth nat5+a$ and 2o$5nta+/ Fo+ the !""ate+!a$ !s 05+e+ than the "ate+!a$, and that (h!)h !s
2!+t5o5s than that (h!)h !s $!n1ed (!th 2!)e/ ?he+e*o+e & the 0$a)e o* God !s "eant that (h!)h has a '+eate+
sha+e !n H!s ene+' and '+a)e/ Fo+ th!s +eason the Hea2en !s H!s th+one/ Fo+ !n !t a+e the an'e$s (ho do H!s (!$$
and a+e a$(as '$o+!*!n' H!",-./ Fo+ th!s !s H!s +est and the ea+th !s H!s *ootstoo$,3./ Fo+ !n !t He d(e$t !n the
*$esh a"on' "en,4./ And H!s sa)+ed *$esh has &een na"ed the *oot o* God/ The Ch5+)h, too, !s s0o1en o* as the
0$a)e o* God: *o+ (e ha2e set th!s a0a+t *o+ the '$o+!*!n' o* God as a so+t o* )onse)+ated 0$a)e (he+e!n (e a$so
-J
ho$d )on2e+se (!th H!"/ :!1e(!se a$so the 0$a)es !n (h!)h H!s ene+' &e)o"es "an!*est to 5s, (hethe+ th+o5'h
the *$esh o+ a0a+t *+o" *$esh, a+e s0o1en o* as the 0$a)es o* God/
B5t !t "5st &e 5nde+stood that the De!t !s !nd!2!s!&$e, &e!n' e2e+(he+e (ho$$ !n H!s ent!+et and not d!2!ded
50 0a+t & 0a+t $!1e that (h!)h has &od, &5t (ho$$ !n e2e+th!n' and (ho$$ a&o2e e2e+th!n'/
7ar/( 7#( oncernin/ the *,ace o2 an/e, and s*irit- and concernin/ the uncircumscri+ed(
The an'e$, a$tho5'h not )onta!ned !n 0$a)e (!th *!'5+ed *o+" as !s &od, et !s s0o1en o* as &e!n' !n 0$a)e
&e)a5se he has a "enta$ 0+esen)e and ene+'!ses !n a))o+dan)e (!th h!s nat5+e, and !s not e$se(he+e &5t has h!s
"enta$ $!"!tat!ons the+e (he+e he ene+'!ses/ Fo+ !t !s !"0oss!&$e to ene+'!se at the sa"e t!"e !n d!**e+ent 0$a)es/
Fo+ to God a$one &e$on's the 0o(e+ o* ene+'!s!n' e2e+(he+e at the sa"e t!"e/ The an'e$ ene+'!ses !n d!**e+ent
0$a)es & the C5!)1ness o* h!s nat5+e and the 0+o"0tness and s0eed & (h!)h he )an )han'e h!s 0$a)e: &5t the
De!t, ?ho !s e2e+(he+e and a&o2e a$$, ene+'!ses at the sa"e t!"e !n d!2e+se (as (!th one s!"0$e ene+'/
F5+the+ the so5$ !s &o5nd 50 (!th the &od/ (ho$e (!th (ho$e and not 0a+t (!th 0a+t: and !t !s not )onta!ned &
the &od &5t )onta!ns !t as *!+e does !+on, and &e!n' !n !t ene+'!ses (!th !ts o(n 0+o0e+ ene+'!es/
That (h!)h !s )o"0+ehended !n 0$a)e o+ t!"e o+ a00+ehens!on !s )!+)5"s)+!&ed: (h!$e that (h!)h !s )onta!ned &
none o* these !s 5n)!+)5"s)+!&ed/ ?he+e*o+e the De!t a$one !s 5n)!+)5"s)+!&ed, &e!n' (!tho5t &e'!nn!n' and
(!tho5t end, and )onta!n!n' a$$ th!n's, and !n no (!se a00+ehended,9./ Fo+ He a$one !s !n)o"0+ehens!&$e and
5n&o5nded, (!th!n no one6s 1no($ed'e and )onte"0$ated & H!"se$* a$one/ B5t the an'e$ !s )!+)5"s)+!&ed a$!1e
!n t!"e ,*o+ H!s &e!n' had )o""en)e"ent. and !n 0$a)e ,&5t "enta$ s0a)e, as (e sa!d a&o2e. and !n
a00+ehens!on/ Fo+ the 1no( so"eho( the nat5+e o* ea)h othe+ and ha2e the!+ &o5nds 0e+*e)t$ de*!ned & the
C+eato+/ Bod!es !n sho+t a+e )!+)5"s)+!&ed &oth !n &e'!nn!n' and end, and &od!$ 0$a)e and a00+ehens!on/
7ar/( 7#( From 0arious sources concernin/ 3od and the 2ather- and the #on- and the $o,) #*irit( And
concernin/ the 6ord and the #*irit(
The De!t, then, !s C5!te 5n)han'ea&$e and !n2a+!a&$e/ Fo+ a$$ th!n's (h!)h a+e not !n o5+ hands He hath
0+edete+"!ned & H!s *o+e1no($ed'e, ea)h !n !ts o(n 0+o0e+ and 0e)5$!a+ t!"e and 0$a)e/ And a))o+d!n'$ the
Fathe+ 85d'eth no one, &5t hath '!2en a$$ 85d'"ent to the Son,;./ Fo+ )$ea+$ the Fathe+ and the Son and a$so the
Ho$ S0!+!t 85d'ed as God/ B5t the Son H!"se$* (!$$ des)end !n the &od as "an, and (!$$ s!t on the th+one o*
G$o+ ,*o+ des)end!n' and s!tt!n' +eC5!+e )!+)5"s)+!&ed &od., and (!$$ 85d'e a$$ the (o+$d !n 85st!)e/
A$$ th!n's a+e *a+ a0a+t *+o" God, not !n 0$a)e &5t !n nat5+e/ In o5+ )ase, tho5'ht*5$ness, and (!sdo", and
)o5nse$ )o"e to 0ass and 'o a(a as states o* &e!n'/ Not so !n the )ase o* God: *o+ (!th H!" the+e !s no
ha00en!n' o+ )eas!n' to &e: *o+ He !s !n2a+!a&$e and 5n)han'ea&$e: and !t (o5$d not &e +!'ht to s0ea1 o*
)ont!n'en) !n )onne)t!on (!th H!"/ Fo+ 'oodness !s )on)o"!tant (!th essen)e/ He (ho $on's a$(a a*te+ God,
he seeth H!": *o+ God !s !n a$$ th!n's/ E7!st!n' th!n's a+e de0endent on that (h!)h !s, and noth!n' )an &e 5n$ess
!t !s !n that (h!)h !s/ God then !s "!n'$ed (!th e2e+th!n', "a!nta!n!n' the!+ nat5+e: and !n H!s ho$ *$esh the
God%?o+d !s "ade one !n s5&s!sten)e and !s "!7ed (!th o5+ nat5+e, et (!tho5t )on*5s!on/
No one seeth the Fathe+, sa2e the Son and the S0!+!t,<./
The Son !s the )o5nse$ and (!sdo" and 0o(e+ o* the Fathe+/ Fo+ one "a not s0ea1 o* C5a$!t !n )onne)t!on (!th
God, *+o" *ea+ o* !"0$!n' that He (as a )o"0o5nd o* essen)e and C5a$!t/
The Son !s *+o" the Fathe+, and de+!2es *+o" H!" a$$ H!s 0+o0e+t!es: hen)e He )annot do o5'ht o* H!"se$*,=./
Fo+ He has not ene+' 0e)5$!a+ to H!"se$* and d!st!n)t *+o" the Fathe+,>./
That God ?ho !s !n2!s!&$e & nat5+e !s "ade 2!s!&$e & H!s ene+'!es, (e 0e+)e!2e *+o" the o+'an!sat!on and
'o2e+n"ent o* the (o+$d,@./
The Son !s the Fathe+6s !"a'e, and the S0!+!t the Son6s, th+o5'h (h!)h Ch+!st d(e$$!n' !n "an "a1es h!" a*te+
h!s o(n !"a'e,-./
The Ho$ S0!+!t !s God, &e!n' &et(een the 5n&e'otten and the &e'otten, and 5n!ted to the Fathe+ th+o5'h the
Son,3./ ?e s0ea1 o* the S0!+!t o* God, the S0!+!t o* Ch+!st, the "!nd o* Ch+!st, the S0!+!t o* the :o+d, the 2e+
:o+d,4., the S0!+!t o* ado0t!on, o* t+5th, o* $!&e+t, o* (!sdo" ,*o+ He !s the )+eato+ o* a$$ these.: *!$$!n' a$$ th!n's
(!th essen)e, "a!nta!n!n' a$$ th!n's, *!$$!n' the 5n!2e+se (!th essen)e, (h!$e et the 5n!2e+se !s not the "eas5+e
o* H!s 0o(e+/
God !s e2e+$ast!n' and 5n)han'ea&$e essen)e, )+eato+ o* a$$ that !s, ado+ed (!th 0!o5s )ons!de+at!on/
God !s a$so Fathe+, &e!n' e2e+ 5n&e'otten, *o+ He (as &o+n o* no one, &5t hath &e'otten H!s )o%ete+na$ Son: God
!s $!1e(!se Son, &e!n' a$(as (!th the Fathe+, &o+n o* the Fathe+ t!"e$ess$, e2e+$ast!n'$, (!tho5t *$57 o+
0ass!on, o+ se0a+at!on *+o" H!"/ God !s a$so Ho$ S0!+!t, &e!n' san)t!*!n' 0o(e+, s5&s!stent!a$, 0+o)eed!n' *+o"
the Fathe+ (!tho5t se0a+at!on, and +est!n' !n the Son, !dent!)a$ !n essen)e (!th Fathe+ and Son/
?o+d !s that (h!)h !s e2e+ essent!a$$ 0+esent (!th the Fathe+/ A'a!n, (o+d !s a$so the nat5+a$ "o2e"ent o* the
"!nd, a))o+d!n' to (h!)h !t !s "o2ed and th!n1s and )ons!de+s, &e!n' as !t (e+e !ts o(n $!'ht and +ad!an)e/
A'a!n, (o+d !s the tho5'ht that !s s0o1en on$ (!th!n the hea+t/ And a'a!n, (o+d !s the 5tte+an)e,9. that !s the
"essen'e+ o* tho5'ht/ God the+e*o+e !s ?o+d,;. essent!a$ and enh0ostat!): and the othe+ th+ee 1!nds o* (o+d a+e
*a)5$t!es o* the so5$, and a+e not )onte"0$ated as ha2!n' a 0+o0e+ s5&s!sten)e o* the!+ o(n/ The *!+st o* these !s
the nat5+a$ o**s0+!n' o* the "!nd, e2e+ (e$$!n',<. 50 nat5+a$$ o5t o* !t: the se)ond !s the tho5'ht: and the th!+d !s
the 5tte+an)e/
--
The S0!+!t has 2a+!o5s "ean!n's/ The+e !s the Ho$ S0!+!t: &5t the 0o(e+s o* the Ho$ S0!+!t a+e a$so s0o1en o* as
s0!+!ts: the 'ood "essen'e+ !s a$so s0!+!t: the de"on a$so !s s0!+!t: the so5$ too !s s0!+!t: and so"et!"es "!nd a$so
!s s0o1en o* as s0!+!t/ F!na$$ the (!nd !s s0!+!t and the a!+ !s s0!+!t/
$A"!E% XI4(
!he *ro*erties o2 the di0ine nature(
Un)+eate, (!tho5t &e'!nn!n', !""o+ta$, !n*!n!te, ete+na$, !""ate+!a$,=., 'ood, )+eat!2e, 85st, en$!'hten!n',
!""5ta&$e, 0ass!on$ess, 5n)!+)5"s)+!&ed, !""eas5+a&$e, 5n$!"!ted, 5nde*!ned, 5nseen, 5nth!n1a&$e, (ant!n' !n
noth!n', &e!n' H!s o(n +5$e and a5tho+!t, a$$%+5$!n', $!*e%'!2!n', o"n!0otent, o* !n*!n!te 0o(e+, )on%+a!n!n' and
"a!nta!n!n' the 5n!2e+se and "a1!n' 0+o2!s!on *o+ a$$: a$$ these and s5)h $!1e att+!&5tes the De!t 0ossesses &
nat5+e, not ha2!n' +e)e!2ed the" *+o" e$se(he+e, &5t H!"se$* !"0a+t!n' a$$ 'ood to H!s o(n )+eat!ons a))o+d!n'
to the )a0a)!t o* ea)h/
The s5&s!sten)es d(e$$ and a+e esta&$!shed *!+"$ !n one anothe+/ Fo+ the a+e !nse0a+a&$e and )annot 0a+t *+o"
one anothe+, &5t 1ee0 to the!+ se0a+ate )o5+ses (!th!n one anothe+, (!tho5t )oa$es)!n' o+ "!n'$!n', &5t )$ea2!n'
to ea)h othe+/ Fo+ the Son !s !n the Fathe+ and the S0!+!t: and the S0!+!t !n the Fathe+ and the Son: and the Fathe+
!n the Son and the S0!+!t, &5t the+e !s no )oa$es)en)e o+ )o""!n'$!n' o+ )on*5s!on,>.K And the+e !s one and the
sa"e "ot!on: *o+ the+e !s one !"05$se and one "ot!on o* the th+ee s5&s!sten)es, (h!)h !s not to &e o&se+2ed !n
an )+eated nat5+e/
F5+the+ the d!2!ne e**5$'en)e and ene+', &e!n' one ant! s!"0$e and !nd!2!s!&$e, ass5"!n' "an 2a+!ed *o+"s !n
!ts 'oodness a"on' (hat !s d!2!s!&$e and a$$ott!n' to ea)h the )o"0onent 0a+ts o* !ts o(n nat5+e, st!$$ +e"a!ns
s!"0$e and !s "5$t!0$!ed (!tho5t d!2!s!on a"on' the d!2!ded, and 'athe+s and )on2e+ts the d!2!ded !nto !ts o(n
s!"0$!)!t,@./ Fo+ a$$ th!n's $on' a*te+ !t and ha2e the!+ e7!sten)e !n !t/ It '!2es a$so to a$$ th!n's &e!n' a))o+d!n'
to the!+ se2e+a$ nat5+es,-., and !t !s !tse$* the &e!n' o* e7!st!n' th!n's, the $!*e o* $!2!n' th!n's, the +eason o*
+at!ona$ &e!n's, the tho5'ht o* th!n1!n' &e!n's/ B5t !t !s !tse$* a&o2e "!nd and +eason and $!*e and essen)e/
F5+the+ the d!2!ne nat5+e has the 0+o0e+t o* 0enet+at!n' a$$ th!n's (!tho5t "!7!n' (!th the" and o* &e!n' !tse$*
!"0enet+a&$e & anth!n' e$se/ Mo+eo2e+, the+e !s the 0+o0e+t o* 1no(!n' a$$ th!n's (!th a s!"0$e 1no($ed'e
and o* see!n' a$$ th!n's, s!"0$ (!th H!s d!2!ne, a$$%s5+2e!n', !""ate+!a$ ee, &oth the th!n's o* the 0+esent, and
the th!n's o* the 0ast, and the th!n's o* the *5t5+e, &e*o+e the )o"e !nto &e!n',3./ It !s a$so s!n$ess, and )an )ast
s!n o5t, and &+!n' sa$2at!on: and a$$ that !t (!$$s, !t )an a))o"0$!sh, &5t does not (!$$ a$$ !t )o5$d a))o"0$!sh/ Fo+
!t )o5$d dest+o the 5n!2e+se &5t !t does not (!$$ so to do,4./
&OO' II(
$A"!E% I(
oncernin/ aeon or a/e(
HE )+eated the a'es ?ho H!"se$* (as/ &e*o+e the a'es, ?ho" the d!2!ne Da2!d th5s add+esses, F+o" a'e to a'e
Than a+t,-./ The d!2!ne a0ost$e a$so sas, Th+o5'h ?ho" He )+eated the a'es,3./
It "5st then &e 5nde+stood that the (o+d a'e has 2a+!o5s "ean!n's, *o+ !t denotes "an th!n's/ The $!*e o* ea)h
"an !s )a$$ed an a'e/ A'a!n, a 0e+!od o* a tho5sand ea+s !s )a$$ed an a'e,4./ A'a!n, the (ho$e )o5+se o* the
0+esent $!*e !s )a$$ed an a'e: a$so the *5t5+e $!*e, the !""o+ta$ $!*e a*te+ the +es5++e)t!on,9., !s s0o1en o* as an a'e/
A'a!n, the (o+d a'e !s 5sed to denote, not t!"e no+ et a 0a+t o* t!"e as "eas5+ed & the "o2e"ent and )o5+se
o* the s5n, that !s to sa, )o"0osed o* das and n!'hts, &5t the so+t o* te"0o+a$ "ot!on and !nte+2a$ that !s )o%
e7tens!2e (!th ete+n!t,;./ Fo+ a'e !s to th!n's ete+na$ 85st (hat t!"e !s to th!n's te"0o+a$/
Se2en a'es,<. o* th!s (o+$d a+e s0o1en o*, that !s, *+o" the )+eat!on o* the hea2en and ea+th t!$$ the 'ene+a$
)ons5""at!on and +es5++e)t!on o* "en/ Fo+ the+e !s a 0a+t!a$ )ons5""at!on, 2!D/, the death o* ea)h "an: &5t
the+e !s a$so a 'ene+a$ and )o"0$ete )ons5""at!on, (hen the 'ene+a$ +es5++e)t!on o* "en (!$$ )o"e to 0ass/ And
the e!'hth a'e !s the a'e to )o"e/
Be*o+e the (o+$d (as *o+"ed, (hen the+e (as as et no s5n d!2!d!n' da *+o" n!'ht, the+e (as not an a'e s5)h
as )o5$d &e "eas5+ed,=., &5t the+e (as the so+t o* te"0o+a$ "ot!on and !nte+2a$ that !s )o%e7tens!2e (!th ete+n!t/
And !n th!s sense the+e !s &5t one a'e, and God !s s0o1en o* as E'+ee1Fa!(n!osEG'+ee1F,>. and
E'+ee1F0+oa!(n!osEG'+ee1F, *o+ the a'e o+ aeon !tse$* !s H!s )+eat!on/ Fo+ God, ?ho a$one !s (!tho5t &e'!nn!n',
!s H!"se$* the C+eato+ o* a$$ th!n's, (hethe+ a'e o+ an othe+ e7!st!n' th!n'/ And (hen I sa God, !t !s e2!dent
that I "ean the Fathe+ and H!s On$/ &e'otten Son, o5+ :o+d, Jes5s Ch+!st, and H!s a$$%ho$ S0!+!t, o5+ one God/
B5t (e s0ea1 a$so o* a'es o* a'es, !nas"5)h as the se2en a'es o* the 0+esent (o+$d !n)$5de "an a'es !n the
sense o* $!2es o* "en, and the one a'e e"&+a)es a$$ the a'es, and the 0+esent and the *5t5+e a+e s0o1en o* as a'e
o* a'e/ F5+the+, e2e+$ast!n' ,!/e/ E'+ee1Fa!(n!osEG'+ee1F. $!*e and e2e+$ast!n' 05n!sh"ent 0+o2e that the a'e o+
neon to )o"e !s 5nend!n',@./ Fo+ t!"e (!$$ not &e )o5nted & das and n!'hts e2en a*te+ the +es5++e)t!on, &5t
the+e (!$$ +athe+ &e one da (!th no e2en!n', (he+e!n the S5n o* J5st!)e (!$$ sh!ne &+!'ht$ on the 85st, &5t *o+
the s!n*5$ the+e (!$$ &e n!'ht 0+o*o5nd and $!"!t$ess/ In (hat (a then (!$$ the 0e+!od o* one tho5sand ea+s &e
)o5nted (h!)h, a))o+d!n' to O+!'en,-., !s +eC5!+ed *o+ the )o"0$ete +esto+at!onB O* a$$ the a'es, the+e*o+e, the
so$e )+eato+ !s God ?ho hath a$so )+eated the 5n!2e+se and ?ho (as &e*o+e the a'es/
$A"!E% II(
-3
oncernin/ the creation(
S!n)e, then, God, ?ho !s 'ood and "o+e than 'ood, d!d not *!nd sat!s*a)t!on !n se$*%)onte"0$at!on, &5t !n *!ts
e7)eed!n' 'oodness (!shed )e+ta!n th!n's to )o"e !nto e7!sten)e (h!)h (o5$d en8o H!s &ene*!ts and sha+e !n
H!s 'oodness, He &+o5'ht a$$ th!n's o5t o* noth!n' !nto &e!n' and )+eated the", &oth (hat !s !n2!s!&$e and (hat
!s 2!s!&$e/ Iea, e2en "an, (ho !s a )o"0o5nd o* the 2!s!&$e and the !n2!s!&$e/ And !t !s & tho5'ht that He
)+eates, and tho5'ht !s the &as!s o* the (o+1, the ?o+d *!$$!n' !t and the S0!+!t 0e+*e)t!n' !t,3./
$A"!E% I,I
oncernin/ an/e,s(
He !s H!"se$* the Ma1e+ and C+eato+ o* the an'e$s: *o+ He &+o5'ht the" o5t o* noth!n' !nto &e!n' and )+eated
the" a*te+ H!s o(n !"a'e, an !n)o+0o+ea$ +a)e, a so+t o* s0!+!t o+ !""ate+!a$ *!+e: !n the (o+ds o* the d!2!ne
Da2!d, He "a1eth H!s an'e$s s0!+!ts, and H!s "!n!ste+s a *$a"e o* *!+e,4.: and He has des)+!&ed the!+ $!'htness
and the a+do5+, and heat, and 1eenness and sha+0ness (!th (h!)h the h5n'e+ *o+ God and se+2e H!", and ho(
the a+e &o+ne to the +e'!ons a&o2e and a+e C5!te de$!2e+ed *+o" a$$ "ate+!a$ tho5'ht,9./
An an'e$, then, !s an !nte$$!'ent essen)e, !n 0e+0et5a$ "ot!on, (!th *+ee%(!$$, !n)o+0o+ea$, "!n!ste+!n' to God,
ha2!n' o&ta!ned & '+a)e an !""o+ta$ nat5+e: and the C+eato+ a$one 1no(s the *o+" and $!"!tat!on o* !ts essen)e/
B5t a$$ that (e )an 5nde+stand !s, that !t !s !n)o+0o+ea$ and !""ate+!a$/ Fo+ a$$ that !s )o"0a+ed (!th God ?ho
a$one !s !n)o"0a+a&$e, (e *!nd to &e dense and "ate+!a$/ Fo+ !n +ea$!t on$ the De!t !s !""ate+!a$ and
!n)o+0o+ea$/
The an'e$6s nat5+e then !s +at!ona$, and !nte$$!'ent, and endo(ed (!th *+ee%(!$$, )han'e/ a&$e !n (!$$, o+ *!)1$e/ Fo+
a$$ that !s )+eated !s )han'ea&$e, and on$ that (h!)h !s 5n%)+eated !s 5n)han'ea&$e/ A$so a$$ that !s +at!ona$ !s
endo(ed (!th *+ee%(!$$/ As !t !s, then, +at!ona$ and !nte$$!'ent, !t !s endo(ed (!th *+ee%(!$$: and as !t !s )+eated, !t
!s )han'ea&$e, ha2!n' 0o(e+ e!the+ to a&!de o+ 0+o'+ess !n 'oodness, o+ to t5+n to(a+ds e2!$/
It !s not s5s)e0t!&$e o* +e0entan)e &e)a5se !t !s !n)o+0o+ea$/ Fo+ !t !s o(!n' to the (ea1ness o* h!s &od that "an
)o"es to ha2e +e0entan)e/
It !s !""o+ta$, not & nat5+es &5t & '+a)e,<./ Fo+ a$$ that has had &e'!nn!n' )o"es a$so to !ts nat5+a$ end/ B5t
God a$one !s ete+na$, o+ +athe+, He !s a&o2e the Ete+na$: *o+ He, the C+eato+ o* t!"es, !s not 5nde+ the do"!n!on o*
t!"e, &5t a&o2e t!"e/
The a+e se)onda+ !nte$$!'ent $!'hts de+!2ed *+o" that *!+st $!'ht (h!)h !s (!tho5t &e'!nn!n', *o+ the ha2e the
0o(e+ o* !$$5"!nat!on# the ha2e no need o* ton'5e o+ hea+!n', &5t (!tho5t 5tte+!n' (o+ds,=. the )o""5n!)ate
to ea)h othe+ the!+ o(n tho5'hts and )o5nse$s,>./
Th+o5'h the ?o+d, the+e*o+e, a$$ the an'e$s (e+e )+eated, and th+o5'h the san)t!*!)at!on & the Ho$ S0!+!t (e+e
the &+o5'ht to 0e+*e)t!on, sha+!n' ea)h !n 0+o0o+t!on to h!s (o+th and +an1 !n &+!'htness and '+a)e,@./
The a+e )!+)5"s)+!&ed: *o+ (hen the a+e !n the Hea2en the a+e not on the ea+th: and (hen the a+e sent &
God do(n to the ea+th the do not +e"a!n !n the Hea2en/ The a+e not he""ed !n & (a$$s and doo+s, and &a+s
and sea$s, *o+ the a+e C5!te 5n$!"!ted/ Un$!"!ted, I +e0eat, *o+ !t !s not as the +ea$$ a+e that the +e2ea$
the"se$2es to the (o+th "en,-. to (ho" God (!shes the" to a00ea+, &5t !n a )han'ed *o+" (h!)h the
&eho$de+s a+e )a0a&$e o* see!n'/ Fo+ that a$one !s nat5+a$$ and st+!)t$ 5n$!"!ted (h!)h !s 5n%)+eated/ Fo+ e2e+
)+eated t!+!n' !s $!"!ted & God ?ho )+eated !t/
F5+the+, a0a+t *+o" the!+ essen)e the +e)e!2e the san)t!*!)at!on *+o" the S0!+!t: th+o5'h the d!2!ne '+a)e the
0+o0hes,3.: the ha2e no need o* "a++!a'e *o+ the a+e !""o+ta$/
See!n' that the a+e "!nds the a+e !n "enta$ 0$a)es,4., and a+e not )!+)5"s)+!&ed a*te+ the *ash!on o* a &od/
Fo+ the ha2e not a &od!$ *o+" & nat5+e, no+ a+e the tended !n th+ee d!"ens!ons/ B5t to (hate2e+ 0ost the
"a &e ass!'ned, the+e the a+e 0+esent a*te+ the "anne+ o* a "!nd and ene+'!se, and )annot &e 0+esent and
ene+'!se !n 2a+!o5s 0$a)es at the sa"e t!"e/
?hethe+ the a+e eC5a$s !n essen)e o+ d!**e+ *+o" one anothe+ (e 1no( not/ God, the!+ C+eato+, ?ho 1no(eth a$$
th!n's, a$one 1no(eth/ B5t the d!**e+,9. *+o" ea)h othe+ !n &+!'htness and 0os!t!on, (hethe+ !t !s that the!+
0os!t!on !s de0endent on the!+ &+!'htness, o+ the!+ &+!'htness on the!+ 0os!t!on: and the !"0a+t &+!'htness to one
anothe+, &e)a5se the e7)e$ one anothe+ !n +an1 and nat5+e,;./ And )$ea+$ the h!'he+ sha+e the!+ &+!'htness and
1no($ed'e (!th the $o(e+/
The a+e "!'ht and 0+o"0t to *5$*!$ the (!$$ o* the De!t, and the!+ nat5+e !s endo(ed (!th s5)h )e$e+!t that
(he+e2e+ the D!2!ne '$an)e &!ds the" the+e the a+e st+a!'ht(a *o5nd/ The a+e the '5a+d!ans o* the d!2!s!ons
o* the ea+th: the a+e set o2e+ nat!ons and +e'!ons, a$$otted to the" & the!+ C+eato+: the 'o2e+n a$$ o5+ a**a!+s
and &+!n' 5s s5))o5+/ And the +eason s5+e$ !s &e)a5se the a+e set o2e+ 5s & the d!2!ne (!$$ and )o""and and
a+e e2e+ !n the 2!)!n!t o* God,<./
?!th d!**!)5$t the a+e "o2ed to e2!$, et the a+e not a&so$5te$ !""o2ea&$e: &5t no( the a+e a$to'ethe+
!""o2ea&$e, not & nat5+e &5t & '+a)e and & the!+ nea+ness to the On$ Good,=./
The &eho$d God a))o+d!n' to the!+ )a0a)!t, and th!s !s the!+ *ood,>./
The a+e a&o2e 5s *o+ the a+e !n)o+0o+ea$, and a+e *+ee o* a$$ &od!$ 0ass!on, et a+e not 0ass!on$ess: *o+ the
De!t a$one !s 0ass!on$ess/
-4
The ta1e d!**e+ent *o+"s at the &!dd!n' o* the!+ Maste+, God, and th5s +e2ea$ the"se$2es to "en and 5n2e!$ the
d!2!ne "ste+!es to the"/
The ha2e Hea2en *o+ the!+ d(e$$!n'%0$a)e, and ha2e one d5t, to s!n' God6s 0+a!se and )a++ o5t H!s d!2!ne (!$$/
Mo+eo2e+, as that "ost ho$, and sa)+ed, and '!*ted theo$o'!an, D!ons!5s the A+eo0a'!te,@., sas, A$$ theo$o',
that !s to sa, the ho$ S)+!0t5+e, has n!ne d!**e+ent na"es *o+ the hea2en$ essen)es,-./ These essen)es that
d!2!ne "aste+ !n sa)+ed th!n's d!2!des !nto th+ee '+o50s, ea)h )onta!n!n' th+ee/ And the *!+st '+o50, he sas,
)ons!sts o* those (ho a+e !n God6s 0+esen)e and a+e sa!d to &e d!+e)t$ and !""ed!ate$ one (!th H!", 2!D/, the
Se+a0h!" (!th the!+ s!7 (!n's, the "an%eed Che+5&!" and those that s!t !n the ho$!est th+ones/ The se)ond
'+o50 !s that o* the Do"!n!ons, and the Po(e+s, and the A5tho+!t!es# and the th!+d, and $ast, !s that o* the R5$e+s
and A+)han'e$s and An'e$s
So"e, !ndeed,3., $!1e G+e'o+ the Theo$o'!an, sa that these (e+e &e*o+e the )+eat!on o* othe+ th!n's/ He th!n1s
that the an'e$!) and hea2en$ 0o(e+s (e+e *!+st and that tho5'ht (as the!+ *5n)t!on,4./ Othe+s, a'a!n, ho$d that
the (e+e )+eated a*te+ the *!+st hea2en (as "ade/ B5t a$$ a+e a'+eed that !t (as &e*o+e the *o5ndat!on o* "an/
Fo+ "se$*, I a" !n ha+"on (!th the theo$o'!an/ Fo+ !t (as *!tt!n' that the "enta$ essen)e sho5$d &e the *!+st
)+eated, and then that (h!)h )an &e 0e+)e!2ed, and *!na$$ "an h!"se$*, !n (hose &e!n' &oth 0a+ts a+e 5n!ted/
B5t those (ho sa that the an'e$s a+e )+eato+s o* an 1!nd o* essen)e (hate2e+ a+e the "o5th o* the!+ *athe+, the
de2!$/ Fo+ s!n)e the a+e )+eated th!n's the a+e not )+eato+s/ B5t He ?ho )+eates and 0+o2!des *o+ and "a!nta!ns
a$$ th!n's !s God, ?ho a$one !s 5n)+eate and !s 0+a!sed and '$o+!*!ed !n the Fathe+, the Son, and the Ho$ S0!+!t/
$A"!E% I4(
oncernin/ the de0i, and demons(
He (ho *+o" a"on' these an'e$!) 0o(e+s (as set o2e+,9. the ea+th$ +ea$", and !nto (hose hands God
)o""!tted the '5a+d!ansh!0 o* the ea+th, (as not "ade (!)1ed !n nat5+e &5t (as 'ood, and "ade *o+ 'ood ends,
and +e)e!2ed *+o" h!s C+eato+ no t+a)e (hate2e+ o* e2!$ !n h!"se$*/ B5t he d!d not s5sta!n the &+!'htness and the
hono5+ (h!)h the C+eato+ had &esto(ed,;. on h!", and o* h!s *+ee )ho!)e (as )han'ed *+o" (hat (as !n
ha+"on to (hat (as at 2a+!an)e (!th h!s nat5+e, and &e)a"e +o5sed a'a!nst God ?ho )+eated h!", and
dete+"!ned to +!se !n +e&e$$!on a'a!nst H!",<.: and he (as the *!+st to de0a+t *+o" 'ood and &e)o"e e2!$,=./ Fo+
e2!$ !s noth!n' e$se than a&sen)e o* 'oodness, 85st as da+1ness a$so !s a&sen)e o* $!'ht/ Fo+ 'oodness !s the $!'ht
o* the "!nd, and, s!"!$a+$, e2!$ !s the da+1ness o* the "!nd/ :!'ht, the+e*o+e, &e!n' the (o+1 o* the C+eato+ and
&e!n' "ade 'ood ,*o+ God sa( a$$ that He "ade, and &eho$d the (e+e e7)eed!n' 'ood,>.. 0+od5)ed da+1ness at
H!s *+ee%(!$$/ B5t a$on' (!th h!" an !nn5"e+a&$e host o* an'e$s s5&8e)t to h!" (e+e to+n a(a and *o$$o(ed h!"
and sha+ed !n h!s *a$$/ ?he+e*o+e, &e!n' o* the sa"e nat5+e,@. as the an'e$s, the &e)a"e (!)1ed, t5+n!n' a(a at
the!+ o(n *+ee )ho!)e *+o" 'ood to e2!$,-.
Hen)e the ha2e no 0o(e+ o+ st+en'th a'a!nst an one e7)e0t (hat God !n H!s d!s0ensat!on hath )on)eded to
the", as *o+ !nstan)e, a'a!nst Jo&,3. and those s(!ne that a+e "ent!oned !n the Gos0e$s,4./ B5t (hen God has
"ade the )on)ess!on the do 0+e2a!$, and a+e )han'ed and t+ans*o+"ed !nto an *o+" (hate2e+ !n (h!)h the
(!sh to a00ea+/
O* the *5t5+e &oth the an'e$s o* God and the de"ons a+e a$!1e !'no+ant: et the "a1e 0+ed!)t!ons/ God +e2ea$s
the *5t5+e to the an'e$s and )o""ands the" to 0+o0hes, and so (hat the sa )o"es to 0ass/ B5t the de"ons
a$so "a1e 0+ed!)t!ons, so"et!"es &e)a5se the see (hat !s ha00en!n' at a d!stan)e, and so"et!"es "e+e$
"a1!n' '5esses: hen)e "5)h that the sa !s *a$se and the sho5$d not &e &e$!e2ed, e2en a$tho5'h the do o*ten,
!n the (a (e ha2e sa!d, te$$ (hat !s t+5e/ Bes!des the 1no( the S)+!0t5+es/
A$$ (!)1edness, then, and a$$ !"05+e 0ass!ons a+e the (o+1 o* the!+ "!nd/ B5t (h!$e the $!&e+t to atta)1 "an has
&een '+anted to the", the ha2e not the st+en'th to o2e+ "aste+ an one: *o+ (e ha2e !t !n o5+ 0o(e+ to +e)e!2e o+
not to +e)e!2e the atta)1,9./ ?he+e*o+e the+e has &een 0+e0a+ed *o+ the de2!$ and h!s de"ons, and those (ho
*o$$o( h!", *!+e 5nC5en)ha&$e and e2e+$ast!n' 05n!sh"ent,;./
Note, *5+the+, that (hat !n the )ase o* "an !s death !s a *a$$ !n the )ase o* an'e$s/ Fo+ a*te+ the *a$$ the+e !s no
0oss!&!$!t o* +e0entan)e *o+ the", 85st as a*te+ death the+e !s *o+ "en no +e0entan)e,<./
$A"!E% 4(
oncernin/ the 0isi+,e creation(
O5+ God H!"se$*, ?ho" (e '$o+!* as Th+ee !n One, )+eated the hea2en and the ea+th and a$$ that the
)onta!n,=., and &+o5'ht a$$ th!n's o5t o* noth!n' !nto &e!n': so"e He "ade o5t o* no 0+e%e7!st!n' &as!s o* "atte+,
s5)h as hea2en, ea+th, a!+, *!+e, (ate+: and the +est o5t o* these e$e"ents that He had )+eated, s5)h as $!2!n'
)+eat5+es, 0$ants, seeds/ Fo+ these a+e "ade 50 o* ea+th, and (ate+, and a!+, and *!+e, at the &!dd!n' o* the C+eato+/
$A"!E% 4I(
oncernin/ the $ea0en(
The hea2en !s the )!+)5"*e+en)e o* th!n's )+eated, &oth 2!s!&$e and !n2!s!&$e/ Fo+ (!th!n !ts &o5nda+ a+e
!n)$5ded and "a+1ed o** &oth the "enta$ *a)5$t!es o* the an'e$s and a$$ the (o+$d o* sense/ B5t the De!t a$one !s
5n)!+)5"s)+!&ed, *!$$!n' a$$ th!n's, and s5++o5nd!n' a$$ th!n's, and ho5nd!n' a$$ th!n's, *o+ He !s a&o2e a$$ th!n's,
and has )+eated a$$ th!n's/
-9
S!n)e,>., the+e*o+e, the S)+!0t5+e s0ea1s o* hea2en, and hea2en o* hea2en,@., and hea2ens o* hea2ens,-., and the
&$essed Pa5$ sas that he (as snat)hed a(a to the th!+d hea2en,3., (e sa that !n the )os"o'on o* the 5n!2e+se
(e a))e0t the )+eat!on o* a hea2en (h!)h the *o+e!'n 0h!$oso0he+s, a00+o0+!at!n' the 2!e(s o* Moses, )a$$ a
sta+$ess s0he+e/ B5t *5+the+, God )a$$ed the *!+"a"ent a$so hea2en,4., (h!)h He )o""anded to &e !n the "!dst o*
the (ate+s, sett!n' !t to d!2!de the (ate+s that a+e a&o2e the *!+"a"ent *+o" the (ate+s that a+e &e$o( the
*!+"a"ent/ And !ts nat5+e, a))o+d!n' to the d!2!ne Bas!$!5s,9., (ho !s 2e+sed !n the "ste+!es o* d!2!ne S)+!0t5+e,
!s de$!)ate as s"o1e/ Othe+s, ho(e2e+, ho$d that !t !s (ate+ !n nat5+e, s!n)e !t !s set !n the "!dst o* the (ate+s:
othe+s sa !t !s )o"0osed o* the *o5+ e$e"ents: and $ast$, othe+s s0ea1 o* !t as a *!$th &od, d!st!n)t *+o" the *o5+
e$e"ents,;./
F5+the+, so"e ha2e tho5'ht that the hea2en en)!+)$es the 5n!2e+se and has the *o+" o* a s0he+e, and that
e2e+(he+e !t !s the h!'hest 0o!nt, and that the )ent+e o* the s0a)e en)$osed & !t !s the $o(est 0a+t: and, *5+the+,
that those &od!es that a+e $!'ht and a!+ a+e a$$otted & the C+eato+ the 500e+ +e'!on: (h!$e those that a+e hea2
and tend to des)end o))50 the $o(e+ +e'!on, (h!)h !s the "!dd$e/ The e$e"ent, then, that !s $!'htest and "ost
!n)$!ned to soa+ 50(a+ds !s *!+e, and hen)e the ho$d that !ts 0os!t!on !s !""ed!ate$ a*te+ the hea2en, and the
)a$$ !t ethe+, and a*te+ !t )o"es the $o(e+ a!+/ B5t ea+th and (ate+, (h!)h a+e hea2!e+ and ha2e "o+e o* a
do(n(a+d tenden), a+e s5s0ended !n the )ent+e/ The+e*o+e, ta1!n' the" !n the +e2e+se o+de+, (e ha2e !n the
$o(est s!t5at!on ea+th and (ate+: &5t (ate+ !s $!'hte+ than ea+th, and hen)e !s "o+e eas!$ set !n "ot!on: a&o2e
these on a$$ hands, $!1e a )o2e+!n'# !s the )!+)$e o* a!+, and a$$ +o5nd the a!+ !s the )!+)$e o* ethe+, and o5ts!de a!+ !s
the )!+)$e o* the hea2en/
F5+the+, the sa that the hea2en "o2es !n a )!+)$e and so )o"0+esses a$$ that !s (!th!n !t, that the +e"a!n *!+"
and not $!a&$e to *a$$ as5nde+/
The sa a$so that the+e a+e se2en Dones o* the hea2en,<., one h!'he+ than the othe+/ And !ts nat5+e, the sa, !s
o* e7t+e"e *!neness, $!1e that o* s"o1e, and ea)h Done )onta!ns one o* the 0$anets/ Fo+ the+e a+e sa!d to &e se2en
0$anets: So$, :5na, J50!te+, Me+)5+, Ma+s, Aen5s and Sat5+n/ B5t so"et!"es Aen5s !s )a$$ed :5)!*e+ and
so"et!"es Aes0e+/ These a+e )a$$ed 0$anets &e)a5se the!+ "o2e"ents a+e the +e2e+se o* those o* the hea2en/ Fo+
(h!$e the hea2en and a$$ othe+ sta+s "o2e *+o" east to (est, these a$one "o2e *+o" (est to east/ And th!s )an
eas!$ &e seen !n the )ase o* the "oon, (h!)h "o2es ea)h e2en!n' a $!tt$e &a)1(a+ds/
A$$, the+e*o+e, (ho ho$d that the hea2en !s !n the *o+" o* a s0he+e, sa that !t !s eC5a$$ +e"o2ed and d!stant *+o"
the ea+th at a$$ 0o!nts, (hethe+ a&o2e, o+ s!de(as, o+ &e$o(/ And & 6&e$o(6 and 6 s!de(as6 I "ean a$$ that
)o"es (!th!n the +an'e o* o5+ senses/ Fo+ !t *o$$o(s *+o" (hat has &een sa!d, that the hea2en o))50!es the (ho$e
o* the 500e+ +e'!on and the ea+th the (ho$e o* the $o(e+/ The sa, &es!des, that the hea2en en)!+)$es the ea+th !n
the "anne+ o* a s0he+e, and &ea+s a$on' (!th !t !n !ts "ost +a0!d +e2o$5t!ons s5n, "oon and sta+s, and that (hen
the s5n !s o2e+ the ea+th !t &e)o"es da the+e, and (hen !t !s 5nde+ the ea+th !t !s n!'ht/ And, a'a!n, (hen the s5n
'oes 5nde+ the ea+th !t !s n!'ht he+e, &5t da onde+/
Othe+s ha2e 0!)t5+ed the hea2en as a he"!s0he+e/ Th!s !dea !s s5''ested & these (o+ds o* Da2!d, the s!n'e+ o*
God, ?ho st+et)hest o5t the hea2ens $!1e a )5+ta!n,=., & (h!)h (o+d he )$ea+$ "eans a tent: and & these *+o"
the &$essed Isa!ah, ?ho hath esta&$!shed the hea2ens $!1e a 2a5$t,>.: and a$so &e)a5se (hen the s5n, "oon, and
sta+s set the "a1e a )!+)5!t +o5nd the ea+th *+o" (est to no+th, and so +ea)h on)e "o+e the east,@./ St!$$, (hethe+
!t !s th!s (a o+ that, a$$ th!n's ha2e &een "ade and esta&$!shed & the d!2!ne )o""and, and ha2e the d!2!ne (!$$
and )o5nse$ *o+ a *o5ndat!on that )annot &e "o2ed/ Fo+ He H!"se$* s0o1e and the (e+e "ade: He H!"se$*
)o""anded and the (e+e )+eated/ He hath a$so esta&$!shed the" *o+ e2e+ and e2e+: He hath "ade a de)+ee
(h!)h (!$$ not 0ass,-./
The hea2en o* hea2en, then, !s the *!+st hea2en (h!)h !s a&o2e the *!+"a"ent,3./ So he+e (e ha2e t(o hea2ens,
*o+ God )a$$ed the *!+"a"ent a$so Hea2en,4./ And !t !s )5sto"a+ !n the d!2!ne S)+!0t5+e to s0ea1 o* the a!+ a$so
as hea2ens, &e)a5se (e see !t a&o2e 5s/ B$ess H!", !t sas, a$$ e &!+ds o* the hea2en, "ean!n' o* the a!+/ Fo+ !t !s
the a!+ and not the hea2en that !s the +e'!on !n (h!)h &!+ds *$/ So he+e (e ha2e th+ee hea2ens, as the d!2!ne
A0ost$e sa!d,9./ B5t !* o5 sho5$d (!sh to $oo1 50on the se2en Dones as se2en hea2ens the+e !s no !n85+ done to
the (o+d o* t+5th/ Fo+ !t !s 5s5a$ !n the He&+e( ton'5e to s0ea1 o* hea2en !n the 0$5+a$, that !s, as hea2ens, and
(hen a He&+e( (!shes to sa hea2en o* hea2en, he 5s5a$$ sas hea2ens o* hea2ens, and th!s )$ea+$ "eans
hea2en o* hea2en,;., (h!)h !s a&o2e the *!+"a"ent, and the (ate+s (h!)h a+e a&o2e the hea2ens, (hethe+ !t !s
the a!+ and the *!+"a"ent, o+ the se2en Dones o* the *!+"a"ent, o+ the *!+"a"ent !tse$* (h!)h a+e s0o1en o* !n the
0$5+a$ as hea2ens a))o+d!n' to the He&+e( )5sto"/
A$$ th!n's, then, (h!)h a+e &+o5'ht !nto e7!sten)e a+e s5&8e)t to )o++50t!on a))o+d!n' to the $a( o* the!+
nat5+e,<., and so e2en the hea2ens the"se$2es a+e )o++50t!&$e/ B5t & the '+a)e o* God the a+e "a!nta!ned and
0+ese+2ed,=./ On$ the De!t, ho(e2e+, !s & nat5+e (!tho5t &e'!nn!n' and (!tho5t end,>./ ?he+e*o+e !t has &een
sa!d, The (!$$ 0e+!sh, &5t Tho5 dost end5+e,-.: ne2e+the$ess, the hea2ens (!$$ not &e 5tte+$ dest+oed/ Fo+ the
(!$$ (a7 o$d and &e (o5nd +o5nd as a )o2e+!n', and (!$$ &e )han'ed, and the+e (!$$ &e a ne( hea2en and a ne(
ea+th,3./
Fo+ the '+eat 0a+t the hea2en !s '+eate+ than the ea+th, &5t (e need not !n2est!'ate the essen)e o* the hea2en, *o+
!t !s C5!te &eond o5+ 1no($ed'e/
-;
It "5st not &e s500osed that the hea2ens o+ the $5"!na+!es a+e endo(ed (!th $!*e,4./ Fo+ the a+e !nan!"ate and
!nsens!&$e,9./ So that (hen the d!2!ne S)+!0t5+e sa!th, :et the hea2ens +e8o!)e and the ea+th &e '$ad,;., !t !s the
an'e$s !n hea2en and the "en on ea+th that a+e !n2!ted to +e8o!)e/ Fo+ the S)+!0t5+e !s *a"!$!a+ (!th the *!'5+e o*
0e+son!*!)at!on, and !s (ont to s0ea1 o* !nan!"ate th!n's as tho5'h the (e+e an!"ate: *o+ e7a"0$e,<., The sea
sa( !t and *$ed: Jo+dan (as d+!2en &a)1,=./ And a'a!n, ?hat a!$ed thee, O tho5 sea, that tho5 *$eddestB tho5, O
Jo+dan, that tho5 (as d+!2en &a)1,>.B Mo5nta!ns, too, and h!$$s a+e as1ed the +eason o* the!+ $ea0!n' !n the sa"e
(a as (e a+e (ont to sa, the )!t (as 'athe+ed to'ethe+, (hen (e do not "ean the &5!$d!n's, &5t the
!nha&!tants o* the )!t: a'a!n, the hea2ens de)$a+e the '$o+ o* God,@., does not "ean that the send *o+th a 2o!)e
that )an &e hea+d & &od!$ ea+s, &5t that *+o" the!+ o(n '+eatness the &+!n' &e*o+e o5+ "!nds the 0o(e+ o* the
C+eato+: and (hen (e )onte"0$ate the!+ &ea5t (e 0+a!se the Ma1e+ as the Maste+%C+a*ts"an,-./
$A"!E% 4II(
oncernin/ ,i/ht- 2ire- the ,uminaries- sun- moon and stars(
F!+e !s one o* the *o5+ e$e"ents, $!'ht and (!th a '+eate+ tenden) to as)end than the othe+s/ It has the 0o(e+ o*
&5+n!n' and a$so o* '!2!n' $!'ht, and !t (as "ade & the C+eato+ on the *!+st da/ Fo+ the d!2!ne S)+!0t5+e sas,
And God sa!d, :et the+e &e $!'ht, and the+e (as $!'ht,3./ F!+e !s not a d!**e+ent th!n' *+o" (hat $!'ht !s, as so"e
"a!nta!n/ Othe+s a'a!n ho$d that th!s *!+e o* the 5n!2e+se !s a&o2e the a!+,4. and )a$$ !t ethe+/ In the &e'!nn!n',
then, that !s to sa on the *!+st da, God )+eated $!'ht, the o+na"ent and '$o+ o* the (ho$e 2!s!&$e )+eat!on/ Fo+
ta1e a(a $!'ht and a$$ th!n's +e"a!n !n 5nd!st!n'5!sha&$e da+1ness, !n)a0a&$e o* d!s0$a!n' the!+ nat!2e &ea5t/
And God )a$$ed the $!'ht da, &5t the da+1ness He )a$$ed n!'ht,9./ F5+the+, da+1ness !s not an essen)e, &5t an
a))!dent: *o+ !t !s s!"0$ a&sen)e o* $!'ht/ The a!+, !ndeed, has not $!'ht !n !ts essen)e,;./ It (as, then, th!s 2e+
a&sen)e o* $!'ht *+o" the a!+ that God )a$$ed da+1ness: and !t !s not the essen)e o* a!+ that !s da+1ness, &5t the
a&sen)e o* $!'ht (h!)h )$ea+$ !s +athe+ an a))!dent than an essen)e/ And, !ndeed, !t (as not n!'ht, &5t da, that
(as *!+st na"ed, so that da !s *!+st and a*te+ that )o"es n!'ht/ N!'ht, the+e*o+e, *o$$o(s da/ And *+o" the
&e'!nn!n' o* da t!$$ the ne7t da !s one )o"0$ete 0e+!od o* da and n!'ht/ Fo+ the S)+!0t5+e sas, And the
e2en!n' and the "o+n!n' (e+e one da,<./
?hen, the+e*o+e, !n the *!+st th+ee das the $!'ht (as 0o5+ed *o+th and +ed5)ed at the d!2!ne )o""and, &oth da
and n!'ht )a"e to 0ass,=./ B5t on the *o5+th da God )+eated the '+eat $5"!na+, that !s, the s5n, to ha2e +5$e and
a5tho+!t,>. o2e+ the da: *o+ !t !s & !t that da !s "ade: *o+ !t !s da (hen the s5n !s a&o2e the ea+th, and the
d5+at!on o* a da !s the )o5+se o* the s5n o2e+ the ea+th *+o" !ts +!s!n' t!$$ !ts sett!n'/ And He a$so )+eated the
$esse+ $5"!na+!es, that !s, the "oon and the sta+s, to ha2e +5$e and a5tho+!t,-. o2e+ the n!'ht, and to '!2e $!'ht &
n!'ht/ Fo+ !t !s n!'ht (hen the s5n !s 5nde+ the ea+th, and the d5+at!on o* n!'ht !s the )o5+se o* the s5n 5nde+ the
ea+th *+o" !ts +!s!n' t!$$ !ts sett!n'/ The "oon, then, and the sta+s (e+e set to $!'hten the n!'ht: not that the a+e !n
the dat!"e 5nde+ the ea+th, *o+ e2en & da sta+s a+e !n the hea2en o2e+ the ea+th &5t the s5n )on)ea$s &oth the
sta+s and the "oon & the '+eate+ &+!$$!an)e o* !ts $!'ht and 0+e2ents the" *+o" &e!n' seen/
On these $5"!na+!es the C+eato+ &esto(ed the *!+st%)+eated $!'ht: not &e)a5se He (as !n need o* othe+ $!'ht, &5t
that that $!'ht "!'ht not +e"a!n !d$e/ Fo+ a $5"!na+ !s not "e+e$ $!'ht, &5t a 2esse$ *o+ )onta!n!n' $!'ht,3./
The+e a+e, (e a+e to$d, se2en 0$anets a"on'st these $5"!na+!es, and these "o2e !n a d!+e)t!on o00os!te to that o*
the hea2en: hen)e the na"e 0$anets/ Fo+, (h!$e the sa that the hea2en "o2es *+o" east to (est, the 0$anets
"o2e *+o" (est to east# &5t the hea2en &ea+s the se2en 0$anets a$on' (!th !t & !ts s(!*te+ "ot!on/ No( these a+e
the na"es o* the se2en 0$anets: :5na, Me+)5+, Aen5s, So$, Ma+s, J50!te+, Sat5+n, and !n ea)h Done o* hea2en !s,
(e a+e to$d, one o* these se2en 0$anets:
In the *!+st and h!'hest Sat5+n EBF
In the se)ond J50!te+ EBF
In the th!+d Ma+s EBF
In the *o5+th So$ EBFL
In the *!*th Aen5s EBF
In the s!7th Me+)5+ EBF
In the se2enth and $o(est :5na EBF
The )o5+se (h!)h the C+eato+,4. a00o!nted *o+ the" to +5n !s 5n)eas!n' and +e"a!neth *!7ed as He esta&$!shed
the"/ Fo+ the d!2!ne Da2!d sas, The "oan and the sta+s (h!)h Tho5 esta&$!shedst,9., and & the (o+d
6esta&$!shedst,6 he +e*e++ed to the *!7!t and 5n)han'ea&$eness o* the o+de+ and se+!es '+anted to the" & God/ Fo+
He a00o!nted the" *o+ seasons, and s!'ns, and das and ea+s/ It !s th+o5'h the S5n that the *o5+ seasons a+e
&+o5'ht a&o5t/ And the *!+st o* these !s s0+!n': *o+ !n !t God )+eated a$$ th!n's,;., and e2en do(n to the 0+esent
t!"e !ts 0+esen)e !s e2!den)ed & the &5+st!n' o* the *$o(e+s !nto &5d, and th!s !s the eC5!no)t!a$ 0e+!od, s!n)e da
and n!'ht ea)h )ons!st o* t(e$2e ho5+s/ It !s )a5sed & the s5n +!s!n' !n the "!dd$e, and !s "!$d and !n)+eases the
&$ood, and !s (a+" and "o!st, and ho$ds a 0os!t!on "!d(a &et(een (!nte+ and s5""e+, &e!n' (a+"e+ and d+!e+
than (!nte+, &5t )o$de+ and "o!ste+ than s5""e+/ Th!s season $asts *+o" Ma+)h 3-st t!$$ J5ne 39th/ Ne7t, (hen
the +!s!n' o* the s5n "o2es to(a+ds "o+e no+the+$ 0a+ts, the season o* s5""e+ s5))eeds, (h!)h has a 0$a)e
"!d(a &et(een s0+!n' and a5t5"n, )o"&!n!n' the (a+"th o* s0+!n' (!th the d+ness o* a5t5"n: *o+ !t !s d+
and (a+", and !n)+eases the e$$o( &!$e/ In !t *a$$s the $on'est da, (h!)h has *!*teen ho5+s, and the sho+test n!'ht
-<
o* a$$, ha2!n' on$ n!ne ho5+s/ Th!s season $asts *+o" J5ne 39th t!$$ Se0te"&e+ 3;th/ Then (hen the s5n a'a!n
+et5+ns to the "!dd$e, a5t5"n ta1es the 0$a)e o* s5""e+/ It has a "ed!5" a"o5nt o* )o$d and heat, d+ness and
"o!st5+e, and ho$ds a 0$a)e "!d(a &et(een s5""e+ and (!nte+, )o"&!n!n' the d+ness o* s5""e+ (!th the
)o$d o* (!nte+/ Fo+ !t !s )o$d and d+, and !n)+eases the &$a)1 &!$e/ Th!s season, a'a!n, !s eC5!no)t!a$, &oth da and
n!'ht )ons!st!n' o* t(e$2e ho5+s, and !t $asts *+o" Se0te"&e+ 3;th t!$$ De)e"&e+ 3;th/ And (hen the +!s!n' o* the
s5n s!n1s to !ts s"a$$est and $o(est 0o!nt, !/e/ the so5th, (!nte+ !s +ea)hed, (!th !ts )o$d and "o!st5+e/ It o))50!es
a 0$a)e "!d(a &et(een a5t5"n and s0+!n', )o"&!n!n' the )o$d o* a5t5"n and the "o!st5+e o* s0+!n'/ In !t *a$$s
the sho+test da, (h!)h has on$ n!ne ho5+s, and the $on'est n!'ht, (h!)h has *!*teen: and !t $asts *+o" De)e"&e+
3;th t!$$ Ma+)h 3-st/ Fo+ the C+eato+ "ade th!s (!se 0+o2!s!on that (e sho5$d not 0ass *+o" the e7t+e"e o* )o$d,
o+ heat, o+ d+ness, o+ "o!st5+e, to the o00os!te e7t+e"e, and th5s !n)5+ '+!e2o5s "a$ad!es/ Fo+ +eason !tse$*
tea)hes 5s the dan'e+ o* s5dden )han'es/
So, then, !t !s the s5n that "a1es the seasons, and th+o5'h the" the ea+: !t $!1e(!se "a1es the das and n!'hts,
the das (hen !t +!ses and !s a&o2e the ea+th, and the n!'hts (hen !t sets &e$o( the ea+th: and !t &esto(s on the
othe+ $5"!na+!es, &oth "oon and sta+s, the!+ 0o(e+ o* '!2!n' *o+th $!'ht/
F5+the+, the sa that the+e a+e !n the hea2en t(e$2e s!'ns "ade & the sta+s, and that these "o2e !n an o00os!te
d!+e)t!on to the s5n and "oon, and the othe+ *!2e 0$anets, and that the se2en 0$anets 0ass a)+oss these t(e$2e
s!'ns/ F5+the+, the s5n "a1es a )o"0$ete "onth !n ea)h s!'n and t+a2e+ses the t(e$2e s!'ns !n the sa"e n5"&e+
o* "onths/ These, then, a+e the na"es o* the t(e$2e s!'ns and the!+ +es0e)t!2e "onths:%%
!he %am, (h!)h +e)e!2es the s5n on the 3-st o* Ma+)h/
!he &u,,, on the 34+d o* A0+!$/
!he !.ins, on the 39th o* Ma/
!he ra+, on the 39th o* J5ne/
!he 4ir/in, on the 3;th o* J5$/
!he #ca,es, on the 3;th o* Se0te"&e+/
!he #cor*ion, on the 3;th o* O)to&e+/
!he Archer, on the 3;th o* No2e"&e+/
a*ricorn, on the 3;th o* De)e"&e+/
A:uarius, on the 3;th o* Jan5a+/
!he Fish, on the 39th o* Fe&+5a+/
B5t the "oon t+a2e+ses the t(e$2e s!'ns ea)h "onth, s!n)e !t o))50!es a $o(e+ 0os!t!on and t+a2e$s th+o5'h the
s!'ns at a C5!)1e+ +ate/ Fo+ !* o5 d+a( one )!+)$e (!th!n anothe+, the !nne+ one (!$$ &e *o5nd to &e the $esse+: and
so !t !s that o(!n' to the "oon o))50!n' a $o(e+ 0os!t!on !ts )o5+se !s sho+te+ and !s soone+ )o"0$eted
No( the G+ee1s de)$a+e that a$$ o5+ a**a!+s a+e )ont+o$$ed & the +!s!n' and sett!n' and )o$$!s!on,<. o* these sta+s,
2!D/, the s5n and "oon: *o+ !t !s (!th these "atte+s that ast+o$o' has to do/ B5t (e ho$d that (e 'et *+o" the"
s!'ns o* +a!n and d+o5'ht, )o$d and heat, "o!st5+e and d+ness, and o* the 2a+!o5s (!nds, and so *o+th,=., &5t no
s!'n (hate2e+ as to o5+ a)t!ons/ Fo+ (e ha2e &een )+eated (!th *+ee (!$$s & o5+ C+eato+ and a+e "aste+s o2e+ o5+
o(n a)t!ons/ Indeed, !* a$$ o5+ a)t!ons de0end on the )o5+ses o* the sta+s, a$$ (e do !s done o* ne)ess!t,>.: and
ne)ess!t 0+e)$5des e!the+ 2!+t5e o+ 2!)e/ B5t !* (e 0ossess ne!the+ 2!+t5e no+ 2!)e, (e do not dese+2e 0+a!se o+
05n!sh"ent, and God, too, (!$$ t5+n o5t to &e 5n85st, s!n)e He '!2es 'ood th!n's to so"e and a**$!)ts othe+s/ Na,
He (!$$ no $on'e+ )ont!n5e to '5!de o+ 0+o2!de *o+ H!s o(n )+eat5+es, !* a$$ th!n's a+e )a++!ed and s(e0t a$on' !n
the '+!0 o* ne)ess!t/ And the *a)5$t o* +eason (!$$ &e s50e+*$5o5s to 5s: *o+ !* (e a+e not "aste+s o* an o* o5+
a)t!ons, de$!&e+at!on !s C5!te s50e+*$5o5s/ Reason, !ndeed, !s '+anted to 5s so$e$ that (e "!'ht ta1e )o5nse$, and
hen)e a$$ +eason !"0$!es *+eedo" o* (!$$/
And, the+e*o+e, (e ho$d that the sta+s a+e not the )a5ses o* the th!n's that o))5+, no+ o* the o+!'!n o* th!n's that
)o"e to 0ass, no+ o* the dest+5)t!on o* those th!n's that 0e+!sh/ The a+e +athe+ s!'ns o* sho(e+s and )han'es o*
a!+/ B5t, 0e+ha0s, so"e one "a sa that tho5'h the a+e not the )a5ses o* (a+s, et the a+e s!'ns o* the"/ And,
!n t+5th, the C5a$!t o* the a!+ (h!)h !s 0+od5)ed,-. & s5n, and "oon, and sta+s, 0+od5)es !n 2a+!o5s (as
d!**e+ent te"0e+a"ents, and ha&!ts, and d!s0os!t!ons,3./ B5t the ha&!ts a+e a"on'st the th!n's that (e ha2e !n o5+
o(n hands, *o+ !t !s +eason that +5$es, and d!+e)ts, and )han'es the"/
It o*ten ha00ens, a$so, that )o"ets a+!se/ These a+e s!'ns o* the death o* 1!n's,4., and the a+e not an o* the sta+s
that (e+e "ade !n the &e'!nn!n', &5t a+e *o+"ed at the sa"e t!the & d!2!ne )o""and and a'a!n d!sso$2ed,9./
And so not e2en that sta+ (h!)h the Ma'! sa( at the &!+th o* the F+!end and Sa2!o5+ o* "an, o5+ :o+d, ?ho
&e)a"e *$esh *o+ o5+ sa1e, !s o* the n5"&e+ o* those that (e+e "ade !n the &e'!nn!n'/ And th!s !s e2!dent$ the
)ase &e)a5se so"et!"es !ts )o5+se (as *+o" east to (est, and so"et!"es *+o" no+th to so5th# at one "o"ent !t
(as h!dden, and at the ne7t !t (as +e2ea$ed: (h!)h !s C5!te o5t o* ha+"on (!th the o+de+ and nat5+e o* the sta+s/
It "5st &e 5nde+stood, then, that the "oon de+!2es !ts $!'ht *+o" the s5n# not that God (as 5na&$e to '+ant !t $!'ht
o* !ts o(n, &5t !n o+de+ that +hth" and o+de+ "a &e 5n!"0+essed 50on nat5+e, one 0a+t +5$!n', the othe+ &e!n'
+5$ed, and that (e "!'ht th5s &e ta5'ht to $!2e !n )o""5n!t and to sha+e o5+ 0ossess!ons (!th one anothe+, and
to &e 5nde+ s5&8e)t!on, *!+st to o5+ Ma1e+ and C+eato+, o5+ God and Maste+, and then a$so to the +5$e+s set !n
-=
a5tho+!t o2e+ 5s & H!": and not to C5est!on (h th!s "an !s +5$e+ and not I "se$*, &5t to (e$)o"e a$$ that
)o"es *+o" God !n a '+a)!o5s and +easona&$e s0!+!t/
The s5n and the "oon, "o+eo2e+, s5**e+ e)$!0se, and th!s de"onst+ates the *o$$ o* those (ho (o+sh!0 the
)+eat5+e !n 0$a)e o* the C+eato+,;., and tea)hes 5s ho( )han'ea&$e and a$te+a&$e a$$ th!n's a+e Fo+ a$$ th!n's a+e
)han'ea&$e sa2e God, and (hate2e+ !s )han'ea&$e !s $!a&$e to )o++50t!on !n a))o+dan)e (!th the $a(s o* !ts o(n
nat5+e/
No( the )a5se o* the e)$!0se o* the s5n !s that the &od o* the "oon !s !nte+0osed $!1e a 0a+t!t!on%(a$$ and )asts a
shado(, and 0+e2ents the $!'ht *+o" &e!n' shed do(n on 5s,<.: and the e7tent o* the e)$!0se !s 0+o0o+t!ona$ to the
s!De o* the "oon6s &od that !s *o5nd to )on)ea$ the s5n/ B5t do not "a+2e$ that the "oon6s &od !s the s"a$$e+/
Fo+ "an de)$a+e that the s5n !s "an t!"es $a+'e+ e2en than the ea+th, and the ho$ Fathe+s sa that !t !s eC5a$ to
the ea+th: et o*ten a s"a$$ )$o5d, o+ e2en a s"a$$ h!$$ o+ a (a$$ C5!te )on)ea$s !t/
The e)$!0se o* the "oon, on the othe+ hand, !s d5e to the shado( the ea+th )asts on !t (hen !t !s a *!*teen das6
"oon and the s5n and "oon ha00en to &e at the o00os!te 0o$es o* the h!'hest )!+)$e, the s5n &e!n' 5nde+ the
ea+th and the "oon a&o2e the ea+th/ Fo+ the ea+th )asts a shado( and the s5n6s $!'ht !s 0+e2ented *+o"
!$$5"!nat!n' the "oon, and the+e*o+e !t !s then e)$!0sed/
It sho5$d &e 5nde+stood that the "oon (as "ade *5$$ & the C+eato+, that !s, a *!*teen das6 "oon: *o+ !t (as
*!tt!n' that !t sho5$d &e "ade )o"0$ete,=./ B5t on the *o5+th da, as (e sa!d, the s5n (as )+eated/ The+e*o+e the
"oon (as e$e2en das !n ad2an)e o* the s5n, &e)a5se *+o" the *o5+th to the *!*teenth da the+e a+e e$e2en das/
Hen)e !t ha00ens that !n ea)h ea+ the t(e$2e "onths o* the "oon )onta!n e$e2en das *e(e+ than the t(e$2e
"onths o* the s5n/ Fo+ the t(e$2e "onths o* the s5n )onta!n th+ee h5nd+ed and s!7t%*!2e and a C5a+te+ das, and
so &e)a5se the C5a+te+ &e)o"es a (ho$e, !n *o5+ ea+s an e7t+a da !s )o"0$eted, (h!)h !s )a$$ed &!s%se7t!$e/ And
that ea+ has th+ee h5nd+ed and s!7t%s!7 das/ The ea+s o* the "oon, on the othe+ hand, ha2e th+ee h5nd+ed and
*!*t%*o5+ das/ Fo+ the "oon (anes *+o" the t!"e o* !ts o+!'!n, o+ +ene(a$, t!$$ !t !s *o5+teen and th+ee%C5a+te+
das6 o$d, and 0+o)eeds to (ane t!$$ the t(ent%n!nth and a ha$* da, (hen !t !s )o"0$ete$ 2o!d o* $!'ht And then
(hen !t !s on)e "o+e )onne)ted (!th the s5n !t !s +e0+od5)ed and +ene(ed, a "e"o+!a$ o* o5+ +es5++e)t!on/ Th5s
!n ea)h ea+ the "oon '!2es a(a e$e2en das to the s5n, and so !n th+ee ea+s the !nte+)a$a+ "onth o* the
He&+e(s a+!ses, and that ea+ )o"es to )ons!st o* th!+teen "onths, o(!n' to the add!t!on o* these e$e2en das,>./
It !s e2!dent that &oth s5n and "oon and sta+s a+e )o"0o5nd and $!a&$e to )o++50t!on a))o+d!n' to the $a(s o*
the!+ 2a+!o5s nat5+es/ B5t o* the!+ nat5+e (e a+e !'no+ant/ So"e, !ndeed, sa that *!+e (hen de0+!2ed o* "atte+ !s
!n2!s!&$e, and th5s, that (hen !t !s C5en)hed !t 2an!shes a$to'ethe+/ Othe+s, a'a!n, sa that (hen !t !s C5en)hed !t
!s t+ans*o+"ed !nto a!+,@./
The )!+)$e o* the Dod!a) has an o&$!C5e "ot!on and !s d!2!ded !nto t(e$2e se)t!ons )a$$ed Dod!a, o+ s!'ns: ea)h
s!'n has th+ee d!2!s!ons o* ten ea)h, !/e/ th!+t d!2!s!ons, and ea)h d!2!s!on has s!7t 2e+ "!n5te s5&d!2!s!ons/
The hea2en, the+e*o+e, has th+ee h5nd+ed and s!7t%*!2e de'+ees: the he"!s0he+e a&o2e the ea+th and that &e$o(
the ea+th ea)h ha2!n' one h5nd+ed and e!'ht de'+ees/
!he a+odes o2 the *,anets(
The Ra" and the S)o+0!on a+e the a&ode o* Ma+s: the B5$$ and the S)a$es, o* Aen5s,-.: the T(!ns and the A!+'!n,
o* Me+)5+: the C+a&, o* the Moon: the :!on, o* the S5n: the A+)he+ and the F!sh, o* J50!te+: Ca0+!)o+n and
AC5a+!5s, o* Sat5+n/
!heir a,titudes(
The Ra" has the a$t!t5de o* the S5n: the B5$$, o* the Moon: the C+a&, o* J50!te+: the A!+'!n, o* Ma+s: the S)a$es,
o* Sat5+n: Ca0+!)o+n, o* Me+)5+: the F!sh, o* Aen5s/
!he *hases o2 the moon(
It !s !n )on85n)t!on (hene2e+ !t !s !n the sa"e de'+ee as the s5n: !t !s &o+n (hen !t !s *!*teen de'+ees d!stant *+o"
the s5n: !t +!ses (hen !t !s )+es)ent%sha0ed, and th!s o))5+s t(!)e,3., at (h!)h t!"es !t !s s!7t de'+ees d!stant
*+o" the s5n: !t !s ha$*%*5$$ t(!)e, (hen !t !s n!net de'+ees *+o" the s5n: t(!)e !t !s '!&&o5s, (hen !t !s one
h5nd+ed and t(ent de'+ees *+o" the s5n: !t !s t(!)e a *5$$ "oon, '!2!n' *5$$ $!'ht, (hen !t !s a h5nd+ed and *!*t
de'+ees *+o" the s5n: !t !s a )o"0$ete "oon (hen !t !s a h5nd+ed and e!'ht de'+ees d!stant *+o" the s5n/ ?e sa
t(!)e, &e)a5se these 0hases o))5+ &oth (hen the "oon (a7es and (hen !t (anes/ In t(o and a ha$* das the
"oon t+a2e+ses ea)h s!'n/
$A"!E% 4III(
oncernin/ air and .inds(
A!+ !s the "ost s5&t$e e$e"ent, and !s "o!st and (a+": hea2!e+, !ndeed, than *!+e: &5t $!'hte+ than ea+th and (ate+:
!t !s the )a5se o* +es0!+at!on and 2o!)e: !t !s )o$o5+$ess, that !s, !t has no )o$o5+ & nat5+e: !t !s )$ea+ and
t+ans0a+ent, *o+ !t !s )a0a&$e o* +e)e!2!n' $!'ht: !t "!n!ste+s to th+ee o* o5+ senses, *o+ !t !s & !ts a!d that (e see,
hea+ and s"e$$: !t has the 0o(e+ $!1e(!se o* +e)e!2!n' heat and )o$d, d+ness and "o!st5+e, and !ts "o2e"ents !n
s0a)e a+e 50, do(n, (!th!n, (!tho5t, to the +!'ht and to the $e*t, and the ))$!)a$ "o2e"ent/
It does not de+!2e !ts $!'ht *+o" !tse$*, &5t !s !$$5"!nated & s5n, and "oon, and sta+s, and *!+e/ And th!s !s 85st
(hat the S)+!0t5+e "eans (hen !t sas, And da+1eness (as 50on the dee0,4.# *o+ !ts o&8e)t !s to she( that the a!+
has not de+!2ed !ts $!'ht *+o" !tse$*, &5t that !t !s C5!te a d!**e+ent essen)e *+o" $!'ht/
->
And (!nd !s a "o2e"ent o* a!+: o+ (!nd !s a +5sh o* a!+ (h!)h )han'es !ts na"e as !t )han'es the 0$a)e (hen)e !t
+5shes,9./
Its 0$a)e !s !n the a!+/ Fo+ 0$a)e !s the )!+)5"*e+en)e o* a &od/ B5t (hat !s !t that s5++o5nds &od!es &5t a!+B The+e
a+e, "o+eo2e+, d!**e+ent 0$a)es !n (h!)h the "o2e"ent o* a!+ o+!'!nates, and *+o" these the (!nds 'et the!+
na"es/ The+e a+e !n a$$ t(e$2e (!nds/ It !s sa!d that a!+ !s 85st *!+e a*te+ !t has &een e7t!n'5!shed, o+ the 2a0o5+ o*
heated (ate+/ At a$$ e2ents, !n !ts o(n s0e)!a$ nat5+e the a!+ !s (a+", &5t !t &e)o"es )o$d o(!n' to the 0+o7!"!t
o* (ate+ and ea+th, so that the $o(e+ 0a+ts o* !t a+e )o$d, and the h!'he+ (a+",;./
These then a+e the (!nds,<.: Cae)!as, o+ Meses, a+!ses !n the +e'!on (he+e the s5n +!ses !n s5""e+/ S5&so$an5s,
(he+e the s5n +!ses at the eC5!no7es/ E5+5s, (he+e !t +!ses !n (!nte+/ A*+!)5s, (he+e !t sets !n (!nte+/ Fa2on!5s,
(he+e !t sets at the eC5!no7es, and Co+ns, o+ O$"0!as, o+ Ia07, (he+e !t sets !n s5""e+/ Then )o"e A5ste+ and
AC5!$o, (hose &$asts o00ose one anothe+/ Bet(een AC5!$o and Cae)!as )o"es Bo+eas: and t(een E5+5s and
A5ste+, Phoen!7 o+ E5+onot5s# &et(een A5ste+ and A*+!)5s, :!&onot5s o+ :e5)o5ot5s: and $ast$, &et(een AC5!$o
and Co+5s, Th+as)!as, o+ Ce+)!5s, as !t !s )a$$ed & the !nha&!tants o* that +e'!on/
MThese,=., then, a+e the +a)es (h!)h d(e$$ at the ends o* the (o+$d: &es!de S5&so$an5s a+e the Ba)t+!an!: &es!de
E5+5s, the Ind!ans: &es!de Phoen!7, the Red Sea and Eth!o0!a: &es!de :!&onot5s, the Ga+a"antes, (ho a+e
&eond Sst!s: &es!de A*+!)5s, the Eth!o0!ans and the ?este+n Ma5+!: &es!de Fa2on!5s, the )o$5"ns o* He+)5$es
and the &e'!nn!n's o* :!&a and E5+o0e: &es!de Co+5s, I&e+!a, (h!)h !s no( )a$$ed S0a!n: &es!de Th+as)!a, the
Ga5$s and the ne!'h&o5+!n' nat!ons: &es!de AC5!$o, the S)th!ans (ho a+e &eond Th+a)e: &es!de Bo+eas,
Pont5s, Maeot!s and the Sa+"atae: &es!de Cae)!as, the Cas0!an Sea and the Sa)a!/L
$A"!E% IX(
oncernin/ the .aters(
?ate+ a$so !s one o* the *o5+ e$e"ents, the "ost &ea5t!*5$ o* God6s )+eat!ons/ It !s &oth (et and )o$d, hea2, and
(!th a tenden) to des)end, and *$o(s (!th '+eat +ead!ness/ It !s th!s the Ho$ S)+!0t5+e has !n 2!e( (hen !t sas,
And da+1ness (as 50on the *a)e o* the dee0/ And the S0!+!t o* God "o2ed 50on the *a)e o* the (ate+s,>./ Fo+ the
dee0 !s noth!n' e$se than a h5'e C5ant!t o* (ate+ (hose $!"!t "an )annot )o"0+ehend/ In the &e'!nn!n',
!ndeed, the (ate+ $a a$$ o2e+ the s5+*a)e o* the ea+th/ And *!+st God )+eated the *!+"a"ent to d!2!de the (ate+
a&o2e the *!+"a"ent *+o" the (ate+ &e$o( the *!+"a"ent/ Fo+ !n the "!dst o* the sea o* (ate+s the *!+"a"ent
(as esta&$!shed at the Maste+6s de)+ee/ And o5t o* !t God &ade the *!+"a"ent a+!se, and !t a+ose/ No( *o+ (hat
+eason (as !t that God 0$a)ed (ate+ a&o2e the *!+"a"entB It (as &e)a5se o* the !ntense &5+n!n' heat o* the s5n
and ethe+,-./ Fo+ !""ed!ate$ 5nde+ the *!+"a"ent !s s0+ead o5t the ethe+,3., and the s5n and "oon and sta+s a+e
!n the *!+"a"ent, and so !* (ate+ had not &een 05t a&o2e !t the *!+"a"ent (o5$d ha2e &een )ons5"ed & the
heat,4./
Ne7t, God &ade the (ate+s &e 'athe+ed to'ethe+ !nto one "ass,9./ B5t (hen the S)+!0t5+e s0ea1s o* one "ass !t
e2!dent$ does not "ean that the (e+e 'athe+ed to'ethe+ !nto one 0$a)e: *o+ !""ed!ate$ !t 'oes on to sa, And
the 'athe+!n's o* the (ate+s He )a$$ed seas,;.: &5t the (o+ds s!'n!* that the (ate+s (e+e se0a+ated o** !n a &od
*+o" the ea+th !nto d!st!n)t '+o50s/ Th5s the (ate+s (e+e 'athe+ed to'ethe+ !nto the!+ s0e)!a$ )o$$e)t!ons and the
d+ $and (as &+o5'ht to 2!e(/ And hen)e a+ose the t(o seas that s5++o5nd E'0t, *o+ !t $!es &et(een t(o seas/
These )o$$e)t!ons )onta!n,<. 2a+!o5s seas and "o5nta!ns, and !s$ands, and 0+o"onto+!es, and ha+&o5+s, and
s5++o5nd 2a+!o5s &as and &ea)hes, and )oast$ands/ Fo+ the (o+d &ea)h !s 5sed (hen the nat5+e o* the t+a)t !s
sand, (h!$e )oast$and s!'n!*!es that !t !s +o)1 and dee0 )$ose !nto sho+e, 'ett!n' dee0 a$$ on a s5dden In $!1e
"anne+ a+ose a$so the sea that $!es (he+e the s5n +!ses, the na"e o* (h!)h !s the Ind!an Sea: a$so the no+the+n sea
)a$$ed the Cas0!an/ The $a1es a$so (e+e *o+"ed !n the sa"e "anne+/
The o)ean, then, !s $!1e a +!2e+ en)!+)$!n' the (ho$e ea+th, and I th!n1 !t !s )on)e+n!n' !t that the d!2!ne S)+!0t5+e
sas, A +!2e+ (ent ant o* Pa+ad!se,=./ The (ate+ o* the o)ean !s s(eet and 0ota&$e,>./ It !s !t that *5+n!shes the
seas (!th (ate+ (h!)h, &e)a5se !t stas a $on' t!"e !n the seas and stands 5n"o2ed, &e)o"es &!tte+: *o+ the s5n
and the (ate+s0o5ts d+a( 50 a$(as the *!ne+ 0a+ts/ Th5s !t !s that )$o5ds a+e *o+"ed and sho(e+s ta1e 0$a)e,
&e)a5se the *!$t+at!on "a1es the (ate+ s(eet/
Th!s !s 0a+ted !nto *o5+ *!+st d!2!s!ons, that !s to sa, !nto *o5+ +!2e+s/ The na"e o* the *!+st !s Phe!son, (h!)h !s
the Ind!an Gan'es# the na"e o* the se)ond !s Geon, (h!)h !s the N!$e *$o(!n' *+o" Eth!o0!a do(n to E'0t: the
na"e o* the th!+d !s T!'+!s, and the na"e o* the *o5+th !s E50h+ates/ The+e a+e a$so 2e+ "an othe+ "!'ht +!2e+s
o* (h!)h so"e e"0t the"se$2es !nto the sea and othe+s a+e 5sed 50 !n the ea+th/ Th5s the (ho$e ea+th !s &o+ed
th+o5'h and "!ned, and has, so to s0ea1, )e+ta!n 2e!ns th+o5'h (h!)h !t sends 50 !n s0+!n's the (ate+ !t has
+e)e!2ed *+o" the sea/ The (ate+ o* the s0+!n' th5s de0ends *o+ !ts )ha+a)te+ on the C5a$!t o* the ea+th/ Fo+ the
sea (ate+ !s *!$te+ed and st+a!ned th+o5'h the ea+th and th5s &e)o"es s(eet/ B5t !* the 0$a)e *+o" (h!)h the
s0+!n' a+!ses !s &!tte+ o+ &+!n, so a$so !s the (ate+ that !s sent 50,@./ Mo+eo2e+, !t o*ten ha00ens that (ate+ (h!)h
has &een )$ose$ 0ent 50 &5+sts th+o5'h (!th 2!o$en)e, and th5s !t &e)o"es (a+"/ And th!s !s (h the send
*o+th (ate+s that a+e nat5+a$$ (a+"/
B the d!2!ne de)+ee ho$$o( 0$a)es a+e "ade !n the ea+th, and so !nto these the (ate+s a+e 'athe+ed/ And th!s !s
ho( "o5nta!ns a+e *o+"ed/ God, then, &ade the *!+st (ate+ 0+od5)e $!2!n' &+eath, s!n)e !t (as to &e & (ate+ and
the Ho$ S0!+!t that "o2ed 50on the (ate+s !n the &e'!nn!n',-., that "an (as to &e +ene(ed/ Fo+ th!s !s (hat the
-@
d!2!ne Bas!$!5s sa!d: The+e*o+e !t 0+od5)ed $!2!n' )+eat5+es, s"a$$ and &!'# (ha$es and d+a'ons, *!sh that s(!" !n
the (ate+s, and *eathe+ed *o($/ The &!+ds *o+" a $!n1 &et(een (ate+ and ea+th and a!+: *o+ the ha2e the!+ o+!'!n
!n the (ate+, the $!2e on the ea+th and the *$ !n the a!+/ ?ate+, then, !s the "ost &ea5t!*5$ e$e"ent and +!)h !n
5se*5$ness, and 05+!*!es *+o" a$$ *!$th, and not on$ *+o" the *!$th o* the &od &5t *+o" that o* the so5$, !* !t
sho5$d ha2e +e)e!2ed the '+a)e o* the S0!+!t,3./
oncernin/ the seas8;9(
The AE'ean Sea !s +e)e!2ed & the He$$es0ont, (h!)h ends at A&dos and Sest5s: ne7t, the P+o0ont!s, (h!)h
ends at Cha$)edon and BDant!5": he+e a+e the st+a!ts (he+e the Pont5s a+!ses/ Ne7t, the $a1e o* Maeot!s/ A'a!n,
*+o" the &e'!nn!n' o* E5+o0e and :!&a !t !s the I&e+!an Sea, (h!)h e7tends *+o" the 0!$$a+s o* He+)5$es to the
P+enees "o5nta!n/ Then the :!'5+!an Sea as *a+ as the &o+de+s o* Et+5+!a/ Ne7t, the Sa+d!n!an Sea, (h!)h !s
a&o2e Sa+d!n!a and !n)$!nes do(n(a+ds to :!&a/ Then the Et+5+!an Sea, (h!)h &e'!ns at the e7t+e"e $!"!ts o*
:!'5+!a and ends at S!)!$/ Then the :!&an Sea/ Then the C+etan, and S!)!$!an, and Ion!an, and Ad+!at!) Seas, the
$ast o* (h!)h !s 0o5+ed o5t o* the S!)!$!an Sea, (h!)h !s )a$$ed the Co+!nth!an G5$*, o+ the A$)on!an Sea/ The
Sa+on!) Sea !s s5++o5nded & the S5n!an and S)$aean Seas/ Ne7t !s the M+toan Sea and the I)a+!an Sea, !n
(h!)h a+e a$so the C)$ades/ Then the Ca+0ath!an, and Pa"0h$!an, and E'0t!an Seas: and, the+ea*te+, a&o2e the
I)a+!an Sea, the AE'ean Sea 0o5+s !tse$* o5t/ The+e !s a$so the )oast o* E5+o0e *+o" the "o5th o* the Tana!s
R!2e+ to the P!$$a+s o* He+)5$es, <J@,=J@ stad!a: and that o* :!&a *+o" the T!'+!s, as *a+ as the "o5th o* the
Cano&5s, 3J@,3;3 stad!a: and $ast$, that o* As!a *+o" the Cano&5s to the Tana!s, (h!)h, !n)$5d!n' the G5$*, !s
9,--- stad!a/ And so the *5$$ e7tent o* the sea&oa+d o* the (o+$d that (e !nha&!t (!th the '5$*s !s -,4J@,J=3
stad!a,9./
$A"!E% X(
oncernin/ earth and its *roducts(
The ea+th !s one o* the *o5+ e$e"ents, d+, )o$d, hea2, "ot!on$ess, &+o5'ht !nto &e!n' & God, o5t o* noth!n' on
the *!+st da/ Fo+ !n the &e'!nn!n', he sa!d, God )+eated the hea2en and the ea+ths,;.: &5t the seat and *o5ndat!on
o* the ea+th no "an has &een a&$e to de)$a+e/ So"e, !ndeed, ho$d that !ts seat !s the (ate+s: th5s the d!2!ne Da2!d
sas, To H!" ?ho esta&$!shed the ea+th on the (ate+s,<./ Othe+s 0$a)e !t !n the a!+/ A'a!n so"e othe+ sas, *a+e
?ho han'eth the ea+th on noth!n',=./ And, a'a!n, Da2!d, the s!n'e+ o* God, sas, as tho5'h the +e0+esentat!2e o*
God, I &ea+ 50 the 0!$$a+s o* !t,>., "ean!n' & H0!$$a+sH the *o+)e that s5sta!ns !t/ F5+the+, the e70+ess!on, He hath
+o5nded !t 50on the seas,@., she(s )$ea+$ that the ea+th !s on a$$ hands s5++o5nded (!th (ate+/ B5t (hethe+ (e
'+ant that !t !s esta&$!shed on !tse$*, o+ on a!+ o+ on (ate+, o+ on noth!n', (e "5st not t5+n as!de *+o" +e2e+ent
tho5'ht, &5t "5st ad"!t that a$$ th!n's a+e s5sta!ned and 0+ese+2ed & the 0o(e+ o* the C+eato+/
In the &e'!nn!n', then, as the Ho$ S)+!0t5+e sas,-., !t (as h!dden &eneath the (ate+s, and (as 5n(+o5'ht, that
!s to sa, not &ea5t!*!ed/ B5t at God6s &!dd!n', 0$a)es to ho$d the (ate+s a00ea+ed, and then the "o5nta!ns )a"e
!nto e7!sten)e, and at the d!2!ne )o""and the ea+th +e)e!2ed !ts o(n 0+o0e+ ado+n"ent, and (as d+essed !n a$$
"anne+ o* he+&s and 0$ants, and on these, & the d!2!ne de)+ee, (as &esto(ed the 0o(e+ o* '+o(th and
no5+!sh"ent, and o* 0+od5)!n' seed to 'ene+ate the!+ $!1e/ Mo+eo2e+, at the &!dd!n' o* the C+eato+ !t 0+od5)ed
a$so a$$ "anne+ o* 1!nds o* $!2!n' )+eat5+es, )+ee0!n' th!n's, and (!$d &easts, and )att$e/ A$$, !ndeed, a+e *o+ the
seasona&$e 5se o* "an: &5t o* the" so"e a+e *o+ *ood, s5)h as sta's, shee0, dee+, and s5)h $!1e: othe+s *o+ se+2!)e
s5)h as )a"e$s, o7en, ho+ses, asses, and s5)h $!1e: and othe+s *o+ en8o"ent, s5)h as a0es, and a"on' &!+ds, 8as
and 0a++ots, and s5)h $!1e/ A'a!n, a"on'st 0$ants and he+&s so"e a+e *+5!t &ea+!n', othe+s ed!&$e, othe+s *+a'+ant
and *$o(e+, '!2en to 5s *o+ o5+ en8o"ent, *o+ e7a"0$e, the +ose and s5)h $!1e, and othe+s *o+ the hea$!n' o*
d!sease/ Fo+ the+e !s not a s!n'$e an!"a$ o+ 0$ant !n (h!)h the C+eato+ has not !"0$anted so"e *o+" o* ene+'
)a0a&$e o* &e!n' 5sed to sat!s* "an6s needs/ Fo+ He ?ho 1ne( a$$ th!n's &e*o+e the (e+e, sa( that !n the
*5t5+e "an (o5$d 'o *o+(a+d !n the st+en'th o* h!s o(n (!$$, and (o5$d &e s5&8e)t to )o++50t!on, and, the+e*o+e,
He )+eated a$$ th!n's *o+ h!s seasona&$e 5se, a$!1e those !n the *!+"a"ent, and those on the ea+th, and those !n the
(ate+s/
Indeed, &e*o+e the t+ans'+ess!on a$$ th!n's (e+e 5nde+ h!s 0o(e+/ Fo+ God set h!" as +5$e+ o2e+ a$$ th!n's on the
ea+th and !n the (ate+s/ E2en the se+0ent,3. (as a))5sto"ed to "an, and a00+oa)hed h!" "o+e +ead!$ than !t
d!d othe+ $!2!n' )+eat5+es, and he$d !nte+)o5+se (!th h!" (!th de$!'ht*5$ "ot!ons,4./ And hen)e !t (as th+o5'h !t
that the de2!$, the 0+!n)e o* e2!$, "ade h!s "ost (!)1ed s5''est!on to o5+ *!+st 0a+ents,9./ Mo+eo2e+, the ea+th o*
!ts o(n a))o+d 5sed to !e$d *+5!ts, *o+ the &ene*!t o* the an!"a$s that (e+e o&ed!ent to "an, and the+e (as ne!the+
+a!n no+ te"0est on the ea+th/ B5t a*te+ the t+ans'+ess!on, (hen he (as )o"0a+ed (!th the 5n!nte$$!'ent )att$e and
&e)a"e $!1e to the",;., a*te+ he had )ont+!2ed that !n h!" !++at!ona$ des!+e sho5$d ha2e +5$e o2e+ +eason!n' "!nd
and had &e)o"e d!so&ed!ent to the Maste+6s )o""and, the s5&8e)t )+eat!on +ose 50 a'a!nst h!" (ho" the
C+eato+ had a00o!nted to &e +5$e+: and !t (as a00o!nted *o+ h!" that he sho5$d t!$$ (!th s(eat the ea+th *+o"
(h!)h he had &een ta1en/
B5t e2en no( (!$d &easts a+e not (!tho5t the!+ 5ses, *o+, & the te++o+ the )a5se, the &+!n' "an to the
1no($ed'e o* h!s C+eato+ and $ead h!" to )a$$ 50on H!s na"e/ And, *5+the+, at the t+ans'+ess!on the tho+n s0+5n'
o5t o* the ea+th !n a))o+dan)e (!th the :o+d6s e70+ess de)$a+at!on and (as )on8o!ned (!th the 0$eas5+es o* the
3J
+ose, that !t "!'ht $ead 5s to +e"e"&e+ the t+ans'+ess!on on a))o5nt o* (h!)h the ea+th (as )onde"ned to &+!n'
*o+th *o+ 5s tho+ns and 0+!)1$es,<./
That th!s !s the )ase !s "ade (o+th o* &e$!e* *+o" the *a)t that the!+ end5+an)e !s se)5+ed & the (o+d o* the
:o+d, sa!n', Be *+5!t*5$ and "5$t!0$, and +e0$en!sh the ea+th,=./
F5+the+, so"e ho$d that the ea+th !s !n the *o+" o* a s0he+e, othe+s that !t !s !n that o* a )one/ At a$$ e2ents !t !s
"5)h s"a$$e+ than the hea2en, and s5s0ended a$"ost $!1e a 0o!nt !n !ts "!dst/ And !t (!$$ 0ass a(a and &e
)han'ed/ B5t &$essed !s the "an (ho !nhe+!ts the ea+th 0+o"!sed to the "ee1,>./
Fo+ the ea+th that !s to &e the 0ossess!on o* the ho$ !s !""o+ta$/ ?ho, then, )an *!t$ "a+2e$ at the &o5nd$ess and
!n)o"0+ehens!&$e (!sdo" o* the C+eato+B O+ (ho )an +ende+ s5**!)!ent than1s to the G!2e+ o* so "an
&$ess!n's,@. B
MThe+e a+e a$so 0+o2!n)es, o+ 0+e*e)t5+es, o* the ea+th (h!)h (e +e)o'n!se: E5+o0e e"&+a)es th!+t *o5+, and the
h5'e )ont!nent o* As!a has *o+t%e!'ht o* these 0+o2!n)es, and t(e$2e )anons as the a+e )a$$ed,-./L
$A"!E% XI(
oncernin/ "aradise(
No( (hen God (as a&o5t to *ash!on "an oat o* the 2!s!&$e and !n2!s!&$e )+eat!on !n H!s o(n !"a'e and $!1eness
to +e!'n as 1!n' and +5$e+ o2e+ a$$ the ea+th and a$$ that !t )onta!ns, He *!+st "ade *o+ h!", so to s0ea1, a 1!n'do"
!n (h!)h he sho5$d $!2e a $!*e o* ha00!ness and 0+os0e+!t,3./ And th!s !s the d!2!ne 0a+ad!se,4., 0$anted !n Eden
& the hands o* God, a 2e+ sto+eho5se o* 8o and '$adness o* hea+t ,*o+ HEdenH,9. "eans $575+!o5sness,;../ Its
s!te !s h!'he+ !n the East than a$$ the ea+th: !t !s te"0e+ate and the a!+ that s5++o5nds !t !s the +a+est and 05+est:
e2e+'+een 0$ants a+e !ts 0+!de, s(eet *+a'+an)es a&o5nd, !t !s *$ooded (!th $!'ht, and !n sens5o5s *+eshness and
&ea5t !t t+ans)ends !"a'!nat!on: !n t+5th the 0$a)e !s d!2!ne, a "eet ho"e *o+ h!" (ho (as )+eated !n God6s
!"a'e: no )+eat5+e $a)1!n' +eason "ade !ts d(e$$!n' the+e &5t "an a$one, the (o+1 o* God6s o(n hands/
In !ts "!dst,<. God 0$anted the t+ee o* $!*e and the t+ee o* 1no($ed'e,=./ The t+ee o* 1no($ed'e (as *o+ t+!a$, and
0+oo*, and e7e+)!se o* "an6s o&ed!en)e and d!so&ed!en)e: and hen)e !t (as na"ed the t+ee o* the 1no($ed'e o*
'ood and e2!$, o+ e$se !t (as &e)a5se to those (ho 0a+too1 o* !t (as '!2en 0o(e+ to 1no( the!+ o(n nat5+e/ No(
th!s !s a 'ood th!n' *o+ those (ho a+e "at5+e, &5t an e2!$ th!n' *o+ the !""at5+e and those (hose a00et!tes a+e
too st+on',>., &e!n' $!1e so$!d *ood to tende+ &a&es st!$$ !n need o* "!$1,@./ Fo+ o5+ C+eato+, God, d!d not !ntend
5s to &e &5+dened (!th )a+e and t+o5&$ed a&o5t "an th!n's, no+ to ta1e tho5'ht a&o5t, o+ "a1e 0+o2!s!on *o+,
o5+ o(n $!*e/ B5t th!s at $en'th (as Ada"6s *ate: *o+ he tasted and 1ne( that he (as na1ed and "ade a '!+d$e
+o5nd a&o5t h!": *o+ he too1 *!'%$ea2es and '!+ded h!"se$* a&o5t/ B5t &e*o+e the too1 o* the *+5!t, The (e+e
&oth na1ed/ Ada" and E2e, and (e+e not asha"ed,-./ Fo+ God "eant that (e sho5$d &e th5s *+ee *+o" 0ass!on,
and th!s !s !ndeed the "a+1 o* a "!nd a&so$5te$ 2o!d o* 0ass!on/ Iea, He "eant 5s *5+the+ to &e *+ee *+o" )a+e
and to ha2e &5t one (o+1 to 0e+*o+", to s!n' as do the an'e$s, (!tho5t )eas!n' o+ !nte+"!ss!on, the 0+a!ses o* the
C+eato+, and to de$!'ht !n )onte"0$at!on o* H!" and to )ast a$$ o5+ )a+e on H!"/ Th!s !s (hat the P+o0het Da2!d
0+o)$a!"ed to 5s (hen He sa!d, Cast th &5+den on the :o+d, and He (!$$ s5sta!n thee,3./ And, a'a!n, !n the
Gos0e$s, Ch+!st ta5'ht H!s d!s)!0$es sa!n', Ta1e no tho5'ht *o+ o5+ $!*e (hat e sha$$ eat, no+ *o+ o5+ &od
(hat e sha$$ 05t on,4./ And *5+the+, See1 e *!+st the K!n'do" o* God and H!s +!'hteo5sness and a$$ these th!n's
sha$$ &e added 5nto o5,9./ And to Ma+tha He sa!d, Ma+tha, Ma+tha, tho5 a+t )a+e*5$ and t+o5&$ed a&o5t "an
th!n's: &5t one th!n' !s need*5$: and Ma+ hath )hosen that 'ood 0a+t, (h!)h sha$$ not &e ta1en a(a *+o" he+,;.,
"ean!n', )$ea+$, s!tt!n' at H!s *eet and $!sten!n' to H!s (o+ds/
The t+ee o* $!*e, on the othe+ hand, (as a t+ee ha2!n' the ene+' that !s the )a5se o* $!*e, o+ to &e eaten on$ &
those (ho dese+2e to $!2e and a+e not s5&8e)t to death/ So"e, !ndeed, ha2e 0!)t5+ed Pa+ad!se as a +ea$" o*
sense,<., and othe+s as a +ea$" o* "!nd/ B5t !t see"s to "e, that, 85st as "an !s a )+eat5+e, !n (ho" (e *!nd &oth
sense and "!nd &$ended to'ethe+, !n $!1e "anne+ a$so "an6s "ost ho$ te"0$e )o"&!nes the 0+o0e+t!es o* sense
and "!nd, and has th!s t(o*o$d e70+ess!on: *o+, as (e sa!d, the $!*e !n the &od !s s0ent !n the "ost d!2!ne and
$o2e$ +e'!on, (h!$e the $!*e !n the so5$ !s 0assed !n a 0$a)e *a+ "o+e s5&$!"e and o* "o+e s5+0ass!n' &ea5t,
(he+e God "a1es H!s ho"e, and (he+e He (+a0s "an a&o5t as (!th a '$o+!o5s 'a+"ent, and +o&es h!" !n H!s
'+a)e, and de$!'hts and s5sta!ns h!" $!1e an an'e$ (!th the s(eetest o* a$$ *+5!ts, the )onte"0$at!on o* H!"se$*/
Ae+!$ !t has &een *!$$ na"ed the t+ee o* $!*e/ Fo+ s!n)e the $!*e !s not )5t sho+t & death, the s(eetness o* the
d!2!ne 0a+t!)!0at!on !s !"0a+ted to those (ho sha+e !t/ And th!s !s, !n t+5th, (hat God "eant & e2e+ t+ee, sa!n',
O* e2e+ t+ee !n Pa+ad!se tho5 "aest *+ee$ eat,=./ Fo+ the 6e2e+6 !s 85st H!"se$* !n ?ho" and th+o5'h ?ho"
the 5n!2e+se !s "a!nta!ned/ B5t the t+ee o* the 1no($ed'e o* 'ood and e2!$ (as *o+ the d!st!n'5!sh!n' &et(een the
"an d!2!s!ons o* )onte"0$at!on, and th!s !s 85st the 1no($ed'e o* one6s o(n nat5+e, (h!)h, !ndeed, !s a 'ood
th!n' *o+ those (ho a+e "at5+e and ad2an)ed !n d!2!ne )onte"0$at!on ,&e!n' o* !tse$* a 0+o)$a"at!on o* the
"a'n!*!)en)e o* God., and ha2e no *ea+ o* *a$$!n',>., &e)a5se the ha2e th+o5'h t!"e )o"e to ha2e the ha&!t o*
s5)h )onte"0$at!on, &5t !t !s an e2!$ t!+!n' to those st!$$ o5n' and (!th st+on'e+ a00et!tes, (ho & +eason o* the!+
!nse)5+e &o$d on the &ette+ 0a+t, and &e)a5se as et the a+e not *!+"$ esta&$!shed !n the seat o* the one and on$
'ood, a+e a0t to &e to+n and d+a''ed a(a *+o" th!s to the )a+e o* the!+ o(n &od/
Th5s, to " th!n1!n', the d!2!ne Pa+ad!se !s t(o*o$d, and the God%!ns0!+ed Fathe+s handed do(n a t+5e "essa'e,
(hethe+ the ta5'ht th!s do)t+!ne o+ that/ Indeed, !t !s 0oss!&$e to 5nde+stand & e2e+ t+ee the 1no($ed'e o* the
3-
d!2!ne 0o(e+ de+!2ed *+o" )+eated th!n's/ In the (o+ds o* the d!2!ne A0ost$e, Fo+ the !n2!s!&$e th!n's o* H!"
*+o" the )+eat!on o* the (o+$d a+e )$ea+$ seen, &e!n' 5nde+stood & the th!n's that a+e "ade,@./ B5t o* a$$ these
tho5'hts and s0e)5$at!ons the s5&$!"est !s that dea$!n' (!th o5+se$2es, that !s, (!th o5+ o(n )o"0os!t!on/ As the
d!2!ne Da2!d sas, The 1no($ed'e o* Thee *+o" "e,-., that !s *+o" " )onst!t5t!on, (as "ade a (onde+,3./ B5t
*o+ the +easons (e ha2e a$+ead "ent!oned, s5)h 1no($ed'e (as dan'e+o5s *o+ Ada" (ho had &een so $ate$
)+eated,4./
The t+ee o* $!*e too "a &e 5nde+stood as that "o+e d!2!ne tho5'ht that has !ts o+!'!n !n the (o+$d o* sense, and
the as)ent th+o5'h that to the o+!'!nat!n' and )onst+5)t!2e )a5se o* a$$/ And th!s (as the na"e He 'a2e to e2e+
t+ee, !"0$!n' *5$ness and !nd!2!s!&!$!t, and )on2e!n' on$ 0a+t!)!0at!on !n (hat !s 'ood/ B5t & the t+ee o* the
1no($ed'e o* 'ood and e2!$, (e a+e to 5nde+stand that sens!&$e and 0$eas5+a&$e *ood (h!)h, s(eet tho5'h !t
see"s, !n +ea$!t &+!n's h!" (ho 0a+ta1es o* !t !nto )o""5n!on (!th e2!$/ Fo+ God sas, O* e2e+ t+ee !n
Pa+ad!se tho5 "aest *+ee$ eat,9./ It !s, "e%th!n1s, as !* God sa!d, Th+o5'h a$$ M )+eat!ons tho5 a+t to as)end to
Me th )+eato+, and o* a$$ the *+5!ts t!tan "aest 0$5)1 one, that !s, Mse$* (ho ant the t+5e $!*e: $et e2e+ th!n'
&ea+ *o+ thee the *+5!t o* $!*e, and $et 0a+t!)!0at!on !n Me &e the s500o+t o* o5+ o(n &e!n'/ Fo+ !n th!s (a than
(!$t &e !""o+ta$/ B5t o* the t+ee o* the 1no($ed'e o* 'ood and e2!$, tho5 sha$$ not eat o* !t: *o+ !n the da that
tho5 eatest the+eo* tho5 sha$$ s5+e$ d!e s/ Fo+ sens!&$e *ood !s & nat5+e *o+ the +e0$en!sh!n' o* that (h!)h
'+ad5a$$ (astes a(a and !t 0asses !nto the d+o5'ht and 0e+!sheth: and he )annot +e"a!n !n)o++50t!&$e (ho
0a+ta1es o* sens!&$e *ood/
$A"!E% XII(
oncernin/ 7an(
IN th!s (a, then, God &+o5'ht !nto e7!sten)e "enta$ essen)e,<., & (h!)h I "ean, an'e$s and a$$ the hea2en$
o+de+s/ Fo+ these )$ea+$ ha2e a "enta$ and !n)o+0o+ea$ nat5+e: H!n)o+0o+ea$H I "ean !n )o"0a+!son (!th the
denseness o* "atte+/ Fo+ the De!t a$one !n +ea$!t !s !""ate+!a$ and !n)o+0o+ea$/ B5t *5+the+ He )+eated !n the
sa"e (a sens!&$e essen)e,=., that !s hea2en and ea+th and the !nte+"ed!ate +e'!on# and so He )+eated &oth the
1!nd o* &e!n' that !s o* H!s o(n nat5+e ,*o+ the nat5+e that has to do (!th +eason !s +e$ated to God, and
a00+ehens!&$e & "!nd a$one., and the 1!nd (h!)h, !nas"5)h as !t )$ea+$ *a$$s 5nde+ the 0+o2!n)e o* the senses,
!s se0a+ated *+o" H!" & the '+eatest !nte+2a$/ And !t (as a$so *!t that the+e sho5$d &e a "!7t5+e o* &oth 1!nds o*
&e!n', as a to1en o* st!$$ '+eate+ (!sdo" and o* the o05$en)e o* the D!2!ne e70end!t5+e as +e'a+ds nat5+es, as
G+e'o+!5s, the e70o5nde+ o* God6s &e!n' and (as, 05ts !t, and to &e a so+t o* )onne)t!n' $!n1 &et(een the
2!s!&$e and !n2!s!&$e nat5+es,>./ And & the (o+d H*!tH I "ean, s!"0$ that !t (as an e2!den)e o* the C+eato+6s
(!$$, *o+ that (!$$ !s the $a( and o+d!nan)e "ost "eet, and no one (!$$ sa to h!s Ma1e+, H?h hast Tho5 so
*ash!oned "eBH Fo+ the 0otte+ !s a&$e at h!s (!$$ to "a1e 2esse$s o* 2a+!o5s 0atte+ns o5t o* h!s )$a,@., as a 0+oo*
o* h!s o(n (!sdo"/
No( th!s &e!n' the )ase, He )+eates (!th H!s o(n hands "an o* a 2!s!&$e nat5+e and an !n2!s!&$e, a*te+ H!s o(n
!"a'e and $!1eness: on the one hand "an6s &od He *o+"ed o* ea+th, and on the othe+ h!s +eason!n' and th!n1!n'
so5$,-. He &esto(ed 50on h!" & H!s o(n !n&+eath!n', and th!s !s (hat (e "ean & Ha*te+ H!s !"a'e/H Fo+ the
0h+ase Ha*te+ H!s !"a'eH )$ea+$ +e*e+s,3. to the s!de o* h!s nat5+e (h!)h )ons!sts o* "!nd and *+ee (!$$, (he+eas
Ha*te+ H!s $!1eness H"eans $!1eness !n 2!+t5e so *a+ as that !s 0oss!&$e/
F5+the+, &od and so5$ (e+e *o+"ed at one and the sa"e t!"e,4., not *!+st the one and then the othe+, as O+!'en
so sense$ess$ s500oses/
God then "ade "an (!tho5t e2!$, 50+!'ht, 2!+t5o5s, *+ee *+o" 0a!n and )a+e, '$o+!*!ed (!th e2e+ 2!+t5e, ado+ned
(!th a$$ that !s 'ood, $!1e a so+t o* se)ond "!)+o)os" (!th!n the '+eat (o+$d,9./ anothe+ an'e$ )a0a&$e o*
(o+sh!0, )o"0o5nd, s5+2e!n' the 2!s!&$e )+eat!on and !n!t!ated !nto the "ste+!es o* the +ea$" o* tho5'ht, 1!n'
o2e+ the th!n's o* ea+th, &5t s5&8e)t to a h!'he+ 1!n', o* the ea+th and o* the hea2en, te"0o+a$ and ete+na$,
&e$on'!n' to the +ea$" o* s!'ht and to the +ea$" o* tho5'ht, "!d(a &et(een '+eatness and $o($!ness, s0!+!t and
*$esh: *o+ he !s s0!+!t & '+a)e, &5t *$esh & o2e+(een!n' 0+!de: s0!+!t that he "a a&!de and '$o+!* h!s
Bene*a)to+, and *$esh that he "a s5**e+, and s5**e+!n' "a &e ad"on!shed and d!s)!0$!ned (hen he 0+!des
h!"se$* !n h!s '+eatness,;.: he+e, that !s, !n the 0+esent $!*e, h!s $!*e !s o+de+ed as an an!"a$6s, &5t e$se(he+e, that
!s, !n the a'e to )o"e, he !s )han'ed and%%to )o"0$ete the "ste+%%&e)o"es de!*!ed & "e+e$ !n)$!n!n' h!"se$*
to(a+ds God# &e)o"!n' de!*!ed, !n the (a o* 0a+t!)!0at!n' !n the d!2!ne '$o+ and not !n that o* a )han'e !nto
the d!2!ne &e!n',<./
B5t God "ade h!" & nat5+e s!n$ess, and endo(ed h!" (!th *+ee (!$$/ B s!n$ess, I "ean not that s!n )o5$d *!nd
no 0$a)e !n h!" ,*o+ that !s the )ase (!th De!t a$one., &at that s!n !s the +es5$t o* the *+ee 2o$!t!on he en8os
+athe+ than an !nte'+a$ 0a+t o* h!s nat5+e,=.# that !s to sa, he has the 0o(e+ to )ont!n5e and 'o *o+(a+d !n the 0ath
o* 'oodness, & )o%o0e+at!n' (!th the d!2!ne '+a)e, and $!1e(!se to t5+n *+o" 'ood and ta1e to (!)1edness, *o+
God has )on)eded th!s & )on*e++!n' *+eedo" o* (!$$ 50on h!"/ Fo+ the+e !s no 2!+t5e !n (hat !s the +es5$t o*
"e+e *o+)e,>./
The so5$, a))o+d!n'$,@., !s a $!2!n' essen)e, s!"0$e, !n)o+0o+ea$, !n2!s!&$e !n !ts 0+o0e+ nat5+e to &od!$ ees,
!""o+ta$, +eason!n' and !nte$$!'ent, *o+"$ess, "a1!n' 5se o* an o+'an!sed &od, and &e!n' the so5+)e o* !ts
0o(e+s o* $!*e, and '+o(th, and sensat!on, and 'ene+at!on,-., "!nd &e!n' &5t !ts 05+est 0a+t and not !n an (!se
33
a$!en to !t# ,*o+ as the ee to the &od, so !s the "!nd to the so5$.# *5+the+ !t en8os *+eedo" and 2o$!t!on and
ene+', and !s "5ta&$e, that !s, !t !s '!2en to )han'e, &e)a5se !t !s )+eated/ A$$ these C5a$!t!es a))o+d!n' to nat5+e
!t has +e)e!2ed o* the '+a)e o* the C+eato+, o* (h!)h '+a)e !t has +e)e!2ed &oth !ts &e!n' and th!s 0a+t!)5$a+ 1!nd o*
nat5+e/
7ar/( !he di22erent a**,ications o2 <incor*orea,(<
?e 5nde+stand t(o 1!nds o* (hat !s !n)o+0o+ea$ and !n2!s!&$e and *o+"$ess: the one !s s5)h !n essen)e, the othe+
& *+ee '!*t: and $!1e(!se the one !s s5)h !n nat5+e, and the othe+ on$ !n )o"0a+!son (!th the denseness o*
"atte+/ God then !s !n)o+0o+ea$ & nat5+e, &5t the an'e$s and de"ons and so5$s a+e sa!d to &e so & *+ee '!*t, and
!n )o"0a+!son (!th the denseness o* "atte+/
F5+the+, &od !s that (h!)h has th+ee d!"ens!ons, that !s to sa, !t has $en'th and &+eadth and de0th, o+ th!)1ness/
And e2e+ &od !s )o"0osed o* the *o5+ e$e"ents# the &od!es o* $!2!n' )+eat5+es, "o+eo2e+, a+e )o"0osed o* the
*o5+ h5"o5+s/
No( the+e a+e, !t sho5$d &e 1no(n, *o5+ e$e"ents: ea+th (h!)h !s d+ and )o$d: (ate+ (h!)h !s )o$d and (et: a!+
(h!)h !s (et and (a+": *!+e (h!)h !s (a+" and d+/ In $!1e "anne+ the+e a+e a$so *o5+ h5"o5+s, ana$o'o5s to the
*o5+ e$e"ents: &$a)1 &!$e, (h!)h &ea+s an ana$o' to ea+th, *o+ !t !s d+ and )o$d: 0h$e'", ana$o'o5s to (ate+, *o+
!t !s )o$d and (et: &$ood, ana$o'o5s to a!+,3., *o+ !t !s (et and (a+": e$$o( &!$e, the ana$o'5e to *!+e, *o+ !t !s
(a+" and )!t/ No(, *+5!ts a+e )o"0osed o* the e$e"ents, and the h5"o5+s a+e )o"0osed o* the *+5!ts, and the
&od!es o* $!2!n' )+eat5+es )ons!st o* the h5"o5+s and d!sso$2e &a)1 !nto the"/ Fo+ e2e+ th!n' that !s )o"0o5nd
d!sso$2es &a)1 !nto !ts e$e"ents/
7ar/( !hat man has communit) a,i1e .ith inanimate thin/s and animate creatures- .hether the) are
de0oid o2 or *ossess the 2acu,t) o2 reason(
Man, !t !s to &e noted, has )o""5n!t (!th th!n's !nan!"ate, and 0a+t!)!0ates !n the $!*e o* 5n+eason!n' )+eat5+es,
and sha+es !n the "enta$ 0+o)esses o* those endo(ed (!th +eason/ Fo+ the &ond o* 5n!on &et(een "an and
!nan!"ate th!n's !s the &od and !ts )o"0os!t!on o5t o* the *ont e$e"ents: and the &ond &et(een "an and 0$ants
)ons!sts, !n add!t!on to these th!n's, o* the!+ 0o(e+s o* no5+!sh"ent and '+o(th and seed!n', that !s, 'ene+at!on:
and *!na$$, o2e+ and a&o2e these $!n1s "an !s )onne)ted (!th 5n+eason!n' an!"a$s & a00et!te, that !s an'e+ and
des!+e, and sense and !"05$s!2e "o2e"ent/
The+e a+e then *!2e senses, s!'ht, hea+!n', s"e$$, taste, to5)h/ F5+the+, !"05$s!2e "o2e"ent )ons!sts !n )han'e
*+o" 0$a)e to 0$a)e, and !n the "o2e"ents o* the &od as a (ho$e and !n the e"!ss!on o* 2o!)e and the d+a(!n'
o* &+eath/ Fo+ (e ha2e !t !n o5+ 0o(e+ to 0e+*o+" o+ +e*+a!n *+o" 0e+*o+"!n' these a)t!ons/
:ast$, "an6s +eason 5n!tes h!" to !n)o+0o+ea$ and !nte$$!'ent nat5+es, *o+ he a00$!es h!s +eason and "!nd and
85d'"ent to e2e+th!n', and 05+s5es a*te+ 2!+t5es, and ea'e+$ *o$$o(s a*te+ 0!et, (h!)h !s the )+o(n o* the
2!+t5es/ And so "an !s a "!)+o)os"/
Mo+eo2e+, !t sho5$d &e 1no(n that d!2!s!on and *$57 and )han'e,4. a+e 0e)5$!a+ to the &od a$one/ B )han'e, I
"ean )han'e !n C5a$!t, that !s !n heat and )o$d and so *o+th: & *$57, I "ean )han'e !n the (a o* de0$et!on,9.,
*o+ d+ th!n's and (et th!n's and s0!+!t s s5**e+ de0$et!on, and +eC5!+e +e0$et!on: so that h5n'e+ and th!+st a+e
nat5+a$ a**e)t!ons/ A'a!n, d!2!s!on !s the se0a+at!on o* the h5"o5+s, one *+o" anothe+, and the 0a+t!t!on !nto *o+"
and "atte+,<./
B5t 0!et and tho5'ht a+e the 0e)5$!a+ 0+o0e+t!es o* the so5$/ And the 2!+t5es a+e )o""on to so5$ and &od,
a$tho5'h the a+e +e*e++ed to the so5$ as !* the so5$ (e+e "a1!n' 5se o* the &od/
The +eason!n' 0a+t, !t sho5$d &e 5nde+stood, nat5+a$$ &ea+s +5$e o2e+ that (h!)h !s 2o!d o* +eason/ Fo+ the
*a)5$t!es o* the so5$ a+e d!2!ded !nto that (h!)h has +eason, and that (h!)h !s (!tho5t +eason/ A'a!n, o* that
(h!)h !s (!tho5t +eason the+e a+e t(o d!2!s!ons: that (h!)h does not $!sten to +eason, that !s to sa, !s d!so&ed!ent
to +eason, and that (h!)h $!stens and o&es +eason/ That (h!)h does not $!sten o+ o&e +eason !s the 2!ta$ o+
05$sat!n' *a)5$t, and the s0e+"at!) o+ 'ene+at!2e *a)5$t, and the 2e'etat!2e o+ n5t+!t!2e *a)5$t: to th!s &e$on'
a$so the *a)5$t!es o* '+o(th and &od!$ *o+"at!on/ Fo+ these a+e not 5nde+ the do"!n!on o* +eason &5t 5nde+ that
o* nat5+e/ That (h!)h $!stens to and o&es +eason, on the othe+ hand !s d!2!ded !nto an'e+ ant! des!+e/ And the
5n+eason!n' 0a+t o* the so5$ !s )a$$ed !n )o""on the 0athet!) and the a00et!t!2e,=./ F5+the+, !t !s to &e
5nde+stood, that !"05$s!2e "o2e"ent s $!1e(!se &e$on's to the 0a+t that !s o&ed!ent to +eason/
The 0a+t,@. (h!)h does not 0a heed to +eason !n)$5des the n5t+!t!2e and 'ene+at!2e and 05$sat!n' *a)5$t!es: and
the na"e H2e'etat!2e,@a.H !s a00$!ed to the *a)5$t!es o* !n)+ease and n5t+!"ent and 'ene+at!on, and the na"e
H2!ta$H to the *a)5$t o* 05$sat!on/
O* the *a)5$t o* n5t+!t!on, then, the+e a+e *o5+ *o+)es: an att+a)t!2e *o+)e (h!)h att+a)ts no5+!sh"ent: a +etent!2e
*o+)e & (h!)h no5+!sh"ent !s +eta!ned and not s5**e+ed to &e !""ed!ate$ e7)+eted: an a$te+at!2e *o+)e & (h!)h
the *ood !s +eso$2ed !nto the h5"o5+s: and an e7)+et!2e *o+)e, & (h!)h the e7)ess o* *ood !s e7)+eted !nto the
d+a5'ht and )ast *o+th/
The *o+)es a'a!n,-., !nhe+ent !n a $!2!n' )+eat5+e a+e, !t sho5$d &e noted, 0a+t$ 0s)h!)a$, 0a+t$ 2e'etat!2e,
0a+t$ 2!ta$/ The 0s)h!)a$ *o+)es a+e )on)e+ned (!th *+ee 2o$!t!on, that !s to sa, !"05$s!2e "o2e"ent and
sensat!on/ I"05$s!2e "o2e"ent !n)$5des )han'e o* 0$a)e and "o2e"ent o* the &od as a (ho$e, and 0honat!on
and +es0!+at!on/ Fo+ !t !s !n o5+ 0o(e+ to 0e+*o+" o+ +e*+a!n *+o" 0e+*o+"!n' these a)ts/ The 2e'etat!2e and 2!ta$
34
*o+)es, ho(e2e+, a+e C5!te o5ts!de the 0+o2!n)e o* (!$$/ The 2e'etat!2e, "o+eo2e+, !n)$5de the *a)5$t!es o*
no5+!sh"ent and '+o(th, and 'ene+at!on, and the 2!ta$ 0o(e+ !s the *a)5$t o* 05$sat!on/ Fo+ these 'o on
ene+'!s!n' (hethe+ (e (!$$ !t o+ not/
:ast$, (e "5st o&se+2e that o* a)t5a$ th!n's, so"e a+e 'ood, and so"e a+e &ad/ A 'ood th!n' !n ant!)!0at!on
)onst!t5tes des!+e: (h!$e a 'ood th!n' !n +ea$!sat!on )onst!t5tes 0$eas5+e/ S!"!$a+$ an e2!$ th!n' !n ant!)!0at!on
&e'ets *ea+, and !n +ea$!sat!on !t &e'ets 0a!n/ And (hen (e s0ea1 o* 'ood !n th!s )onne)t!on (e a+e to &e
5nde+stood to "ean &oth +ea$ and a00a+ent 'ood: and, s!"!$a+$, (e "ean +ea$ and a00a+ent e2!$/
$A"!E% XIII(
oncernin/ ",easures(
The+e a+e 0$eas5+es o* the so5$ and 0$eas5+es o* the &od/ The 0$eas5+es o* the so5$ a+e those (h!)h a+e the
e7)$5s!2e 0ossess!on o* the so5$, s5)h as the 0$eas5+es o* $ea+n!n' and )onte"0$at!on/ The 0$eas5+es o* the &od,
ho(e2e+, a+e those (h!)h a+e en8oed & so5$ and &od !n *e$$o(sh!0, and hen)e a+e )a$$ed &od!$ 0$eas5+es: and
s5)h a+e the 0$eas5+es o* *ood and !nte+)o5+se and the $!1e/ B5t one )o5$d not *!nd an )$ass o* 0$eas5+es,3.
&e$on'!n' so$e$ to the &od,4./
A'a!n, so"e 0$eas5+es a+e t+5e, othe+s *a$se/ And the e7)$5s!2e$ !nte$$e)t5a$ 0$eas5+es )ons!st !n 1no($ed'e and
)onte"0$at!on, (h!$e the 0$eas5+es o* the &od de0end 50on sensat!on/ F5+the+, o* &od!$ 0$eas5+es,9., so"e a+e
&oth nat5+a$ and ne)essa+, !n the a&sen)e o* (h!)h $!*e !s !"0oss!&$e, *o+ e7a"0$e the 0$eas5+es o* *ood (h!)h
+e0$en!shes (aste, and the 0$eas5+es o* ne)essa+ )$oth!n'/ Othe+s a+e nat5+a$ &5t not ne)essa+, as the 0$eas5+es
o* nat5+a$ and $a(*5$ !nte+)o5+se/ Fo+ tho5'h the *5n)t!on that these 0e+*o+" !s to se)5+e the 0e+"anen)e o* the
+a)e as a (ho$e, !t !s st!$$ 0oss!&$e to $!2e a 2!+'!n $!*e a0a+t *+o" the"/ Othe+s, ho(e2e+, a+e ne!the+ nat5+a$ no+
ne)essa+, s5)h as d+5n1enness, $5st, and s5+*e!t!n' to e7)ess/ Fo+ these )ont+!&5te ne!the+ to the "a!ntenan)e o*
o5+ o(n $!2es no+ to the s5))ess!on o* the +a)e, &5t on the )ont+a+, a+e +athe+ e2en a h!nd+an)e/ He the+e*o+e that
(o5$d $!2e a $!*e a))e0ta&$e to God "5st *o$$o( a*te+ those 0$eas5+es (h!)h a+e &oth nat5+a$ and ne)essa+: and
"5st '!2e a se)onda+ 0$a)e to those (h!)h a+e nat5+a$ &5t not ne)essa+, and en8o the" on$ !n *!tt!n' season,
and "anne+, and "eas5+e# (h!$e the othe+s "5st &e a$to'ethe+ +eno5n)ed/
Those then a+e to &e )ons!de+ed "o+a$,;. 0$eas5+es (h!)h a+e not &o5nd 50 (!th 0a!n, and &+!n' no )a5se *o+
+e0entan)e, and +es5$t !n no othe+ ha+" and 1ee0,<. (!th!n the &o5nds o* "ode+at!on, and do not d+a( 5s *a+
a(a *+o" se+!o5s o))50at!ons, no+ "a1e s$a2es o* 5s/
$A"!E% XI4(
oncernin/ "ain(
The+e a+e *o5+ 2a+!et!es o* 0a!n, 2!D/, an'5!sh,=., '+!e*s,>., en2, 0!t/ An'5!sh !s 0a!n (!tho5t 5tte+an)e: '+!e* !s
0a!n that !s hea2 to &ea+ $!1e a &5+den: en2 !s 0a!n o2e+ the 'ood *o+t5ne o* othe+s: 0!t !s 0a!n o2e+ the e2!$
*o+t5ne o* othe+s/
$A"!E% X4(
oncernin/ Fear(
Fea+ !s d!2!ded !nto s!7 2a+!et!es: 2!D/, sh+!n1!n',@., sha"e, d!s'+a)e, )onste+nat!on, 0an!), an7!et,@a./
Sh+!n1!n',@&. !s *ea+ o* so"e a)t a&o5t to ta1e 0$a)e/ Sha"e !s *ea+ a+!s!n' *+o" the ant!)!0at!on o* &$a"e: and
th!s !s the h!'hest *o+" o* the a**e)t!on/ D!s'+a)e !s *ea+ s0+!n'!n' *+o" so"e &ase a)t a$+ead done, and e2en *o+
th!s *o+" the+e !s so"e ho0e o* sa$2at!on/ Conste+nat!on !s *ea+ o+!'!nat!n' !n so"e h5'e 0+Od5)t o* the
!"a'!nat!on/ Pan!) !s *ea+ )a5sed & so"e 5n5s5a$ 0+od5)t o* the !"a'!nat!on/ An7!et !s *ea+ o* *a!$5+e, that !s,
o* "!s*o+t5ne: *o+ (hen (e *ea+ that o5+ e**o+ts (!$$ not "eet (!th s5))ess, (e s5**e+ an7!et/
$A"!E% X4I(
oncernin/ An/er(
An'e+ !s the e&5$$!t!on,-. o* the hea+t6s &$ood,3. 0+od5)ed & &!$!o5s e7ha$at!on o+ t5+&!d!t/ Hen)e !t !s that the
(o+ds E'+ee1F)o$hEG'+ee1F and E'+ee1F)o$sEG'+ee1F,4. a+e &oth 5sed !n the sense o* an'e+/ An'e+ !s
so"et!"es $5st *o+ 2en'ean)e/ Fo+ (hen (e a+e (+on'ed o+ th!n1 that (e a+e (+on'ed, (e a+e d!st+essed, and
the+e a+!ses th!s "!7t5+e o* des!+e and an'e+/
The+e a+e th+ee *o+"s o* an'e+: +a'e, (h!)h the G+ee1s a$so )a$$ E'+ee1F)o$hEG'+ee1F o+ E'+ee1F)o$sEG'+ee1F,
E'+ee1F"hn!sEG'+ee1F and E'+ee1F1otosEG'+ee1F/ ?hen an'e+ a+!ses and &e'!ns to &e +o5sed, !t !s )a$$ed +a'e
o+ E'+ee1F)o$hEG'+ee1F o+ E'+ee1F)o$sEG'+ee1F/ ?+ath a'a!n !"0$!es that the &!$e end5+es, that !s to sa, that
the "e"o+ o* the (+on' a&!des: and !ndeed the G+ee1 (o+d *o+ !t, E'+ee1F"hn!sEG'+ee1F!s de+!2ed *+o"
E'+ee1F"ene!nEG'+ee1F, and "eans (hat a&!des and !s t+ans*e++ed to "e"o+/ Ran)o5+, on the othe+ hand,
!"0$!es (at)h!n' *o+ a s5!ta&$e "o"ent *o+ +e2en'e, and the G+ee1 (o+d *o+ !t !s E'+ee1F1otosEG'+ee1F *+o"
E'+ee1F1e!sCa!EG'+ee1F/
An'e+ *5+the+ !s the sate$$!te o* +eason, the 2!nd!)ato+ o* des!+e/ Fo+ (hen (e $on' a*te+ anth!n' and a+e o00osed
!n o5+ des!+e & so"e one, (e a+e an'e+ed at that 0e+son, as tho5'h (e had &een (+on'ed: and +eason e2!dent$
dee"s that the+e a+e 85st '+o5nds *o+ d!s0$eas5+e !n (hat has ha00ened, !n the )ase o* those (ho, $!1e 5s, ha2e !n
the nat5+a$ )o5+se o* th!n's to '5a+d the!+ o(n 0os!t!on/
$A"!E% X4II(
oncernin/ Ima/ination(
39
I"a'!nat!on,9. !s a *a)5$t o* the 5n+eason!n' 0a+t o* the so5$/ It !s th+o5'h the o+'ans o* sense that !t !s &+o5'ht
!nto a)t!on, and !t !s s0o1en o* as sensat!on/ And *5+the+, (hat !s !"a'!ned,;. and 0e+)e!2ed !s that (h!)h )o"es
(!th!n the s)o0e o* the *a)5$t o* !"a'!nat!on and sensat!on/ Fo+ e7a"0$e, the sense o* s!'ht !s the 2!s5a$ *a)5$t
!tse$*, &5t the o&8e)t o* s!'ht !s that (h!)h )o"es (!th!n the s)o0e o* the sense o* s!'ht, s5)h as a stone o+ an
othe+ s5)h o&8e)t/ F5+the+, an !"a'!nat!on !s an a**e)t!on o* the 5n+eason!n' 0a+t o* the so5$ (h!)h !s o))as!oned
& so"e o&8e)t a)t!n' 50on the sensat!on/ B5t an a00ea+an)e,<. !s an e"0t a**e)t!on o* the 5n+eason!n' 0a+t o*
the so5$, not o))as!oned & an o&8e)t a)t!n' 50on the sensat!on/ Mo+eo2e+ the o+'an o* !"a'!nat!on !s the
ante+!o+ 2ent+!)$e o* the &+a!n/
$A"!E% X4III(
oncernin/ #ensation(
Sensat!on !s that *a)5$t o* the so5$ (he+e& "ate+!a$ o&8e)ts )an &e a00+ehended o+ d!s)+!"!nated/ And the
senso+!a a+e the o+'ans o+ "e"&e+s th+o5'h (h!)h sensat!ons a+e )on2eed/ And the o&8e)ts o* sense a+e the
th!n's that )o"e (!th!n the 0+o2!n)e o* sensat!on/ And $ast$, the s5&8e)t o* sense !s the $!2!n' an!"a$ (h!)h
0ossesses the *a)5$t o* sensat!on/ No( the+e a+e *!2e senses, and $!1e(!se *!2e o+'ans o* sense/
!he 2irst sense is si/ht5 and the senso+!a o+ o+'ans o* s!'ht a+e the ne+2es o* the &+a!n and the ees/ No( s!'ht !s
0+!"a+!$ 0e+)e0t!on o* )o$o5+, &5t a$on' (!th the )o$o5+ !t d!s)+!"!nates the &od that has )o$o5+, and !ts s!De
and *o+", and $o)a$!t, and the !nte+2en!n' s0a)e and the n5"&e+,=.: a$so (hethe+ !t !s !n "ot!on o+ at +est, +o5'h
o+ s"ooth, e2en o+ 5ne2en, sha+0 o+ &$5nt, and *!na$$ (hethe+ !ts )o"0os!t!on !s (ate+ o+ ea+th, that !s, (et o+
d+/
!he second sense is hearin/, (he+e& 2o!)es and so5nds a+e 0e+)e!2ed/ And !t d!st!n'5!shes these as sha+0 o+
dee0, o+ s"ooth o+ $o5d/ Its o+'ans a+e the so*t ne+2es o* the &+a!n, and the st+5)t5+e o* the ea+s/ F5+the+, "an and
the a0e a+e the on$ an!"a$s that do not "o2e the!+ ea+s/
!he third sense is sme,,, (h!)h !s )a5sed & the nost+!$s t+ans"!tt!n' the 2a0o5+s to the &+a!n: and !t !s &o5nded
& the e7t+e"e $!"!ts o* the ante+!o+ 2ent+!)$e o* the &+a!n/ It !s the *a)5$t & (h!)h 2a0o5+s a+e 0e+)e!2ed and
a00+ehended/ No(, the "ost 'ene+!) d!st!n)t!on &et(een 2a0o5+s !s (hethe+ the ha2e a 'ood o+ an e2!$ odo5+,
o+ *o+" an !nte+"ed!ate )$ass (!th ne!the+ a 'ood no+ an e2!$ odo5+/ A 'ood odo5+ !s 0+od5)ed & the tho+o5'h
d!'est!on !n the &od o* the h5"o5+s/ ?hen the a+e on$ "ode+ate$ d!'ested the !nte+"ed!ate )$ass !s *o+"ed,
and (hen the d!'est!on !s 2e+ !"0e+*e)t o+ 5tte+$ (ant!n', an e2!$ odo5+ +es5$ts/
!he 2ourth sense is taste5 !t !s the *a)5$t (he+e& the h5"o5+s a+e a00+ehended o+ 0e+)e!2ed, and !ts o+'ans o*
sense a+e the ton'5e, and "o+e es0e)!a$$ the $!0s, and the 0a$ate ,(h!)h the G+ee1s )a$$
E'+ee1Fo5+an!s1o5EG'+ee1F., and !n these a+e ne+2es that )o"e *+o" the &+a!n and a+e s0+ead o5t, and )on2e to
the do"!nant 0a+t o* the so5$ the 0e+)e0t!on o+ sensat!on the ha2e en)o5nte+ed,>./ The so%)a$$ed '5stato+
C5a$!t!es o* the h5"o5+s a+e these:%%s(eetness, 05n'en), &!tte+ness, ast+!n'en), a)e+&!t, so5+ness, sa$tness,
*att!ness, st!)1!ness# *o+ taste !s )a0a&$e o* d!s)+!"!nat!n' a$$ these/ B5t (ate+ has none o* these C5a$!t!es, and !s
the+e*o+e de2o!d o* taste/ Mo+eo2e+, ast+!n'en) !s on$ a "o+e !ntense and e7a''e+ated *o+" o* a)e+&!t/
!he 2i2th sense is touch, (h!)h !s )o""on to a$$ $!2!n' th!n's,@./ Its o+'ans a+e ne+2es (h!)h )o"e *+o" the
&+a!n and +a"!* a$$ th+o5'h the &od/ Hen)e the &od as a (ho$e, !n)$5d!n' e2en the othe+ o+'ans o* sense,
0ossesses the sense o* to5)h/ ?!th!n !ts s)o0e )o"e heat and )o$d, so*tness and ha+dness, 2!s)os!t and
&+!tt$eness,-., hea2!ness and $!'htness: *o+ !t !s & to5)h a$one that these C5a$!t!es a+e d!s)+!"!nated/ On the othe+
hand, +o5'hness and s"oothness, d+ness and (etness, th!)1ness and th!nness, 50 and do(n, 0$a)e and s!De,
(hene2e+ that !s s5)h as to &e e"&+a)ed !n a s!n'$e a00$!)at!on o* the sense o* to5)h, a+e a$$ )o""on to to5)h
and s!'ht, as (e$$ as denseness and +a+eness, that !s 0o+os!t, and +ot5nd!t !* !t !s s"a$$, and so"e othe+ sha0es/
In $!1e "anne+ a$so & the a!d o* "e"o+ and tho5'ht 0e+)e0t!on o* the nea+ness o* a &od !s 0oss!&$e, and
s!"!$a+$ 0e+)e0t!on o* n5"&e+ 50 to t(o o+ th+ee, and s5)h s"a$$ and eas!$ +e)1oned *!'5+es/ B5t !t !s & s!'ht
+athe+ than to5)h that these th!n's a+e 0e+)e!2ed/
The C+eato+, !t !s to &e noted, *ash!oned a$$ the othe+ o+'ans o* sense !n 0a!+s, so that !* one (e+e dest+oed, the
othe+ "!'ht *!$$ !ts 0$a)e/ Fo+ the+e a+e t(o ees, t(o ea+s, t(o o+!*!)es o* the nose, and t(o ton'5es, (h!)h !n
so"e an!"a$s, s5)h as sna1es, a+e se0a+ate, &5t !n othe+s, $!1e "an, a+e 5n!ted/ B5t to5)h !s s0+ead o2e+ the
(ho$e &od (!th the e7)e0t!on o* &ones, ne+2es, na!$s, ho+ns, ha!+s, $!'a"ents, and othe+ s5)h st+5)t5+es/
F5+the+, !t !s to &e o&se+2ed that s!'ht !s 0oss!&$e on$ !n st+a!'ht $!nes, (he+eas s"e$$ and hea+!n' a+e not $!"!ted
to st+a!'ht $!nes on$, &5t a)t !n a$$ d!+e)t!ons/ To5)h, a'a!n, and taste a)t ne!the+ !n st+a!'ht $!nes, no+ !n e2e+
d!+e)t!on, &5t on$ (hen ea)h )o"es nea+ to the sens!&$e o&8e)ts that a+e 0+o0e+ to !t/
$A"!E% XIX(
oncernin/ !hou/ht(
The *a)5$t o* tho5'ht dea$s (!th 85d'"ents and assents, and !"05$se to a)t!on and d!s!n)$!nat!ons, and es)a0es
*+o" a)t!on: and "o+e es0e)!a$$ (!th tho5'hts )onne)ted (!th (hat !s th!n1a&$e, and the 2!+t5es and the
d!**e+ent &+an)hes o* $ea+n!n', and the theo+!es o* the a+ts and "atte+s o* )o5nse$ and )ho!)e,3./ F5+the+, !t !s th!s
*a)5$t (h!)h 0+o0hes!es the *5t5+e to 5s !n d+ea"s, and th!s !s (hat the Ptha'o+eans, ado0t!n' the He&+e(
2!e(, ho$d to &e the one t+5e *o+" o* 0+o0he)/ The o+'an o* tho5'ht then !s the "!d%2ent+!)$e o* the &+a!n, and
the 2!ta$ s0!+!t !t )onta!ns,4./
3;
$A"!E% XX(
oncernin/ 7emor)(
The *a)5$t o* "e"o+ !s the )a5se,9. and sto+eho5se o* +e"e"&+an)e and +e)o$$e)t!on/ Fo+ "e"o+ !s a *antas
s that !s $e*t &eh!nd o* so"e sensat!on and tho5'ht,<. "an!*est!n' !tse$* !n a)t!on# o+ the 0+ese+2at!on,=. o* a
sensat!on and tho5'ht,>./ Fo+ the so5$ )o"0+ehends o&8e)ts o* sense th+o5'h the o+'ans o* sense, that !s to sa, !t
0e+)e!2es, and then)e a+!ses a not!on: and s!"!$a+$ !t )o"0+ehends the o&8e)ts o* tho5'ht th+o5'h the "!nd, and
then)e a+!ses a tho5'ht/ It !s then the 0+ese+2at!on o* the t0es o* these not!ons and tho5'hts that !s s0o1en o* as
"e"o+/
F5+the+, !t !s (o+th o* +e"a+1 that the a00+ehens!on o* "atte+s o* tho5'ht de0ends on $ea+n!n', o+ nat5+a$
0+o)ess o* tho5'ht, and not on sensat!on/ Fo+ tho5'h o&8e)ts o* sense a+e +eta!ned !n the "e"o+ & the"se$2es,
on$ s5)h o&8e)ts o* tho5'ht a+e +e"e"&e+ed as (e ha2e $ea+ned, and (e ha2e no "e"o+ o* the!+ essen)e/
Re)o$$e)t!on !s the na"e '!2en to the +e)o2e+ o* so"e "e"o+ $ost & *o+'et*5$ness/ Fo+ *o+'et*5$ness !s 85st
$oss o* "e"o+/ The *a)5$t o* !"a'!nat!on,@. then, ha2!n' a00+ehended "ate+!a$ o&8e)ts th+o5'h the senses,
t+ans"!ts th!s to the *a)5$t o* tho5'ht o+ +eason ,*o+ the a+e &oth the sa"e., and th!s a*te+ !t has +e)e!2ed and
0assed 85d'"ent on !t, 0asses !t on to the *a)5$t o* "e"o+/ No( the o+'an o* "e"o+ !s the 0oste+!o+ 2ent+!)$e
o* the &+a!n, (h!)h the G+ee1s )a$$ the E'+ee1F0a+e'1e*a$!sEG'+ee1F, and the 2!ta$ s0!+!t !t )onta!ns/
$A"!E% XXI(
oncernin/ once*tion and Articu,ation(
A'a!n the +eason!n' 0a+t o* the so5$ !s d!2!ded !nto )on)e0t!on and a+t!)5$at!on/ Con)e0t!on !s an a)t!2!t o* the
so5$ o+!'!nat!n' !n the +eason (!tho5t +es5$t!n' !n 5tte+an)e/ A))o+d!n'$, o*ten, e2en (hen (e a+e s!$ent (e +5n
th+o5'h a (ho$e s0ee)h !n o5+ "!nds, and ho$d d!s)5ss!ons !n o5+ d+ea"s/ And !t !s th!s *a)5$t )h!e*$ (h!)h
)onst!t5tes 5s a$$ +eason!n' &e!n's/ Fo+ those (ho a+e d5"& & &!+th o+ ha2e $ost the!+ 2o!)e th+o5'h so"e
d!sease o+ !n85+, a+e 85st as "5)h +eason!n' &e!n's/ B5t a+t!)5$at!on & 2o!)e o+ !n the d!**e+ent d!a$e)ts +eC5!+es
ene+': that !s to sa, the (o+d !s a+t!)5$ated & the ton'5e and "o5th, and th!s !s (h !t !s na"ed a+t!)5$at!on/ It
!s, !ndeed, the "essen'e+ o* tho5'ht, and !t !s &e)a5se o* !t that (e a+e )a$$ed s0ea1!n' &e!n's/
$A"!E% XXII(
oncernin/ "assion and Ener/)(
Pass!on !s a (o+d (!th 2a+!o5s "ean!n's/ It !s 5sed !n +e'a+d to the &od, ant! +e*e+s to d!seases and (o5nds, and
a'a!n, !t !s 5sed !n +e*e+en)e to the so5$, and "eans des!+e ant! an'e+/ B5t to s0ea1 &+oad$ and 'ene+a$$, 0ass!on
!s an an!"a$ a**e)t!on (h!)h !s s5))eeded & 0$eas5+e ant! 0a!n/ Fo+ 0a!n s5))eeds 0ass!on, &5t !s not the sa"e
th!n' as 0ass!on/ Fo+ 0ass!on !s an a**e)t!on o* th!n's (!tho5t sense, &5t not so 0a!n/ Pa!n then !s not 0ass!on, &5t
the sensat!on o* 0ass!on: and !t "5st &e )ons!de+a&$e, that !s to sa, !t "5st &e '+eat eno5'h to )o"e (!th!n the
s)o0e o* sense/
A'a!n, the de*!n!t!on o* 0ass!ons o* the so5$ !s th!s: Pass!on !s a sens!&$e a)t!2!t o* the a00et!t!2e *a)5$t,
de0end!n' on the 0+esentat!on to the "!nd o* so"eth!n' 'ood o+ &ad/ O+ !n othe+ (o+ds, 0ass!on !s an !++at!ona$
a)t!2!t o* the so5$, +es5$t!n' *+o" the not!on o* so"eth!n' 'ood o+ &ad/ Fo+ the not!on o* so"eth!n' 'ood +es5$ts
!n des!+e, and the not!on o* so"eth!n' &ad +es5$ts !n an'e+/ B5t 0ass!on )ons!de+ed as a )$ass, that !s, 0ass!on !n
'ene+a$, !s de*!ned as a "o2e"ent !n one th!n' )a5sed & anothe+/ Ene+', on the othe+ hand, !s a d+ast!)
"o2e"ent, and & Hd+ast!)H !s "eant that (h!)h !s "o2ed o* !tse$*/ Th5s, an'e+ !s the ene+' "an!*ested & the
0a+t o* the so5$ (he+e an'e+ +es!des, (he+eas 0ass!on !n2o$2es the t(o d!2!s!ons o* the so5$, and !n add!t!on the
(ho$e &od (hen !t !s *o+)!&$ !"0e$$ed to a)t!on & an'e+/ Fo+ the+e has &een )a5sed "o2e"ent !n one th!n'
)a5sed & anothe+, and th!s !s )a$$ed 0ass!on/
B5t !n anothe+ sense ene+' !s s0o1en o* as 0ass!on/ Fo+ ene+' !s a "o2e"ent !n ha+"on (!th nat5+e, (he+eas
0ass!on !s a "o2e"ent at 2a+!an)e (!th nat5+e/ A))o+d!n', then, to th!s 2!e(, ene+' "a &e s0o1en o* as 0ass!on
(hen !t does not a)t !n a))o+d (!th nat5+e, (hethe+ !ts "o2e"ent !s d5e to !tse$* o+ to so"e othe+ th!n'/ Th5s, !n
)onne)t!on (!th the hea+t, !ts nat5+a$ 05$sat!on !s ene+', (he+eas !ts 0a$0!tat!on, (h!)h !s an e7)ess!2e and
5nnat5+a$ "o2e"ent, !s 0ass!on and not ene+'/
B5t !t !s not e2e+ a)t!2!t o* the 0ass!onate 0a+t o* the so5$ that !s )a$$ed 0ass!on, &5t on$ the "o+e 2!o$ent ones,
and s5)h as a+e )a0a&$e o* )a5s!n' sensat!on: *o+ the "!no+ and 5n0e+)e!2ed "o2e"ents a+e )e+ta!n$ not
0ass!ons/ Fo+ to )onst!t5te 0ass!on the+e !s ne)essa+ a )ons!de+a&$e de'+ee o* *o+)e, and th5s !t !s on th!s a))o5nt
that (e add to the de*!n!t!on o* 0ass!on that !t !s a sens!&$e a)t!2!t/ Fo+ the $esse+ a)t!2!t!es es)a0e the not!)e o*
the senses, and do not )a5se 0ass!on/
O&se+2e a$so that o5+ so5$ 0ossesses t(o*o$d *a)5$t!es, those o* 1no($ed'e, and those o* $!*e/ The *a)5$t!es o*
1no($ed'e a+e "!nd, tho5'ht, not!on, 0+esentat!on, sensat!on: and the 2!ta$ o+ a00et!t!2e *a)5$t!es a+e (!$$ and
)ho!)e/ No(, to "a1e (hat has &een sa!d )$ea+e+, $et 5s )ons!de+ these th!n's "o+e )$ose$, and *!+st $et 5s ta1e
the *a)5$t!es o* 1no($ed'e/
P+esentat!on and sensat!on then ha2e a$+ead &een s5**!)!ent$ d!s)5ssed a&o2e/ It !s sensat!on that )a5ses a
0ass!on, (h!)h !s )a$$ed 0+esentat!on, to a+!se !n the so5$, and *+o" 0+esentat!on )o"es not!on/ The+ea*te+
tho5'ht, (e!'h!n' the t+5th o+ *a$seness o* the not!on, dete+"!nes (hat !s t+5e: and th!s e70$a!ns the G+ee1 (o+d
3<
*o+ tho5'ht, E'+ee1Fd!ano!aEG'+ee1F, (h!)h !s de+!2ed *+o" E'+ee1Fd!anoe!aEG'+ee1F, "ean!n' to th!n1 and
d!s)+!"!nate/ That, ho(e2e+, (h!)h !s 85d'ed,-. and dete+"!ned to &e t+5e, !s s0o1en o* as "!nd/
O+ to 05t !t othe+(!se: The 0+!"a+ a)t!2!t o* the "!nd, o&se+2e, !s !nte$$!'en)e, &5t !nte$$!'en)e a00$!ed to an
o&8e)t !s )a$$ed a tho5'ht, and (hen th!s 0e+s!sts and "a1es on the "!nd an !"0+ess!on o* the o&8e)t o* tho5'ht,
!t !s na"ed +e*$e)t!on, and (hen +e*$e)t!on d(e$$s on the sa"e o&8e)t and 05ts !tse$* to the test, and )$ose$
e7a"!nes the +e$at!on o* the tho5'ht to the so5$, !t 'ets the na"e 0+5den)e/ F5+the+, 0+5den)e, (hen !t e7tends !ts
a+ea *o+"s the 0o(e+ o* +eason!n', and !s )a$$ed )on)e0t!on, and th!s !s de*!ned as the *5$$est a)t!2!t o* the so5$,
a+!s!n' !n that 0a+t (he+e +eason +es!des, and &e!n' de2o!d o* o5t(a+d e70+ess!on: and *+o" !t 0+o)eeds the
5tte+ed (o+d s0o1en & the ton'5e/ And no( that (e ha2e d!s)5ssed the *a)5$t!es o* 1no($ed'e, $et 5s t5+n to the
2!ta$ o+ a00et!t!2e *a)5$t!es/
It sho5$d &e 5nde+stood that the+e !s !"0$anted !n the so5$ & nat5+e a *a)5$t o* des!+!n' that (h!)h !s !n
ha+"on (!th !ts nat5+e, and o* "a!nta!n!n' !n )$ose 5n!on a$$ that &e$on's essent!a$$ to !ts nat5+e: and th!s
0o(e+ !s )a$$ed (!$$ o+ E'+ee1FCe$hs!sEG'+ee1F/ Fo+ the essen)e &oth o* e7!sten)e and o* $!2!n' ea+ns a*te+
a)t!2!t &oth as +e'a+ds "!nd and sense, and !n th!s !t "e+e$ $on's to +ea$!se !ts o(n nat5+a$ and 0e+*e)t &e!n'/
And so th!s de*!n!t!on a$so !s '!2en o* th!s nat5+a$ (!$$: (!$$ !s an a00et!te, &oth +at!ona$ and 2!ta$, de0end!n' on$
on (hat !s nat5+a$/ So that (!$$,3. !s noth!n' e$se than the nat5+a$ and 2!ta$ and +at!ona$ a00et!te o* a$$ th!n's that
'o to )onst!t5te nat5+e, that !s, 85st the s!"0$e *a)5$t/ Fo+ the a00et!te o* )+eat5+es (!tho5t +eason, s!n)e !t !s
!++at!ona$, !s not )a$$ed (!$$/
A'a!n E'+ee1F&o5$hs!sEG'+ee1F o+ (!sh !s a so+t o* nat5+a$ (!$$, that !s to sa, a nat5+a$ and +at!ona$ a00et!te *o+
so"e de*!n!te th!n'/ Fo+ the+e !s seated !n the so5$ o* "an a *a)5$t o* +at!ona$ des!+e/ ?hen, then, th!s +at!ona$
des!+e d!+e)ts !tse$* nat5+a$$ to so"e de*!n!te o&8e)t !t !s )a$$ed (!sh/ Fo+ (!sh !s +at!ona$ des!+e and $on'!n' *o+
so"e de*!n!te th!n'/
?!sh, ho(e2e+, !s 5sed &oth !n )onne)t!on (!th (hat !s (!th!n o5+ 0o(e+, and !n )onne)t!on (!th (hat !s o5ts!de
o5+ 0o(e+, that !s, &oth (!th +e'a+d to the 0oss!&$e and the !"0oss!&$e/ Fo+ (e (!sh o*ten to !nd5$'e $5st o+ to &e
te"0e+ate, o+ to s$ee0 and the $!1e, and these a+e (!th!n o5+ 0o(e+ to a))o"0$!sh, and 0oss!&$e/ B5t (e (!sh a$so
to &e 1!n's, and th!s !s not (!th!n o5+ 0o(e+, o+ (e (!sh 0e+)han)e ne2e+ to d!e, and th!s !s an !"0oss!&!$!t/
The (!sh,4., then, has +e*e+en)e to the end a$one, and not to the "eans & (h!)h the end !s atta!ned/ The end !s
the o&8e)t o* o5+ (!sh, *o+ !nstan)e, to &e a 1!n' o+ to en8o 'ood hea$th: &5t the "eans & (h!)h the end !s
atta!ned, that !s to sa, the "anne+ !n (h!)h (e o5'ht to en8o 'ood hea$th, o+ +ea)h the +an1 o* 1!n', a+e the
o&8e)ts o* de$!&e+at!on,9./ Then a*te+ (!sh *o$$o( !nC5!+ and s0e)5$at!on ,E'+ee1FDhths!sEG'+ee1F and
E'+ee1Fs1!I!sEG'+ee1F., and a*te+ these, !* the o&8e)t !s anth!n' (!th!n o5+ 0o(e+, )o"es )o5nse$ o+
de$!&e+at!on ,E'+ee1F&o5$hEG'+ee1F o+ E'+ee1F&o5$e5s!sEG'+ee1F.: )o5nse$ !s an a00et!te *o+ !n2est!'at!n' $!nes
o* a)t!on $!n' (!th!n o5+ o(n 0o(e+/ Fo+ one de$!&e+ates, (hethe+ one o5'ht to 0+ose)5te an "atte+ o+ not, and
ne7t, one de)!des (h!)h !s the &ette+, and th!s !s )a$$ed 85d'"ent ,E'+ee1F1+!s!sEG'+ee1F./ The+ea*te+, one
&e)o"es d!s0osed to and *o+"s a $!1!n' *o+ that !n *a2o5+ o* (h!)h de$!&e+at!on 'a2e 85d'"ent, and th!s !s )a$$ed
!n)$!nat!on ,E'+ee1F'n("hEG'+ee1F./ Fo+ sho5$d one *o+" a 85d'"ent and not &e d!s0osed to o+ *o+" a $!1!n'
*o+ the o&8e)t o* that 85d'"ent, !t !s not )a$$ed !n)$!nat!on/ Then, a'a!n, a*te+ one has &e)o"e so d!s0osed, )ho!)e
o+ se$e)t!on ,E'+ee1F0+oa!+es!sEG'+ee1F and E'+ee1Fe0!$o'hEG'+ee1F. )o"es !nto 0$a/ Fo+ )ho!)e )ons!sts !n
the )hoos!n' and se$e)t!n' o* one o* t(o 0oss!&!$!t!es !n 0+e*e+en)e to the othe+/ Then one !s !"0e$$ed to a)t!on,
and th!s !s )a$$ed !"05$se ,E'+ee1Fo+"hEG'+ee1F.: and the+ea*te+ !t !s &+o5'ht !nto e"0$o"ent, and th!s !s
)a$$ed 5se ,E'+ee1F)+hs!sEG'+ee1F./ The $ast sta'e a*te+ (e ha2e en8oed the 5se !s )essat!on *+o" des!+e/
In the )ase, ho(e2e+, o* )+eat5+es (!tho5t +eason, as soon as a00et!te !s +o5sed *o+ an%t!+!n', st+a!'ht(a a+!ses
!"05$se to a)t!on/ Fo+ the a00et!te o* )+eat5+es (!tho5t +eason !s !++at!ona$, and the a+e +5$ed & the!+ nat5+a$
a00et!te/ Hen)e, ne!the+ the na"es o* (!$$ o+ (!sh a+e a00$!)a&$e to the a00et!te o* )+eat5+es (!tho5t +eason/ Fo+
(!$$ !s +at!ona$, *+ee and nat5+a$ des!+e, and !n the )ase o* "an, endo(ed (!th +eason as he !s, the nat5+a$ a00et!te
!s +5$ed +athe+ than +5$es Fo+ h!s a)t!ons a+e *+ee, and de0end 50on +eason, s!n)e the *a)5$t!es o* 1no($ed'e and
$!*e a+e &o5nd 50 to'ethe+ !n "an/ He !s *+ee !n des!+e, *+ee !n (!sh, *+ee !n e7a"!nat!on and !n2est!'at!on, *+ee !n
de$!&e+at!on, *+ee !n 85d'"ent, *+ee !n !n)$!nat!on, *+ee !n )ho!)e, *+ee !n !"05$se, and *+ee !n a)t!on (he+e tha! !s
!n a))o+dan)e (!th nat5+e/
B5t !n the )ase o* God,;., !t !s to &e +e"e"&e+ed, (e s0ea1 o* (!sh, &5t !t !s not )o++e)t to s0ea1 o* )ho!)e/ Fo+
God does not de$!&e+ate, s!n)e that !s a "a+1 o* !'no+an)e, and no one de$!&e+ates a&o5t (hat he 1no(s/ B5t !*
)o5nse$ !s a "a+1 o* !'no+an)e, s5+e$ )ho!)e,<. "5st a$so &e so/ God, then, s!n)e He has a&so$5te 1no($ed'e o*
e2e+th!n', does not de$!&e+ate,=./
No+ !n the )ase o* the so5$ o* the :o+d do (e s0ea1 o* )o5nse$ o+ )ho!)e, see!n' that He had no 0a+t !n !'no+an)e/
Fo+, a$tho5'h He (as o* a nat5+e that !s not )o'n!sant o* the *5t5+e, et &e)a5se o* H!s oneness !n s5&s!sten)e
(!th God the ?o+d, He had 1no($ed'e o* a$$ th!n's, and that not & '+a)e, &5t, as (e ha2e sa!d, &e)a5se He (as
one !n s5&s!sten)e,>./ Fo+ He H!"se$* (as &oth God and Man, and hen)e He d!d not 0ossess the (!$$ that a)ts &
o0!n!on,@. o+ d!s0os!t!on/ ?h!$e He d!d 0ossess the nat5+a$ and s!"0$e (!$$ (h!)h !s to &e o&se+2ed eC5a$$ !n a$$
the 0e+sona$!t!es o* "en, H!s ho$ so5$ had not o0!n!on,-. ,o+, d!s0os!t!on. that !s to sa, no !n)$!nat!on o00osed
to H!s d!2!ne (!$$, no+ a5'ht e$se )ont+a+ to H!s d!2!ne (!$$/ Fo+ o0!n!on ,o+, d!s0os!t!on. d!**e+s as 0e+sons
3=
d!**e+, e7)e0t " the )ase o* the ho$ and s!"0$e and 5n)o"0o5nd and !nd!2!s!&$e Godhead,3./ The+e, !ndeed,
s!n)e the s5&s!sten)es a+e !n no(!se d!2!ded o+ se0a+ated, ne!the+ !s the o&8e)t o* (!$$ d!2!ded/ And the+e, s!n)e
the+e !s &5t one nat5+e, the+e !s a$so &5t one nat5+a$ (!$$/ And a'a!n, s!n)e the s5&s!sten)es a+e 5nse0a+ated, the
th+ee s5&s!sten)es ha2e a$so one o&8e)t o* (!$$, and one a)t!2!t/ In the )ase o* "en, ho(e2e+, see!n' that the!+
nat5+e !s one, the!+ nat5+a$ (!$$ !s a$so one, &5t s!n)e the!+ s5&s!sten)es,4. a+e se0a+ated and d!2!ded *+o" ea)h
othe+, a$!1e !n 0$a)e and t!"e, and d!s0os!t!on to th!n's, and !n "an othe+ +es0e)ts, *o+ th!s +eason the!+ a)ts o*
(!$$ and the!+ o0!n!ons a+e d!**e+ent/ B5t !n the )ase o* o5+ :o+d Jes5s Ch+!st, s!n)e He 0ossesses d!**e+ent
nat5+es, H!s nat5+a$ (!$$s, that !s, H!s 2o$!t!ona$ *a)5$t!es &e$on'!n' to H!" as God and as Man a+e a$so d!**e+ent/
B5t s!n)e the s5&s!sten)e !s one, and He ?ho e7e+)!ses the (!$$ !s one, the o&8e)t o* the (!$$ the 'no"!) (!$$,;.,
!s a$so one, H!s h5"an (!$$ e2!dent$ *o$$o(!n' H!s d!2!ne (!$$, and (!$$!n' that (h!)h the d!2!ne (!$$ (!$$ed !t to
(!$$/
F5+the+ note, that (!$$ ,E'+ee1FCe$hs!sEG'+ee1F. and (!sh ,E'+ee1F&o5$hs!sEG'+ee1F. a+e t(o d!**e+ent th!n's:
a$so the o&8e)t o* (!$$ ,E'+ee1FtoEG'+ee1F E'+ee1FCe$htonEG'+ee1F. and the )a0a)!t *o+ (!$$
,E'+ee1FCe$ht!1onEG'+ee1F., and the s5&8e)t that e7e+)!ses (!$$ ,E'+ee1FoEG'+ee1F E'+ee1FCe$(nEG'+ee1F., a+e
a$$ d!**e+ent/ Fo+ (!$$ !s 85st the s!"0$e *a)5$t o* (!$$!n', (he+eas (!sh !s (!$$ d!+e)ted to so"e de*!n!te o&8e)t/
A'a!n, the o&8e)t o* (!$$ !s the "atte+ 5nde+$!n' the (!$$, that !s to sa, the th!n' that (e (!$$: *o+ !nstan)e, (hen
a00et!te !s +o5sed *o+ *ood/ The a00et!te 05+e and s!"0$e, ho(e2e+, !s a +at!ona$ (!$$/ The )a0a)!t *o+ (!$$,
"o+eo2e+, "eans that (h!)h 0ossesses the 2o$!t!ona$ *a)5$t, *o+ e7a"0$e, "an/ F5+the+, the s5&8e)t that e7e+)!ses
(!$$ !s the a)t5a$ 0e+son (ho "a1es 5se o* (!$$/
The (o+d E'+ee1FtoEG'+ee1F E'+ee1FCe$h"aEG'+ee1F, !t !s (e$$ to note, so"et!"es denotes the (!$$, that !s, the
2o$!t!ona$ *a)5$t, and !n th!s sense (e s0ea1 o* nat5+a$ (!$$: and so"et!"es !t denotes the o&8e)t o* (!$$, and (e
s0ea1 o* (!$$ ,E'+ee1FCe$h"aEG'+ee1F E'+ee1F'n("!1onEG'+ee1F. de0end!n' on !n)$!nat!on,<./
$A"!E% XXIII(
oncernin/ Ener/)(
A$$ the *a)5$t!es,=. (e ha2e a$+ead d!s)5ssed, &oth those o* 1no($ed'e and those o* $!*e, &oth the nat5+a$ and
the a+t!*!)!a$, a+e, !t !s to &e noted, )a$$ed ene+'!es/ Fo+ ene+' s !s the nat5+a$ *o+)e and a)t!2!t o* ea)h essen)e:
o+ a'a!n, nat5+a$ ene+' !s the a)t!2!t !nnate !n e2e+ essen)e: and so, )$ea+$, th!n's that ha2e the sa"e essen)e
ha2e a$so the sa"e ene+', and th!n's that ha2e d!**e+ent nat5+es ha2e a$so d!**e+ent ene+'!es/ Fo+ no essen)e )an
&e de2o!d o* nat5+a$ ene+'/
Nat5+a$ ene+' a'a!n !s the *o+)e !n ea)h essen)e & (h!)h !ts nat5+e !s "ade "an!*est/ And a'a!n: nat5+a$ ene+'
!s the 0+!"a$, ete+na$$%"o2!n' *o+)e o* the !nte$$!'ent so5$: that !s, the ete+na$$%"o2!n' (o+d o* the so5$, (h!)h
e2e+ s0+!n's nat5+a$$ *+o" !t/ And et a'a!n: nat5+a$ ene+',@. !s the *o+)e and a)t!2!t o* ea)h essen)e (h!)h
on$ that (h!)h !s not $a)1s/
B5t a)t!ons,@a. a+e a$so )a$$ed ene+'!es: *o+ !nstan)e, s0ea1!n', eat!n', d+!n1!n', and s5)h $!1e/ The nat5+a$
a**e)t!ons,@&. a$so a+e o*ten )a$$ed ene+'!es, *o+ !nstan)e, h5n'e+, th!+st, and so *o+th,-./ And et a'a!n, the +es5$t
o* the *o+)e !s a$so o*ten )a$$ed ene+'/
Th!n's a+e s0o1en o* !n a t(o*o$d (a as &e!n' 0otent!a$ and a)t5a$/ Fo+ (e sa that the )h!$d at the &+east !s a
0otent!a$ s)ho$a+, *o+ he !s so eC5!00ed that, !* ta5'ht, he (!$$ &e)o"e a s)ho$a+/ F5+the+, (e s0ea1 o* a 0otent!a$
and an a)t5a$ s)ho$a+, "ean!n' that the $atte+ !s 2e+sed !n $ette+s, (h!$e the *o+"e+ has the 0o(e+ o* !nte+0+et!n'
$ette+s, &5t does not 05t !t !nto a)t5a$ 5se: a'a!n, (hen (e s0ea1 o* an a)t5a$ s)ho$a+, (e "ean that he 05ts h!s
0o(e+ !nto a)t5a$ 5se, that !s to sa, that he +ea$$ !nte+0+ets (+!t!n's/
It !s, the+e*o+e, to &e o&se+2ed that !n the se)ond sense 0otent!a$!t and a)t5a$!t 'o to'ethe+# *o+ the s)ho$a+ !s !n
the one )ase 0otent!a$, and !n the othe+ a)t5a$/
The 0+!"a$ and on$ t+5e ene+' o* nat5+e !s the 2o$5nta+ o+ +at!ona$ and !nde0endent $!*e (h!)h )onst!t5tes o5+
h5"an!t/ I 1no( not ho( those (ho +o& the :o+d o* th!s )an sa that He &e)a"e "an,3./
Ene+' !s d+ast!) a)t!2!t o* nat5+e: and & d+ast!) !s "eant that (h!)h !s "o2ed o* !tse$*/
$A"!E% XXI4(
oncernin/ .hat is 4o,untar) and .hat is In0o,untar)(
The 2o$5nta+,4. !"0$!es a )e+ta!n de*!n!te a)t!on, and so%)a$$ed !n2o$5nta+!ness a$so !"0$!es a )e+ta!n de*!n!te
a)t!on/ F5+the+, "an att+!&5te t+5e !n2o$5nta+!ness not on$ to s5**e+!n', &5t e2en to a)t!on/ ?e "5st then
5nde+stand a)t!on to &e +at!ona$ ene+'/ A)t!ons a+e *o$$o(ed & 0+a!se o+ &$a"e, and so"e o* the" a+e
a))o"0an!ed (!th 0$eas5+e and othe+s (!th 0a!n# so"e a+e to &e des!+ed & the a)to+, othe+s a+e to &e sh5nned:
*5+the+, o* those that a+e des!+a&$e, so"e a+e a$(as so, othe+s on$ at so"e 0a+t!)5$a+ t!"e/ And so !t !s a$so (!th
those that a+e to &e sh5nned/ A'a!n, so"e a)t!ons en$!st 0!t and a+e 0a+dona&$e, othe+s a+e hate*5$ and dese+2e
05n!sh"ent/ Ao$5nta+!ness, then, !s ass5+ed$ *o$$o(ed & 0+a!se o+ &$a"e, and +ende+s the a)t!on 0$eas5+a&$e and
des!+a&$e to the a)to+, e!the+ *o+ a$$ t!"e o+ *o+ the "o"ent o* !ts 0e+*o+"an)e/ In2o$5nta+!ness, on the othe+ hand,
&+!n's "e+!ted 0!t o+ 0a+don !n !ts t+a!n, and +ende+s the a)t 0a!n*5$ and 5ndes!+a&$e to the doe+, and "a1es h!"
$ea2e !t !n a state o* !n)o"0$eteness e2en tho5'h *o+)e !s &+o5'ht to &ea+ 50on h!"/
F5+the+, (hat !s !n2o$5nta+, de0ends !n 0a+t on *o+)e and !n 0a+t on !'no+an)e/ It de0ends on *o+)e (hen the
)+eat!2e &e'!nn!n' !n )a5se !s *+o" (!tho5t, that !s to sa, (hen one !s *o+)ed & anothe+ (!tho5t &e!n' at a$$
3>
0e+s5aded, o+ (hen one does not )ont+!&5te to the a)t on one6s o(n !"05$se, o+ does not )o%o0e+ate at a$$, o+ do
on one6s o(n a))o5nt that (h!)h !s e7a)ted & *o+)e,9./ Th5s (e "a '!2e th!s de*!n!t!on: HAn !n2o$5nta+ a)t !s
one !n (h!)h the &e'!nn!n' !s *+o" (!tho5t, and (he+e one does not )ont+!&5te at a$$ on one6s o(n !"05$se to
that (h!)h one !s *o+)eH And & &e'!nn!n' (e "ean the )+eat!2e )a5se/ A$$ !n2o$5nta+ a)t de0ends, on the othe+
hand, on !'no+an)e, (hen one !s not the )a5se o* the !'no+an)e one6s se$*, &5t e2ents 85st so ha00en/ Fo+, !* one
)o""!ts "5+de+ (h!$e d+5n1, !t !s an a)t o* !'no+an)e, &5t et not !n2o$5nta+,;.: *o+ one (as one6s se$*
+es0ons!&$e *o+ the )a5se o* the !'no+an)e, that !s to sa, the d+5n1enness/ B5t !* (h!$e shoot!n' at the )5sto"a+
+an'e one s$e( one6s *athe+ (ho ha00ened to &e 0ass!n' &, th!s (o5$d &e te+"ed an !'no+ant and !n2o$5nta+
a)t/
As, then, that (h!)h !s !n2o$5nta+ !s !n t(o 0a+ts, one de0end!n' on *o+)e, the othe+ on !'no+an)e, that (h!)h !s
2o$5nta+ !s the o00os!te o* &oth/ Fo+ that (h!)h !s 2o$5nta+ !s the +es5$t ne!the+ o* *o+)e no+ o* !'no+an)e,<./ A
2o$5nta+ a)t, then, !s one o* (h!)h the &e'!nn!n' o+ )a5se o+!'!nates !n an a)to+, (ho 1no(s ea)h !nd!2!d5a$
)!+)5"stan)e th+o5'h (h!)h and !n (h!)h the a)t!on ta1es 0$a)e/ B H!nd!2!d5a$H !s "eant (hat the +heto+!)!ans
)a$$ )!+)5"stant!a$ e$e"ents: *o+ !nstan)e, the a)to+, the s5**e+e+, the a)t!on ,0e+)han)e a "5+de+., the !nst+5"ent,
the 0$a)e, the t!"e, the "anne+, the +eason o* the a)t!on/
Not!)e that the+e a+e )e+ta!n th!n's that o))50 a 0$a)e !nte+"ed!ate &et(een (hat !s 2o$5nta+ and (hat !s
!n2o$5nta+/ A$tho5'h the a+e 5n0$easant and 0a!n*5$ (e (e$)o"e the" as the es)a0e *+o" a st!$$ '+eate+
t+o5&$e# *o+ !nstan)e, to es)a0e sh!0(+e)1 (e )ast the )a+'o o2e+&oa+d,=./
Not!)e a$so that )h!$d+en and !++at!ona$ )+eat5+es 0e+*o+" 2o$5nta+ a)t!ons, &5t these do not !n2o$2e the e7e+)!se
o* )ho!)e: *5+the+, a$$ o5+ a)t!ons that a+e done !n an'e+ and (!tho5t 0+e2!o5s de$!&e+at!on a+e 2o$5nta+ a)t!ons,
&5t do not !n the $east !n2o$2e *+ee )ho!)e,>./ A$so, !* a *+!end s5dden$ a00ea+s on the s)ene, o+ !* one
5ne70e)ted$ $!'hts on a t+eas5+e, so *a+ as (e a+e )on)e+ned !t !s C5!te 2o$5nta+, &5t the+e !s no C5est!on o*
)ho!)e !n the "atte+/ Fo+ a$$ these th!n's a+e 2o$5nta+, &e)a5se (e des!+e 0$eas5+e *+o" the", &5t the do not &
an "eans !"0$ )ho!)e, &e)a5se the a+e not the +es5$t o* de$!&e+at!on/ And de$!&e+at!on "5st ass5+ed$ 0+e)ede
)ho!)e, as (e ha2e sa!d a&o2e/
$A"!E% XX4(
oncernin/ .hat is in our o.n *o.er- that is- concernin/ Free-.i,,899(
The *!+st enC5!+ !n2o$2ed !n the )ons!de+at!on o* *+ee%(!$$, that !s, o* (hat !s !n o5+ o(n 0o(e+, !s (hethe+
anth!n' !s !n o5+ 0o(e+,-.: *o+ the+e a+e "an (ho den th!s/ The se)ond !s, (hat a+e the th!n's that a+e !n o5+
0o(e+, and o2e+ (hat th!n's do (e ha2e a5tho+!tB The th!+d !s, (hat !s the +eason *o+ (h!)h God ?ho )+eated
5s end5ed 5s (!th *+ee%(!$$B So then (e sha$$ ta1e 50 the *!+st C5est!on, and *!+st$ (e sha$$ 0+o2e that o* those
th!n's (h!)h e2en o5+ o00onents '+ant, so"e a+e (!th!n o5+ 0o(e+/ And $et 5s 0+o)eed th5s/
O* a$$ the th!n's that ha00en, the )a5se !s sa!d to &e e!the+ God, o+ ne)ess!t, o+ *ate, o+ nat5+e, o+ )han)e, o+
a))!dent/ B5t God6s *5n)t!on has to do (!th essen)e and 0+o2!den)e: ne)ess!t dea$s (!th the "o2e"ent o* th!n's
that e2e+ 1ee0 to the sa"e )o5+se: *ate (!th the ne)essa+ a))o"0$!sh"ent o* the th!n's !t &+!n's to 0ass ,*o+ *ate
!tse$* !"0$!es ne)ess!t.: nat5+e (!th &!+th, '+o(th, dest+5)t!on, 0$ants and an!"a$s# )han)e (!th (hat !s +a+e and
5ne70e)ted/ Fo+ )han)e !s de*!ned as the "eet!n' and )on)5++en)e o* t(o )a5ses, o+!'!nat!n' !n )ho!)e &5t
&+!n'!n' to 0ass so"eth!n' othe+ than (hat !s nat5+a$: *o+ e7a"0$e, !* a "an *!nds a t+eas5+e (h!$e d!''!n' a
d!t)h,3.: *o+ the "an (ho h!d the t+eas5+e d!d not do so that the othe+ "!'ht *!nd !t, no+ d!d the *!nde+ d!' (!th
the 05+0ose o* *!nd!n' the t+eas5+e: &5t the *o+"e+ h!d !t that he "!'ht ta1e !t a(a (hen he (!shed, and the
othe+6s a!" (as to d!' the d!t)h: (he+eas so"eth!n' ha00ened C5!te d!**e+ent *+o" (hat &oth had !n 2!e(/
A))!dent a'a!n dea$s (!th )as5a$ o))5++en)es that ta1e 0$a)e a"on' $!*e$ess o+ !++at!ona$ th!n's, a0a+t *+o" nat5+e
and a+t/ Th!s then !s the!+ do)t+!ne/ Unde+ (h!)h, then, o* these )ate'o+!es a+e (e to &+!n' (hat ha00ens th+o5'h
the a'en) o* "an, !* !ndeed "an !s not the )a5se and &e'!nn!n' o* a)t!on,4.B *o+ !t (o5$d not &e +!'ht to as)+!&e
to God a)t!ons that a+e so"et!"es &ase and 5n85st: no+ "a (e as)+!&e these to ne)ess!t, *o+ the a+e not s5)h as
e2e+ )ont!n5e the sa"e: no+ to *ate, *o+ *ate !"0$!es not 0oss!&!$!t on$ &5t ne)ess!t: no+ to nat5+e, *o+ nat5+e6s
0+o2!n)e !s an!"a$s and 0$ants: no+ to )han)e, *o+ the a)t!ons o* "en a+e not +a+e and 5ne70e)ted: no+ to a))!dent,
*o+ that !s 5sed !n +e*e+en)e to the )as5a$ o))5++en)es that ta1e 0$a)e !n the (o+$d o* $!*e$ess and !++at!ona$ th!n's/
?e a+e $e*t then (!th th!s *a)t, that the "an (ho a)ts and "a1es !s h!"se$* the a5tho+ o* h!s o(n (o+1s, and !s a
)+eat5+e endo(ed (!th *+ee%(!$$/
F5+the+, !* "an !s the a5tho+ o* no a)t!on, the *a)5$t o* de$!&e+at!on !s C5!te s50e+*$5o5s *o+ to (hat 05+0ose
)o5$d de$!&e+at!on &e 05t !* "an !s the "aste+ o* none o* h!s a)t!onsB *o+ a$$ de$!&e+at!on !s *o+ the sa1e o* a)t!on/
B5t to 0+o2e that the *a!+est and "ost 0+e)!o5s o* "an6s endo("ents !s C5!te s50e+*$5o5s (o5$d &e the he!'ht o*
a&s5+d!t/ I* then "an de$!&e+ates, he de$!&e+ates (!th a 2!e( to a)t!on/ Fo+ a$$ de$!&e+at!on !s (!th a 2!e( to and
on a))o5nt o* a)t!on/
$A"!E% XX4I(
oncernin/ E0ents849(
O* e2ents,;., so"e a+e !n o5+ hands, othe+s a+e not/ Those then a+e !n o5+ hands (h!)h (e a+e *+ee to do o+ not to
do at o5+ (!$$, that !s a$$ a)t!ons that a+e done 2o$5nta+!$ ,*o+ those a)t!ons a+e not )a$$ed 2o$5nta+ the do!n' o*
(h!)h !s not !n o5+ hands., and !n a (o+d, a$$ that a+e *o$$o(ed & &$a"e o+ 0+a!se and de0end on "ot!2e and $a(/
3@
St+!)t$ a$$ "enta$,<. and de$!&e+at!2e a)ts a+e !n o5+ hands/ No( de$!&e+at!on !s )on)e+ned (!th eC5a$
0oss!&!$!t!es: and an 6eC5a$ 0oss!&!$!t6 !s an a)t!on that !s !tse$* (!th!n o5+ 0o(e+ and !ts o00os!te, and o5+ "!nd
"a1es )ho!)e o* the a$te+nat!2es, and th!s !s the o+!'!n o* a)t!on/ The a)t!ons, the+e*o+e, that a+e !n o5+ hands a+e
these eC5a$ 0oss!&!$!t!es: e/'/ to &e "o2ed o+ not to &e "o2ed, to hasten o+ not to hasten, to $on' *o+
5nne)essa+!es o+ not to do so, to te$$ $!es o+ not to te$$ $!es, to '!2e o+ not to '!2e, to +e8o!)e o+ not to +e8o!)e as *!ts
the o))as!on, and a$$ s5)h a)t!ons as !"0$ 2!+t5e o+ 2!)e !n the!+ 0e+*o+"an)e, *o+ (e a+e *+ee to do o+ not to do
these at o5+ 0$eas5+e/ A"on'st eC5a$ 0oss!&!$!t!es a$so a+e !n)$5ded the a+ts, *o+ (e ha2e !t !n o5+ 0o(e+ to
)5$t!2ate these o+ not as (e 0$ease/
Note, ho(e2e+, that (h!$e the )ho!)e o* (hat !s to &e done !s e2e+ !n o5+ 0o(e+, the a)t!on !tse$* o*ten !s
0+e2ented & so"e d!s0ensat!on o* the d!2!ne P+o2!den)e,=./
$A"!E% XX4II(
oncernin/ the reason o2 our endo.ment .ith Free-.i,,(
?e ho$d, the+e*o+e, that *+ee%(!$$,>. )o"es on the s)ene at the sa"e "o"ent as +eason, and that )han'e and
a$te+at!on a+e )on'en!ta$ to a$$ that !s 0+od5)ed/ Fo+ a$$ that !s 0+od5)ed !s a$so s5&8e)t to )han'e,@./ Fo+ those
th!n's "5st &e s5&8e)t to )han'e (hose 0+od5)t!on has !ts o+!'!n !n )han'e/ And )han'e )ons!sts !n &e!n'
&+o5'ht !nto &e!n' o5t o* noth!n', and !n t+ans*o+"!n' a s5&st+at5" o* "atte+ !nto so"eth!n' d!**e+ent/ Inan!"ate
th!n's, then, and th!n's (!tho5t +eason 5nde+'o the a*o+e"ent!oned &od!$ )han'es, (h!$e the )han'es o* th!n's
endo(ed (!th +eason de0end on )ho!)e/ Fo+ +eason )ons!sts o* a s0e)5$at!2e and a 0+a)t!)a$ 0a+t/ The s0e)5$at!2e
0a+t !s the )onte"0$at!on o* the nat5+e o* th!n's, and the 0+a)t!)a$ )ons!sts !n de$!&e+at!on and de*!nes the t+5e
+eason *o+ (hat !s to &e done/ The s0e)5$at!2e s!de !s )a$$ed "!nd o+ (!sdo", and the 0+a)t!)a$ s!de !s )a$$ed
+eason o+ 0+5den)e/ E2e+ one, then, (ho de$!&e+ates does so !n the &e$!e* that the )ho!)e o* (hat !s to &e done
$!es !n h!s hands, that he "a )hoose (hat see"s &est as the +es5$t o* h!s de$!&e+at!on, and ha2!n' )hosen "a a)t
50on !t/ And !* th!s !s so, *+ee%(!$$ "5st ne)essa+!$ &e 2e+ )$ose$ +e$ated to +eason/ Fo+ e!the+ "an !s an
!++at!ona$ &e!n', o+, !* he !s +at!ona$, he !s "aste+ o* h!s a)ts and endo(ed (!th *+ee%(!$$/ Hen)e a$so )+eat5+es
(!tho5t +eason do not en8o *+ee%(!$$: *o+ nat5+e $eads the" +athe+ than the nat5+e, and so the do not o00ose
the nat5+a$ a00et!te, &5t as soon as the!+ a00et!te $on's a*te+ anth!n' the +5sh head$on' a*te+ !t/ B5t "an, &e!n'
+at!ona$, $eads nat5+e +athe+ than nat5+e h!", and so (hen he des!+es a5'ht he has the 0o(e+ to )5+& h!s a00et!te
o+ to !nd5$'e !t as he 0$eases/ Hen)e a$so )+eat5+es de2o!d o* +eason a+e the s5&8e)ts ne!the+ o* 0+a!se no+ &$a"e,
(h!$e "an !s the s5&8e)t o* &oth 0+a!se and &$a"e,-./
Note a$so that the an'e$s, &e!n' +at!ona$, a+e endo(ed (!th *+ee%(!$$, and, !nas"5)h as the a+e )+eated, a+e $!a&$e
to )han'e/ Th!s !n *a)t !s "ade 0$a!n & the de2!$ (ho, a$tho5'h "ade 'ood & the C+eato+, &e)a"e o* h!s o(n
*+ee%(!$$ the !n2ento+ o* e2!$, and & the 0o(e+s (ho +e2o$ted (!th h!",3., that !s the de"ons, and & the othe+
t+oo0s o* an'e$s (ho a&ode !n 'oodness/
$A"!E% XX4III(
oncernin/ .hat is not in our hands(
O* th!n's that a+e not !n o5+ hands so"e ha2e the!+ &e'!nn!n' o+ )a5se !n those that a+e !n o5+ 0o(e+, that !s to
sa, the +e)o"0enses o* o5+ a)t!ons &oth !n the 0+esent and !n the a'e to )o"e, &5t a$$ the +est a+e de0endent on
the d!2!ne (!$$/ Fo+ the o+!'!n o* a$$ th!n's !s *+o" God, &5t the!+ dest+5)t!on has &een !nt+od5)ed & o5+
(!)1edness *o+ o5+ 05n!sh"ent o+ &ene*!t/ Fo+ God d!d not )+eate death, ne!the+ does He ta1e de$!'ht !n the
dest+5)t!on o* $!2!n' th!n's,4./ B5t death !s the (o+1 +athe+ o* "an, that !s, !ts o+!'!n !s !n Ada"6s t+ans'+ess!on,
!n $!1e "anne+ as a$$ othe+ 05n!sh"ents/ B5t a$$ othe+ th!n's "5st &e +e*e++ed to God/ Fo+ o5+ &!+th !s to &e
+e*e++ed to H!s )+eat!2e 0o(e+# and o5+ )ont!n5an)e to H!s )onse+2at!2e 0o(e+# and o5+ 'o2e+n"ent and sa*et to
H!s 0+o2!dent!a$ 0o(e+# and the ete+na$ en8o"ent o* 'ood th!n's & those (ho 0+ese+2e the $a(s o* nat5+e !n
(h!)h (e a+e *o+"ed !s to &e as)+!&ed to H!s 'oodness/ B5t s!n)e so"e den the e7!sten)e o* P+o2!den)e, $et 5s
*5+the+ de2ote a *e( (o+ds to the d!s)5ss!on o* P+o2!den)e/
$A"!E% XXIX(
oncernin/ "ro0idence(
P+o2!den)e, then, !s the )a+e that God ta1es o2e+ e7!st!n' th!n's/ And a'a!n: P+o2!den)e !s the (!$$ o* God
th+o5'h (h!)h a$$ e7!st!n' th!n's +e)e!2e the!+ *!tt!n' !ss5e,9./ B5t !* P+o2!den)e !s God6s (!$$, a))o+d!n' to t+5e
+eason!n' a$$ th!n's that )o"e !nto &e!n' th+o5'h P+o2!den)e "5st ne)essa+!$ &e &oth "ost *a!+ and "ost
e7)e$$ent, and s5)h that the )annot &e s5+0assed/ Fo+ the sa"e 0e+son "5st o* ne)ess!t &e )+eato+ o* and
0+o2!de+ *o+ (hat e7!sts: *o+ !t !s not "eet no+ *!tt!n' that the )+eato+ o* (hat e7!sts and the 0+o2!de+ sho5$d &e
se0a+ate 0e+sons/ Fo+ !n that )ase the (o5$d &oth ass5+ed$ &e de*!)!ent, the one !n )+eat!n', the othe+ !n
0+o2!d!n',;./ God the+e*o+e !s &oth C+eato+ and P+o2!de+, and H!s )+eat!2e and 0+ese+2!n' and 0+o2!d!n' 0o(e+ !s
s!"0$ H!s 'ood%(!$$/ Fo+ (hatsoe2e+ the :a+d 0$eased that d!d He !n hea2en and !n ea+th,<., and no one +es!sted
H!s (!$$,=./ He (!$$ed that a$$ th!n's sho5$d &e and the (e+e/ He (!$$s the 5n!2e+se to &e *+a"ed and !t !s
*+a"ed, and a$$ that He (!$$s )o"es to 0ass/
That He 0+o2!des, and that He 0+o2!des e7)e$$ent$,>., one )an "ost +ead!$ 0e+)e!2e th5s/ God a$one !s 'ood
and (!se & nat5+e/ S!n)e then He !s 'ood, He 0+o2!des: *o+ he (ho does not 0+o2!de !s not 'ood/ Fo+ e2en "en
4J
and )+eat5+es (!tho5t +eason 0+o2!de *o+ the!+ o(n o**s0+!n' a))o+d!n' to the!+ nat5+e, and he (ho does not
0+o2!de !s &$a"ed/ A'a!n, s!n)e He !s (!se, He ta1es the &est )a+e o2e+ (hat e7!sts/
?hen, the+e*o+e, (e '!2e heed to these th!n's (e o5'ht to &e *!$$ed (!th (onde+ at a$$ the (o+1s o* P+o2!den)e,
and 0+a!se the" a$$,@., and a))e0t the" a$$ (!tho5t enC5!+, e2en tho5'h the a+e !n the ees o* "an 5n85st,
&e)a5se the P+o2!den)e o* God !s &eond o5+ 1en and )o"0+ehens!on, (h!$e o5+ +eason!n's and a)t!ons and the
*5t5+e a+e +e2ea$ed to H!s ees a$one/ And & Ha$$H I "ean those that a+e not !n o5+ hands: *o+ those that a+e !n o5+
0o(e+ a+e o5ts!de the s0he+e o* P+o2!den)e and (!th!n that o* o5+ F+ee%(!$$/
No( the (o+1s o* P+o2!den)e a+e 0a+t$ a))o+d!n' to the 'ood%(!$$,3.,o* God. and 0a+t$ a))o+d!n' to
0e+"!ss!on,4./ ?o+1s o* 'ood%(!$$ !n)$5de a$: those that a+e 5nden!a&$ 'ood, (h!$e (o+1s o* 0e+"!ss!on a+e ////
,9./ Fo+ P+o2!den)e o*ten 0e+"!ts the 85st "an to en)o5nte+ "!s*o+t5ne !n o+de+ that he "a +e2ea$ to otHe+s the
2!+t5e that $!es )on)ea$ed (!th!n h!",;., as (as the )ase (!th Jo&,<./ At othe+ t!"es !t a$$o(s so"eth!n' st+an'e
to &e done !n o+de+ that so"eth!n' '+eat and "a+2e$$o5s "!'ht &e a))o"0$!shed th+o5'h the see"!n'$%st+an'e
a)t, as (hen the sa$2at!on o* "en (as &+o5'ht a&o5t th+o5'h the C+oss/ In anothe+ (a !t a$$o(s the 0!o5s "an
to s5**e+ so+e t+!a$s !n o+de+ that he "a not de0a+t *+o" a +!'ht )ons)!en)e no+ $a0se !nto 0+!de on a))o5nt o* the
0o(e+ and '+a)e '+anted to h!", as (as the )ase (!th Pa5$,=./
One "an !s *o+sa1en *o+ a season (!th a 2!e( to anothe+6s +esto+at!on, !n o+de+ that othe+s (hen the see h!s state
"a &e ta5'ht a $esson,>., as !n the )ase o* :aDa+5s and the +!)h "an,@./ Fo+ !t &e$on's to o5+ nat5+e to &e east
do(n (hen (e see 0e+sons !n d!st+ess/ Anothe+ !s dese+ted & P+o2!den)e !n o+de+ that anothe+ "a &e '$o+!*!ed,
and not *o+ h!s o(n s!n o+ that o* h!s 0a+ents, 85st as the "an (ho (as &$!nd *+o" h!s &!+th "!n!ste+ed to the '$o+
o* the Son o* Man,-./ A'a!n anothe+ !s 0e+"!tted to s5**e+ !n o+de+ to st!+ 50 e"5$at!on !n the &+easts o* othe+s, so
that othe+s & "a'n!*!n' the '$o+ o* the s5**e+e+ "a +eso$5te$ (e$)o"e s5**e+!n' !n the ho0e o* *5t5+e '$o+
and the des!+e *o+ *5t5+e &$ess!n's, as !n the )ase o* the "a+t+s/ Anothe+ !s a$$o(ed to *a$$ at t!"es !nto so"e a)t
o* &aseness !n o+de+ that anothe+ (o+se *a5$t "a &e th5s )o++e)ted, as *o+ !nstan)e (hen God a$$o(s a "an (ho
ta1es 0+!de !n h!s 2!+t5e and +!'hteo5sness to *a$$ a(a !nto *o+n!)at!on !n o+de+ that he "a &e &+o5'ht th+o5'h
th!s *a$$ !nto the 0e+)e0t!on o* h!s o(n (ea1ness and &e h5"&$ed and a00+oa)h and "a1e )on*ess!on to the :o+d/
Mo+eo2e+, !t !s to &e o&se+2ed,3. that the )ho!)e o* (hat !s to &e done !s !n o5+ o(n hands,4.: &5t the *!na$ !ss5e
de0ends, !n the one )ase (hen o5+ a)t!ons a+e 'ood, on the )oo0e+at!on o* God, ?ho !n H!s 85st!)e &+!n's he$0
a))o+d!n' to H!s *o+e1no($ed'e to s5)h as )hoose the 'ood (!th a +!'ht )ons)!en)e, and, !n the othe+ )ase (hen
o5+ a)t!ons a+e to e2!$, on the dese+t!on & God, ?ho a'a!n !n H!s 85st!)e stands a$oo* !n a))o+dan)e (!th H!s
*o+e1no($ed'e,9./
No( the+e a+e t(o *o+"s o* dese+t!on: *o+ the+e !s dese+t!on !n the "atte+s o* '5!dan)e and t+a!n!n', and the+e !s
)o"0$ete and ho0e$ess dese+t!on/ The *o+"e+ has !n 2!e( the +esto+at!on and sa*et and '$o+ o* the s5**e+e+, o+
the +o5s!n' o* *ee$!n's o* e"5$at!on and !"!tat!on !n othe+s, o+ the '$o+ o* God: &5t the $atte+ !s (hen "an, a*te+
God has done a$$ that (as 0oss!&$e to sa2e h!", +e"a!ns o* h!s o(n set 05+0ose &$!nd and 5n)5+ed, o+ +athe+
!n)5+a&$e, and then he !s handed o2e+ to 5tte+ dest+5)t!on, as (as J5das,;./ Ma God &e '+a)!o5s to 5s, and
de$!2e+ 5s *+o" s5)h dese+t!on/
O&se+2e *5+the+ that the (as o* God6s 0+o2!den)e a+e "an, and the )annot &e e70$a!ned !n (o+ds no+
)on)e!2ed & the "!nd/
And +e"e"&e+ that a$$ the assa5$ts o* da+1 and e2!$ *o+t5ne )ont+!&5te to the sa$2at!on o* those (ho +e)e!2e the"
(!th than1*5$ness, and a+e ass5+ed$ a"&assado+s o* he$0/
A$so one "5st &ea+ !n "!nd,<. that God6s o+!'!na$ (!sh (as that a$$ sho5$d &e sa2ed and )o"e to H!s
K!n'do",=./ Fo+ !t (as not *o+ 05n!sh"ent that He *o+"ed 5s &5t to sha+e !n H!s 'oodness, !nas"5)h as He !s a
'ood God/ B5t !nas"5)h as He !s a 85st God, H!s (!$$ !s that s!nne+s sho5$d s5**e+ 05n!sh"ent/
The *!+st then !s )a$$ed God6s ante)edent (!$$ and 0$eas5+e, and s0+!n's *+o" H!"se$*, (h!$e the se)ond !s )a$$ed
God6s )onseC5ent (!$$ and 0e+"!ss!on, and has !ts o+!'!n !n 5s/ And the $atte+ !s t(o%*o$d# one 0a+t dea$!n' (!th
"atte+s o* '5!dan)e and t+a!n!n', and ha2!n' !n 2!e( o5+ sa$2at!on, and the othe+ &e!n' ho0e$ess and $ead!n' to
o5+ 5tte+ 05n!sh"ent, as (e sa!d a&o2e/ And th!s !s the )ase (!th a)t!ons that a+e not $e*t !n o5+ hands,>./
B5t o* a)t!ons that a+e !n o5+ hands the 'ood ones de0end on H!s ante)edent 'ood(!$$ and 0$eas5+e, (h!$e the
(!)1ed ones de0end ne!the+ on H!s ante)edent no+ on H!s )onseC5ent (!$$, &5t a+e a )on)ess!on to *+ee%(!$$ Fo+
that (h!)h !s the +es5$t o* )o"05$s!on has ne!the+ +eason no+ 2!+t5e !n !t/ God,@. "a1es 0+o2!s!on *o+ a$$ )+eat!on
and "a1es a$$ )+eat!on the !nst+5"ent o* H!s he$0 and t+a!n!n', ea o*ten e2en the de"ons the"se$2es, as *o+
e7a"0$e !n the )ases o* Jo& and the s(!ne,-./
$A"!E% XXX(
oncernin/ "rescience and "redestination(
?e o5'ht to 5nde+stand,3. that (h!$e God 1no(s a$$ th!n's &e*o+ehand, et He does not 0+edete+"!ne a$$
th!n's,4./ Fo+ He 1no(s &e*o+ehand those th!n's that a+e !n o5+ 0o(e+, &5t He does not 0+edete+"!ne the"/ Fo+
!t !s not H!s (!$$ that the+e sho5$d &e (!)1edness no+ does He )hoose to )o"0e$ 2!+t5e/ So that 0+edete+"!nat!on
!s the (o+1 o* the d!2!ne )o""and &ased on *o+e%1no($ed'e,9./ B5t on the othe+ hand God 0+edete+"!nes those
th!n's (h!)h a+e not (!th!n o5+ 0o(e+ !n a))o+dan)e (!th H!s 0+es)!en)e/ Fo+ a$+ead God !n H!s 0+es)!en)e has
0+e85d'ed a$$ th!n's !n a))o+dan)e (!th H!s 'oodness and 85st!)e/
4-
Bea+ !n "!nd, too,;., that 2!+t5e !s a '!*t *+o" God !"0$anted !n o5+ nat5+e, and that He H!"se$* !s the so5+)e and
)a5se o* a$$ 'ood, and (!tho5t H!s )o%o0e+at!on,<. and he$0 (e )annot (!$$ o+ do an 'ood th!n', B5t (e ha2e !t
!n o5+ 0o(e+ e!the+ to a&!de !n 2!+t5e and *o$$o( God, ?ho )a$$s 5s !nto (as o* 2!+t5e, o+ to st+a *+o" 0aths o*
2!+t5e, (h!)h !s to d(e$$ !n (!)1edness, and to *o$$o( the de2!$ (ho s5""ons &5t )annot )o"0e$ 5s/ Fo+
(!)1edness !s noth!n' e$se than the (!thd+a(a$ o* 'oodness, 85st as da+1ness !s noth!n' e$se than the (!thd+a(a$
o* $!'ht ?h!$e then (e a&!de !n the nat5+a$ state (e a&!de !n 2!+t5e, &5t (hen (e de2!ate *+o" the nat5+a$ state,
that !s *+o" 2!+t5e, (e )o"e !nto an 5nnat5+a$ state and d(e$$ !n (!)1edness,=./
Re0entan)e !s the +et5+n!n' *+o" the 5nnat5+a$ !nto the nat5+a$ state, *+o" the de2!$ to God, th+o5'h d!s)!0$!ne
and e**o+t/
Man then the C+eato+ "ade "a$e, '!2!n' h!" to sha+e !n H!s o(n d!2!ne '+a)e, and &+!n'!n' h!" th5s !nto
)o""5n!on (!th H!"se$*: and th5s !t (as that he 'a2e !n the "anne+ o* a 0+o0het the na"es to $!2!n' *$!n's,
(!th a5tho+!t as tho5'h the (e+e '!2en to &e h!s s$a2es/ Fo+ ha2!n' &een endo(ed (!th +eason and "!nd, and
*+ee%(!$$ a*te+ the !"a'e o* God, he (as *!$$ ent+5sted (!th do"!n!on o2e+ ea+th$ th!n's & the )o""on
C+eato+ and Maste+ o* a$$/
B5t s!n)e God !n H!s 0+es)!en)e,>. 1ne( that "an (o5$d t+ans'+ess and &e)o"e $!a&$e to dest+5)t!on, He "ade
*+o" h!" a *e"a$e to &e a he$0 to h!" $!1e h!"se$*# a he$0, !ndeed, *o+ the )onse+2at!on o* the +a)e a*te+ the
t+ans'+ess!on *+o" a'e to a'e & 'ene+at!on/ Fo+ the ea+$!est *o+"at!on !s )a$$ed 6"a1!n'6 and not 6'ene+at!on/6 Fo+
6"a1!n' 6 !s the o+!'!na$ *o+"at!on at God6s hands, (h!$e 6'ene+at!on6 !s the s5))ess!on *+o" ea)h Othe+ "ade
ne)essa+ & the senten)e o* death !"0osed on 5s 6on a))o5nt o* the t+ans'+ess!on/
Th!s "an He,@. 0$a)ed !n Pa+ad!se, a ho"e that (as a$!1e s0!+!t5a$ and sens!&$e/ Fo+ he $!2ed !n the &od on the
ea+th !n the +ea$" o* sense, (h!$e he d(e$t !n the s0!+!t a"on' the an'e$s, )5$t!2at!n' d!2!ne tho5'hts, and &e!n'
s500o+ted & the": $!2!n' !n na1ed s!"0$!)!t a $!*e *+ee *+o" a+t!*!)!a$!t, and &e!n' $ed 50 th+o5'h H!s )+eat!ons
to the one and on$ C+eato+, !n ?hose )onte"0$at!on he *o5nd 8o and '$adness,-./
?hen the+e*o+e He had *5+n!shed h!s nat5+e (!th *+ee%(!$$, He !"0osed a $a( on h!", not to taste o* the t+ee o*
1no($ed'e/ Con)e+n!n' th!s t+ee, (e ha2e sa!d as "5)h as !s ne)essa+ !n the )ha0te+ a&o5t Pa+ad!se, at $east as
"5)h as !t (as !n o5+ 0o(e+ to sa/ And (!th th!s )o""and He 'a2e the 0+o"!se that, !* he sho5$d 0+ese+2e the
d!'n!t o* the so5$ & '!2!n' the 2!)to+ to +eason, and a)1no($ed'!n' h!s C+eato+ and o&se+2!n' H!s )o""and,
he sho5$d sha+e ete+na$ &$essedness and $!2e to a$$ ete+n!t, 0+o2!n' "!'ht!e+ than death: &5t !* *o+sooth he sho5$d
s5&8e)t the so5$ to the &od, and 0+e*e+ the de$!'hts o* the &od, )o"0a+!n' h!"se$* !n !'no+an)e o* h!s t+5e
d!'n!t to the sense$ess &easts,3., and sha1!n' o** I+!s C+eato+6s o1e, and ne'$e)t!n' H!s d!2!ne !n85n)t!on, he
(!$$ &e $!a&$e to death and )o++50t!on, and (!$$ &e )o"0e$$ed to $a&o5+ th+o5'ho5t a "!se+a&$e $!*e/ Fo+ !t (as no
0+o*!t to "an to o&ta!n !n)o++50t!on (h!$e st!$$ 5nt+!ed and 5n0+o2ed, $est he sho5$d *a$$ !nto 0+!de and 5nde+ the
85d'"ent o* the de2!$/ Fo+ th+o5'h h!s !n)o++50t!on the de2!$, (hen he had *a$$en as the +es5$t o* h!s o(n *+ee
)ho!)e, (as *!+"$ esta&$!shed !n (!)1edness, so that the+e (as no +oo" *o+ +e0entan)e and no ho0e o* )han'e:
85st as, "o+eo2e+, the an'e$s a$so, (hen the had "ade *+ee )ho!)e o* 2!+t5e &e)a"e th+o5'h '+a)e !""o2ea&$
+ooted !n 'oodness/
It (as ne)essa+, the+e*o+e, that "an sho5$d *!+st &e 05t to the test ,*o+ "an 5nt+!ed and 5n0+o2ed,4. (o5$d &e
(o+th noth!n',9.., and &e!n' "ade 0e+*e)t & the t+!a$ th+o5'h the o&se+2an)e o* the )o""and sho5$d th5s
+e)e!2e !n)o++50t!on as the 0+!De o* h!s 2!+t5e/ Fo+ &e!n' !nte+"ed!ate &et(een God and "atte+ he (as dest!ned, !*
he 1e0t the )o""and, to &e de$!2e+ed *+o" h!s nat5+a$ +e$at!on to e7!st!n' th!n's and to &e "ade one (!th God6s
estate, and to &e !""o2ea&$ esta&$!shed !n 'oodness, &5t, !* he t+ans'+essed and !n)$!ned the +athe+ to (hat (as
"ate+!a$, and to+e h!s "!nd *+o" the A5tho+ o* h!s &e!n', I "ean God, h!s *ate (as to &e )o++50t!on, and he (as
to &e)o"e s5&8e)t to 0ass!on !nstead o* 0ass!on$ess, and "o+ta$ !nstead o* !""o+ta$, and de0endent on
)onne)t!on and 5nsett$ed 'ene+at!on/ And !n h!s des!+e *o+ $!*e he (o5$d )$!n' to 0$eas5+es as tho5'h the (e+e
ne)essa+ to "a!nta!n !t, and (o5$d *ea+$ess$ a&ho+ those (ho so5'ht to de0+!2e h!" o* these, and t+ans*e+ h!s
des!+e *+o" God to "atte+, and h!s an'e+ *+o" the +ea$ ene" o* h!s sa$2at!on to h!s o(n &+eth+en/ The en2 o*
the,;. de2!$ then (as the +eason o* "an6s *a$$/ Fo+ that sa"e de"on, so *5$$ o* en2 and (!th s5)h a hat+ed o*
'ood, (o5$d not s5**e+ 5s to en8o the 0$eas5+es o* hea2en, (hen he h!"se$* (as 1e0t &e$o( on a))o5nt o* h!s
a++o'an)e, and hen)e the *a$se one te"0ts "!se+a&$e "an (!th the ho0e o* Godhead, and $ead!n' h!" 50 to as
'+eat a he!'ht o* a++o'an)e as h!"se$*, he h5+$s h!" do(n !nto a 0!t o* dest+5)t!on 85st as dee0/
&OO' III(
$A"!E% I(
oncernin/ the Di0ine OEconom) and 3od=s care o0er us- and concernin/ our sa,0ation(
MAN, then, (as th5s sna+ed & the assa5$t o* the a+)h%*!end, and &+o1e h!s C+eato+6s )o""and, and (as st+!00ed
o* '+a)e and 05t o** h!s )on*!den)e (!th God, and )o2e+ed h!"se$* (!th the as0e+!t!es o* a to!$so"e $!*e ,*o+ th!s
!s the "ean!n' o* the *!'%$ea2es,-..# and (as )$othed a&o5t (!th death, that !s, "o+ta$!t and the '+ossness o*
*$esh ,*o+ th!s !s (hat the 'a+"ent o* s1!ns s!'n!*!es.# and (as &an!shed *+o" Pa+ad!se & God6s 85st 85d'"ent,
and )onde"ned to death, and "ade s5&8e)t to )o++50t!on/ Iet, not(!thstand!n' a$$ th!s, !n H!s 0!t, God, ?ho
'a2e h!" h!s &e!n', and ?ho !n H!s '+a)!o5sness &esto(ed on h!" a $!*e o* ha00!ness, d!d not d!s+e'a+d "an,3./
43
B5t He *!+st t+a!ned h!" !n "an (as and )a$$ed h!" &a)1, & '+oans and t+e"&$!n', & the de$5'e o* (ate+, and
the 5tte+ dest+5)t!on o* a$"ost the (ho$e +a)e,4., & )on*5s!on and d!2e+s!t o* ton'5es,9., & the +5$e,;. o*
an'e$s,<., & the &5+n!n' o* )!t!es,=., & *!'5+at!2e "an!*estat!ons o* God, & (a+s and 2!)to+!es and de*eats, &
s!'ns and (onde+s, & "an!*o$d *a)5$t!es, & the $a( and the 0+o0hets: *o+ & a$$ these "eans God ea+nest$
st+o2e to e"an)!0ate "an *+o" the (!de%s0+ead and ens$a2!n' &onds o* s!n, (h!)h had "ade $!*e s5)h a "ass o*
!n!C5!t, and to e**e)t "an6s +et5+n to a $!*e o* ha00!ness/ Fo+ !t (as s!n that &+o5'ht death $!1e a (!$d and sa2a'e
&east !nto the (o+$d s to the +5!n o* the h5"an $!*e/ B5t !t &eho2ed the Redee"e+ to &e (!tho5t s!n, and not "ade
$!a&$e th+o5'h s!n to death, and *5+the+, that H!s nat5+e sho5$d &e st+en'thened and +ene(ed, and t+a!ned &
$a&o5+ and ta5'ht the (a o* 2!+t5e (h!)h $eads a(a *+o" )o++50t!on to the $!*e ete+na$ and, !n the end, !s
+e2ea$ed the "!'ht o)ean o* $o2e to "an that !s a&o5t H!",@./ Fo+ the 2e+ C+eato+ and :o+d H!"se$*
5nde+ta1es a st+5''$e,-. !n &eha$* o* the (o+1 o* H!s o(n hands, and $ea+ns & to!$ to &e)o"e Maste+/ And s!n)e
the ene" sna+es "an & the ho0e o* Godhead, he h!"se$* !s sna+ed !n t5+n & the s)+een o* *$esh, and so a+e
sho(n at on)e the 'oodness and (!sdo", the 85st!)e and "!'ht o* God/ God6s 'oodness !s +e2ea$ed !n that He d!d
not d!s+e'a+d,3. the *+a!$t o* H!s o(n hand!(o+1, &5t (as "o2ed (!th )o"0ass!on *o+ h!" !n h!s *a$$, and
st+et)hed *o+th H!s hand to h!": and H!s 85st!)e !n that (hen "an (as o2e+)o"e He d!d not "a1e anothe+
2!)to+!o5s o2e+ the t+ant, no+ d!d He snat)h "an & "!'ht *+o" death, &5t !n H!s 'oodness and 85st!)e He "ade
h!", (ho had &e)o"e th+o5'h h!s s!ns the s$a2e o* death, h!"se$* on)e "o+e )onC5e+o+ and +es)5ed $!1e & $!1e,
"ost d!**!)5$t tho5'h !t see"ed: and H!s (!sdo" !s seen !n H!s de2!s!n' the "ost *!tt!n' so$5t!on o* the
d!**!)5$t,4./ Fo+ & the 'ood 0$eas5+e o* o5+ God and Fathe+, the On$%&e'otten Son and ?o+d o* God and God,
?ho !s !n the &oso" o* the God and Fathe+,9., o* $!1e essen)e (!th the Fathe+ and the Ho$ S0!+!t, ?ho (as
&e*o+e the a'es, ?ho !s (!tho5t &e'!nn!n' and (as !n the &e'!nn!n', ?ho !s !n the 0+esen)e o* the God and
Fathe+, and !s God and "ade !n the *o+" o* God,;., &ent the hea2ens and des)ended to ea+th: that !s to sa, He
h5"&$ed (!tho5t h5"!$!at!on H!s $o*t stat!on (h!)h et )o5$d not &e h5"&$ed, and )ondes)ends to H!s
se+2ants,<., (!th a )ondes)ens!on !ne**a&$e and !n)o"0+ehens!&$e: ,*o+ that !s (hat the des)ent s!'n!*!es./ And
God &e!n' 0e+*e)t &e)o"es 0e+*e)t "an, and &+!n's to 0e+*e)t!on the ne(est o* a$$ ne( th!n's,=., the on$ ne(
th!n' 5nde+ the S5n, th+o5'h (h!)h the &o5nd$ess "!'ht o* God !s "an!*ested/ Fo+ (hat '+eate+ th!n' !s the+e,
than that God sho5$d &e)o"e ManB And the ?o+d &e)a"e *$esh (!tho5t &e!n' )han'ed, o* the Ho$ S0!+!t, and
Ma+ the ho$ and e2e+%2!+'!n one, the "othe+ o* God/ And He a)ts as "ed!ato+ &et(een God and "an, He the
on$ $o2e+ o* "an )on)e!2ed !n the A!+'!n6s )haste (o"& (!tho5t (!$$,>. o+ des!+e, o+ an )onne)t!on (!th "an
o+ 0$eas5+a&$e 'ene+at!on, &5t th+o5'h the Ho$ S0!+!t and the *!+st o**s0+!n' o* Ada"/ And He &e)o"es o&ed!ent
to the Fathe+ ?ho !s $!1e 5nto 5s, and *!nds a +e"ed *o+ o5+ d!so&ed!en)e !n (hat He had ass5"ed *+o" 5s, and
&e)a"e a 0atte+n o* o&ed!en)e to 5s (!tho5t (h!)h !t !s not 0oss!&$e to o&ta!n sa$2at!on,>./
$A"!E% II(
oncernin/ the manner in .hich the 6ord899 .as concei0ed- and concernin/ $is di0ine incarnation(
The an'e$ o* the :o+d (as sent to the ho$ A!+'!n, (ho (as des)ended *+o" Da2!d6s $!ne,-./ Fa+ !t !s e2!dent that
o5+ :o+d s0+an' o5t o* J5dah, o* (h!)h t+!&e no one t5+ned h!s attent!on to the a$ta+,3., as the d!2!ne a0ost$e sa!d:
&5t a&o5t th!s (e (!$$ s0ea1 "o+e a))5+ate$ $ate+/ And &ea+!n' '$ad t!d!n's to he+, he sa!d, Ha!$ tho5 h!'h$
*a2o5+ed one, the :o+d !s (!th thee,4./ And she (as t+o5&$ed at h!s (o+d, and the an'e$ sa!d to he+, Fea+ not,
Ma+, *o+ tho5 hast *o5nd *a2o5+ (!th God, and sha$t &+!n' *o+th a Son and sha$t )a$$ H!s na"e Jes5s,9.# *o+ He
sha$$ sa2e H!s 0eo0$e *+o" the!+ s!ns,;./ Hen)e !t )o"es that Jes5s has the !nte+0+etat!on Sa2!o5+/ And (hen she
as1ed !n he+ 0e+0$e7!t, Ho( )an th!s &e, see!n' I 1no( not a "an,<.B the an'e$ a'a!n ans(e+ed he+, The Ho$
S0!+!t sha$$ )a"e 50on thee, and the 0o(e+ o* the H!'hest sha$$ o2e+shado( thee/ The+e*o+e a$so that ho$ th!n'
(h!)h sha$$ &e &o+n o* thee,=. sha$$ &e )a$$ed the Son o* God,>./ And she sa!d to h!", Beho$d the hand"a!d o*
the :o+d: &e !t 5nto "e a))o+d!n' to Th (o+d,@./
So then, a*te+ the assent o* the ho$ A!+'!n, the Ho$ S0!+!t des)ended on he+, a))o+d!n' to the (o+d o* the :o+d
(h!)h the an'e$ s0o1e, 05+!*!n' he+,-., and '+ant!n' he+ 0o(e+ to +e)e!2e the d!2!n!t o* the ?o+d, and $!1e(!se
0o(e+ to &+!n' *o+th,3./ And then (as she o2e+shado(ed,4. & the enh0ostat!) ?!sdo" and Po(e+ o* the "ost
h!'h God, the Son o* God ?ho !s o* $!1e essen)e (!th the Fathe+ as o* D!2!ne seed, and *+o" he+ ho$ and "ost
05+e &$ood He *o+"ed *$esh an!"ated (!th the s0!+!t o* +eason and tho5'ht, the *!+st%*+5!ts o* o5+ )o"0o5nd
nat5+e,9.: not & 0+o)+eat!on &5t & )+eat!on th+o5'h the Ho$ S0!+!t: not de2e$o0!n' the *ash!on o* the &od &
'+ad5a$ add!t!ons &5t 0e+*e)t!n' !t at on)e, He H!"se$*, the 2e+ ?o+d o* God, stand!n' to the *$esh !n the
+e$at!on o* s5&s!sten)e/ Fo+ the d!2!ne ?o+d (as not "ade one (!th *$esh that had an !nde0endent 0+e%
e7!sten)e,;., &5t ta1!n' 50 H!s a&ode !n the (o"& o* the ho$ A!+'!n, He 5n+ese+2ed$ !n H!s o(n s5&s!sten)e
too1 50on H!"se$* th+o5'h the 05+e &$ood o* the ete+na$ A!+'!n a &od o* *$esh an!"ated (!th the s0!+!t o* +eason
and tho5'ht, th5s ass5"!n' to H!"se$* the *!+st%*+5!ts o* "an6s )o"0o5nd nat5+e, H!"se$*, the ?o+d, ha2!n'
&e)o"e a s5&s!sten)e !n the *$esh/ So that,<. He !s at on)e *$esh, and at the sa"e t!"e *$esh o* God the ?o+d, and
$!1e(!se *$esh an!"ated, 0ossess!n' &oth +eason and tho5'ht,=./ ?he+e*o+e (e s0ea1 not o* "an as ha2!n'
&e)o"e God, &5t o* God as ha2!n' &e)o"e Man,>./ Fo+ &e!n' & nat5+e 0e+*e)t God, He nat5+a$$ &e)a"e
$!1e(!se 0e+*e)t Man: and d!d not )han'e H!s nat5+e no+ "a1e the d!s0ensat!on,@. an e"0t sho(, &5t &e)a"e,
(!tho5t )on*5s!on o+ )han'e o+ d!2!s!on, one !n s5&s!sten)e (!th the *$esh, (h!)h (as )on)e!2ed o* the ho$
44
A!+'!n, and an!"ated (!th +eason and tho5'ht, and had *o5nd e7!sten)e !n H!", (h!$e He d!d not )han'e the
nat5+e o* H!s d!2!n!t !nto the essen)e o* *$esh, no+ the essen)e o* *$esh !nto the nat5+e o* H!s d!2!n!t, and d!d
not "a1e one )o"0o5nd nat5+e o5t o* H!s d!2!ne nat5+e and the h5"an nat5+e He had ass5"ed,-./
$A"!E% III(
oncernin/ hrist=s t.o natures- in a**osition to those .ho ho,d that $e has on,) one8>9(
Fo+ the t(o nat5+es (e+e 5n!ted (!th ea)h othe+ (!tho5t )han'e o+ a$te+at!on, ne!the+ the d!2!ne nat5+e de0a+t!n'
*+o" !ts nat!2e s!"0$!)!t, no+ et the h5"an &e!n' e!the+ )han'ed !nto the nat5+e o* God o+ +ed5)ed to non%
e7!sten)e, no+ one )o"0o5nd nat5+e &e!n' 0+od5)ed o5t o* the t(o/ Fo+ the )o"0o5nd nat5+e,4. )annot &e o* the
sa"e essen)e as e!the+ o* the nat5+es o5t o* (h!)h !t !s )o"0o5nded, as "ade one th!n' o5t o* othe+s: *o+
e7a"0$e, the &od !s )o"0osed o* the *o5+ e$e"ents, &5t !s not o* the sa"e essen)e as *!+e o+ a!+, o+ (ate+ o+
ea+th, no+ does !t 1ee0 these na"es/ I*, the+e*o+e, a*te+ the 5n!on, Ch+!st6s nat5+e (as, as the he+et!)s ho$d, a
)o"0o5nd 5n!t, He had )han'ed *+o" a s!"0$e !nto a )o"0o5nd nat5+e,9., and !s not o* the sa"e essen)e as the
Fathe+ ?hose nat5+e !s s!"0$e, no+ as the "othe+, (ho !s not a )o"0o5nd o* d!2!n!t and h5"an!t/ No+ (!$$ He
then &e !n d!2!n!t and h5"an!t: no+ (!$$ He &e )a$$ed e!the+ God o+ Man, &5t s!"0$ Ch+!st: and the (o+d
Ch+!st (!$$ &e the na"e not o* the s5&s!sten)e, &5t o* (hat !n the!+ 2!e( !s the one nat5+e/
?e, ho(e2e+, do not '!2e !t as o5+ 2!e( that Ch+!st6s nat5+e !s )o"0o5nd, no+ et that He !s one th!n' "ade o*
othe+ th!n's and d!**e+!n' *+o" the" as "an !s "ade o* so$d and &od, o+ as the &od !s "ade o* the *o5+
e$e"ents, &5t ho$d,;. that, tho5'h He !s )onst!t5ted o* these d!**e+ent 0a+ts He !s et the sa"e,<./ Fo+ (e )on*ess
that He a$!1e !n H!s d!2!n!t and !n H!s h5"an!t &oth !s and !s sa!d to &e 0e+*e)t God, the sa"e Be!n', and that
He )ons!sts o* t(o nat5+es, and e7!sts !n t(o nat5+es,=./ F5+the+, & the (o+d HCh+!stH (e 5nde+stand the na"e o*
the s5&s!sten)e, not !n the sense o* one 1!nd, &5t as s!'n!*!n' the e7!sten)e o* t(o nat5+es/ Fo+ !n H!s o(n
0e+son He ano!nted H!"se$*# as God ano!nt!n' H!s &od (!th H!s o(n d!2!n!t, and as Man &e!n' ano!nted/ Fo+
He !s H!"se$* &oth God and Man/ And the ano!nt!n' !s the d!2!n!t o* H!s h5"an!t/ Fo+ !* Ch+!st, &e!n' o* one
)o"0o5nd nat5+e, !s o* $!1e essen)e to the Fathe+, then the Fathe+ a$so "5st &e )o"0o5nd and o* $!1e essen)e
(!th the *$esh, (h!)h !s a&s5+d and e7t+e"e$ &$as0he"o5s,>./
Ho(, !ndeed, )o5$d one and the sa"e nat5+e )o"e to e"&+a)e o00os!n' and essent!a$ d!**e+en)esB Fo+ ho( !s !t
0oss!&$e that the sa"e nat5+e sho5$d &e at on)e )+eated and 5n)+eated, "o+ta$ and !""o+ta$, )!+)5"s)+!&ed and
5n)!+)5"s)+!&edB
B5t !* those (ho de)$a+e that Ch+!st has on$ one nat5+e sho5$d sa a$so that that nat5+e !s a s!"0$e one, the
"5st ad"!t e!the+ that He !s God 05+e and s!"0$e, and th5s +ed5)e the !n)a+nat!on to a "e+e 0+eten)e, o+ that He
!s on$ "an, a))o+d!n' to Nesto+!5s/ And ho( then a&o5t H!s &e!n' H0e+*e)t !n d!2!n!t and 0e+*e)t !n
h5"an!tHB And (hen )an Ch+!st &e sa!d to &e o* t(o nat5+es, !* the ho$d that He !s o* one )o"0os!te nat5+e
a*te+ the 5n!onB Fo+ !t !s s5+e$ )$ea+ to e2e+ one that &e*o+e the 5n!on Ch+!st6s nat5+e (as one/
B5t th!s !s (hat $eads the he+et!)s,@. ast+a, 2!D/, that the $oo1 50on nat5+e and s5&s!sten)e as the sa"e th!n',-./
Fo+ (hen (e s0ea1 o* the nat5+e o* "en as one,3., o&se+2e that !n sa!n' th!s (e a+e not $oo1!n' to the C5est!on
o* so5$ and &od/ Fo+ (hen (e )o"0a+e to'ethe+ the so5$ and the &od !t )annot &e sa!d that the a+e o* one
nat5+e/ B5t s!n)e the+e a+e 2e+ "an s5&s!sten)es o* "en, and et a$$ ha2e the sa"e 1!nd o* nat5+e,4.: *o+ a$$ a+e
)o"0osed o* so5$ and &od, and a$$ ha2e 0a+t !n the nat5+e o* the so5$, and 0ossess the essen)e o* the &od, and
the )o""on *o+": (e s0ea1 o* the one nat5+e o* these 2e+ "an and d!**e+ent s5&s!sten)es# (h!$e ea)h
s5&s!sten)e, to (!t, has t(o nat5+es, and *5$*!$s !tse$* !n t(o nat5+es, na"e$, so5$ and &od/
B5t,9. a )o""on *o+" )annot &e ad"!tted !n the )ase o* o5+ :o+d Jes5s Ch+!st/ Fo+ ne!the+ (as the+e e2e+, no+ !s
the+e, no+ (!$$ the+e e2e+ &e anothe+ Ch+!st )onst!t5ted o* de!t and h5"an!t, and e7!st!n' !n de!t and h5"an!t
at on)e 0e+*e)t God and 0e+*e)t "an/ And th5s !n the )ase o* o5+ :o+d Jes5s Ch+!st (e )annot s0ea1 o* one
nat5+e "ade 50 o* d!2!n!t and h5"an!t, as (e do !n the )ase o* the !nd!2!d5a$ "ade 50 o* so5$ and &od,;./ Fo+
!n the $atte+ )ase (e ha2e to do (!th an !nd!2!d5a$, &5t Ch+!st !s not an !nd!2!d5a$/ Fo+ the+e !s no 0+ed!)a&$e *o+"
o* Ch+!st$!hood, so to s0ea1, that He 0ossesses/ And the+e*o+e (e ho$d that the+e has &een a 5n!on o* t(o 0e+*e)t
nat5+es, one d!2!ne and one h5"an# not (!th d!so+de+ o+ )on*5s!on, o+ !nte+"!7t5+e,<., o+ )o""!n'$!n', as !s sa!d
& the God%a))5+sed D!os)o+5s and & E5t)hes,=. and Se2e+5s, and a$$ that !"0!o5s )o"0an: and not !n a
0e+sona$ o+ +e$at!2e "anne+, o+ as a "atte+ o* d!'n!t o+ a'+ee"ent !n (!$$, o+ eC5a$!t !n hono5+, o+ !dent!t !n
na"e, o+ 'ood 0$eas5+e, as Nesto+!5s, hated o* God, sa!d, and D!odo+5s and Theodo+5s o* Mo0s5est!a, and the!+
d!a&o$!)a$ t+!&e: &5t & snthes!s# that !s, !n s5&s!sten)e, (!tho5t )han'e o+ )on*5s!on o+ a$te+at!on o+ d!**e+en)e
o+ se0a+at!on, and (e )on*ess that !n t(o 0e+*e)t nat5+es the+e !s &5t one s5&s!sten)e o* the Son o* God
!n)a+nate,>.# ho$d!n' that the+e !s one and the sa"e s5&s!sten)e &e$on'!n' to H!s d!2!n!t and H!s h5"an!t, and
'+ant!n' that the t(o nat5+es a+e 0+ese+2ed !n H!" a*te+ the 5n!on, &5t (e do not ho$d that ea)h !s se0a+ate and
& !tse$*, &5t that the a+e 5n!ted to ea)h othe+ !n one )o"0o5nd s5&s!sten)e/ Fo+ (e $oo1 50on the 5n!on as
essent!a$, that !s, as t+5e and not !"a'!na+/ ?e sa that !t !s essent!a$,@., "o+eo2e+, not !n the sense o* t(o
nat5+es +es5$t!n' !n one )o"0o5nd nat5+e, &5t !n the sense o* a t+5e 5n!on o* the" !n one )o"0o5nd s5&s!sten)e
o* the Son o* God, and (e ho$d that the!+ essent!a$ d!**e+en)e !s 0+ese+2ed/ Fo+ the )+eated +e"a!neth )+eated, and
the 5n)+eated, 5n)+eated: the "o+ta$ +e"a!neth "o+ta$# the !""o+ta$, !""o+ta$: the )!+)5"s)+!&ed,
49
)!+)5"s)+!&ed: the 5n)!+)5"s)+!&ed, 5n)!+)5"s)+!&ed: the 2!s!&$e, 2!s!&$e: the !n2!s!&$e, !n2!s!&$e/ HThe one 0a+t
!s a$$ '$o+!o5s (!th (onde+s: (h!$e the othe+ !s the 2!)t!" o* !ns5$ts,-./H
Mo+eo2e+, the ?o+d a00+o0+!ates to H!"se$* the att+!&5tes o* h5"an!t: *o+ a$$ that 0e+ta!ns to H!s ho$ *$esh !s
H!s: and He !"0a+ts to the *$esh H!s o(n att+!&5tes & (a o* )o""5n!)at!on,3. !n 2!+t5e o* the !nte+0enet+at!on
o* the 0a+ts,4. one (!th anothe+, and the oneness a))o+d!n' to s5&s!sten)e, and !nas"5)h as He ?ho $!2ed and
a)ted &oth as God and as "an, ta1!n' to H!"se$* e!the+ *o+" and ho$d!n' !nte+)o5+se (!th the othe+ *o+", (as
one and the sa"e,9./ Hen)e !t !s that the :o+d o* G$o+ !s sa!d to ha2e &een )+5)!*!ed,;., a$tho5'h H!s d!2!ne
nat5+e ne2e+ end5+ed the C+oss, and that the Son o* Man !s a$$o(ed to ha2e &een !n hea2en &e*o+e the Pass!on, as
the :o+d H!"se$* sa!d,<./ Fo+ the :o+d o* G$o+ !s one and the sa"e (!th H!" ?ho !s !n nat5+e and !n t+5th the
Son o* Man, that !s, ?ho &e)a"e "an, and &oth H!s (onde+s and H!s s5**e+!n's a+e 1no(n to 5s, a$tho5'h H!s
(onde+s (e+e (o+1ed !n H!s d!2!ne )a0a)!t, and H!s s5**e+!n's end5+ed as "an/ Fo+ (e 1no( that, 85st as !s H!s
one s5&s!sten)e, so !s the essent!a$ d!**e+en)e o* the nat5+e 0+ese+2ed/ Fo+ ho( )o5$d d!**e+en)e &e 0+ese+2ed !*
the 2e+ th!n's that d!**e+ *+o" one anothe+ a+e not 0+ese+2edB Fo+ d!**e+en)e !s the d!**e+en)e &et(een th!n's
that d!**e+/ In so *a+ as Ch+!st6s nat5+es d!**e+ *+o" one anothe+, that !s, !n the "atte+ o* essen)e, (e ho$d that
Ch+!st 5n!tes !n H!"se$* t(o e7t+e"es: !n +es0e)t o* H!s d!2!n!t He !s )onne)ted (!th the Fathe+ and the S0!+!t,
(h!$e !n +es0e)t o* H!s h5"an!t He !s )onne)ted (!th H!s "othe+ and a$$ "an1!nd/ And !n so *a+ as H!s nat5+es
a+e 5n!ted, (e ho$d that He d!**e+s *+o" the Fathe+ and the S0!+!t on the one hand, and *+o" the "othe+ and the
+est o* "an1!nd on the othe+/ Fo+ the nat5+es a+e 5n!ted !n H!s s5&s!sten)e, ha2!n' one )o"0o5nd s5&s!sten)e, !n
(h!)h He d!**e+s *+o" the Fathe+ and the S0!+!t, and a$so *+o" the "othe+ and 5s/
$A"!E% I4(
oncernin/ the manner o2 the 7utua, ommunication8?9(
No( (e ha2e o*ten sa!d a$+ead that essen)e !s one th!n' and s5&s!sten)e anothe+, and that essen)e s!'n!*!es the
)o""on and 'ene+a$ *o+",@. o* s5&s!sten)es o* the sa"e 1!nd, s5)h as God, "an, (h!$e s5&s!sten)e "a+1s the
!nd!2!d5a$, that !s to sa, Fathe+, Son, Ho$ S0!+!t, o+ Pete+, Pa5$/ O&se+2e, then, that the na"es, d!2!n!t and
h5"an!t, denote essen)es o+ nat5+es: (h!$e the na"es, God and "an, a+e a00$!ed &oth !n )onne)t!on (!th
nat5+es, as (hen (e sa that God !s !n)o"0+ehens!&$e essen)e, and that God !s one, and (!th +e*e+en)e to
s5&s!sten)es, that (h!)h !s "o+e s0e)!*!) ha2!n' the na"e o* the "o+e 'ene+a$ a00$!ed to !t, as (hen the S)+!0t5+e
sas, The+e*o+e God, th God, hath ano!nted thee,-., o+ a'a!n, The+e (as a )e+ta!n "an !n the $and o* UD,3., *o+
!t (as on$ to Jo& that +e*e+en)e (as "ade/
The+e*o+e, !n the )ase o* o5+ :o+d Jes5s Ch+!st, see!n' that (e +e)o'n!se that He has t(o nat5+es &5t on$ one
s5&s!sten)e )o"0o5nded o* &oth, (hen (e )onte"0$ate H!s nat5+es (e s0ea1 o* H!s d!2!n!t and H!s h5"an!t,
&5t (hen (e )onte"0$ate the s5&s!sten)e )o"0o5nded o* the nat5+es (e so"et!"es 5se te+"s that ha2e
+e*e+en)e to H!s do5&$e nat5+e, as HCh+!st,H and Hat on)e God and "an,H and HGod In)a+nate#H and so"et!"es
those that !"0$ on$ one o* H!s nat5+es, as HGodH a$one, o+ HSon o* God,H and H"anH a$one, o+ HSon o* Man#H
so"et!"es 5s!n' na"es that !"0$ H!s $o*t!ness and so"et!"es those that !"0$ H!s $o($!ness/ Fo+ He ?ho !s
a$!1e God and "an !s one, &e!n' the *o+"e+ *+o" the Fathe+ e2e+ (!tho5t,4. )a5se, &5t ha2!n' &e)o"e the $atte+
a*te+(a+ds *o+ H!s $o2e to(a+ds "an,9./
?hen, then, (e s0ea1 o* H!s d!2!n!t (e do not as)+!&e to !t the 0+o0e+t!es o* h5"an!t/ Fo+ (e do not sa that
H!s d!2!n!t !s s5&8e)t to 0ass!on o+ )+eated/ No+, a'a!n, do (e 0+ed!)ate o* H!s *$esh o+ o* H!s h5"an!t the
0+o0e+t!es o* d!2!n!t: *o+ (e do not sa that H!s *$esh o+ H!s h5"an!t !s 5n)+eated/ B5t (hen (e s0ea1 o* H!s
s5&s!sten)e, (hethe+ (e '!2e !t a na"e !"0$!n' &oth nat5+es, o+ one that +e*e+s to on$ one o* the", (e st!$$
att+!&5te to !t the 0+o0e+t!es o* &oth nat5+es/ Fo+ Ch+!st, (h!)h na"e !"0$!es &oth nat5+es, !s s0o1en o* as at on)e
God and "an, )+eated and 5n)+eated, s5&8e)t to s5**e+!n' ant! !n)a0a&$e o* s5**e+!n': and (hen He !s na"ed Son
o* God and God, !n +e*e+en)e to on$ one o* H!s nat5+es, He st!$$ 1ee0s the 0+o0e+t!es o* the )o%e7!st!n' nat5+e,
that !s, the *$esh, &e!n' s0o1en o* as God (ho s5**e+s, and as the :o+d o* G$o+ )+5)!*!ed,;., not !n +es0e)t o* H!s
&e!n' God &5t !n +es0e)t o* H!s &e!n' at the sa"e t!"e "an/ :!1e(!se a$so (hen He !s )a$$ed Man and Son o*
Man, He st!$$ 1ee0s the 0+o0e+t!es and '$o+!es o* the d!2!ne nat5+e, a )h!$d &e*o+e the a'es, and "an (ho 1ne( no
&e'!nn!n'# !t !s not, ho(e2e+, as )h!$d o+ "an &5t as God that He !s &e*o+e the a'es, and &e)a"e a )h!$d !n the
end/ And I&!s !s the "anne+ o* the "5t5a$ )o""5n!)at!on, e!the+ nat5+e '!2!n' !n e7)han'e to the othe+ !ts o(n
0+o0e+t!es th+o5'h the !dent!t o* the s5&s!sten)e and the !nte+0enet+at!on o* the 0a+ts (!th one anothe+/
A))o+d!n'$ (e )an sa o* Ch+!st: Th!s o5+ God (as seen 50on the ea+th and $!2ed a"on'st "en,<., and Th!s
"an !s 5n)+eated and !"0oss!&$e and 5n)!+)5"s)+!&ed/
$A"!E% 4(
oncernin/ the num+er o2 the Natures(
In the )ase, the+e*o+e, o* the Godhead,=. (e )on*ess that the+e !s &5t one nat5+e, &5t ho$d that the+e a+e th+ee
s5&s!sten)es a)t5a$$ e7!st!n', ant! ho$d that a$$ th!n's that a+e o* nat5+e and essen)e a+e s!"0$e, and +e)o'n!se
the d!**e+en)e o* the s5&s!sten)es on$ !n the th+ee 0+o0e+t!es o* !nde0enden)e o* )a5se and Fathe+hood, o*
de0enden)e on )a5se and Sonsh!0, o* de0enden)e on )a5se and 0+o)ess!on,>./ And (e 1no( *5+the+ that these
a+e !nd!2!s!&$e and !nse0a+a&$e *+o" ea)h othe+ and 5n!ted !nto one, and !nte+0enet+at!n' one anothe+ (!tho5t
)on*5s!on/ Iea, I +e0eat, 5n!ted (!tho5t )on*5s!on, *o+ the a+e th+ee a$tho5'h 5n!ted, and the a+e d!st!n)t,
4;
a$tho5'h !nse0a+a&$e/ Fo+ a$tho5'h ea)h has an !nde0endent e7!sten)e, that !s to sa, !s a 0e+*e)t s5&s!sten)e and
has an !nd!2!d5a$!t o* !ts o(n, that !s, has a s0e)!a$ "ode o* e7!sten)e, et the a+e one !n essen)e and !n the
nat5+a$ 0+o0e+t!es/ and !n &e!n' !nse0a+a&$e and !nd!2!s!&$e *+o" the Fathe+6s s5&s!sten)e, and the &oth a+e and
a+e sa!d to &e one God/ In the 2e+ sa"e (a, then, !n the )ase o* the d!2!ne and !ne**a&$e d!s0ensat!on,@.,
e7)eed!n' a$$ tho5'ht and )o"0+ehens!on, I "ean the In)a+nat!on o* the One God the ?o+d o* the Ho$ T+!n!t,
and o5+ :o+d Jes5s Ch+!st, (e )on*ess that the+e a+e t(o nat5+es, one d!2!ne and one h5"an, 8o!ned to'ethe+ (!th
one anothe+ and 5n!ted !n s5&s!sten)e,-., so that one )o"0o5nd s5&s!sten)e !s *o+"ed o5t o* the t(o nat5+es: &5t
(e ho$d that the t(o nat5+es a+e st!$$ 0+ese+2ed, e2en a*te+ the 5n!on, !n the one )o"0o5nd s5&s!sten)e, that !s, !n
the one Ch+!st, and that these e7!st !n +ea$!t and ha2e the!+ nat5+a$ 0+o0e+t!es# *o+ the a+e 5n!ted (!tho5t
)on*5s!on, and a+e d!st!n'5!shed and en5"e+ated (!tho5t &e!n' se0a+a&$e/ And 85st as the th+ee s5&s!sten)es o*
the Ho$ T+!n!t a+e 5n!ted (!tho5t )on*5s!on, and a+e d!st!n'5!shed and en5"e+ated (!tho5t &e!n' se0a+a&$e,3.,
the en5"e+at!on not enta!$!n' d!2!s!on o+ se0a+at!on o+ a$!enat!on o+ )$ea2a'e a"on' the" ,*o+ (e +e)o'n!se one
God the Fathe+, the Son and the Ho$ S0!+!t., so !n the sa"e (a the nat5+es o* Ch+!st a$so, a$tho5'h the a+e
5n!ted, et a+e 5n!ted (!tho5t )on*5s!on# and a$tho5'h the !nte+0enet+ate one anothe+, et the do not 0e+"!t o*
)han'e o+ t+ans"5tat!on o* one !nto the othe+,4./ Fo+ ea)h 1ee0s !ts o(n nat5+a$ !nd!2!d5a$!t st+!)t$ 5n)han'ed/
And th5s !t !s that the )an &e en5"e+ated (!tho5t the en5"e+at!on !nt+od5)!n' d!2!s!on/ Fo+ Ch+!st, !ndeed, !s
one, 0e+*e)t &oth !n d!2!n!t and !n h5"an!t/ Fo+ !t !s not the nat5+e o* n5"&e+ to )a5se se0a+at!on o+ 5n!t, &5t
!ts nat5+e !s to !nd!)ate the C5ant!t o* (hat !s en5"e+ated, (hethe+ these a+e 5n!ted o+ se0a+ated: *o+ (e ha2e
5n!t, *o+ !nstan)e, (hen *!*t stones )o"0ose a (a$$, &5t (e ha2e se0a+at!on (hen the *!*t stones $!e on the
'+o5nd# and a'a!n, (e ha2e 5n!t (hen (e s0ea1 o* )oa$ ha2!n' t(o nat5+es, na"e$, *!+e and (ood, &5t (e ha2e
se0a+at!on !n that the nat5+e o* *!+e !s one th!n', and the nat5+e o* (ood anothe+ th!n'# *o+ these th!n's a+e 5n!ted
and se0a+ated not & n5"&e+, &5t !n anothe+ (a/ So, then, 85st as e2en tho5'h the th+ee s5&s!sten)es o* the
Godhead a+e 5n!ted (!th ea)h othe+, (e )annot s0ea1 o* the" as one s5&s!sten)e &e)a5se (e sho5$d )on*5se and
do a(a (!th the d!**e+en)e &et(een the s5&s!sten)es, so a$so (e )annot s0ea1 o* the t(o nat5+es o* Ch+!st as
one nat5+e, 5n!ted tho5'h the a+e !n s5&s!sten)e, &e)a5se (e sho5$d then )on*5se and do a(a (!th and +ed5)e
to noth!n' the d!**e+en)e &et(een the t(o nat5+es/
$A"!E%( 4I(
!hat in one o2 its su+sistences the di0ine nature is united in its entiret) to the human nature- in its entiret)
and not on,) *art to *art(
?hat !s )o""on and 'ene+a$ !s 0+ed!)ated o* the !n)$5ded 0a+t!)5$a+s/ Essen)e, then, !s )o""on as &e!n' a
*o+",9., (h!$e s5&s!sten)e !s 0a+t!)5$a+/ It !s 0a+t!)5$a+ not as tho5'h !t had 0a+t o* the nat5+e and had not the +est,
&5t 0a+t!)5$a+ !n a n5"e+!)a$ sense, as &e!n' !nd!2!d5a$/ Fo+ !t !s !n n5"&e+ and not !n nat5+e that the d!**e+en)e
&et(een s5&s!sten)es !s sa!d to $!e/ Essen)e, the+e*o+e, !s 0+ed!)ated o* s5&s!sten)e, &e)a5se !n ea)h s5&s!sten)e
o* the sa"e *o+" the essen)e !s 0e+*e)t/ ?he+e*o+e s5&s!sten)es do not d!**e+ *+o" ea)h othe+ !n essen)e &5t !n
the a))!dents (h!)h !ndeed a+e the )ha+a)te+!st!) 0+o0e+t!es, &5t )ha+a)te+!st!) o* s5&s!sten)e and not o* nat5+e/
Fo+ !ndeed the de*!ne s5&s!sten)e as essen)e a$on' (!th a))!dents/ So that the s5&s!sten)e )onta!ns &oth the
'ene+a$ and the 0a+t!)5$a+, and has an !nde0endent e7!sten)e,;., (h!$e essen)e has not an !nde0endent e7!sten)e
&5t !s )onte"0$ated !n the s5&s!sten)es/ A))o+d!n'$ (hen one o* the s5&s!sten)es s5**e+s, the (ho$e essen)e,
&e!n' )a0a&$e o* s5**e+!n',<., !s he$d to ha2e s5**e+ed !n one o* !ts s5&s!sten)es as "5)h as the s5&s!sten)e
s5**e+ed, &5t !t does not ne)essa+!$ *o$$o(, ho(e2e+, that a$$ the s5&s!sten)es o* the sa"e )$ass sho5$d s5**e+
a$on' (!th the s5**e+!n' s5&s!sten)e/
Th5s, the+e*o+e, (e )on*ess that the nat5+e o* the Godhead !s (ho$$ and 0e+*e)t$ !n ea)h o* !ts s5&s!sten)es,
(ho$$ !n the Fathe+, (ho$$ !n the Son, and (ho$$ !n the Ho$ S0!+!t/ ?he+e*o+e a$so the Fathe+ !s 0e+*e)t God,
the Son !s 0e+*e)t God, and the Ho$ S0!+!t !s 0e+*e)t God/ In $!1e "anne+, too, !n the In)a+nat!on o* the T+!n!t o*
the One God the ?o+d o* the Ho$ T+!n!t, (e ho$d that !n one o* !ts s5&s!sten)es the nat5+e o* the Godhead !s
(ho$$ and 0e+*e)t$ 5n!ted (!th the (ho$e nat5+e o* h5"an!t, and not 0a+t 5n!ted to 0a+t,=./ The d!2!ne A0ost$e
!n t+5th sas that !n H!" d(e$$eth a$$ the *5$ness o* the Godhead &od!$,>., that !s to sa !n H!s *$esh/ And H!s
d!2!ne$%!ns0!+ed d!s)!0$e, D!ons!5s, (ho had so dee0 a 1no($ed'e o* th!n's d!2!ne, sa!d that the Godhead as a
(ho$e had *e$$o(sh!0 (!th 5s !n one o* !ts o(n s5&s!sten)es,@./ B5t (e sha$$ not &e d+!2en to ho$d that a$$ the
s5&s!sten)es o* the Ho$ Godhead, to (!t the th+ee, a+e "ade one !n s5&s!sten)e (!th a$$ the s5&s!sten)es o*
h5"an!t/ Fo+ !n no othe+ +es0e)t d!d the Fathe+ and the Ho$ S0!+!t ta1e 0a+t !n the !n)a+nat!on o* God the ?o+d
than a))o+d!n' to 'ood (!$$ and 0$eas5+e B5t (e ho$d that to the (ho$e o* h5"an nat5+e the (ho$e essen)e o* the
Godhead (as 5n!ted/ Fo+ God the ?o+d o"!tted none o* the th!n's (h!)h He !"0$anted !n o5+ nat5+e (hen He
*o+"ed 5s !n the &e'!nn!n', &5t too1 the" a$$ 50on H!"se$*, &od and so5$ &oth !nte$$!'ent and +at!ona$, and a$$
the!+ 0+o0e+t!es/ Fo+ the )+eat5+e that !s de2o!d o* one o* these !s not "an/ B5t He !n H!s *5$ness too1 50on
H!"se$* "e !n " *5$ness, and (as 5n!ted (ho$e to (ho$e that He "!'ht !n H!s '+a)e &esto( sa$2at!on on the
(ho$e "an/ Fo+ (hat has not &een ta1en )annot &e hea$ed,-./
The ?o+d o* God,3., then, (as 5n!ted to *$esh th+o5'h the "ed!5" o* "!nd (h!)h !s !nte+"ed!ate &et(een the
05+!t o* God and the '+ossness o* *$esh,4./ Fo+ the "!nd ho$ds s(a o2e+ so5$ and &od, &5t (h!$e the "!nd !s
the 05+est 0a+t o* the so5$ God !s that o* the "!nd/ And (hen !t !s a$$o(ed,9. & that (h!)h !s "o+e e7)e$$ent, the
4<
"!nd o* Ch+!st '!2es 0+oo* o* !ts o(n a5tho+!t,;., &5t !t !s 5nde+ the do"!n!on o* and o&ed!ent to that (h!)h !s
"o+e e7)e$$ent, and does those th!n's (h!)h the d!2!ne (!$$ 05+0oses/
F5+the+ the "!nd has &e)o"e the seat o* the d!2!n!t 5n!ted (!th !t !n s5&s!sten)e, 85st as !s e2!dent$ the )ase
(!th the &od too, not as an !n"ate,<., (h!)h !s the !"0!o5s e++o+ !nto (h!)h the he+et!)s *a$$ (hen the sa that
one &5she$ )annot )onta!n t(o &5she$s, *o+ the a+e 85d'!n' (hat !s !""ate+!a$ & "ate+!a$ standa+ds/ Ho(
!ndeed )o5$d Ch+!st &e )a$$ed 0e+*e)t God and 0e+*e)t "an, and &e sa!d to &e o* $!1e essen)e (!th the Fathe+ and
(!th 5s, !* on$ 0a+t o* the d!2!ne nat5+e !s 8o!ned !n H!" to 0a+t o* the h5"an nat5+e,=.B
?e ho$d, "o+eo2e+, that o5+ nat5+e has &een +a!sed *+o" the dead and has as)ended to the hea2ens and ta1en !ts
seat at the +!'ht hand o* the Fathe+: not that a$$ the 0e+sons o* "en ha2e +!sen *+o" the dead and ta1en the!+ seat
at the +!'ht hand o* the Fathe+, &5t that th!s has ha00ened to the (ho$e o* o5+ nat5+e !n the s5&s!sten)e o*
Ch+!st,>./ Ae+!$ the d!2!ne A0ost$e sas, God hath +a!sed 5s 50 to'ethe+ and "ade 5s s!t to'ethe+ !n Ch+!st,@./
And th!s *5+the+ (e ho$d, that the 5n!on too1 0$a)e th+o5'h )o""on essen)es/ Fo+ e2e+ essen)e !s )o""on to
the s5&s!sten)es )onta!ned !n !t, and the+e )annot &e *o5nd a 0a+t!a$ and 0a+t!)5$a+ nat5+e, that !s to sa, essen)e:
*o+ othe+(!se (e (o5$d ha2e to ho$d that the sa"e s5&s!sten)es a+e at on)e the sa"e and d!**e+ent !n essen)e,
and that the Ho$ T+!n!t !n +es0e)t o* the d!2!n!t !s at on)e the sa"e and d!**e+ent !n essen)e/ So then the sa"e
nat5+e !s to &e o&se+2ed !n ea)h o* the s5&s!sten)es, and (hen (e sa!d that the nat5+e o* the (o+d &e)a"e *$esh,
as d!d the &$essed Athanas!5s and C+!$$5s, (e "ean that the d!2!n!t (as 8o!ned to the *$esh/ Hen)e (e )annot
sa HThe nat5+e o* the ?o+d s5**e+ed#H *o+ the d!2!n!t !n !t d!d not s5**e+, &5t (e sa that the h5"an nat5+e, not
& an "eans, ho(e2e+, "ean!n',-. a$$ the s5&s!sten)es o* "en, s5**e+ed !n Ch+!st, and (e )on*ess *5+the+ that
Ch+!st s5**e+ed !n H!s h5"an nat5+e/ So that (hen (e s0ea1 o* the nat5+e o* the ?o+d (e "ean the ?o+d
H!"se$*/ And the ?o+d has &oth the 'ene+a$ e$e"ent o* essen)e and the 0a+t!)5$a+ e$e"ent o* s5&s!sten)e/
$A"!E% 4II(
oncernin/ the one com*ound su+sistence o2 3od the 6ord(
?e ho$d then that the d!2!ne s5&s!sten)e o* God the ?o+d e7!sted &e*o+e a$$ e$se and !s (!tho5t t!"e and ete+na$,
s!"0$e and 5n)o"0o5nd, 5n)+eated, !n)o+0o+ea$, !n2!s!&$e, !ntan'!&$e, 5n)!+)5"s)+!&ed, 0ossess!n' a$$ the Fathe+
0ossesses, s!n)e He !s o* the sa"e essen)e (!th H!", d!**e+!n' *+o" the Fathe+6s s5&s!sten)e !n the "anne+ o* H!s
'ene+at!on and the +e$at!on o* the Fathe+6s s5&s!sten)e, &e!n' 0e+*e)t a$so and at no t!"e se0a+ated *+o" the
Fathe+6s s5&s!sten)e: and !n these $ast/ das, (!tho5t $ea2!n' the Fathe+6s &oso", too1 50 H!s a&ode !n an
5n)!+)5"s)+!&ed "anne+ !n the (o"& o* the ho$ A!+'!n, (!tho5t the !nst+5"enta$!t o* seed, and !n an
!n)o"0+ehens!&$e "anne+ 1no(n on$ to H!"se$*, and )a5s!n' the *$esh de+!2ed *+o" the ho$ A!+'!n to s5&s!st
!n the 2e+ s5&s!sten)e that (as &e*o+e a$$ the a'es/
So then He (as &oth !n a$$ th!n's and a&o2e a$$ th!n's and a$so d(e$t !n the (o"& o* the ho$ Mothe+ o* God,
&5t !n !t & the ene+' o* the !n)a+nat!on/ He the+e*o+e &e)a"e *$esh and He too1 50on H!"se$* the+e& the *!+st%
*+5!ts o* o5+ )o"0o5nd nat5+e,3., 2!D/, the *$esh an!"ated (!th the !nte$$!'ent and nat!ona$ so5$, so that the 2e+
s5&s!sten)e o* God the ?o+d (as )han'ed !nto the s5&s!sten)e o* the *$esh, and the s5&s!sten)e o* the ?o+d,
(h!)h (as *o+"e+$ s!"0$e, &e)a"e )o"0o5nd,4., ea )o"0o5nded o* t(o 0e+*e)t nat5+es, d!2!n!t and
h5"an!t, and &ea+!n' the )ha+a)te+!st!) and d!st!n)t!2e 0+o0e+t o* the d!2!ne Sonsh!0 o* God the ?o+d !n 2!+t5e
o* (h!)h !t !s d!st!n'5!shed *+o" the Fathe+ and the S0!+!t, and a$so the )ha+a)te+!st!) and d!st!n)t!2e 0+o0e+t!es o*
the *$esh, !n 2!+t5e o* (h!)h !t d!**e+s *+o" the Mothe+ and the +est o* "an1!nd, &ea+!n' *5+the+ the 0+o0e+t!es o*
the d!2!ne nat5+e !n 2!+t5e o* (h!)h !t !s 5n!ted to the Fathe+ and the S0!+!t, and the "a+1s o* the h5"an nat5+e !n
2!+t5e o* (h!)h !t !s 5n!ted to the Mothe+ and to 5s/ And *5+the+ !t d!**e+s *+o" the Fathe+ and the S0!+!t and the
Mothe+ and 5s !n &e!n' at on)e God and "an/ Fo+ th!s (e 1no( to &e the "ost s0e)!a$ 0+o0e+t o* the
s5&s!sten)e o* Ch+!st/
?he+e*o+e (e )on*ess H!", e2en a*te+ the !n)a+nat!on, the one Son o* God, and $!1e(!se Son o* Man, one Ch+!st,
one :o+d, the on$%&e'otten Son and ?o+d o* God, one :o+d Jes5s/ ?e +e2e+en)e H!s t(o 'ene+at!ons, one *+o"
the Fathe+ &e*o+e t!"e and &eond )a5se and +eason and t!"e and nat5+e, and one !n the end *o+ o5+ sa1e, and
$!1e to 5s and a&o2e 5s# *o+ o5+ sa1e &e)a5se !t (as *o+ o5+ sa$2at!on, $!1e to 5s !n that He (as "an &o+n o*
(o"an,9. at *5$$ t!the,;., and a&o2e 5s &e)a5se !t (as not & seed, &5t & the Ho$ S0!+!t and the Ho$ A!+'!n
Ma+,<., t+ans)end!n' the $a(s o* 0a+t5+!t!on/ ?e 0+o)$a!" H!" not as God on$, de2o!d o* o5+ h5"an!t, no+
et as "an on$, st+!00!n' H!" o* H!s d!2!n!t, no+ as t(o d!st!n)t 0e+sons, &5t as one and the sa"e, at on)e God
and "an, 0e+*e)t God and 0e+*e)t "an, (ho$$ God ant! (ho$$ "an, the sa"e &e!n' (ho$$ God, e2en tho5'h
He (as a$so *$esh and (ho$$ "an, e2en tho5'h He (as a$so "ost h!'h God/ And & H0e+*e)t GodH and H0e+*e)t
"anH (e "ean to e"0has!De the *5$ness and 5n*a!$!n'ness o* the nat5+es: (h!$e & H(ho$$ GodH and H(ho$$
"anH (e "ean to $a st+ess on the s!n'5$a+!t and !nd!2!d5a$!t o* the s5&s!sten)e/
And (e )on*ess a$so that the+e !s one !n)a+nate nat5+e o* God the ?o+d, e70+ess!n' & the (o+d H!n)a+nate,=.H
the essen)e o* the *$esh, a))o+d!n' to the &$essed C+!$,>./ And so the ?o+d (as "ade *$esh and et d!d not
a&andon H!s o(n 0+o0e+ !""ate+!a$!t: He &e)a"e (ho$$ *$esh and et +e"a!ned (ho$$ 5n)!+)5"s)+!&ed/ So
*a+ as He !s &od He !s d!"!n!shed and )ont+a)ted !nto na++o( $!"!ts, &5t !nas"5)h as He !s God He !s
5n)!+)5"s)+!&ed, H!s *$esh not &e!n' )oe7tens!2e (!th H!s 5n)!+)5"s)+!&ed d!2!n!t/
4=
He !s then (ho$$ 0e+*e)t God, &5t et !s not s!"0$,@. God: *o+ He !s not on$ God &5t a$so "an/ And He !s a$so
(ho$$,-. 0e+*e)t "an &5t not s!"0$,3. "an, *o+ He !s not on$ "an &5t a$so God/ Fo+ Hs!"0$,3.H he+e has
+e*e+en)e to H!s nat5+e, and H(ho$$,-.H to H!s s5&s!sten)e, 85st as Hanothe+ th!n'H (o5$d +e*e+ to nat5+e, (h!$e
Hanothe+,4.H (o5$d +e*e+ to s5&s!sten)e,9./
B5t o&se+2e,;. that a$tho5'h (e ho$d that the nat5+es o* the :o+d 0e+"eate one anothe+, et (e 1no( that the
0e+"eat!on s0+!n's *+o" the d!2!ne nat5+e/ Fo+ !t !s that that 0enet+ates and 0e+"eates a$$ th!n's, as !t (!$$s, (h!$e
noth!n' 0enet+ates !t: and !t !s !t, too, that !"0a+ts to the *$esh !ts o(n 0e)5$!a+ '$o+!es, (h!$e a&!d!n' !tse$*
!"0oss!&$e and (!tho5t 0a+t!)!0at!on !n the a**e)t!ons o* the *$esh/ Fo+ !* the s5n !"0a+ts to 5s h!s ene+'!es and
et does not 0a+t!)!0ate !n o5+s, ho( "5)h the +athe+ "5st th!s &e t+5e o* the C+eato+ ant! :o+d o* the S5n,<./
$A"!E% 4III(
In re*,) to those .ho as1 .hether879 the natures o2 the @ord are +rou/ht under a continuous or a
discontinuous :uantit)8?9(
I* an one as1s )on)e+n!n' the nat5+es o* the :o+d !* the a+e &+o5'ht 5nde+ a )ont!n5o5s o+ d!s)ont!n5o5s
C5ant!t,@., (e (!$$ sa that the nat5+es o* the :o+d a+e ne!the+ one &od no+ one s50e+*!)!es,-., no+ one $!ne, no+
t!"e, no+ 0$a)e, so as to &e +ed5)ed to a )ont!n5o5s C5ant!t/ Fo+ these a+e the th!n's that a+e +e)1oned
)ont!n5o5s$/
F5+the+ note that n5"&e+ dea$s (!th th!n's that d!**e+, and !t !s C5!te !"0oss!&$e to en5"e+ate th!n's that d!**e+
*+o" one anothe+ !n no +es0e)t: and 85st so *a+ as the d!**e+ a+e the en5"e+ated: *o+ !nstan)e, Pete+ and Pa5$ a+e
not )o5nted se0a+ate$ !n so *a+ as the a+e one/ Fo+ s!n)e the a+e one !n +es0e)t o* the!+ essen)e the )annot &e
s0o1en o* as t(o nat5+es, &5t as the d!**e+ !n +es0e)t o* s5&s!sten)e the a+e s0o1en o* as t(o s5&s!sten)es/ So
that n5"&e+ dea$s (!th d!**e+en)es, and 85st as the d!**e+!n' o&8e)ts d!**e+ *+o" one anothe+ so *a+ the a+e
en5"e+ated/
The nat5+es o* the :o+d, then, a+e 5n!ted (!tho5t )on*5s!on so *a+ as +e'a+ds s5&s!sten)e, and the a+e d!2!ded
(!tho5t se0a+at!on a))o+d!n' to the "ethod and "anne+ o* d!**e+en)e/ And !t !s not a))o+d!n' to the "anne+ !n
(h!)h the a+e 5n!ted that the a+e en5"e+ated, *o+ !t !s not !n +es0e)t o* s5&s!sten)e that (e ho$d that the+e a+e
t(o nat5+es o* Ch+!st: &5t a))o+d!n' to the "anne+ !n (h!)h the a+e d!2!ded (!tho5t se0a+at!on the a+e
en5"e+ated, *o+ !t !s !n +es0e)t o* the "ethod and "anne+ o* d!**e+en)e that the+e a+e t(o nat5+es o* Ch+!st/ Fo+
&e!n' 5n!ted !n s5&s!sten)e and 0e+"eat!n' one anothe+, the a+e 5n!ted (!tho5t )on*5s!on, ea)h 0+ese+2!n'
th+o5'ho5t !ts o(n 0e)5$!a+ and nat5+a$ d!**e+en)e/ Hen)e, s!n)e the a+e en5"e+ated a))o+d!n' to the "anne+ o*
d!**e+en)e, and that a$one, the "5st &e &+o5'ht 5nde+ a d!s)ont!n5o5s C5ant!t/
Ch+!st, the+e*o+e,3., !s one, 0e+*e)t God and 0e+*e)t "an: and H!" (e (o+sh!0 a$on' (!th the Fathe+ and the
S0!+!t, (!th one o&e!san)e, ado+!n' e2en H!s !""a)5$ate *$esh and not ho$d!n' that the *$esh !s not "eet *o+
(o+sh!0: *o+ !n *a)t !t !s (o+sh!00ed !n the one s5&s!sten)e o* the ?o+d, (h!)h !ndeed &e)a"e s5&s!sten)e *o+ !t/
B5t !n th!s (e do not do ho"a'e to that (h!)h !s )+eated/ Fo+ (e (o+sh!0 H!", not as "e+e *$esh, &5t as *$esh
5n!ted (!th d!2!n!t, and &e)a5se H!s t(o nat5+es a+e &+o5'ht 5nde+ the one 0e+son and one s5&s!sten)e o* God
the ?o+d/ I *ea+ to to5)h )oa$ &e)a5se o* the *!+e &o5nd 50 (!th the (ood/ I (o+sh!0 the t(o*o$d nat5+e o* Ch+!st
&e)a5se o* the d!2!n!t that !s !n H!" &o5nd 50 (!th *$esh/ Fo+ I do not !nt+od5)e a *o5+th 0e+son,4. !nto the
T+!n!t/ God *o+&!dN &5t I )on*ess one 0e+son o* God the ?o+d and o* H!s *$esh, and the T+!n!t +e"a!ns T+!n!t,
e2en a*te+ the !n)a+nat!on o* the ?o+d/
In re*,)849 to those .ho as1 .hether the t.o natures are +rou/ht under a continuous or a discontinuous
:uantit)(
The nat5+es o* the :o+d a+e ne!the+ one &od no+ one s50e+*!)!es, no+ one $!ne, no+ 0$a)e, no+ t!"e, so as to &e
&+o5'ht 5nde+ a )ont!n5o5s C5ant!t: *o+ these a+e the th!n's that a+e +e)1oned )ont!n5o5s$/ B5t the nat5+es o*
the :o+d a+e 5n!ted (!tho5t )on*5s!on !n +es0e)t o* s5&s!sten)e, and a+e d!2!ded (!tho5t se0a+at!on a))o+d!n' to
the "ethod and "anne+ o* d!**e+en)e/ And a))o+d!n' to the "anne+ !n (h!)h the a+e 5n!ted the a+e not
en5"e+ated/ Fo+ (e do not sa that the nat5+es o* Ch+!st a+e t(o s5&s!sten)es o+ t(o !n +es0e)t o* s5&s!sten)e/
B5t a))o+d!n' to the "anne+ !n (h!)h the a+e d!2!ded (!tho5t d!2!s!on, a+e the en5"e+ated/ Fo+ the+e a+e t(o
nat5+es a))o+d!n' to the "ethod and "anne+ o* d!**e+en)e/ Fo+ &e!n' 5n!ted !n s5&s!sten)e and 0e+"eat!n' one
anothe+ the a+e 5n!ted (!tho5t )on*5s!on, ne!the+ ha2!n' &een )han'ed !nto the othe+, &5t ea)h 0+ese+2!n' !ts
o(n nat5+a$ d!**e+en)e e2en a*te+ the 5n!on/ Fo+ that (h!)h !s )+eated +e"a!ned )+eated, and that (h!)h !s
5n)+eated, 5n)+eated/ B the "anne+ o* d!**e+en)e, then, and !n that a$one, the a+e en5"e+ated, and th5s a+e
&+o5'ht 5nde+ d!s)ont!n5o5s C5ant!t/ Fo+ th!n's (h!)h d!**e+ *+o" ea)h othe+ !n no +es0e)t )annot &e
en5"e+ated, &5t 85st so *a+ as the d!**e+ a+e the en5"e+ated# *o+ !nstan)e, Pete+ and Pa5$ a+e not en5"e+ated !n
those +es0e)ts !n (h!)h the a+e one: *o+ &e!n' one !n +es0e)t o* the!+ essen)e the a+e not t(o nat5+es no+ a+e
the so s0o1en o*/ B5t !nas"5)h as the d!**e+ !n s5&s!sten)e the a+e s0o1en o* as t(o s5&s!sten)es/So that
d!**e+en)e !s the )a5se o* n5"&e+/
$A"!E% IX(
In re*,) to the :uestion .hether there is Nature that has no #u+sistence(
Fo+ a$tho5'h,;. the+e !s no nat5+e (!tho5t s5&s!sten)e, no+ essen)e a0a+t *+o" 0e+son ,s!n)e !n t+5th !t !s !n
0e+sons and s5&s!sten)es that essen)e and nat5+e a+e to &e )onte"0$ated., et !t does not ne)essa+!$ *o$$o( that
4>
the nat5+es that a+e 5n!ted to one anothe+ !n s5&s!sten)e sho5$d ha2e ea)h !ts o(n 0+o0e+ s5&s!sten)e/ Fo+ a*te+
the ha2e )o"e to'ethe+ !nto one s5&s!sten)e, !t !s 0oss!&$e that ne!the+ sho5$d the &e (!tho5t s5&s!sten)e, no+
sho5$d ea)h ha2e !ts o(n 0e)5$!a+ s5&s!sten)e, &5t that &oth sho5$d ha2e one and the sa"e s5&s!sten)e,<./ Fo+
s!n)e one and the sa"e s5&s!sten)e o* the ?o+d has &e)o"e the s5&s!sten)e o* the nat5+es, ne!the+ o* the" !s
0e+"!tted to &e (!tho5t s5&s!sten)e, no+ a+e the a$$o(ed to ha2e s5&s!sten)es that d!**e+ *+o" ea)h othe+, o+ to
ha2e so"et!"es the s5&s!sten)e o* th!s nat5+e and so"et!"es o* that, &5t a$(as (!tho5t d!2!s!on o+ se0a+at!on
the &oth ha2e the sa"e s5&s!sten)e%%a s5&s!sten)e (h!)h !s not &+o1en 50 !nto 0a+ts o+ d!2!ded, so that one 0a+t
sho5$d &e$on' to th!s, and one to that, &5t (h!)h &e$on's (ho$$ to th!s and (ho$$ to that !n !ts a&so$5te ent!+et/
Fo+ the *$esh o* God the ?o+d d!d not s5&s!st as an !nde0endent s5&s!sten)e, no+ d!d the+e a+!se anothe+
s5&s!sten)e &es!des that o* God the ?o+d, &5t as !t e7!sted !n that !t &e)a"e +athe+ a s5&s!sten)e (h!)h s5&s!sted
!n anothe+, than one (h!)h (as an !nde0endent s5&s!sten)e/ ?he+e*o+e, ne!the+ does !t $a)1 s5&s!sten)e
a$to'ethe+, no+ et !s the+e th5s !nt+od5)ed !nto the T+!n!t anothe+ s5&s!sten)e/
$A"!E% X(
oncernin/ the !risa/ium 8<the !hrice $o,)<9(
Th!s &e!n' so,=., (e de)$a+e that the add!t!on (h!)h the 2a!n%"!nded Pete+ the F5$$e+ "ade to the T+!sa'!5" o+
HTh+!)e Ho$H H"n !s &$as0he"o5s,>.# *o+ !t !nt+od5)es a *o5+th 0e+son !nto the T+!n!t, '!2!n' a se0a+ate 0$a)e
to the Son o* God, ?ho !s the t+5$ s5&s!st!n' 0o(e+ o* the Fathe+, and a se0a+ate 0$a)e to H!" ?ho (as
)+5)!*!ed as tho5'h He (e+e d!**e+ent *+o" the HM!'ht One,H o+ as tho5'h the Ho$ T+!n!t (as )ons!de+ed
0oss!&$e, and the Fathe+ and the Ho$ S0!+!t s5**e+ed on the C+oss a$on' (!th the Son/ Ha2e done (!th th!s
&$as0he"o5s,@. and nonsens!)a$ !nte+0o$at!onN Fo+ (e ho$d the (o+ds HHo$ GodH to +e*e+ to the Fathe+, (!tho5t
$!"!t!n' the t!t$e o* d!2!n!t to H!" a$one, &5t a)1no($ed'!n' a$so as God the Son and the Ho$ S0!+!t: and the
(o+ds HHo$ and M!'htH (e as)+!&e to the Son, (!tho5t st+!00!n' the Fathe+ and the Ho$ S0!+!t o* "!'ht: and
the (o+ds HHo$ and I""o+ta$H (e att+!&5te to the Ho$ S0!+!t, (!tho5t de0+!2!n' the Fathe+ and the Son o*
!""o+ta$!t/ Fo+, !ndeed, (e a00$ a$$ the d!2!ne na"es s!"0$ and 5n)ond!t!ona$$ to ea)h o* the s5&s!sten)es !n
!"!tat!on o* the d!2!ne A0ost$e6s (o+ds/ B5t to 5s the+e !s &5t one God, the Fathe+, o* ?ho" a+e a$$ th!n's, and
(e !n H!": and one :o+d Jes5s Ch+!st & ?ho" a+e a$$ th!n's, and (e & H!",-.,3. And, ne2e+the$ess, (e
*o$$o( G+e'o+ the Theo$o'!an,4. (hen he sas, HB5t to 5s the+e !s &5t one God, the Fathe+, o* ?ho" a+e a$$
th!n's, and one :o+d Jes5s Ch+!st, th+o5'h ?ho" a+e a$$ th!n's, and one Ho$ S0!+!t, !n ?ho" a+e a$$ th!n's:H
*o+ the (o+ds Ho* ?ho"H and Hth+o5'h ?ho"H and H!n ?ho"H do not d!2!de the nat5+es ,*o+ ne!the+ the
0+e0os!t!ons no+ the o+de+ o* the na"es )o5$d e2e+ &e )han'ed., &5t the )ha+a)te+!se the 0+o0e+t!es o* one
5n)on*5sed nat5+e/ And th!s &e)o"es )$ea+ *+o" the *a)t that the a+e on)e "o+e 'athe+ed !nto one, !* on$ one
+eads (!th )a+e these (o+ds o* the sa"e A0ost$e, O* H!" and th+o5'h H!" and !n H!" a+e a$$ th!n's: to H!" &e
the '$o+ *o+ e2e+ and e2e+/ A"en,9./
Fo+ that the HT+!sa'!5"H +e*e+s not to the Son a$one,;., &5t to the Ho$ T+!n!t, the d!2!ne and sa!nt$ Athanas!5s
and Bas!$ and G+e'o+, and a$$ the &and o* the d!2!ne$%!ns0!+ed Fathe+s &ea+ (!tness: &e)a5se, as a "atte+ o*
*a)t, & the th+ee*o$d ho$!ness the Ho$ Se+a0h!" s5''est to 5s the th+ee s5&s!sten)es o* the s50e+essent!a$
Godhead/ B5t & the one :o+dsh!0 the denote the one essen)e and do"!n!on o* the s50+e"e$%d!2!ne T+!n!t/
G+e'o+ the Theo$o'!an o* a t+5th sas,<., HTh5s, then, the Ho$ o* Ho$!es, (h!)h !s )o"0$ete$ 2e!$ed & the
Se+a0h!", and !s '$o+!*!ed (!th th+ee )onse)+at!ons, "eet to'ethe+ !n one $o+dsh!0 and one d!2!n!t/H Th!s (as the
"ost &ea5t!*5$ and s5&$!"e 0h!$oso0h o* st!$$ anothe+ o* o5+ 0+ede)esso+s/
E))$es!ast!)a$ h!sto+!ans,=., then, sa that on)e (hen the 0eo0$e o* Constant!no0$e (e+e o**e+!n' 0+ae+s to God
to a2e+t a th+eatened )a$a"!t,>., d5+!n' P+o)$5s6 ten5+e o* the o**!)e o* A+)h&!sho0, !t ha00ened that a &o (as
snat)hed 50 *+o" a"on' the 0eo0$e, and (as ta5'ht & an'e$!) tea)he+s the HTh+!)e Ho$H H"n, HTho5 Ho$
God, Ho$ and M!'ht One, Ho$ and I""o+ta$ One, ha2e "e+) 50on 5s:H and (hen on)e "o+e he (as
+esto+ed to ea+th, he to$d (hat he had $ea+ned, and a$$ the 0eo0$e san' the H"n, and so the th+eatened )a$a"!t
(as a2e+ted/ And !n the *o5+th ho$ and '+eat ,E)5"en!)a$ Co5n)!$, I "ean the one at Cha$)edon, (e a+e to$d
that !t (as !n th!s *o+" that the H"n (as s5n'# *o+ the "!n5tes o* th!s ho$ asse"&$ so +e)o+d !t,@./ It !s,
the+e*o+e, a "atte+ *o+ $a5'hte+ and +!d!)5$e that th!s HTh+!)e Ho$H H"n, ta5'ht 5s & the an'e$s, and
)on*!+"ed & the a2e+t!n' o* )a$a"!t,-., +at!*!ed and esta&$!shed & so '+eat an asse"&$ o* the ho$ Fathe+s,
and s5n' *!+st & the Se+a0h!" as a de)$a+at!on o* the th+ee s5&s!sten)es o* the Godhead, sho5$d &e "an'$ed and
*o+sooth e"ended to s5!t the 2!e( o* the st50!d F5$$e+ as tho5'h he (e+e h!'he+ than the Se+a0h!"/ B5t ohN the
a++o'an)eN not to sa *o$$N B5t (e sa !t th5s, tho5'h de"ons sho5$d +end 5s !n 0!e)es, HDo Tho5, Ho$ God,
Ho$ and M!'ht One, Ho$ and I""o+ta$ One, ha2e "e+) 50on 5s/H
$A"!E% XI(
oncernin/ the Nature as 0ie.ed in #*ecies and in Indi0idua,- and concernin/ the di22erence +et.een
Anion and Incarnation5 and ho. this is to +e understood- <!he one Nature o2 3od the 6ord Incarnate(<
Nat5+e,3. !s +e'a+ded e!the+ a&st+a)t$ as a "atte+ o* 05+e tho5'ht,4. ,*o+ !t has no !nde0endent e7!sten)e.: o+
)o""on$ !n a$$ s5&s!sten)es o* the sa"e s0e)!es as the!+ &ond o* 5n!on, and !s then s0o1en o* as nat5+e 2!e(ed
!n s0e)!es: o+ 5n!2e+sa$$ as the sa"e, &5t (!th the add!t!on o* a))!dents, !n one s5&s!sten)e, and !s s0o1en o* as
nat5+e 2!e(ed !n the !nd!2!d5a$, th!s &e!n' !dent!)a$ (!th nat5+e 2!e(ed !n s0e)!es,9./ God the ?o+d In)a+nate,
4@
the+e*o+e, d!d not ass5"e the nat5+e that !s +e'a+ded as an a&st+a)t!on !n 05+e tho5'ht ,*o+ t!**s !s not !n)a+nat!on,
&5t on$ an !"0ost5+e and a *!'"ent o* !n)a+nat!on., no+ the nat5+e 2!e(ed !n s0e)!es ,*o+ He d!d not ass5"e a$$
the s5&s!sten)es.: &5t the nat5+e 2!e(ed !n the !nd!2!d5a$, (h!)h !s !dent!)a$ (!th that 2!e(ed !n s0e)!es/ Fo+ He
too1 on H!"se$* the e$e"ents o* o5+ )o"0o5nd nat5+e, and these not as ha2!n' an !nde0endent e7!sten)e o+ as
&e!n' o+!'!na$$ an !nd!2!d5a$, and !n th!s (a ass5"ed & H!", &5t as e7!st!n' !n H!s o(n s5&s!sten)e/ Fo+ the
s5&s!sten)e o* God the ?o+d !n !tse$* &e)a"e the s5&s!sten)e o* the *$esh, and a))o+d!n'$ Hthe ?o+d &e)a"e
*$esh,;.H )$ea+$ (!tho5t an )han'e, and $!1e(!se the *$esh &e)a"e ?o+d (!tho5t a$te+at!on, and God &e)a"e
"an/ Fo+ the ?o+d !s God, and "an !s God, th+o5'h ha2!n' one and the sa"e s5&s!sten)e/ And so !t !s 0oss!&$e to
s0ea1 o* t!$e sa"e th!n' as &e!n' the nat5+e o* the ?o+d and the nat5+e !n the !nd!2!d5a$/ Fo+ !t s!'n!*!es st+!)t$
and e7)$5s!2e$ ne!the+ the !nd!2!d5a$, that !s, the s5&s!sten)e, no+ the )o""on nat5+e o* the s5&s!sten)es, &5t the
)o""on nat5+e as 2!e(ed and 0+esented !n one o* the s5&s!sten)es/
Un!on, then, !s one th!n', and !n)a+nat!on !s so"eth!n' C5!te d!**e+ent/ Fo+ 5n!on s!'n!*!es on$ the )on85n)t!on,
&5t not at a$$ that (!th (h!)h 5n!on !s e**e)ted/ B5t !n)a+nat!on ,(h!)h !s 85st the sa"e as !* one sa!d Hthe 05tt!n'
on o* "an6s nat5+eH. s!'n!*!es that t!$e )on85n)t!on !s (!th *$esh, that !s to sa, (!th "an, 85st as the heat!n' o*
!+on,<. !"0$!es !ts 5n!on (!th *!+e/ Indeed, the &$essed C+!$ h!"se$*, (hen he !s !nte+0+et!n' the 0h+ase, Hone
nat5+e o* God the ?o+d In)a+nate,H sas !n the se)ond e0!st$e to S5)ens5s, HFo+ !* (e s!"0$ sa!d 6the one nat5+e
o* the ?o+d6 and then (e+e s!$ent, and d!d not add the (o+d 6!n)a+nate/6 &5t, so to s0ea1, C5!te e7)$5ded the
d!s0ensat!on,=., the+e (o5$d &e so"e 0$a5s!&!$!t !n the C5est!on the *e!'n to as1, 6I* one nat5+e !s the (ho$e,
(hat &e)o"es o* the 0e+*e)t!on !n h5"an!t, o+ ho( has the essen)e,>. $!1e 5s )o"e to e7!stB6 B5t !nas"5)h as
the 0e+*e)t!on !n h5"an!t and the d!s)$os5+e o* the essen)e $!1e 5s a+e )on2eed !n the (o+d 6!n)a+nate,6 the
"5st )ease *+o" +e$!n' on a "e+e st+a(H He+e, then, he 0$a)ed the nat5+e o* the ?o+d o2e+ nat5+e !tse$*/ Fo+ !*
He had +e)e!2ed nat5+e !nstead o* s5&s!sten)e, !t (o5$d not ha2e &een a&s5+d to ha2e o"!tted the H!n)a+nate/H Fo+
(hen (e sa s!"0$ one s5&s!sten)e o* God the ?o+d, (e do not e++,@./ In $!1e "anne+, a$so, :eont!5s the
BDant!ne,-. )ons!de+ed th!s 0h+ase to +e*e+ to nat5+e, and not to s5&s!sten)e/ B5t !n the De*en)e (h!)h he (+ote
!n +e0$ to the atta)1s that Theodo+et "ade on the se)ond anathe"a, the &$essed C+!$,3. sas th!s: HThe nat5+e o*
the ?o+d, that !s, the s5&s!sten)e, (h!)h !s the ?o+d !tse$*/H So that Hthe nat5+e o* the ?o+dH "eans ne!the+ the
s5&s!sten)e a$one, no+ Hthe )o""on nat5+e o* the s5&s!sten)e,H &5t Hthe )o""on nat5+e 2!e(ed as a (ho$e !n the
s5&s!sten)e o* the ?o+d/H
It has &een sa!d, then, that the nat5+e o* the ?o+d &e)a"e *$esh, that !s, (as 5n!ted to *$esh: &5t that the nat5+e o*
the ?o+d s5**e+ed !n the *$esh (e ha2e ne2e+ hea+d 50 t!$$ no(, tho5'h (e ha2e &een ta5'ht that Ch+!st s5**e+ed
!n the *$esh/ So that Hthe nat5+e o* the ?o+dH does not "ean Hthe s5&s!sten)e/H It +e"a!ns, the+e*o+e, to sa that to
&e)o"e *$esh !s to &e 5n!ted (!th the *$esh, (h!$e the ?o+d ha2!n' &e)o"e *$esh "eans that the 2e+ s5&s!sten)e
o* the ?o+d &e)a"e (!tho5t )han'e the s5&s!sten)e o* the *$esh/ It has a$so &een sa!d that God &e)a"e "an, and
"an God/ Fo+ the ?o+d (h!)h !s God &e)a"e (!tho5t a$te+at!on "an/ B5t that the Godhead &e)a"e "an, o+
&e)a"e *$esh, o+ 05t on the nat5+e o* "an, th!s (e ha2e ne2e+ hea+d/ Th!s, !ndeed, (e ha2e $ea+ned, that the
Godhead (as 5n!ted to h5"an!t !n one o* !ts s5&s!sten)es, and !t has &een stated that God too1 on a d!**e+ent
*o+" o+ essen)e,4., to (!t o5+ o(n/ Fo+ the na"e God !s a00$!)a&$e to ea)h o* the s5&s!sten)es, &5t (e )annot
5se the te+" Godhead !n +e*e+en)e to s5&s!sten)e/ Fo+ (e a+e ne2e+ to$d that the Godhead !s the Fathe+ a$one, o+
the Son a$one, o+ the Ho$ S0!+!t a$one/ Fo+ HGodheadH !"0$!es Hnat5+e,H (h!$e HFathe+H !"0$!es s5&s!sten)e 85st
as HH5"an!tH !"0$!es nat5+e, and HPete+H s5&s!sten)e/ B5t HGodH !nd!)ates the )o""on e$e"ent o* the nat5+e,
and !s a00$!)a&$e de+!2at!2e$ to ea)h o* the s5&s!sten)es, 85st as H"anH !s/ Fo+ He ?ho has d!2!ne nat5+e !s God,
and he (ho has h5"an nat5+e !s "an/
Bes!des a$$ th!s, not!)e,9. that the Fathe+ and the Ho$ S0!+!t ta1e no 0a+t at a$$ !n the !n)a+nat!on o* the ?o+d
e7)e0t !n )onne)t!on (!th the "!+a)$es, and !n +es0e)t o* 'ood (!$$ and 05+0ose/
$A"!E% XII(
!hat the ho,) 4ir/in is the 7other o2 3od5 an ar/ument directed a/ainst the Nestorians(
Mo+eo2e+ (e 0+o)$a!" the ho$ A!+'!n to &e !n st+!)t t+5th,;. the Mothe+ o* God,<./ Fo+ !nas"5)h as He (ho
(as &o+n o* he+ (as t+5e God, she (ho &a+e the t+5e God !n)a+nate !s the t+5e "othe+ o* God/ Fo+ (e ho$d that
God (as &o+n o* he+, not !"0$!n' that the d!2!n!t o* the ?o+d +e)e!2ed *+o" he+ the &e'!nn!n' o* !ts &e!n', &5t
"ean!n' that God the ?o+d H!"se$*, ?ho (as &e'otten o* the Fathe+ t!"e$ess$ &e*o+e the a'es, and (as (!th
the Fathe+ and the S0!+!t (!tho5t &e'!nn!n' ant! th+o5'h ete+n!t, too1 50 H!s a&ode !n these $ast das *o+ the sa1e
o* o5+ sa$2at!on !n the A!+'!n6s (o"&, and (as (!tho5t )han'e "ade *$esh and &o+n o* he+/ Fo+ the ho$ A!+'!n
d!d not &a+e "e+e "an &5t t+5e God: and not "e+e God &5t God !n)a+nate, ?ho d!d not &+!n' do(n H!s &od
*+o" Hea2en, no+ s!"0$ 0assed th+o5'h the A!+'!n as )hanne$, &5t +e)e!2ed *+o" he+ *$esh o* $!1e essen)e to o5+
o(n and s5&s!st!n' !n H!"se$*,=./ Fo+ !* the &od had )o"e do(n *+o" hea2en and had not 0a+ta1en o* o5+
nat5+e, (hat (o5$d ha2e &een the 5se o* H!s &e)o"!n' "anB Fo+ the 05+0ose o* God the ?o+d &e)o"!n' "an,>.
(as that the 2e+ sa"e nat5+e, (h!)h had s!nned and *a$$en and &e)o"e )o++50ted, sho5$d t+!5"0h o2e+ the
de)e!2!n' t+ant and so &e *+eed *+o" )o++50t!on, 85st as the d!2!ne a0ost$e 05ts !t, Fo+ s!n)e & "an )a"e death,
& "an )a"e a$so the +es5++e)t!on o* the dead,@./ I* the *!+st !s t+5e the se)ond "5st a$so &e t+5e/
9J
A$tho5'h,-., ho(e2e+, he sas, The *!+st Ada" !s o* the ea+th ea+th# the se)ond Ada" !s :o+d *+o" Hea2en,3.,
he does not sa that H!s &od !s *+o" hea2en, &5t e"0has!ses the *a)t that He !s not "e+e "an/ Fo+, "a+1, he
)a$$ed H!" &oth Ada" and :o+d, th5s !nd!)at!n' H!s do5&$e nat5+e/ Fo+ Ada" !s, &e!n' !nte+0+eted, ea+th%&o+n:
and !t !s )$ea+ that "an6s nat5+e !s ea+th%&o+n s!n)e he !s *o+"ed *+o" ea+th, &5t the t!t$e :o+d s!'n!*!es H!s d!2!ne
essen)e/
And a'a!n the A0ost$e sas: God sent *o+th H!s on$%&e'otten Son, "ade o* a (o"an,4./ He d!d not sa H"ade
& a (o"an/H ?he+e*o+e the d!2!ne a0ost$e "eant that the on$%&e'otten Son o* God and God !s the sa"e as He
(ho (as "ade "an o* the A!+'!n, and that He (ho (as &o+n o* the A!+'!n !s the sa"e as the Son o* God and
God/
B5t He (as &o+n a*te+ the &od!$ *ash!on !nas"5)h as He &e)a"e "an, and d!d not ta1e 50 H!s a&ode !n a "an
*o+"ed &e*o+ehand, as !n a 0+o0het, &5t &e)a"e H!"se$* !n essen)e and t+5th "an, that !s He )a5sed *$esh
an!"ated (!th the !nte$$!'ent and +easona&$e to s5&s!st !n H!s o(n s5&s!sten)e, and H!"se$* &e)a"e s5&s!sten)e
*o+ !t/ Fo+ th!s !s the "ean!n' o* H"ade o* a (o"an/H Fo+ ho( )o5$d the 2e+ ?o+d o* God !tse$* ha2e &een "ade
5nde+ the $a(, !* He d!d not &e)o"e "an o* $!1e essen)e (!th o5+se$2esB
Hen)e !t !s (!th 85st!)e and t+5th that (e )a$$ the ho$ Ma+ the Mothe+ o* God/ Fo+ th!s na"e e"&+a)es the
(ho$e "ste+ o* the d!s0ensat!on/ Fo+ !* she (ho &o+e H!" !s the Mothe+ o* God, ass5+ed$ He ?ho (as &o+n
o* he+ !s God and $!1e(!se a$so "an/ Fo+ ho( )o5$d God, ?ho (as &e*o+e the a'es, ha2e &een &o+n o* a (o"an
5n$ess He had &e)o"e "an B Fo+ the son o* "an "5st )$ea+$ &e "an h!"se$*/ B5t !* He ?ho (as &o+n o* a
(o"an !s H!"se$* God, "an!*est$ He ?ho (as &o+n o* God the Fathe+ !n a))o+dan)e (!th the $a(s o* an
essen)e that !s d!2!ne and 1no(s no &e'!nn!n', and He ?ho (as !n the $ast das &o+n o* the A!+'!n !n a))o+dan)e
(!th the $a(s o* an essen)e that has &e'!nn!n' and !s s5&8e)t to t!"e, that !s, an essen)e (h!)h !s h5"an, "5st &e
one and the sa"e/ The na"e !n t+5th s!'n!*!es the one s5&s!sten)e and the t(o nat5+es and the t(o 'ene+at!ons O*
o5+ :o+d Jes5s Ch+!st/
B5t (e ne2e+ sa that the ho$ A!+'!n !s the Mothe+ o* Ch+!st,9. &e)a5se !t (as !n o+de+ to do a(a (!th the t!t$e
Mothe+ o* God, and to &+!n' d!shono5+ on the Mothe+ o* God, (ho a$one !s !n t+5th (o+th o* hono5+ a&o2e a$$
)+eat!on, that the !"05+e and a&o"!na&$e J5da!D!n' Nesto+!5s,;., that 2esse$ o* d!shono5+, !n2ented th!s na"e *o+
an !ns5$t,<./ Fo+ Da2!d the 1!n', and Aa+on, the h!'h 0+!est, a+e a$so )a$$ed Ch+!st,=., *o+ !t !s )5sto"a+ to "a1e
1!n's and 0+!ests & ano!nt!n': and &es!des e2e+ God%!ns0!+ed "an "a &e )a$$ed Ch+!st/ &5t et &e !s not &
nat5+e God: ea, the a))5+sed Nesto+!5s !ns5$ted H!" ?ho (as &o+n o* the A!+'!n & )a$$!n' H!" God%&ea+e+,>./
Ma !t &e *a+ *+o" 5s to s0ea1 o* o+ th!n1 o* H!" as God%&ea+e+ on$,@., ?ho !s !n t+5th God !n)a+nate/ Fo+ the
?o+d H!"se$* &e)a"e *$esh, ha2!n' &een !n t+5th )on)e!2ed o* the A!+'!n, &5t )o"!n' *o+th as God (!th the
ass5"ed nat5+e (h!)h, as soon as He (as &+o5'ht *o+th !nto &e!n', (as de!*!ed & H!", so that these th+ee th!n's
too1 0$a)e s!"5$taneo5s$, the ass5"0t!on o* o5+ nat5+e, the )o"!n' !nto &e!n', and the de!*!)at!on o* the
ass5"ed nat5+e & the ?o+d/ And th5s !t !s that the ho$ A!+'!n !s tho5'ht o* and s0o1en o* as the Mothe+ o*
God, not on$ &e)a5se o* the nat5+e o* the ?o+d, &5t a$so &e)a5se o* the de!*!)at!on o* "an6s nat5+e, the "!+a)$es
o* )on)e0t!on and o* e7!sten)e &e!n' (+o5'ht to'ethe+, to (!t, the )on)e0t!on the ?o+d, and the e7!sten)e o* the
*$esh !n the ?o+d H!"se$*/ Fo+ the 2e+ Mothe+ o* God !n so"e "a+2e$$o5s "anne+ (as the "eans o* *ash!on!n'
the F+a"e+ o* a$$ th!n's and o* &esto(!n' "anhood on the God and C+eato+ o* a$$, ?ho de!*!ed the nat5+e that He
ass5"ed, (h!$e the 5n!on 0+ese+2ed those th!n's that (e+e 5n!ted 85st as the (e+e 5n!ted, that !s to sa, not on$
the d!2!ne nat5+e o* Ch+!st &5t a$so H!s h5"an nat5+e, not on$ that (h!)h !s a&o2e 5s &5t that (h!)h !s o* 5s/ Fo+
He (as not *!+st "ade $!1e 5s and on$ $ate+ &e)a"e h!'he+ than 5s, &5t e2e+,-. *+o" H!s *!+st )oat!n' !nto &e!n'
He e7!sted (!th the do5&$e nat5+e, &e)a5se He e7!sted !n the ?o+d H!"se$* *+o" the &e'!nn!n' o* the
)on)e0t!on/ ?he+e*o+e He !s h5"an !n H!s o(n nat5+e, &5t a$so, !n so"e "a+2e$$o5s "anne+, o* God and d!2!ne/
Mo+eo2e+ He has the 0+o0e+t!es o* the $!2!n' *$esh: *o+ & +eason o* the d!s0ensat!on,3. the ?o+d +e)e!2ed these
(h!)h a+e, a))o+d!n' to the o+de+ o* nat5+a$ "ot!on, t+5$ nat5+a$,4./
$A"!E% XIII(
oncernin/ the *ro*erties o2 the t.o Natures(
Con*ess!n', then, the sa"e Jes5s Ch+!st, o5+ :o+d, to &e 0e+*e)t God and 0e+*e)t "an, (e ho$d that the sa"e has
a$$ the att+!&5tes o* the Fathe+ sa2e that o* &e!n' !n'ene+ate, and a$$ the att+!&5tes o* the *!+st Ada", sa2e on$ h!s
s!n, these att+!&5tes &e!n' &od and the !nte$$!'ent and +at!ona$ so5$# and *5+the+ that He has, )o++es0ond!n' to the
t(o nat5+es, the t(o sets o* nat5+a$ C5a$!t!es &e$on'!n' to the t(o nat5+es: t(o nat5+a$ 2o$!t!ons, one d!2!ne and
one h5"an, t(o nat5+a$, ene+'!es, one d!2!ne and one h5"an, t(o nat5+a$ *+ee%(!$$s, one d!2!ne and one h5"an,
and t(o 1!nds o* (!sdo" and 1no($ed'e, one d!2!ne and one h5"an/ Fo+ &e!n' o* $!1e essen)e (!th God and the
Fathe+, He (!$$s and ene+'!ses *+ee$ as God, and &e!n' a$so o* $!1e essen)e (!th 5s He $!1e(!se (!$$s and
ene+'!ses *+ee$ as "an/ Fo+ H!s a+e the "!+a)$es and H!s a$so a+e the 0ass!2e states/
$A"!E% XI4(
oncernin/ the 0o,itions and 2ree-.i,, o2 our @ord Besus hrist(
S!n)e, then, Ch+!st has t(o nat5+es, (e ho$d that He has a$so t(o nat5+a$ (!$$s and t(o nat5+a$ ene+'!es/ B5t
s!n)e H!s t(o nat5+es ha2e one s5&s!sten)e, (e ho$d that !t !s one and the sa"e 0e+son (ho (!$$s and ene+'!ses
nat5+a$$ !n &oth nat5+es, o* (h!)h, and !n (h!)h, and a$so (h!)h !s Ch+!st o5+ :o+d: and "o+eo2e+ that He (!$$s
9-
and ene+'!ses (!tho5t se0a+at!on &5t as a 5n!ted (ho$e/ Fo+ He (!$$s and ene+'!ses !n e!the+ *o+" !n )$ose
)o""5n!on (!th the othe+,9./ Fo+ th!n's that ha2e the sa"e essen)e ha2e a$so the sa"e (!$$ and ene+', (h!$e
th!n's that a+e d!**e+ent !n essen)e a+e d!**e+ent !n (!$$ and ene+',;.# and 2!)e 2e+sa, th!n's that ha2e the sa"e
(!$$ ant! ene+' ha2e the sa"e essen)e, (h!$e th!n's that a+e d!**e+ent !n (!$$ and ene+' a+e d!**e+ent !n essen)e/
?he+e*o+e,<. !n the )ase o* the Fathe+ and Son and Ho$ S0!+!t (e +e)o'n!se, *+o" the!+ sa"eness !n (!$$ and
ene+', the!+ sa"eness !n nat5+e/ B5t !n the )ase o* the d!2!ne d!s0ensat!on,=. (e +e)o'n!se *+o" the!+ d!**e+en)e
!n (!$$ and ene+' the d!**e+en)e o* the t(o nat5+es, and as (e 0e+)e!2e the d!**e+en)e o* the t(o nat5+es (e
)on*ess that the (!$$s and ene+'!es a$so a+e d!**e+ent/ Fo+ 85st as the n5"&e+ o* the nat5+es o* one and the sa"e
Ch+!st, (hen )ons!de+ed and s0o1en o* (!th 0!et, do not )a5se a d!2!s!on o* the one Ch+!st &5t "e+e$ &+!n' o5t
the *a)t that the d!**e+en)e &et(een the nat5+es !s "a!nta!ned e2en !n the 5n!on, so !t !s (!th the n5"&e+ o* (!$$s
and ene+'!es that &e$on' essent!a$$ to H!s nat5+es/ ,Fo+ He (as endo(ed (!th the 0o(e+s o* (!$$!n' and
ene+'!s!n' !n &oth nat5+es, *o+ the sa1e o* o5+ sa$2at!on. It does not !nt+od5)e d!2!s!on: God *o+&!dN &5t "e+e$
&+!n's o5t the *a)t that the d!**e+en)es &et(een the" a+e sa*e'5a+ded and 0+ese+2ed e2en !n the 5n!on/ Fo+ (e
ho$d that (!$$s and ene+'!es a+e *a)5$t!es &e$on'!n' to nat5+e, not to s5&s!sten)e# I "ean those *a)5$t!es o* (!$$
and ene+' & (h!)h He ?ho (!$$s and ene+'!ses does so/ Fo+ !* (e a$$o( that the &e$on' to s5&s!sten)e, (e
(!$$ &e *o+)ed to sa that the th+ee s5&s!sten)es o* the Ho$ T+!n!t ha2e d!**e+ent (!$$s and d!**e+ent ene+'!es/
Fo+ !t !s to &e noted s that (!$$!n' and the "anne+ o* (!$$!n' a+e not the sa"e th!n'/ Fo+ to (!$$ !s a *a)5$t o*
nat5+e, 85st as see!n' !s, *o+ a$$ "en 0ossess !t# &5t the "anne+ o* (!$$!n' does not de0end on nat5+e &5t on o5+
85d'"ent, 85st as does a$so the "anne+ o* see!n', (hethe+ (e$$ o+ !$$/ Fo+ a$$ "en do not (!$$ !n the sa"e (a,
no+ do the a$$ see !n the sa"e (a/ And th!s a$so (e (!$$ '+ant !n )onne)t!on (!th ene+'!es/ Fo+ the "anne+ o*
(!$$!n', o+ see!n', o+ ene+'!s!n', !s the "ode o* 5s!n' the *a)5$t!es o* (!$$ and s!'ht and ene+', &e$on'!n' on$ to
h!" (ho 5ses the", and "a+1!n' h!" o** *+o" othe+s & the 'ene+a$$ a))e0ted d!**e+en)e/
S!"0$e (!$$!n' then !s s0o1en o* as 2o$!t!on o+ the *a)5$t o* (!$$,@., &e!n' a +at!ona$ 0+o0ens!on,-. and nat5+a$
(!$$# &5t !n a 0a+t!)5$a+ (a (!$$!n', o+ that (h!)h 5nde+$!es 2o$!t!on, !s the o&8e)t o* (!$$,3., and (!$$ de0endent
on 85d'"ent,4./ F5+the+ that (h!)h has !nnate !n !t the *a)5$t o* 2o$!t!on !s s0o1en o* as )a0a&$e o* (!$$!n',9.: as
*o+ !nstan)e the d!2!ne !s )a0a&$e o* (!$$!n', and the h5"an !n $!1e "anne+/ B5t he (ho e7e+)!ses 2o$!t!on, that !s
to sa the s5&s!sten)e, *o+ !nstan)e Pete+, !s s0o1en o* as (!$$!n'/
S!n)e, then,;., Ch+!st !s one and H!s s5&s!sten)e !s one, He a$so ?ho (!$$s &oth as God and as "an !s one and
the sa"e/ And s!n)e He has t(o nat5+es endo(ed (!th 2o$!t!on, !nas"5)h as the a+e +at!ona$ ,*o+ (hate2e+ !s
+at!ona$ !s endo(ed (!th 2o$!t!on and *+ee%(!$$., (e sha$$ 0ost5$ate t(o 2o$!t!ons o+ nat5+a$ (!$$s !n H!"/ Fo+ He
!n H!s o(n 0e+son !s )a0a&$e o* 2o$!t!on !n a))o+dan)e (!th &oth H!s nat5+es/ Fo+ He ass5"ed that *a)5$t o*
2o$!t!on (h!)h &e$on's nat5+a$$ to 5s/ And s!n)e Ch+!st, ?ho !n H!s o(n 0e+son (!$$s a))o+d!n' to e!the+ nat5+e,
!s one, (e sha$$ 0ost5$ate the sa"e o&8e)t o* (!$$ !n H!s )ase, not as tho5'h He (!$$s on$ those th!n's (h!)h He
(!$$ed nat5+a$$ as God ,*o+ !t !s no 0a+t o* Godhead to (!$$ to eat o+ d+!n1 and so *o+th., &5t as (!$$!n' a$so those
th!n's (h!)h h5"an nat5+e +eC5!+es *o+ !ts s500o+t,<., and th!s (!tho5t !n2o$2!n' an o00os!t!on !n 85d'"ent,
&5t s!"0$ as the +es5$t o* the !nd!2!d5a$!t o* the nat5+es/ Fo+ then !t (as that He th5s (!$$ed nat5+a$$, (hen H!s
d!2!ne 2o$!t!on so (!$$ed and 0e+"!tted the *$esh to s5**e+ and do that (h!)h (as 0+o0e+ to !t/
B5t that 2o$!t!on !s !"0$anted !n "an & nat5+e,=. !s "an!*est *+o" th!s/ E7)$5d!n' the d!2!ne $!*e, the+e a+e th+ee
*o+"s o* $!*e: the 2e'etat!2e, the sent!ent, and the !nte$$e)t5a$/ The 0+o0e+t!es o* the 2e'etat!2e $!*e a+e the
*5n)t!ons o* no5+!sh"ent, and '+o(th, and 0+od5)t!on: that o* the sent!ent $!*e !s !"05$se: and that o* the +at!ona$
and !nte$$e)t5a$ $!*e !s *+eedo" o* (!$$/ I*, then, no5+!sh"ent &e$on's & nat5+e to the 2e'etat!2e $!*e and !"05$se
to the sent!ent, *+eedo" o* (!$$ & nat5+e &e$on's to the +at!ona$ and !nte$$e)t5a$ $!*e/ B5t *+eedo" o* (!$$ !s
noth!n' e$se than 2o$!t!on/ The ?o+d, the+e*o+e, ha2!n' &e)o"e *$esh, endo(ed (!th $!*e and "!nd and *+ee%(!$$,
&e)a"e a$so endo(ed (!th 2o$!t!on/
F5+the+, that (h!)h !s nat5+a$ !s not the +es5$t o* t+a!n!n': *o+ no one $ea+ns ho( to th!n1, o+ $!2e, o+ h5n'e+, o+
th!+st, o+ s$ee0/ No+ do (e $ea+n ho( to (!$$: so that (!$$!n' !s nat5+a$/
And a'a!n: !* !n the )ase o* )+eat5+es de2o!d o* +eason nat5+e +5$es, (h!$e nat5+e !s +5$ed !n "an (ho !s "o2ed o*
h!s o(n *+ee%(!$$ and 2o$!t!on, !t *o$$o(s, then, that "an !s & nat5+e endo(ed (!th 2o$!t!on/
And a'a!n: !* "an has &een "ade a*te+ the !"a'e o* the &$essed and s50e+%essent!a$ Godhead, and !* the d!2!ne
nat5+e !s & nat5+e endo(ed (!th *+ee%(!$$ and 2o$!t!on, !t *o$$o(s that "an, as !ts !"a'e, !s *+ee & nat5+e and
2o$!t!2e,>./ Fo+ the *athe+s de*!ned *+eedo" as 2o$!t!on,@./
And *5+the+: !* to (!$$ !s a 0a+t o* the nat5+e o* e2e+ "an and not 0+esent !n so"e and a&sent !n othe+s, and !*
that (h!)h !s seen to &e )o""on to a$$ !s a )ha+a)te+!st!) *eat5+e o* the nat5+e that &e$on's to the !nd!2!d5a$s o*
the )$ass, s5+e$, then, "an !s & nat5+e endo(ed (!th 2o$!t!on,-./
And on)e "o+e: !* the nat5+e +e)e!2es ne!the+ "o+e no+ $ess, &5t a$$ a+e eC5a$$ endo(ed (!th 2o$!t!on and not
so"e "o+e than othe+s, then & nat5+e "an !s endo(ed (!th 2o$!t!on,-J./ So that s!n)e "an !s & nat5+e
endo(ed (!th 2o$!t!on, the :o+d a$so "5st &e & nat5+e endo(ed (!th 2o$!t!on, not on$ &e)a5se He !s God, &5t
a$so &e)a5se He &e)a"e "an/ Fo+ 85st as He ass5"ed o5+ nat5+e, so a$so He has ass5"ed nat5+a$$ o5+ (!$$/ And
!n th!s (a the Fathe+s sa!d that He *o+"ed o5+ (!$$ !n H!"se$*,--./
93
I* the (!$$ !s not nat5+a$, !t "5st &e e!the+ h0ostat!) o+ 5nnat5+a$/ B5t !* !t !s h0ostat!), the Son "5st th5s,
*o+sooth, ha2e a d!**e+ent (!$$ *+o" (hat the Fathe+ has: *o+ that (h!)h !s h0ostat!) !s )ha+a)te+!st!) o*
s5&s!sten)e on$/ And !* !t !s 5nnat5+a$, (!$$ "5st &e a de*e)t!on *+o" nat5+e: *o+ (hat !s 5nnat5+a$ !s dest+5)t!2e
o* (hat !s nat5+a$/
The God and Fathe+ o* a$$ th!n's (!$$s e!the+ as Fathe+ o+ as God/ No( !* as Fathe+, H!s (!$$ (!$$ &e d!**e+ent
*+o" that o* the Son, *o+ the Son !s not the Fathe+/ B5t !* as God, the Son !s God and $!1e(!se the Ho$ S0!+!t !s
God, and so 2o$!t!on !s 0a+t o* H!s nat5+e, that !s, !t !s nat5+a$/
Bes!des,-3., !* a))o+d!n' to the 2!e( o* the Fathe+s, those (ho ha2e one and the sa"e (!$$ ha2e a$so one and the
sa"e essen)e, and !* the d!2!n!t and h5"an!t o* Ch+!st ha2e one and the sa"e (!$$, then ass5+ed$ these ha2e
a$so one and the sa"e essen)e/
And a'a!n: !* a))o+d!n' to the 2!e( o* the Fathe+s the d!st!n)t!on &et(een the nat5+es !s not seen !n the s!n'$e
(!$$, (e "ast e!the+, (hen (e s0ea1 o* the one (!$$, )ease to s0ea1 o* the d!**e+ent nat5+es !n Ch+!st o+, (hen (e
s0ea1 o* the d!**e+ent nat5+es o* Ch+!st, )ease to s0ea1 o* the one (!$$/
And *5+the+,-., the d!2!ne Gos0e$ sas, The :o+d )a"e !nto the &o+de+s o* T+e and S!don and ente+ed !nto a
ho5se, and (o5$d ha2e no "an 1no( !t# &5t He )o5$d not &e h!d,3./ I*, then, H!s d!2!ne (!$$ !s o"n!0otent, &5t
et, tho5'h He (o5$d, He )o5$d not &e h!d, s5+e$ !t (as as "an that He (o5$d and )o5$d not, and so as "an He
"5st &e endo(ed (!th 2o$!t!on/
And on)e a'a!n,4., the Gos0e$ te$$s 5s that, He, ha2!n' )o"e !nto the 0$a)e, sa!d 6I th!+st6: and the 'a2e H!"
sa"e 2!ne'a+ "!7ed (!th 'a$$, and (hen He had tasted !t *a+e (o5$d not d+!n1,9./ I*, then, on the one hand !t (as
as God that t!e s5**e+ed th!+st and (hen He had tasted (o5$d not d+!n1, s5+e$ He "5st &e s5&8e)t to 0ass!on s
a$so as God, *o+ th!+st and taste a+e 0ass!ons,<./ B5t !* !t (as not as God &5t a$to'ethe+ as "an that He (as
ath!+st, $!1e(!se as "an He "5st &e endo(ed (!th 2o$!t!on,=./
Mo+eo2e+, the &$essed Pa5$ the A0ost$e sas, He &e)a"e o&ed!ent 5nto death, e2en the death o* the )+oss,>./ B5t
o&ed!en)e !s s5&8e)t!on o* the +ea$ (!$$, not o* the 5n+ea$ (!$$/ Fo+ that (h!)h !s !++at!ona$ !s not sa!d to &e
o&ed!ent o+ d!so&ed!ent,@./ B5t the :o+d ha2!n' &e)o"e o&ed!ent to the Fathe+, &e)a"e so not as God &5t as
"an/ Fo+ as God He !s not sa!d to &e o&ed!ent o+ d!so&ed!ent/ Fo+ these th!n's a+e o* the th!n's that a+e t+ade+
one6s &and,-., as the !ns0!+ed G+e'o+!5s sa!d,3./ ?he+e*o+e, then, Ch+!st !s endo(ed (!th 2o$!t!on as "an/
?h!$e, ho(e2e+, (e asse+t that (!$$ !s nat5+a$, (e ho$d not that !t !s do"!nated & ne)ess!t, &5t that !t !s *+ee/ Fo+
!* !t !s +at!ona$, !t "5st &e a&so$5te$ *+ee/ Fo+ !t !s not on$ the d!2!ne and 5n)+eated nat5+e that !s *+ee *+o" the
&onds o* ne)ess!t, &5t a$so the !nte$$e)t5a$ and )+eated nat5+e/ And th!s !s "an!*est: *o+ God, &e!n' & nat5+e
'ood and &e!n' & nat5+e the C+eato+ and & nat5+e God, !s not a$$ th!s o* ne)ess!t/ Fo+ (ho !s the+e to !nt+od5)e
th!s ne)ess!tB
It !s to &e o&se+2ed *5+the+,4., that *+eedo" o* (!$$ !s 5sed !n se2e+a$ senses, one !n )onne)t!on (!th God, anothe+
!n )onne)t!on (!th an'e$s, and a th!+d !n )onne)t!on (!th "en/ Fo+ 5sed !n +e*e+en)e to God !t !s to &e 5nde+stood
!n a s50e+essent!a$ "anne+, and !n +e*e+en)e to an'e$s !t !s to &e ta1en !n the sense that the e$e)t!on !s )on)o"!tant
(!th the state,9., and ad"!ts o* the !nte+0os!t!on o* no !nte+2a$ o* t!"e at a$$: *o+ (h!$e the an'e$ 0ossesses *+ee%
(!$$ & nat5+e, he 5ses !t (!tho5t $et o+ h!nd+an)e, ha2!n' ne!the+ ant!0ath on the 0a+t o* the &od to o2e+)o"e
no+ an assa!$ant/ A'a!n, 5sed !n +e*e+en)e to "en, !t !s to &e ta1en !n the sense that the state !s )ons!de+ed to &e
ante+!o+ !n t!"e to the e$e)t!on/ Fo+ than !s *+ee and has *+ee%(!$$ & nat5+e, &5t he has a$so the assa5$t o* the de2!$
to !"0ede h!" and the "ot!on o* the &od: and th5s th+o5'h the assa5$t and the (e!'ht o* the &att, e$e)t!on
)o"es to &e $ate+ than the state/
I*, then, Ada",;. o&eed o* h!s o(n (!$$ and ate o* h!s o(n (!$$, s5+e$ !n 5s the (!$$ !s the *!+st 0a+t to s5**e+/
And !* the (!$$ !s the *!+st to s5**e+, and the ?o+d In)a+nate d!d not ass5"e th!s (!th the +est o* o5+ nat5+e, !t
*o$$o(s that (e ha2e not &een *+eed *+o" s!n/
Mo+eo2e+, !* the *a)5$t o* *+ee%(!$$ (h!)h !s !n nat5+e !s H!s (o+1 and et He d!d not ass5"e !t, He e!the+
)onde"ned H!s o(n (o+1"ansh!0 as not 'ood, o+ '+5d'ed 5s the )o"*o+t !t &+o5'ht, and so de0+!2ed 5s o* the
*5$$ &ene*!t, and she(ed that He (as H!"se$* s5&8e)t to 0ass!on s!n)e He (as not (!$$!n' o+ not a&$e to (o+1 o5t
o5+ 0e+*e)t sa$2at!on/ Mo+eo2e+, one )annot s0ea1 o* one )o"0o5nd th!n' "ade o* t(o (!$$s !n the sa"e (a as
a s5&s!sten)e !s a )o"0os!t!on o* t(o nat5+es/ F!+st$ &e)a5se the )o"0os!t!ons a+e o* th!n's !n s5&s!sten)e
,h0otas!s., not o* th!n's 2!e(ed !n a d!**e+ent )ate'o+, not !n one 0+o0e+ to the",<.: and se)ond$, &e)a5se !*
(e s0ea1 o* )o"0os!t!on o* (!$$s and ene+'!es, (e (!$$ &e o&$!'ed to s0ea1 o* )o"0os!t!on o* the othe+ nat5+a$
0+o0e+t!es, s5)h as the 5n)+eated and the )+eated, the !n2!s!&$e and the 2!s!&$e, and so on/ And (hat (!$$ &e the
na"e o* the (!$$ that !s )o"0o5nded o5t o* t(o (!$$sB Fo+ the )o"0o5nd )annot &e )a$$ed & the na"e o* the
e$e"ents that "a1e !t 50/ Fo+ othe+(!se (e sho5$d )a$$ that (h!)h !s )o"0o5nded o* nat5+es nat5+e and not
s5&s!sten)e/ And *5+the+, !* (e sa that the+e !s one )o"0o5nd (!$$ !n Ch+!st, (e se0a+ate H!" !n (!$$ *+o" the
Fathe+, *o+ the Fathe+6s (!$$ !s not )o"0o5nd/ It +e"a!ns, the+e*o+e, to sa that the s5&s!sten)e o* Ch+!st atone !s
)o"0o5nd and )o""on, as !n the )ase o* the nat5+es so a$so !n that o* the nat5+a$ 0+o0e+t!es/
And (e )annot,=., !* (e (!sh to &e a))5+ate, s0ea1 o* Ch+!st as ha2!n' 85d'"ent ,E'+ee1F'n("hEG'+ee1F. and
0+e*e+en)e,>./ Fo+ 85d'"ent !s a d!s0os!t!on (!th +e*e+en)e to the de)!s!on a++!2ed at a*te+ !n2est!'at!on and
de$!&e+at!on )on)e+n!n' so"eth!n' 5n1no(n, that !s to sa, a*te+ )o5nse$ and de)!s!on/ And a*te+ 85d'"ent )o"es
94
0+e*e+en)e,@., (h!)h )hooses o5t and se$e)ts the one +athe+ than the othe+/ B5t the :o+d &e!n' not "e+e "an &5t
a$so God, and 1no(!n' a$$ th!n's, had no need o* !nC5!+/ and !n2est!'at!on, and )o5nse$, and de)!s!on, and &
nat5+e "ade (hate2e+ !s 'ood H!s o(n and (hate2e+ !s &ad *o+e!'n to H!",-./ Fo+ th5s sas Isa!ah the 0+o0het,
Be*o+e the )h!$d sha$$ 1no( to 0+e*e+ the e2!$, he sha$$ )hoose the 'ood# &e)a5se &e*o+e the )h!$d 1no(s 'ood o+
e2!$, he +e*5ses (!)1edness & )hoos!n' the 'ood,3./ Fo+ the (o+d H&e*o+eH 0+o2es that !t !s not (!th
!n2est!'at!on and de$!&e+at!on, as !s the (a (!th 5s, &5t as God and as s5&s!st!n' !n a d!2!ne "anne+ !n the *$esh,
that !s to sa, &e!n' 5n!ted !n s5&s!sten)e to the *$esh, and &e)a5se o* H!s 2e+ e7!sten)e and a$$%e"&+a)!n'
1no($ed'e, that He !s 0ossessed o* 'ood !n H!s o(n nat5+e/ Fo+ the 2!+t5es a+e nat5+a$ C5a$!t!es,4., and a+e
!"0$anted !n a$$ & nat5+e and !n eC5a$ "eas5+e, e2en !* (e do not a$$ !n eC5a$ "eas5+e e"0$o o5+ nat5+a$
ene+'!es/ B the t+ans'+ess!on (e (e+e d+!2en *+o" the nat5+a$ to the 5nnat5+a$,9./ B5t the :o+d $ed 5s &a)1 *+o"
the 5nnat5+a$ !nto the nat5+a$,;./ Fo+ th!s !s (hat !s the "ean!n' o* !n o5+ !"a'e, a*te+ o5+ $!1eness,<./ And the
d!s)!0$!ne and t+o5&$e o* th!s $!*e (e+e not des!'ned as a "eans *o+ o5+ atta!n!n' 2!+t5e (h!)h (as *o+e!'n to o5+
nat5+e, &5t to ena&$e 5s to )ast as!de the e2!$ that (as *o+e!'n and )ont+a+ to o5+ nat5+e: 85st as on $a&o+!o5s$
+e"o2!n' *+o" stee$ the +5st (h!)h !s not nat5+a$ to !t &5t a)C5!+ed th+o5'h ne'$e)t, (e +e2ea$ the nat5+a$
&+!'htness o* the stee$/
O&se+2e *5+the+ that the (o+d 85d'"ent ,E'+ee1F'n("hEG'+ee1F. !s 5sed !n "an (as and !n "an senses/
So"et!"es !t s!'n!*!es e7ho+tat!on: as (hen the d!2!ne a0ost$e sas, No( )on)e+n!n' 2!+'!ns I ha2e no
)o""and"ent o* the :o+d# et I '!2e " 85d'"ent,=.: so"et!"es !t "eans )o5nse$, as (hen the 0+o0het Da2!d
sas, The ha2e ta1en )+a*t )o5nse$ a'a!nst Th 0eo0$e,>.: so"et!"es !t "eans a de)+ee, as (hen (e +ead !n
Dan!e$, Con)e+n!n' (ho" ,o+, (hat. (ent th!s sha"e$ess de)+ee *o+th,@.B At othe+ t!"es !t !s 5sed !n the sense o*
&e$!e*, o+ o0!n!on, o+ 05+0ose, and, to 05t !t sho+t$, the (o+d 85d'"ent has t(ent%e!'ht,-. d!**e+ent "ean!n's/
$A"!E% X4(
oncernin/ the ener/ies in our @ord Besus hrist(
?e ho$d, *5+the+, that the+e a+e t(o ene+'!es,3. !n o5+ :o+d Jes5s Ch+!st/ Fo+ He 0ossesses on the one hand, as
God and &e!n' o* $!1e essen)e (!th the Fathe+, the d!2!ne ene+', and, $!1e(!se, s!n)e He &e)a"e "an and o* $!1e
essen)e to 5s, the ene+' 0+o0e+ to h5"an nat5+e,4./
B5t o&se+2e that ene+' and )a0a)!t *o+ ene+', and the 0+od5)t o* ene+', and the a'ent o* ene+', a+e a$$
d!**e+ent/ Ene+' !s the e**!)!ent ,E'+ee1Fd+ast!1hEG'+ee1F. and essent!a$ a)t!2!t o* nat5+e: the )a0a)!t *o+
ene+' !s the nat5+e *+o" (h!)h 0+o)eeds ene+': the 0+od5)t o* ene+' !s that (h!)h !s e**e)ted & ene+': and
the a'ent o* ene+' !s the 0e+son o+ s5&s!sten)e (h!)h 5ses the ene+'/ F5+the+, so"et!"es ene+' !s 5sed !n the
sense o* the 0+od5)t o* ene+', and the 0+od5)t o* ene+' !n that o* ene+', 85st as the te+"s )+eat!on and )+eat5+e
a+e so"et!"es t+ans0osed/ Fo+ (e sa Ha$$ )+eat!on,H "ean!n' )+eat5+es/
Note a$so that ene+' !s an a)t!2!t and !s ene+'!sed +athe+ than ene+'!ses# as G+e'o+ the Theo$o'!an sas " h!s
thes!s )on)e+n!n' the Ho$ S0!+!t,9.: HI* ene+' e7!sts, !t "5st "an!*est$ &e ene+'!sed and (!$$ not ene+'!se: and
as soon as !t has &een ene+'!sed, !t (!$$ )ease/H
:!*e !tse$*, !t sho5$d &e o&se+2ed, !s ene+', ea, the 0+!"a$ ene+' o* the $!2!n' )+eat5+e and so !s the (ho$e
e)ono" o* the $!2!n' )+eat5+e, !ts *5n)t!ons o* n5t+!t!on and '+o(th, that !s, the 2e'etat!2e s!de o* !ts nat5+e, and
the "o2e"ent st!++ed B !"05$se, that !s, the sent!ent s!de, and !ts a)t!2!t o* !nte$$e)t and *+ee%(!$$/ Ene+',
"o+eo2e+, !s the 0e+*e)t +ea$!sat!on o* 0o(e+/ I*, then, (e )onte"0$ate a$$ these !n Ch+!st, s5+e$ (e "5st a$so
ho$d that He 0ossesses h5"an ene+'/
The *!+st tho5'ht,;. that a+!ses !n 5s !s )a$$ed ene+': and !t !s s!"0$e ene+' not !n2o$2!n' an +e$at!onsh!0, the
"!nd send!n' *o+th the tho5'hts 0e)5$!a+ to !t !n an !nde0endent and !n2!s!&$e (a, *o+ !* !t d!d not do so !t )o5$d
not 85st$ &e )a$$ed "!nd/ A'a!n, the +e2e$at!on and 5n*o$d!n' o* tho5'ht & "eans o* a+t!)5$ate s0ee)h !s sa!d to
&e ene+'/ B5t th!s !s no $on'e+ s!"0$e ene+' that +e2o$2es no +e$at!onsh!0, &5t !t !s )ons!de+ed !n +e$at!on as
&e!n' )o"0osed o* tho5'ht and s0ee)h/ F5+the+, the 2e+ +e$at!on (h!)h &e (ho does anth!n' &ea+s to that
(h!)h !s &+o5'ht a&o5t !s ene+'# and the 2e+ th!n' that !s e**e)ted !s )a$$ed ene+',<./ The *!+st &e$on's to the
so5$ a$one, the se)ond to the so5$ "a1!n' 5se o* the &od, the th!+d to the &od an!"ated & "!nd, and the $ast !s
the e**e)t,=./ Fo+ the "!nd sees &e*o+ehand (hat !s to &e and then 0e+*o+"s !t th5s & "eans o* the &od/ And so
the he'e"on &e$on's to the so5$, *o+ !t 5ses the &od as an !nst+5"ent, $ead!n' and +est+a!n!n' !t/ B5t the ene+'
o* the &od !s C5!te d!**e+ent, *o+ the &oot !s $ed and "o2ed & the so5$/ And (!th +e'a+d to the e**e)t, the
to5)h!n' and hand$!n' and, so to s0ea1, the e"&+a)e o* (hat !s e**e)ted, &e$on' to the &od, (h!$e the *!'5+at!on
and *o+"at!on &e$on' to the so5$/ And so !n )onne)t!on (!th o5+ :o+d Jes5s Ch+!st, the 0o(e+ o* "!+a)$es !s the
ene+' o* H!s d!2!n!t, (h!$e the (o+1 o* H!s hands and the (!$$!n' and the sa!n', I (!$$, &e tho5 )$ean,>., a+e
the ene+' o* H!s h5"an!t/ And as to the e**e)t, the &+ea1!n' o* the $oa2es,@., and the *a)t that the $e0e+ hea+d
the HI (!$$,H &e$on' to H!s h5"an!t, (h!$e the "5$t!0$!)at!on o* the $oa2es and the 05+!*!)at!on o* the $e0e+
&e$on' to H!s d!2!n!t/ Fo+ th+o5'h &oth, that !s th+o5'h the ene+' o* the &oot ant! the ene+' o* the so5$/ He
d!s0$aed one and the sa"e, )o'nate and eC5a$ d!2!ne ene+'/ Fo+ 85st as (e sa( that H!s nat5+es (e+e 5n!ted
and 0e+"eate one anothe+, and et do not den that the a+e d!**e+ent &5t e2en en5"e+ate the", a$tho5'h (e
1no( the a+e !nse0a+a&$e, so a$so !n )onne)t!on (!th the (!$$s and the ene+'!es (e 1no( the!+ 5n!on, and (e
+e)o'n!se the!+ d!**e+en)e and en5"e+ate the" (!tho5t !nt+od5)!n' se0a+at!on/ Fo+ 85st as the *$esh (as de!*!ed
99
(!tho5t 5nde+'o!n' )han'e !n !ts o(n nat5+e, !n the sa"e (a a$so (!$$ and ene+' a+e de!*!ed (!tho5t
t+ans'+ess!n' the!+ o(n 0+o0e+ $!"!ts/ Fo+ (hethe+ He !s the one o+ the othe+, He !s one and the sa"e, and
(hethe+ He (!$$s and ene+'!ses !n one (a o+ the othe+, that !s as God o+ as "an, He !s one and the sa"e/
?e "5st, then, "a!nta!n that Ch+!st has t(o ene+'!es !n 2!+t5e o* H!s do5&$e nat5+e/ Fo+ th!n's that ha2e d!2e+se
nat5+es, ha2e a$so d!**e+ent ene+'!es, and th!n's that ha2e d!2e+se ene+'!es, ha2e a$so d!**e+ent nat5+es/ And so
)on2e+se$, th!n's that ha2e the sa"e nat5+e ha2e a$so the sa"e ene+', and th!n's that ha2e one and the sa"e
ene+' ha2e a$so one and the sa"e essen)e,-., (h!)h !s the 2!e( o* the Fathe+s, (ho de)$a+e the d!2!ne
"ean!n',3./ One o* these a$te+nat!2es, then, "5st &e t+5e: e!the+, !* (e ho$d that Ch+!st has one ene+'/ (e "5st
a$so ho$d that He has &5t one essen)e, o+, !* (e a+e so$!)!to5s a&o5t t+5th/ and )on*ess that He has a))o+d!n' to
the do)t+!ne o* the Gos0e$s and the Fathe+s t(o essen)es, (e "5st a$so )on*ess that He has t(o ene+'!es
)o++es0ond!n' to and a))o"0an!n' the"/ Fo+ as He !s o* $!1e essen)e (!th God and the Fathe+ !n d!2!n!t, He
(!$$ &e H!s eC5a$ a$so !n ene+'/ And as He $!1e(!se !s o* $!1e essen)e (!th 5s !n h5"an!t He (!$$ &e o5+ eC5a$
a$so !n ene+'/ Fo+ the &$essed G+e'o+, &!sho0 o* Nssa, sas,4., HTh!n's that ha2e one and the sa"e ene+',
ha2e a$so a&so$5te$ the sa"e 0o(e+/H Fo+ a$$ ene+' !s the e**e)t o* 0o(e+/ B5t !t )annot &e that 5n)+eated and
)+eated nat5+e ha2e one and the sa"e nat5+e o+ 0o(e+ o+ ene+'/ B5t !* (e sho5$d ho$d that Ch+!st has &5t one
ene+', (e sho5$d att+!&5te to the d!2!n!t o* the ?o+d the 0ass!ons o* the !nte$$!'ents0!+!t, 2!D/ tea+ and '+!e* and
an'5!sh/
I* the sho5$d sa,9., !ndeed, that the ho$ Fathe+s sa!d !n the!+ d!s05tat!on )on)e+n!n' the Ho$ T+!n!t, HTh!n's
that ha2e one and the sa"e essen)e ha2e a$so one and the sa"e ene+', and th!n's (h!)h ha2e d!**e+ent essen)es
ha2e a$so d!**e+ent ene+'!es,H and that !t !s not +!'ht to t+ans*e+ to the d!s0ensat!on (hat has +e*e+en)e to "atte+s
o* theo$o', (e sha$$ ans(e+ that !* !t has &een sa!d & the Fathe+s so$e$ (!th +e*e+en)e to theo$o'/ and !* the
Son has not e2en a*te+ the !n)a+nat!on the sa"e ene+' as the Fathe+ s, ass5+ed$ He )annot ha2e the sa"e
essen)e/ B5t to (ho" sha$$ (e att+!&5te th!s, M Fathe+ (o+1eth h!the+to and I (o+1,<.: and th!s, ?hat th!n's
soe2e+ He seeth the Fathe+ do!n', these a$so doeth the Son $!1e(!se,=.: and th!s, I* e &e$!e2e not Me, &e$!e2e
M (o+1s,>.: and th!s, The (o+1 (h!)h I do &ea+ (!tness )on)e+n!n' Me,@.: and th!s/ As the Fathe+ +a!sed 50 the
dead and C5!)1eneth the", e2en so the Son C5!)1eneth (ho" He (!$$,-./ Fo+ a$$ these she( not on$ that He !s
o* $!1e essen)e to the Fathe+ e2en a*te+ the !n)a+nat!on, &5t that He has a$so the sa"e ene+'/
And a'a!n: !* the 0+o2!den)e that e"&+a)es a$$ )+eat!on !s not on$ o* the Fathe+ and the Ho$ S0!+!t, &5t a$so o*
the Son e2en a*te+ the !n)a+nat!on, ass5+ed$ s!n)e that !s ene+', He "5st ha2e e2en a*te+ the !n)a+nat!on the
sa"e ene+' as the Fathe+/
B5t !* (e ha2e $ea+nt *+o" the "!+a)$es that Ch+!st has the sa"e essen)e as the Fathe+, and s!n)e the "!+a)$es
ha00en to &e the ene+' o* God, ass5+ed$ He "5st ha2e e2en a*te+ the !n)a+nat!on the sa"e ene+' as the Fathe+/
B5t, !* the+e !s one ene+' &e$on'!n' to &oth H!s d!2!n!t and H!s h5"an!t, !t (!$$ &e )o"0o5nd, and (!$$ &e
e!the+ a d!**e+ent ene+' *+o" that o* the Fathe+, o+ the Fathe+, too, (!$$ ha2e a )o"0o5nd ene+'/ B5t !* the
Fathe+ has a )o"0o5nd ene+', "an!*est$ He "5st a$so ha2e a )o"0o5nd nat5+e/
B5t !* the sho5$d sa that to'ethe+ (!th ene+' !s a$so !nt+od5)ed 0e+sona$!t,3., (e sha$$ +e0$ that !*
0e+sona$!t !s !nt+od5)ed a$on' (!th ene+', then the t+5e )on2e+se "5st ho$d 'ood that ene+' !s a$so !nt+od5)ed
a$on' (!th 0e+sona$!t# and the+e (!$$ &e a$so th+ee ene+'!es o* the Ho$ T+!n!t 85st as the+e a+e th+ee 0e+sons o+
s5&s!sten)es, o+ the+e (!$$ &e one 0e+son and one s5&s!sten)e 85st as the+e !s on$ one ene+'/ Indeed, the ho$
Fathe+s ha2e "a!nta!ned (!th one 2o!)e that th!n's that ha2e the sa"e essen)e ha2e a$so the sa"e ene+'/
B5t *5+the+, !* 0e+sona$!t !s !nt+od5)ed a$on' (!th ene+', those (ho d!2!ne that ne!the+ one no+ t(o ene+'!es o*
Ch+!st a+e to &e s0o1en o*, do not "a!nta!n that e!the+ one o+ t(o 0e+sons o* Ch+!st a+e to &e s0o1en o*/
Ta1e the )ase o* the *$a"!n' s(o+d# 85st as !n !t the nat5+es o* the *!+e and the stee$ a+e 0+ese+2ed d!st!n)t,4., so
a$so a+e the!+ t(o ene+'!es and the!+ e**e)ts/ Fo+ the ene+' o* the stee$ !s !ts )5tt!n' 0o(e+, and that o* the *!+e !s
!ts &5+n!n' 0o(e+, and the )5t !s the e**e)t o* the ene+' o* the stee$, and the &5+n !s the e**e)t o* the ene+' o*
the *!+e: and these a+e 1e0t C5!te d!st!n)t !n the &5+nt )5t, and !n the )5t &5+n, a$tho5'h ne!the+ does the &5+n!n'
ta1e 0$a)e a0a+t *+o" the )5t a*te+ the 5n!on o* the t(o, no+ the )5t a0a+t *+o" the &5+n!n': and (e do not
"a!nta!n on a))o5nt o* the t(o*o$d nat5+a$ ene+' that the+e a+e t(o *$a"!n' s(o+ds, no+ do (e )on*5se the
essent!a$ d!**e+en)e o* the ene+'!es on a))o5nt o* the 5n!t o* the *$a"!n' s(o+d/ In $!1e "anne+ a$so, !n the )ase
o* Ch+!st, H!s d!2!n!t 0ossesses an ene+' that !s d!2!ne and o"n!0otent (h!$e H!s h5"an!t has an ene+' s5)h
as !s o5+ o(n/ And the e**e)t o* H!s h5"an ene+' (as H!s ta1!n' the )h!$d & the hand and d+a(!n' he+ to
H!"se$*, (h!$e that o* H!s d!2!ne ene+' (as the +esto+!n' o* he+ to $!*e,9./ Fo+ the one !s C5!te d!st!n)t *+o" the
othe+, a$tho5'h the a+e !nse0a+a&$e *+o" one anothe+ !n theand+!) ene+'/ B5t !*, &e)a5se Ch+!st has one
s5&s!sten)e, He "5st a$so ha2e one ene+', then, &e)a5se He has one s5&s!sten)e, He "5st a$so ha2e one
essen)e/
And a'a!n: !* (e sho5$d ho$d that Ch+!st has &5t one ene+', th!s "5st &e e!the+ d!2!ne o+ h5"an, o+ ne!the+/ B5t
!* (e ho$d that !t !s d!2!ne,;. (e "5st "a!nta!n that He !s God a$one, st+!00ed o* o5+ h5"an!t/ And !* (e ho$d
that !t !s h5"an, (e sha$$ &e '5!$t o* the !"0!et o* sa!n' that He !s "e+e "an/ And !* (e ho$d that !t !s ne!the+
d!2!ne no+ h5"an, (e "5st a$so ho$d that He !s ne!the+ God no+ "an, o* $!1e essen)e ne!the+ to the Fathe+ no+ to
5s/ Fo+ !t !s as a +es5$t o* the 5n!on that the !dent!t !n h0ostas!s a+!ses, &5t et the d!**e+en)e &et(een the
9;
nat5+es !s not done a(a (!th/ B5t s!n)e the d!**e+en)e &et(een the nat5+es !s 0+ese+2ed, "an!*est$ a$so the
ene+'!es o* the nat5+es (!$$ &e 0+ese+2ed/ Fo+ no nat5+e e7!sts that !s $a)1!n' !n ene+'/
I* Ch+!st o5+ Maste+,<. has one ene+', !t "5st &e e!the+ )+eated o+ 5n)+eated# *o+ &et(een these the+e !s no
ene+', 85st as the+e !s no nat5+e/ I*, then, !t !s )+eated, !t (!$$ 0o!nt to )+eated nat5+e a$one, &5t !* !t !s 5n)+eated,
!t (!$$ &eto1en 5n)+eated essen)e a$one/ Fo+ that (h!)h !s nat5+a$ "5st )o"0$ete$ )o++es0ond (!th !ts nat5+e: *o+
the+e )annot e7!st a nat5+e that !s de*e)t!2e/ B5t the ene+',=. that ha+"on!ses (!th nat5+e does not &e$on' to that
(h!)h !s e7te+na$: and th!s !s "an!*est &e)a5se, a0a+t *+o" the ene+' that ha+o"on!ses (!th nat5+e, no nat5+e
)an e!the+ e7!st o+ &e 1no(n/ Fo+ th+o5'h that !n (h!)h ea)h th!n' "an!*ests !ts ene+', the a&sen)e o* )han'e
)on*!+"s !ts o(n 0+o0e+ nat5+e/
I* Ch+!st has one ene+', !t "5st &e one and the sa"e ene+' that 0e+*o+"s &oth d!2!ne ant! h5"an a)t!ons/ B5t
the+e !s no e7!st!n' th!n' (h!)h a&!d!n' !n !ts nat5+a$ state )an a)t !n o00os!te (as: *o+ *!+e does not *+eeDe and
&o!$, no+ does (ate+ d+ 50 and "a1e (et/ Ho( then )o5$d He ?ho !s & nat5+e God, and ?ho &e)a"e &
nat5+e "an, ha2e &oth 0e+*o+"ed "!+a)$es, and end5+ed 0ass!ons (!th one and the sa"e ene+'B
I*, then, Ch+!st ass5"ed the h5"an "!nd, that !s to sa, the !nte$$!'ent and +easona&$e so5$, 5ndo5&ted$ He has O
tho5'ht, and (!$$ th!n1 *o+ e2e+/ B5t tho5'ht !s the ene+' o* the "!nd: and so Ch+!st/ as "an, !s endo(ed (!th
ene+', and (!$$ &e so *o+ e2e+/
Indeed, the "ost (!se and '+eat and ho$ John Ch+sosto" sas !n h!s !nte+0+etat!on o* the A)ts, !n the se)ond
d!s)o5+se,>., HOne (o5$d not e++ !* he sho5$d )a$$ e2en H!s 0ass!on a)t!on: *o+ !n that He s5**e+ed a$$ th!n's, t!e
a))o"0$!shed that '+eat and "a+2e$$o5s (o+1, the o2e+th+o( o* death, and a$$ H!s othe+ (o+1s/H
It a$$ ene+' !s de*!ned as essent!a$ "o2e"ent o* so"e nat5+e, as those (ho a+e 2e+sed !n these "atte+s sa,
(he+e does one 0e+)e!2e an nat5+e that has no "o2e"ent, and !s )o"0$ete$ de2o!d o* ene+', o+ (he+e does
one *!nd ene+' that !s not "o2e"ent o* nat5+a$ 0o(e+B B5t, as the &$essed C+!$ sas,@., no one !n h!s senses
)o5$d ad"!t that the+e (as &5t one nat5+a$ ene+' o* God and H!s )+eat!on,-./ It !s not H!s h5"an nat5+e that
+a!ses 50 :aDa+5s *+o" the dead, no+ !s !t H!s d!2!ne 0o(e+ that sheds tea+s: *o+ the shedd!n' o* tea+s !s 0e)5$!a+
to h5"an nat5+e (h!$e the $!*e !s 0e)5$!a+ to the enh0ostat!) $!*e/ B5t et the a+e )o""on the one to the othe+,
&e)a5se o* the !dent!t !n s5&s!sten)e/ Fo+ Ch+!st !s one, and one a$so !s H!s 0e+son o+ s5&s!sten)e, &5t et He has
t(o nat5+es, one &e$on'!n' to H!s h5"an!t, and anothe+ &e$on'!n' to H!s d!2!n!t/ And the '$o+/ !ndeed, (h!)h
0+o)eeded nat5+a$$ *+o" H!s d!2!n!t &e)a"e )o""on to &oth th+o5'h the !dent!t !n s5&s!sten)e/ and a'a!n on
a))o5nt o* H!s *$esh that (h!)h (as $o($ &e)a"e )o""on to &oth/ Fo+ He ?ho !s the one o+ the othe+, that !s
God o+ "an, !s one and the sa"e, and &oth (hat !s d!2!ne and (hat !s h5"an &e$on' to H!"se$*/ Fo+ (h!$e H!s
d!2!n!t 0e+*o+"ed the "!+a)$es, the (e+e not done a0a+t *+o" the *$esh, and (h!$e H!s *$esh 0e+*o+"ed !ts $o($
o**!)es, the (e+e not done a0a+t *+o" the d!2!n!t/ Fo+ H!s d!2!n!t (as 8o!ned to the s5**e+!n' *$esh, et
+e"a!n!n' (!tho5t 0ass!on, and end5+ed the sa2!n' 0ass!ons, and the ho$ "!nd (as 8o!ned to the ene+'!s!n'
d!2!n!t o* the ?o+d, 0e+)e!2!n' and 1no(!n' (hat (as &e!n' a))o"0$!shed/
And th5s H!s d!2!n!t )o""5n!)ates !ts o(n '$o+!es to the &od (h!$e !t +e"a!ns !tse$* (!tho5t 0a+t !n the
s5**e+!n's o* the *$esh/ Fo+ H!s *$esh d!d not s5**e+ th+o5'h H!s d!2!n!t !n the sa"e (a that H!s d!2!n!t
ene+'!sed t&+o5'h the *$esh/ Fo+ the *$esh a)ted as the !nst+5"ent o* H!s d!2!n!t/ A$tho5'h, the+e*o+e, *+o" the
*!+st )on)e0t!on the+e (as no d!2!s!on at a$$ &et(een the t(o *o+"s,3., &5t the a)t!ons o* e!the+ *o+" th+o5'h a$$
the t!"e &e)a"e those o* one 0e+son, ne2e+the$ess (e do not !n an (a )on*5se those th!n's that too1 0$a)e
(!tho5t se0a+at!on, &5t +e)o'n!se *+o" the C5a$!t o* !ts (o+1s (hat so+t o* *o+" anth!n' has/ Ch+!st, then,
ene+'!ses a))o+d!n' to &oth H!s nat5+es,4. and e!the+ nat5+e ene+'!ses !n H!" !n )o""5n!on (!th the othe+, the
?o+d 0e+*o+"!n' th+o5'h t!$e a5tho+!t and 0o(e+ o* !ts d!2!n!t a$$ the a)t!ons 0+o0e+ to the ?o+d, !/e/ a$$ a)ts o*
s50+e"a) and so2e+e!'nt, and the &od 0e+*o+"!n' a$$ the a)t!ons 0+o0e+ to the &od, !n o&ed!en)e to the (!$$
o* the ?o+d that !s 5n!ted to !t, and o* (ho" !t has &e)o"e a d!st!n)t 0a+t/ Fo+ He (as not "o2ed o* H!"se$* to
the nat5+a$ 0ass!ons,9., no+ a'a!n d!d He !n that (a +e)o!$ *+o" the th!n's o* 0a!n, and 0+a *o+ +e$ease *+o"
the", o+ s5**e+ (hat &e*e$ *+o" (!tho5t, &5t He (as "o2ed !n )on*o+"!t (!th H!s nat5+e, the ?o+d (!$$!n' and
a$$o(!n' H!" oe)ono"!)a$$ P,;. to s5**e+ that, and to do the th!n's 0+o0e+ to H!", that the t+5th "!'ht &e
)on*!+"ed & the (o+1s o* nat5+e/
Mo+eo2e+, 85st as,<. He +e)e!2ed !n H!s &!+th o* a 2!+'!n s50e+essent!a$ essen)e, so a$so He +e2ea$ed H!s h5"an
ene+' !n a s50e+h5"an (a, (a$1!n' (!th ea+th$ *eet on 5nsta&$e (ate+, not & t5+n!n' the (ate+ !nto ea+th, &5t
& )a5s!n' !t !n the s50e+a&5ndant 0o(e+ o* H!s d!2!n!t not to *$o( a(a no+ !e$d &eneath the (e!'ht o*
"ate+!a$ *eet/ Fo+ not !n a "e+e$ h5"an (a d!d He do h5"an th!n's: *o+ He (as not on$ "an, &5t a$so God,
and so e2en H!s s5**e+!n's &+o5'ht $!*e ant! sa$2at!on: no+ et d!d He ene+'!se as God, st+!)t$ a*te+ the "anne+ o*
God, *o+ He (as not on$ God, &5t a$so "an, and so !t (as & to5)h and (o+d and s5)h $!1e that He (o+1ed
"!+a)$es/
B5t !* an one,=. sho5$d sa, H?e do not sa that Ch+!st has &5t one nat5+e, !n o+de+ to do a(a (!th H!s h5"an
ene+', &5t (e do so &e)a5se,>. h5"an ene+', !n o00os!t!on to d!2!ne ene+', !s )a$$ed 0ass!on
E'+ee1F0aGdodEG'+ee1F/H (e sha$$ ans(e+ that, a))o+d!n' to th!s +eason!n', those a$so (ho ho$d that He has &5t
one nat5+e do not "a!nta!n th!s (!th a 2!e( to do!n' a(a (!th H!s h5"an nat5+e, &5t &e)a5se h5"an nat5+e !n
o00os!t!on to d!2!ne nat5+e !s s0o1en o* as 0ass!&$e E'+ee1F0adht!1hEG'+ee1F/ B5t God *o+&!d that (e sho5$d
9<
)a$$ the h5"an a)t!2!t 0ass!on, (hen (e a+e d!st!n'5!sh!n' !t *+o" d!2!ne ene+'/ Fo+, to s0ea1 'ene+a$$, o*
noth!n' !s the e7!sten)e +e)o'n!sed o+ de*!ned & )o"0a+!son o+ )o$$at!on/ I* !t (e+e so, !ndeed, e7!st!n' th!n's
(o5$d t5+n o5t to &e "5t5a$$ the one the )a5se o* the othe+/ Fo+ !* the h5"an a)t!2!t !s 0ass!on &e)a5se the
d!2!ne a)t!2!t !s ene+', ass5+ed$ a$so the h5"an nat5+e "5st &e (!)1ed &e)a5se the d!2!ne nat5+e !s 'ood, and,
& )on2e+s!on and o00os!t!on, !* the d!2!ne a)t!2!t !s )a$$ed ene+' &e)a5se the h5"an a)t!2!t !s )a$$ed 0ass!on,
then a$so the d!2!ne nat5+e "5st &e 'ood &e)a5se the h5"an nat5+e !s &ad/ And so a$$ )+eated th!n's "5st &e &ad,
and he "5st ha2e s0o1en *a$se$ (ho sa!d, And God sa( e2e+ th!n' that He had "ade, and, &eho$d, !t (as 2e+
'ood,@./
?e, the+e*o+e, "a!nta!n,-. that the ho$ Fathe+s 'a2e 2a+!o5s na"es to the h5"an a)t!2!t a))o+d!n' to the
5nde+$!n' not!on/ Fo+ the )a$$ed !t 0o(e+, and ene+', and d!**e+en)e, and a)t!2!t, and 0+o0e+t, and C5a$!t, and
0ass!on, not !n d!st!n)t!on *+o" the d!2!ne a)t!2!t, &5t 0o(e+, &e)a5se !t !s a )onse+2at!2e and !n2a+!a&$e *o+)e#
and ene+', &e)a5se !t !s a d!st!n'5!sh!n' "a+1, and +e2ea$s the a&so$5te s!"!$a+!t &et(een a$$ th!n's o* the sa"e
)$ass# and d!**e+en)e, &e)a5se !t d!st!n'5!shes# and a)t!2!t, &e)a5se !t "a1es "an!*est# and 0+o0e+t, &e)a5se !t !s
)onst!t5ent and &e$on's to that a$one, and not to an othe+# and C5a$!t, &e)a5se !t '!2es *o+"# and 0ass!on,
&e)a5se !t !s "o2ed, Fo+ a$$ th!n's that a+e o* God and a*te+ God s5**e+ !n +es0e)t o* &e!n' "o2ed, *o+as"5)h as
the ha2e not !n the"se$2es "ot!on o+ 0o(e+/ The+e*o+e, as has &een sa!d, !t !s not !n o+de+ to d!st!n'5!sh the one
*+o" the othe+ that !t has &een na"ed, &5t !t !s !n a))o+dan)e (!th the 0$an !"0$anted !n !t !n a )+eat!2e "anne+
& the Ca5se that *+a"ed the 5n!2e+se/ ?he+e*o+e, a$so, (hen the s0o1e o* !t a$on' (!th the d!2!ne nat5+e the
)a$$ed !t ene+'/ Fo+ he (ho sa!d, HFo+ e!the+ *o+" ene+'!ses )$ose )o""5n!on (!th the othe+,3.,H d!d so"eth!n'
C5!te d!**e+ent *+oth h!" (ho sa!d, And (hen He had *asted *o+t das, He (as a*te+(a+ds an h5n'e+ed,4. :,*o+
He a$$o(ed H!s nat5+e to ene+'!se (hen !t so (!$$ed, !n the (a 0+o0e+ to !tse$*,9.,. o+ *+o" those (ho ho$d the+e
!s a d!**e+ent ene+' !n H!" o+ that He has a t(o*o$d ene+', o+ no( one ene+' and no( anothe+,;./ Fo+ these
state"ents (!th the )han'e !n te+"s,;a. s!'n!* the t(o ene+'!es/ Indeed, o*ten the n5"&e+ !s !nd!%)ated &oth &
)han'e o* te+"s and & s0ea1!n' o* the" as d!2!ne and h5"an,<./ Fo+ the d!**e+en)e !s d!**e+en)e !n d!**e+!n'
th!n's, &5t ho( do th!n's that do not e7!st d!**e+B
$A"!E% X4I(
In re*,) to those .ho sa)879 <I2 man has t.o natures and t.o ener/ies- hrist must +e he,d to ha0e three
natures and as man) ener/ies(<
Ea)h !nd!2!d5a$ "an, s!n)e he !s )o"0osed o* t(o nat5+es, so5$ and &od, and s!n)e these nat5+es a+e
5n)han'ea&$e !n h!", )o5$d a00+o0+!ate$ &e s0o1en o* as t(o nat5+es: *o+ he 0+ese+2es e2en a*te+ the!+ 5n!on
thee nat5+a$ 0+o0e+t!es o* e!the+/ Fo+ the &od !s not !""o+ta$, &5t )o++50t!&$e# ne!the+ !s the so5$ "o+ta$, &5t
!""o+ta$: and the &od !s not !n2!s!&$e 0ot the so5$ 2!s!&$e to &od!$ ees: &5t the so5$ !s +at!ona$ and !nte$$e)t5a$,
and !n)o+0o+ea$, (h!$e the &od !s dense and 2!s!&$e, and !++at!ona$/ B5t th!n's that a+e o00osed to one anothe+ !n
essen)e ha2e not one nat5+e, and, the+e*o+e, so5$ and &od )annot ha2e one essen)e/
And a'a!n: !* "an !s a +at!ona$ and "o+ta$ an!"a$, and e2e+ de*!n!t!on !s e70$anato+ o* the 5nde+$!n' nat5+es,
and the +at!ona$ !s not the sa"e as the "o+ta$ a))o+d!n' to the 0$an o* nat5+e, "an then )e+ta!n$ )annot ha2e one
nat5+e, a))o+d!n' to the +5$e o* h!s o(n de*!n!t!on/
B5t !* "an sho5$d at an t!"e &e sa!d to ha2e one nat5+e, the (o+d Hnat5+eH !s he+e 5sed !nstead o* Hs0e)!es,H as
(hen (e sa that "an does not d!**e+ *+o" "an !n an d!**e+en)e o* nat5+e/ B5t s!n)e a$$ "en a+e *ash!oned !n
the sa"e (a, and a+e )o"0osed o* so5$ and &od, and ea)h has t(o d!st!n)t nat5+es, the a+e a$$ &+o5'ht 5nde+
one de*!n!t!on/ And th!s !s not 5n+easona&$e, *o+ the ho$ Athanas!5s s0a1e o* a$$ )+eated th!n's as ha2!n' one
nat5+e *o+as"5)h as the (e+e a$$ 0+od5)ed, e70+ess!n' h!"se$* th5s !n h!s O+at!on a'a!nst those (ho
&$as0he"ed the Ho$ S0!+!t: HThat the Ho$ S0!+!t !s a&o2e a$$ )+eat!on, and d!**e+ent *+o" the nat5+e o* th!n's
0+od5)ed and 0e)5$!a+ to d!2!n!t, (e "a a'a!n 0e+)e!2e/ Fo+ (hate2e+ !s seen to &e )o""on to "an th!n's,
and not "o+e !n one and $ess !n anothe+, !s )a$$ed essen)e,4./ s!n)e, then, e2e+ "an !s )o"0osed o* so5$ and
&od, a))o+d!n'$ (e s0ea1 o* "an as ha2!n' one nat5+e/ B5t (e )annot s0ea1 o* o5+ :o+d6s s5&s!sten)e as one
nat5+e: *o+ ea)h nat5+e 0+ese+2es, e2en a*te+ the 5n!on, !ts nat5+a$ 0+o0e+t!es, no+ )an (e *!nd a )$ass o* Ch+!sts/
Fo+ no othe+ Ch+!st (as &o+n &oth o* d!2!n!t and o* h5"an!t to &e at on)e God and "an/H
And a'a!n: "an6s 5n!t !n s0e)!es !s not the sa"e th!n' as the 5n!t o* so5$ and &od !n essen)e/ Fo+ "an6s 5n!t
!n s0e)!es "a1es )$ea+ the a&so$5te s!"!$a+!t &et(een a$$ "en, (h!$e the 5n!t o* so5$ and &od !n essen)e !s an
!ns5$t to the!+ 2e+ e7!sten)e, and +ed5)es the" to noth!n'ness: *o+ e!the+ the one "5st )han'e !nto the essen)e o*
the othe+, o+ *+o" d!**e+ent th!n's so"eth!n' d!**e+ent "5st &e 0+od5)ed, and so &oth (o5$d &e )han'ed, o+ !*
the 1ee0 to the!+ o(n 0+o0e+ $!"!ts the+e "5st &e t(o nat5+es/ Fo+, as +e'a+ds the nat5+e o* essen)e the )o+0o+ea$
!s not the sa"e as the !n)o+0o+ea$/ The+e*o+e, a$tho5'h ho$d!n' that "an has one nat5+e, not &e)a5se the essent!a$
C5a$!t o* h!s so5$ and that o* h!s &od a+e the sa"e, &5t &e)a5se the !nd!2!d5a$s !n)$5ded 5nde+ the s0e)!es a+e
e7a)t$ the sa"e, !t !s not ne)essa+ *o+ 5s to "a!nta!n that Ch+!st a$so has one nat5+e, *o+ !n th!s )ase the+e !s no
s0e)!es e"&+a)!n' "an s5&s!sten)es/
Mo+eo2e+, e2e+ )o"0o5nd,@. !s sa!d to &e )o"0osed o* (hat !""ed!ate$ )o"0oses !t/ Fo+ (e do not sa that a
ho5se !s )o"0osed o* ea+th and (ate+, &5t o* &+!)1s and t!"&e+/ Othe+(!se, !t (o5$d &e ne)essa+ to s0ea1 o*
"an as )o"0osed o* at $east *!2e th!n's, 2!D/, the *o5+ e$e"ents and so5$/ And so a$so, !n the )ase o* o5+ :o+d
9=
Jes5s Ch+!st (e do not $oo1 at the 0a+ts o* the 0a+ts, &5t at those d!2!s!ons o* (h!)h He !s !""ed!ate$ )o"0osed,
2!D/, d!2!n!t and h5"an!t/
And *5+the+, !* & sa!n' that "an has t(o nat5+es (e a+e o&$!'ed to ho$d that Ch+!st has th+ee, o5, too, &
sa!n' that "an !s )o"0osed o* t(o nat5+es "5st ho$d that Ch+!st !s )o"0osed o* th+ee nat5+es: and !t !s 85st the
sa"e (!th the ene+'!es/ Fo+ ene+' "5st )o++es0ond (!th nat5+e: and G+e'o+ the Theo$o'!an &ea+s (!tness that
"an !s sa!d to ha2e and has t(o nat5+es, sa!n', HGod and "an a+e t(o nat5+es, s!n)e, !ndeed, so5$ and &od a$so
a+e t(o nat5+es,-./H And !n h!s d!s)o5+se HCon)e+n!n' Ba0t!s"H he sas, HS!n)e (e )ons!st o* t(o 0a+ts, so5$ and
&od/ the 2!s!&$e and the !n2!s!&$e nat5+e, the 05+!*!)at!on !s $!1e(!se t(o*o$d, that !s, & (ate+ and S0!+!t,3./H
$A"!E% X4II(
oncernin/ the dei2ication o2 the nature o2 our @ord=s 2,esh and o2 $i=s .i,,(
It !s (o+th o* note,4. that the *$esh o* the :o+d !s not sa!d to ha2e &een de!*!ed and "ade eC5a$ to God and God
!n +es0e)t o* an )han'e o+ a$te+at!on, o+ t+ans*o+"at!on, o+ )on*5s!on o* nat5+e: as G+e'o+ the Theo$o'!an,9.
sas, H?he+eo* the one de!*!ed, and the othe+ (as de!*!ed, and, to s0ea1 &o$d$, "ade eC5a$ to God: and that
(h!)h ano!nted &e)a"e "an, and that (h!)h (as ano!nted &e)a"e God,;./H Fo+ these (o+ds do not "ean an
)han'e !n nat5+e, &5t +athe+ the oe)ono"!)a$ 5n!on,I "ean the 5n!on !n s5&s!sten)e & 2!+t5e o* (h!)h !t (as
5n!ted !nse0a+a&$ (!th God the ?o+d., and the 0e+"eat!on o* the nat5+es th+o5'h one anothe+, 85st as (e sa(
that &5+n!n' 0e+"eated the stee$/ Fo+, 85st as (e )on*ess that God &e)a"e "an (!tho5t )han'e o+ a$te+at!on, so
(e )ons!de+ that the *$esh &e)a"e God (!tho5t )han'e/ Fo+ &e)a5se the ?o+d &e)a"e *$esh, He d!d not o2e+ste0
the $!"!ts o* H!s o(n d!2!n!t no+ a&andon the d!2!ne '$o+!es that &e$on' to H!": no+, on the othe+ hand, (as the
*$esh, (hen de!*!ed, )han'ed !n !ts o(n nat5+e o+ !n !ts nat5+a$ 0+o0e+t!es/ Fo+ e2en a*te+ the 5n!on, &o!$ the
nat5+es a&ode 5n)on*5sed and the!+ 0+o0e+t!es 5n!"0a!+ed/ B5t the *$esh o* the :o+d +e)e!2ed the +!)hes o* the
d!2!ne ene+'!es th+o5'h the 05+est 5n!on (!th the ?o+d, that !s to sa, the 5n!on !n s5&s!sten)e, (!tho5t enta!$!n'
the $oss o* an o* !ts nat5+a$ att+!&5tes/ Fo+ !t !s not !n 2!+t5e o* an ene+' o* !ts o(n &5t th+o5'h the ?o+d
5n!ted to !t, that !t "an!*ests d!2!ne ene+': *o+ the *$a"!n' stee$ &5+ns, not &e)a5se !t has &een endo(ed !n a
0hs!)a$ (a (!th &5+n!n' ene+', &5t &e)a5se !t has o&ta!ned th!s ene+' & !ts 5n!on (!th *!+e,<./ ?he+e*o+e
the sa"e *$esh (as "o+ta$ & +eason o* !ts o(n nat5+e and $!*e%'!2!n' th+o5'h !ts 5n!on (!th the ?o+d !n
s5&s!sten)e/ And (e ho$d that !t !s 85st the sa"e (!th the de!*!)at!on o* the (!$$,=.# *o+ !ts nat5+a$ a)t!2!t (as not
)han'ed &5t 5n!ted (!th H!s d!2!ne and o"n!0otent (!$$, and &e)a"e the (!$$ o* God, "ade "an,>./ And so !t
(as that, tho5'h He (!shed, He )o5$d not o* H!"se$* es)a0e,@., &e)a5se !t 0$eased God the ?o+d that the
(ea1ness o* the h5"an (!$$, (h!)h (as !n t+5th !n H!", sho5$d &e "ade "an!*est/ B5t He (as a&$e to )a5se at
H!s (!$$ the )$eans!n' o* the $e0e+,-., &e)a5se o* the 5n!on (!th the d!2!ne (!$$/ O&se+2e *5+the+, that the
de!*!)at!on o* the nat5+e and the (!$$ 0o!nts "ost e70+ess$ and "ost d!+e)t$ &oth to t(o nat5+es and t(o (!$$s/
Fo+ 85st as the &5+n!n' does not )han'e !nto *!+e the nat5+e o* the th!n' that !s &5+nt, &5t "a1es d!st!n)t &oth (hat
!s &5+nt, and (hat &5+ned !t, and !s !nd!)at!2e not o* one &5t o* t(o nat5+es, so a$so the de!*!)at!on does not &+!n'
a&o5t one )o"0o5nd nat5+e &5t t(o, and the!+ 5n!on !n s5&s!sten)e/ G+e'o+ the Theo$o'!an, !ndeed, sas,
H?he+eo* the one de!*!ed, the othe+ (as de!*!ed,3.,H and & the (o+ds H(he+eo*,H Hthe one,H Hthe othe+,H he
ass5+ed$ !nd!)ates t(o nat5+es/
$A"!E% X4III(
Further concernin/ 0o,itions and 2ree-.i,,s5 minds- too- and 1no.,ed/es and .isdoms(
?hen (e sa that Ch+!st !s 0e+*e)t Gods and 0e+*e)t "an, (e ass5+ed$ att+!&5te to H!" a$$ the 0+o0e+t!es nat5+a$
to &oth the Fathe+ and "othe+/ Fo+ He &e)a"e "an !n o+de+ that that (h!)h (as o2e+)o"e "!'ht o2e+)o"e/ Fo+
He ?ho (as o"n!0otent d!d not !n H!s o"n!0otent a5tho+!t and "!'ht $a)1 the 0o(e+ to +es)5e "an o5t o* the
hands o* the t+ant/ B5t the t+ant (o5$d ha2e had a '+o5nd o* )o"0$a!nt !*, a*te+ He had o2e+)o"e "an, God
sho5$d ha2e 5sed *o+)e a'a!nst h!"/ ?he+e*o+e God !n H!s 0!t and $o2e *o+ "an (!shed to +e2ea$ *a$$en "an
h!"se$* as )onC5e+o+, and &e)a"e "an to +esto+e $!1e (!th $!1e/
B5t that "an !s a +at!ona$ and !nte$$!'ent an!"a$, no one (!$$ den/ Ho(, then, )o5$d He ha2e &e)o"e "an !* He
too1 on H!"se$* *$esh (!tho5t so5$, o+ so5$ (!tho5t "!ndB Fo+ that !s not "an/ A'a!n, (hat &ene*!t (o5$d H!s
&e)o"!n' "an ha2e &een to 5s !* He ?ho s5**e+ed *!+st (as not sa2ed, no+ +ene(ed and st+en'thened & the
5n!on (!th d!2!n!tB Fo+ that (h!)h !s not ass5"ed !s not +e"ed!ed/ He, the+e*o+e, ass5"ed the (ho$e "an, e2en
the *a!+est 0a+t o* h!", (h!)h had &e)o"e d!seased, !n o+de+ that He "!'ht &esto( sa$2at!on on the (ho$e/ And,
!ndeed, the+e )o5$d ne2e+ e7!st a "!nd that had not (!sdo" and (as dest!t5te o* 1no($ed'e/ Fo+ !* !t has not
ene+' o+ "ot!on, !t !s 5tte+$ +ed5)ed to noth!n'ness/
The+e*o+e, God the ?o+d,9., (!sh!n' to +esto+e that (h!)h (as !n H!s o(n !"a'e, &e)a"e "an/ B5t (hat !s that
(h!)h (as !n H!s o(n !"a'e, 5n$ess "!ndB So He 'a2e 50 the &ette+ and ass5"ed the (o+se/ Fo+ "!nd s !s !n the
&o+de+%$and &et(een God and *$esh, *o+ !t d(e$$s !ndeed !n *e$$o(sh!0 (!th the *$esh, and !s, "o+eo2e+, the !"a'e
o* God/ M!nd, then, "!n'$es (!th "!nd, and "!nd ho$ds a 0$a)e "!d(a &et(een the 05+eness o* God and the
denseness o* *$esh/ Fo+ !* the :o+d ass5"ed a so5$ (!tho5t "!nd, He ass5"ed the so5$ o* an !++at!ona$ an!"a$/
B5t !* the E2an'e$!st sa!d that the ?o+d (as "ade *$esh,<., note that !n the Ho$ S)+!0t5+e so"et!"es a "an !s
s0o1en o* as a so5$, as, *o+ e7a"0$e, (!th se2ent%*!2e so5$s )a"e Ja)o& !nto E'0t,=.: and so"et!"es a "an !s
s0o1en o* as *$esh, as, *o+ e7a"0$e, A$$ *$esh sha$$ see the sa$2at!on o* God,>./ And a))o+d!n'$ the :o+d d!d not
9>
&e)o"e *$esh (!tho5t so5$ o+ "!nd, &5t "an/ He sas, !ndeed, H!"se$*, ?h see1 e to 1!$$ Me, a Man that hath
to$d o5 the t+5th,@.B He, the+e*o+e, ass5"ed *$esh an!"ated (!th the s0!+!t o* +eason and "!nd, a s0!+!t that ho$ds
s(a o2e+ the *$esh &5t !s !tse$* 5nde+ the do"!n!on o* the d!2!n!t o* the ?o+d/
So, then, He had & nat5+e, &oth as God and as "an, the 0o(e+ o* (!$$/ B5t H!s h5"an (!$$ (as o&ed!ent ant!
s5&o+d!nate to H!s d!2!ne (!$$, not &e!n' '5!ded & !ts o(n !n)$!nat!on, &5t (!$$!n' those th!n's (h!)h the d!2!ne
(!$$ (!$$ed/ Fo+ !t (as (!th the 0e+"!ss!on o* the d!2!ne (!$$ that He s5**e+ed & nat5+e (hat (as 0+o0e+ to
H!",-./ Fo+ (hen He 0+aed that He "!'ht es)a0e the death, !t (as (!th H!s d!2!ne (!$$ nat5+a$$ (!$$!n' and
0e+"!tt!n' !t that He d!d so 0+a and a'on!De and *ea+, and a'a!n (hen H!s d!2!ne (!$$ (!$$ed that H!s h5"an (!$$
sho5$d )hoose t!+e death, the 0ass!on &e)a"e 2o$5nta+ to H!",3./ Fo+ !t (as not as God on$, &5t a$so as "an,
that He 2o$5nta+!$ s5++ende+ed H!"se$* to the death/ And th5s He &esto(ed on 5s a$so )o5+a'e !n the *a)e o*
death/ So, !ndeed, He sa!d &e*o+e H!s sa2!n' 0ass!on, Fathe+, !* !t &e 0oss!&$e, $et th!s )50 0ass *+o" Me,4.,H
"an!*est$ as tho5'h He (e+e to d+!n1 the )50 as "an and not as God/ It (as as "an, then, that He (!shed the
)50 to 0ass *+o" H!": &5t these a+e the (o+ds o* nat5+a$ t!"!d!t/ Ne2e+the$ess, He sa!d, not M (!$$, that !s to
sa, not !n so *a+ as I a" o* a d!**e+ent essen)e *+o" Thee, &5t Th (!$$ &e done,9., the !s to sa, M (!$$ and Th
(!$$, !n so *a+ as I a" o* the sa"e essen)e as Tho5/ No( these a+e the (o+ds o* a &+a2e hea+t/ Fo+ the S0!+!t o* the
:o+d, s!n)e He t+5$ &e)a"e "an !n H!s 'ood 0$eas5+e, on *!+st test!n' !ts nat5+a$ (ea1ness (as sens!&$e o* the
nat5+a$ *e$$o(%s5**e+!n' !n2o$2ed !n !ts se0a+at!on *+o" the &od, &5t &e!n' st+en'thened & the d!2!ne (!$$ !t
a'a!n '+e( &o$d !n the *a)e o* death/ Fo+ s!n)e He (as H!"se$* (ho$$ God a$tho5'h a$so "an, and (ho$$ "an
a$tho5'h a$so God, He H!"se$* as "an s5&8e)ted !n H!"se$* and & H!"se$* H!s h5"an nat5+e to God and the
Fathe+, and &e)a"e o&ed!ent to the Fathe+, th5s "a1!n' H!"se$* the "ost e7)e$$ent t0e and e7a"0$e *o+ 5s/
O* H!s o(n *+ee%(!$$, "o+eo2e+, He e7e+)!sed H!s d!2!ne and h5"an (!$$/ Fo+ *+ee%(!$$ !s ass5+ed$ !"0$anted !n
e2e+ +at!ona$ nat5+e/ Fo+ to (hat end (o5$d !t 0ossess +eason, !* !t )o5$d not +eason at !ts o(n *+ee%(!$$B Fo+ the
C+eato+ hath !"0$anted e2en !n the 5n+eason!n' &+5tes nat5+a$ a00et!te to )o"0e$ the" to s5sta!n the!+ o(n
nat5+e/ Fo+ de2o!d o* +eason, as the a+e, the )annot '5!de the!+ nat5+a$ a00et!te &5t a+e '5!ded & !t/ And so, as
soon as the a00et!te *o+ anth!n' has s0+5n' 50, st+a!'ht(a a+!ses a$so the !"05$se *o+ a)t!on/ And th5s the do
not (!n 0+a!se o+ ha00!ness *o+ 05+s5!n' 2!+t5e, no+ 05n!sh"ent *o+ do!n' e2!$/ B5t the +at!ona$ nat5+e, a$tho5'h
!t does 0ossess a nat5+a$ a00et!te, )an '5!de and t+a!n !t & +eason (he+e2e+ the $a(s o* nat5+e a+e o&se+2ed/ Fo+
the ad2anta'e o* +eason )ons!sts !n th!s, t!+e *+ee%(!$$, & (h!)h (e "ean nat5+a$ a)t!2!t !n a +at!ona$ s5&8e)t/
?he+e*o+e !n 05+s5!n' 2!+t5e !t (!ns 0+a!se and ha00!ness, and !n 05+s5!n' 2!)e !t (!ns 05n!sh"ent/
So that the so5$ s o* the :o+d &e!n' "o2ed o* !ts o(n *+ee%(!$$ (!$$ed, &5t (!$$ed o* !ts *+ee%(!$$ those th!n's
(h!)h H!s d!2!ne (!$$ (!$$ed !t to (!$$/ Fo+ the *$esh (as not "o2ed at a s!'n *+o" the ?o+d, as Moses and a$$ the
ho$ "en (e+e "o2ed at a s!'n *+o" hea2en/ B5t He H!"se$*, ?ho (as one and et &oth God and "an, (!$$ed
a))o+d!n' to &oth H!s d!2!ne and H!s h5"an (!$$/ ?he+e*o+e !t (as not !n !n)$!nat!on &5t +athe+ !n nat5+a$ 0o(e+
that the t(o (!$$s o* the :o+d d!**e+ed *+o" one anothe+/ Fo+ H!s d!2!ne (!$$ (as (!tho5t &e'!nn!n' and a$$%
e**e)t!n', as ha2!n' 0o(e+ that 1e0t 0a)e (!th !t, and *+ee *+o" 0ass!on# (h!$e H!s h5"an (!$$ had a &e'!nn!n' !n
t!"e, and !tse$* end5+ed the nat5+a$ and !nno)ent 0ass!ons, and (as not nat5+a$$ o"n!0otent/ B5t et !t (as
o"n!%0otent &e)a5se !t t+5$ and nat5+a$$ had !ts o+!'!n !n the God%?o+d/
$A"!E% XIX(
oncernin/ the theandric ener/)(
?hen the &$essed D!ons!5s,<. sas that Ch+!st e7h!&!ted to 5s so"e so+t o* no2e$ theand+!) ene+',=., he does
not do a(a (!th the nat5+a$ ene+'!es & sa!n' that one ene+' +es5$ted *+o" the 5n!on o* the d!2!ne (!th the
h5"an ene+': *o+ !n the sa"e (a (e )o5$d s0ea1 o* one ne( nat5+e +es5$t!n' *+o" the 5n!on o* the d!2!ne (!th
the h5"an nat5+e/ Fo+, a))o+d!n' to the ho$ Fathe+s, th!n's that ha2e one ene+' ha2e a$so one essen)e/ B5t I+e
(!shed to !nd!)ate the no2e$ and !ne**a&$e "anne+ !n (h!)h the nat5+a$ ene+'!es o* Ch+!st "an!*est the"se$2es, a
"anne+ &e*!tt!n' the !ne**a&$e "anne+ !n (h!)h the nat5+es o* Ch+!st "5t5a$$, 0e+"eate one anothe+, and *5+the+
ho( st+an'e and (onde+%+!d and, !n the nat5+e o* th!n's, 5n1no(n (as H!s $!*e as "an,>., and $ast$ the "anne+
o* the "5t5a$ !nte+)han'e a+!s!n' *+o" the !ne**a&$e 5n!on/ Fo+ (e ho$d that the ene+'!es a+e not d!2!ded and that
the nat5+es do not ene+'!es se0a+ate$, &5t that ea)h )on8o!nt$ !n )o"0$ete )o""5n!t (!th the othe+ ene+'!ses
(!th !ts o(n 0+o0e+ ene+',@./ Fo+ the h5"an 0a+t d!d not ene+'!se "e+e$ !n a h5"an "anne+, *o+ He (as not
"e+e "an# no+ d!d the d!2!ne 0a+t ene+'!se on$ a*te+ the "anne+ o* God, *o+ He (as not s!"0$ God, &5t He (as
at on)e God and "an/ Fo+ 85st as !n the )ase o* nat5+es (e +e)o'n!se &oth the!+ 5n!on and the!+ nat5+a$ d!**e+en)e,
so !s !t a$so (!th the nat5+a$ (!$$s and ene+'!es/
Note, the+e*o+e, that !n the )ase o* o5+ :o+d Jes5s Ch+!st, (e s0ea1 so"et!"es o* H!s t(o nat5+es and so"et!"es
o* H!s one 0e+son: ant! the one o+ the othe+ !s +e*e++ed to one )on)e0t!on/ Fo+ the t(o nat5+es a+e one Ch+!st, and
the one Ch+!st !s t(o nat5+es/ ?he+e*o+e !t !s a$$ the sa"e (hethe+ (e sa HCh+!st ene+'!ses a))o+d!n' to e!the+ o*
H!s nat5+es,H o+ He!the+ nat5+e ene+'!ses !n Ch+!st !n )o""5n!on (!th the othe+/H The d!2!ne nat5+e, then, has
)o""5n!on (!th the *$esh !n !ts ene+'!s!n', &e)a5se !t !s & the 'ood 0$eas5+e o* the d!2!ne (!$$ that the *$esh !s
0e+"!tted to s5**e+ and do the th!n's 0+o0e+ to !tse$*, and &e)a5se the ene+' o* the *$esh !s a$to'ethe+ sa2!n', and
th!s !s an att+!&5te not o* h5"an &5t o* d!2!ne ene+'/ On the othe+ hand the *$esh has )o""5n!on (!th the
9@
d!2!n!t o* the ?o+d !n !ts ene+'!s!n', &e)a5se the d!2!ne ene+'!es a+e 0e+*o+"ed, so to s0ea1, th+o5'h the o+'an
o* the &od, and &e)a5se He ?ho ene+'!ses at on)e as God and "an !s one and the sa"e/
F5+the+ o&se+2e,-. that H!s ho$ "!nd a$so 0e+*o+"s !ts nat5+a$ ene+'!es, th!n1!n' and 1no(!n' that !t !s God6s
"!nd and that !t !s (o+sh!00ed & a$$ )+eat!on, and +e"e"&e+!n' the t!"es He s0ent on ea+th and a$$ He s5**e+ed,
&5t !t has )o""5n!on (!th the d!2!n!t o* the ?o+d !n !ts ene+'!s!n' and o+de+s and 'o2e+ns the 5n!2e+se,
th!n1!n' and 1no(!n' and o+de+!n' not as the "e+e "!nd o* "an, &5t as 5n!ted !n s5&s!sten)e (!th God and
a)t!n' as the "!nd o* God/
Th!s, then, the theand+!) ene+' "a1es 0$a!n that (hen God &e)a"e "an, that !s (hen He &e)a"e !n)a+nate,
&oth H!s h5"an ene+' (as d!2!ne, that !s de!*!ed, and not (!tho5t 0a+t !n H!s d!2!ne ene+', and H!s d!2!ne
ene+' (as not (!tho5t 0a+t !n H!s h5"an ene+', &5t e!the+ (as o&se+2ed !n )on85n)t!on (!th the othe+/ No(
th!s "anne+ o* s0ea1!n' !s )a$$ed a 0e+!0h+as!s, 2!D/, (hen one e"&+a)es t(o th!n's !n one state"ent,3./ Fo+ 85st
as !n the )ase o* the *$a"!n' s(o+d (e s0ea1 o* the )5t &5+n as one, and the &5+nt )5t as one, &5t st!$$ ho$d that
the )5t and the &5+n ha2e d!**e+ent ene+'!es and d!**e+ent nat5+es, the &5+n ha2!n' the nat5+e o* *!+e and the )5t
the nat5+e o* stee$, !n the sa"e (a a$so (hen (e s0ea1 o* one theand+!) ene+' o* Ch+!st, (e 5nde+stand t(o
d!st!n)t ene+'!es o* H!s t(o nat5+es, a d!2!ne ene+' &e$on'!n' to H!s d!2!n!t, and a h5"an ene+' &e$on'!n' to
H!s h5"an!t/
$A"!E% XX(
oncernin/ the natura, and innocent *assions8>a9(
?e )on*ess,4., then, that He ass5"ed a$$ the nat5+a$ and !nno)ent 0ass!ons o* "an/ Fo+ He ass5"ed the (ho$e
"an and a$$ "an6s att+!&5tes sa2e s!n/ Fo+ that !s not nat5+a$, no+ !s !t !"0$anted !n 5s & the C+eato+, &5t a+!ses
2o$5nta+!$ !n o5+ "ode o* $!*e as the +es5$t o* a *5+the+ !"0$antat!on & the de2!$, tho5'h !t )annot 0+e2a!$ o2e+
5s & *o+)e/ Fo+ the nat5+a$ and !nno)ent 0ass!ons a+e those (h!)h a+e not !n o5+ 0o(e+, &5t (h!)h ha2e ente+ed
!nto the $!*e o* "an o(!n' to the )onde"nat!on & +eason o* the t+ans'+ess!on# s5)h as h5n'e+, th!+st, (ea+!ness,
$a&o5+, the tea+s, the )o++50t!on, the sh+!n1!n' *+o" death, the *ea+, the a'on (!th the &$ood s(eat, the s5))o5+
at the hands o* an'e$s &e)a5se o* the (ea1ness o* the nat5+e, and othe+ s5)h $!1e 0ass!ons (h!)h &e$on' &
nat5+e to e2e+ "an/
A$$, then, He ass5"ed that He "!'ht san)t!* a$$/ He (as t+!ed and o2e+)a"e !n o+de+ that He "!'ht 0+e0a+e
2!)to+ *o+ 5s and '!2e to nat5+e 0o(e+ to o2e+)o"e !ts anta'on!st, !n o+de+ that nat5+e (h!)h (as o2e+)o"e o*
o$d "!'ht o2e+)o"e !ts *o+"e+ )onC5e+o+ & the 2e+ (ea0ons (he+e(!th !t had !tse$* &een o2e+)o"e/
The (!)1ed one,9., then, "ade h!s assa5$t *+o" (!tho5t, not & tho5'hts 0+o"0ted !n(a+d$, 85st as !t (as (!th
Ada"/ Fo+ !t (as not & !n(a+d tho5'hts, &5t & the se+0ent that Ada" (as assa!$ed/ B5t the :o+d +e05$sed the
assa5$t and d!s0e$$ed !t $!1e 2a0o5+, !n o+de+ that the 0ass!ons (h!)h assa!$ed h!" and (e+e o2e+)o"e "!'ht &e
eas!$ s5&d5ed & 5s, and that the ne( Ada" sho5$d sa2e the o$d/
O* a t+5th o5+ nat5+a$ 0ass!ons (e+e !n ha+"on (!th nat5+e and a&o2e nat5+e !n Ch+!st/ Fo+ the (e+e st!++ed !n
H!" a*te+ a nat5+a$ "anne+ (hen He 0e+"!tted the *$esh to s5**e+ (hat (as 0+o0e+ to !t: &5t the (e+e a&o2e
nat5+e &e)a5se that (h!)h (as nat5+a$ d!d not !n the :o+d ass5"e )o""and o2e+ the (!$$/ Fo+ no )o"05$s!on !s
)onte"0$ated !n H!" &5t a$$ !s 2o$5nta+/ Fo+ !t (as (!th H!s (!$$ that He h5n'e+ed and th!+sted and *ea+ed and
d!ed/
$A"!E% XXI(
oncernin/ i/norance and ser0itude(
He ass5"ed, !t !s to &e noted,;., the !'no+ant and se+2!$e nat5+e,<./ Fo+ !t !s "an6s nat5+e to &e the se+2ant o*
God, h!s C+eato+, and he does not 0ossess 1no($ed'e o* the *5t5+e/ I*, then, as G+e'o+ the Theo$o'!an ho$ds,
o5 a+e to se0a+ate the +ea$" o* s!'ht *+o" the +ea$" o* tho5'ht, the *$esh !s to &e s0o1en o* as &oth se+2!$e and
!'no+ant, &5t on a))o5nt o* the !dent!t o* s5&s!sten)e and the !nse0a+a&$e 5n!on the so5$ o* the :o+d (as
en+!)hed (!th the 1no($ed'e o* the *5t5+e as a$so (!th the othe+ "!+a)5$o5s 0o(e+s/ Fo+ 85st as the *$esh o* "en
!s not !n !ts o(n nat5+e $!*e%'!2!n', (h!$e the *$esh o* o5+ :o+d (h!)h (as 5n!ted !n s5&s!sten)e (!th God the
?o+d H!"se$*, a$tho5'h !t (as not e7e"0t *+o" the "o+ta$!t o* !ts nat5+e, et &e)a"e $!*e%'!2!n' th+o5'h !ts
5n!on !n s5&s!sten)e (!th the ?o+d, and (e "a not sa that !t (as not and !s not *o+ e2e+ $!*e%'!2!n': !n $!1e
"anne+ H!s h5"an nat5+e does not !n essen)e 0ossess the 1no($ed'e o* the *5t5+e, &5t the so5$ o* the :o+d
th+o5'h !ts 5n!on (!th God the ?o+d H!"se$* and !ts !dent!t !n s5&s!sten)e (as en+!)hed, as I sa!d, (!th the
1no($ed'e o* the *5t5+e as (e$$ as (!th the othe+ "!+a)5$o5s 0o(e+s/ O&se+2e *5+the+,=. that (e "a not s0ea1
o* H!" as se+2ant/ Fo+ the (o+ds se+2!t5de and "aste+sh!0 a+e not "a+1s o* nat5+e &5t !nd!)ate +e$at!onsh!0, to
so"eth!n', s5)h as that o* *athe+hood and sonsh!0/Fo+ these do not s!'n!* essen)e &5t +e$at!on/
It !s 85st as (e sa!d, then, !n )onne)t!on (!th !'no+an)e, that !* o5 se0a+ate (!th s5&t$e tho5'hts, that !s, (!th
*!ne !"a'!n!n's, the )+eated *+o" the 5n)+eated, the *$esh !s a se+2ant, 5n$ess !t has &een 5n!ted (!th God the
?o+d,>./ B5t ho( )an !t &e a se+2ant (hen t !s on)e 5n!ted !n s5&s!sten)eB Fo+ s!n)e Ch+!st !s one, He )annot &e
H!s o(n se+2ant and :o+d/ Fo+ these a+e not s!"0$e 0+ed!)at!ons &5t +e$at!2e/ ?hose se+2ant, then )o5$d He &eB
H!s Fathe+6sB The Son, then, (o5$d not ha2e a$$ the Fathe+6s att+!&5tes, !* He !s the Fathe+6s se+2ant and et !n no
+es0e)t H!s o(n/ Bes!des, ho( )o5$d the a0ost$e sa )on)e+n!n' 5s (ho (e+e ado0ted & H!", So that o5 a+e
no $on'e+ a se+2ant &5t a son,@., !* !ndeed He !s H!"se$* a se+2antB The (o+d se+2ant, then, !s 5sed "e+e$ as a
;J
t!t$e, tho5'h not !n the st+!)t "ean!n': &5t *o+ o5+ sa1es He ass5"ed the *o+" o* a se+2ant and !s )a$$ed a se+2ant
a"on' 5s/ Fo+ a$tho5'h He !s (!tho5t 0ass!on, et *o+ o5+ sa1e He (as the se+2ant o* 0ass!on and &e)a"e the
"!n!ste+ o* o5+ sa$2at!on/ Those, then, (ho sa that He !s a se+2ant d!2!de the one Ch+!st !nto t(o, 85st as
Nesto+!5s d!d/ B5t (e de)$a+e H!" to &e Maste+ and :o+d o* a$$ )+eat!on, the one Ch+!st, at on)e God and "an,
and a$$%1no(!n'/ Fo+ !n H!" a+e a$$ the t+eas5+es o* (!sdo" and 1no($ed'e, the h!dden t+eas5+es,-./
$A"!E% XXII(
oncernin/ $is /ro.th(
He !s, "o+eo2e+, sa!d to '+o( !n (!sdo" and a'e and '+a)e,3., !n)+eas!n' !n a'e !ndeed and th+o5'h the !n)+ease
!n a'e "an!*est!n' the (!sdo" that !s !n H!",4.# ea, *5+the+, "a1!n' "en6s 0+o'+ess !n (!sdo" and '+a)e, and
the *5$*!$"ent o* the Fathe+6s 'ood(!$$, that !s to sa, "en6s 1no($ed'e o* God and "en6s sa$2at!on, H!s o(n
!n)+ease, and e2e+(he+e ta1!n' as H!s o(n that (h!)h !s o5+s/ B5t those (ho ho$d that He 0+o'+essed !n
(!sdo" and '+a)e !n the sense o* +e)e!2!n' so"e add!t!on to these att+!&5tes, do not sa that the 5n!on too1 0$a)e
at the *!+st o+!'!n o* the *$esh, no+ et do the '!2e 0+e)eden)e to the 5n!on !n s5&s!sten)e, &5t '!2!n' heed,9. to
the *oo$!sh Nesto+!5s the !"a'!ne so"e st+an'e +e$at!2e 5n!on and "e+e !nd(e$$!n', 5nde+stand!n' ne!the+ (hat
the sa no+ (he+eo* the a**!+",;./ Fo+ !* !n t+5th the *$esh (as 5n!ted (!th God the ?o+d *+o" !ts *!+st o+!'!n,
o+ +athe+ !* !t e7!sted !n H!" and (as !dent!)a$ !n s5&s!sten)e (!th H!", ho( (as !t that !t (as not endo(ed
)o"0$ete$ (!th a$$ (!sdo" and '+a)eB not that !t "!'ht !tse$* 0a+t!)!0ate !n the '+a)e, no+ sha+e & '+a)e !n (hat
&e$on'ed to the ?o+d, &5t +athe+ & +eason o* the 5n!on !n s5&s!sten)e, s!n)e &oth (hat !s h5"an and (hat !s
d!2!ne &e$on' to the one Ch+!st, and that He ?ho (as H!"se$* at on)e God and "an sho5$d 0o5+ *o+th $!1e a
*o5nta!n o2e+ the 5n!2e+se H!s '+a)e and (!sdo" and 0$en!t5de o* e2e+ &$ess!n'/
$A"!E% XXIII(
oncernin/ $is Fear(
The (o+d *ea+ has a do5&$e "ean!n'/ Fo+ *ea+ !s nat5+a$ (hen the so5$ !s 5n(!$$!n' to &e se0a+ated *+o" the
&od, on a))o5nt o* the nat5+a$ s"0ath and )$ose +e$at!onsh!0 0$anted !n !t !n the &e'!nn!n' & the C+eato+,
(h!)h "a1es !t *ea+ and st+5''$e a'a!nst death and 0+a *o+ an es)a0e *+o" !t/ It "a &e de*!ned th5s: nat5+a$ *ea+
!s the *o+)e (he+e& (e )$!n' to &e!n' (!th sh+!n1!n',<./ Fo+ !* a$$ th!n's (e+e &+o5'ht & the C+eato+ o5t o*
noth!n' !nto &e!n', the a$$ ha2e & nat5+e a $on'!n' a*te+ &e!n' and not a*te+ non%&e!n'/ Mo+eo2e+ the
!n)$!nat!on to(a+ds those th!n's that s500o+t e7!sten)e !s a nat5+a$ 0+o0e+t o* the"/ Hen)e God the ?o+d (hen
He &e)a"e "an had th!s $on'!n', "an!*est!n', on the one hand, !n those th!n's that s500o+t e7!sten)e, the
!n)$!nat!on o* H!s nat5+e !n des!+!n' *ood and d+!n1 and s$ee0, and ha2!n' !n a nat5+a$ "anne+ "ade 0+oo* o*
these th!n's, (h!$e on the othe+ hand d!s0$a!n' !n those th!n's that &+!n' )o++50t!on H!s nat5+a$ d!s!n)$!nat!on !n
2o$5nta+!$ sh+!n1!n' !n the ho5+ o* H!s 0ass!on &e*o+e the *$ee o* death/ Fo+ a$tho5'h (hat ha00ened d!d so
a))o+d!n' to the $a(s o* nat5+e, et !t (as not, as !n o5+ )ase, a "atte+ o* ne)ess!t/ Fo+ He (!$$!n'$ and
s0ontaneo5s$ a))e0ted that (h!)h (as nat5+a$/ So that *ea+ !tse$* and te++o+ and a'on &e$on' to the nat5+a$ and
!nno)ent 0ass!ons and a+e not 5nde+ the do"!n!on o* s!n/
A'a!n, the+e !s a *ea+ (h!)h a+!ses *+o" t+ea)he+ o* +eason!n' and (ant o* *a!th, and !'no+an)e o* the ho5+ o*
death, as (hen (e a+e at n!'ht a**e)ted & *ea+ at so"e )han)e no!se/ Th!s !s 5nnat5+a$ *ea+, and "a &e th5s
de*!ned: 5nnat5+a$ *ea+ !s an 5ne70e)ted sh+!n1!n'/ Th!s o5+ :o+d d!d not ass5"e/ Hen)e He ne2e+ *e$t *ea+
e7)e0t !n the ho5+ o* H!s 0ass!on, a$tho5'h He o*ten e70e+!en)ed a *ee$!n' o* sh+!n1!n' !n a))o+dan)e (!th the
d!s0ensat!on/ Fo+ He (as not !'no+ant o* the a00o!nted t!"e/
B5t the ho$ Athanas!5s !n h!s d!s)o5+se a'a!nst A0o$$!na+!5s sas that He d!d a)t5a$$ *ee$ *ea+/ H?he+e*o+e the
:o+d sa!d: No( !s M so5$ t+o5&$ed,=./ The 6no(6 !ndeed "eans 85st 6(hen He (!$$ed,6 &5t et 0o!nts to (hat
a)t5a$$ (as/ Fo+ He d!d not s0ea1 o* (hat (as not, as tho5'h !t (e+e 0+esent, as !* the th!n's that (e+e sa!d on$
a00a+ent$ ha00ened/ Fo+ a$$ th!n's ha00ened nat5+a$$ and a)t5a$$/H And a'a!n, a*te+ so"e othe+ "atte+s, he
sas,H In no(!se does H!s d!2!n!t ad"!t 0ass!on a0a+t *+o" a s5**e+!n' &od, no+ et does !t "an!*est t+o5&$e and
0a!n a0a+t *+oth a 0a!ned and t+o5&$ed so5$, no+ does !t s5**e+ an'5!sh and o**e+ 50 0+ae+ a0a+t *+o" a "!nd that
s5**e+ed an'5!sh and o**e+ed 50 0+ae+/ Fo+, a$tho5'h these o))5++en)es (e+e not d5e to an o2e+th+o( o* nat5+e,
et the too1 0$a)e to she( *o+th H!s +ea$ &e!n',>./H The (o+ds Hthese o))5++en)es (e+e not d5e to an
o2e+th+o( o* H!s nat5+e,H 0+o2e that !t (as not !n2o$5nta+!$ that He end5+ed these th!n's/
$A"!E% XXI4(
oncernin/ our @ord=s "ra)in/(
P+ae+ !s an 50+!s!n' o* the "!nd to God o+ a 0et!t!on!n' o* God *o+ (hat !s *!tt!n'/ Ho( then d!d !t ha00en that
o5+ :o+d o**e+ed 50 0+ae+ !n the )ase o* :aDa+5s, and at the ho5+ o* H!s 0ass!onB Fo+ H!s ho$ "!nd (as !n no
need e!the+ o* an 50+!s!n' to(a+ds God, s!n)e !t had &een on)e and *o+ a$$ 5n!ted !n s5&s!sten)e (!th the God
?o+d, o+ o* an 0et!t!on!n' o* God/ Fo+ Ch+!st !s one/ B5t !t (as &e)a5se He a00+o0+!ated to H!"se$* o5+
0e+sona$!t and too1 o5+ !"0+ess on H!"se$*, and &e)a"e an ensa"0$e *o+ 5s, and ta5'ht 5s to as1 o* God and
st+a!n to(a+ds H!", and '5!ded 5s th+o5'h H!s o(n ho$ "!nd !n the (a that $eads 50 to God/ Fo+ 85st as He,@.
end5+ed the 0ass!on, a)h!e2!n' *o+ o5+ sa1es a t+!5"0h o2e+ !t, so a$so He o**e+ed 50 0+ae+, '5!d!n' 5s, as I sa!d,
!n the (a that $eads 50 to God, and H*5$*!$$!n' a$$ +!'hteo5sness,-.H on o5+ &eha$*, as He sa!d to John, and
+e)on)!$!n' H!s Fathe+ to 5s, and hono5+!n' H!" as the &e'!nn!n' and )a5se, and 0+o2!n' that He !s no ene" o*
;-
God/ Fo+ (hen He sa!d !n )onne)t!on (!th :aDa+5s, Fathe+, I than1 Thee that Tho5 hast hea+d Me/ And I 1no(
that Tho5 hea+est Me a$(as, &5t &e)a5se o* the 0eo0$e (h!)h stand & I sa!d !t, that the "a &e$!e2e that Tho5
hast sent Me,3., !s !t not "ost "an!*est to a$$ that He sa!d th!s !n hono5+ o* H!s Fathe+ as the )a5se e2en o*
H!"se$*, and to she( that He (as no ene" o* God,4.B
A'a!n, (hen he sa!d, Fathe+, !* !t &e 0oss!&$e, $et th!s )50 0ass *+o" Me: et, not as I (!$$ &5t as Tho5 (!$t,9., !s
!t not )$ea+ to a$$,;. that He sa!d th!s as a $esson to 5s to as1 he$0 !n o5+ t+!a$s on$ *+o" God, and to 0+e*e+ God6s
(!$$ to oa+ o(n, and as a 0+oo* that He d!d a)t5a$$ a00+o0+!ate to H!"se$* the att+!&5tes o* o5+ nat5+e, and that
He d!d !n t+5th 0ossess t(o (!$$s, nat5+a$, !ndeed, and )o++es0ond!n' (!th H!s nat5+es &5t et !n no (!se o00osed
to one anothe+B HFathe+H !"0$!es that He !s o* the sa"e essen)e, &5t H!* !t &e 0oss!&$eH does not "ean that He (as
!n !'no+an)e ,*o+ (hat !s !"0oss!&$e to GodB., &5t se+2es to tea)h 5s to 0+e*e+ God6s (!$$ to o5+ o(n/ Fo+ that
a$one !s !"0oss!&$e (h!)h !s a'a!nst God6s (!$$ and 0e+"!ss!on,<./ HB5t not as I (!$$ &5t as Tho5 (!$t,H *o+
!nas"5)h as He !s God, He !s !dent!)a$ (!th the Fathe+, (h!$e !nas"5)h as He !s "an, He "an!*ests the nat5+a$
(!$$ o* "an1!nd/ Fo+ !t !s th!s that nat5+a$$ see1s es)a0e *+o" death/
F5+the+, these (o+ds, M God, M God, (h hast Tho5 *o+sa1en Me,=.B He sa!d as "a1!n' o5+ 0e+sona$!t H!s
o(n,>./ Fo+ ne!the+ (o5$d God &e +e'a+ded (!th 5s as H!s Fathe+, 5n$ess one (e+e to d!s)+!"!nate (!th s5&t$e
!"a'!n!n's o* the "!nd &et(een that (h!)h !s seen and that (h!)h !s tho5'ht, no+ (as He e2e+ *o+sa1en & H!s
d!2!n!t: na, !t (as (e (ho (e+e *o+sa1en and d!s+e'a+ded/ So that !t (as as a00+o0+!at!n' o5+ 0e+sona$!t that
He o**e+ed these 0+ae+s,@./
$A"!E% XX4(
oncernin/ the A**ro*riation(
It !s to &e o&se+2ed,-. that the+e a+e t(o a00+o0+!at!ons,3.: one that !s nat5+a$ and essent!a$, and one that !s
0e+sona$ and +e$at!2e/ The nat5+a$ and essent!a$ one !s that & (h!)h o5+ :o+d !n H!s $o2e *o+ "an too1 on
H!"se$* o5+ nat5+e and a$$ o5+ nat5+a$ att+!&5tes, &e)o"!n' !n nat5+e and t+5th "an, and "a1!n' t+!a$ o* that
(h!)h !s nat5+a$: &5t the 0e+sona$ and +e$at!2e a00+o0+!at!on !s (hen an one ass5"es the 0e+son o* anothe+
+e$at!2e$, *o+ !nstan)e, o5t o* 0!t o+ $o2e, and !n h!s 0$a)e 5tte+s (o+ds )on)e+n!n' h!" that ha2e no )onne)t!on
(!th h!"se$*/ And !t (as !n th!s (a that o5+ :o+d a00+o0+!ated &oth o5+ )5+se and o5+ dese+t!on, and s5)h othe+
th!n's as a+e not nat5+a$: not that He H!"se$* (as o+ &e)a"e s5)h, &5t that He too1 50on H!"se$* o5+ 0e+sona$!t
and +an1ed H!"se$* as one o* 5s/ S5)h !s the "ean!n' !n (h!)h th!s 0h+ase !s to &e ta1en: Be!n' "ade a )5+se *o+
o5+ sa1es,4./
$A"!E% XX4I(
oncernin/ the "assion o2 our @ord=s +od)- and the Im*assi+i,it) o2 $is di0init)(
The ?o+d o* God then !tse$* end5+ed a$$ !n the *$esh, (h!$e H!s d!2!ne nat5+e (h!)h a$one (as 0ass!on$ess
+e"a!ned 2o!d o* 0ass!on/ Fo+ s!n)e the one Ch+!st, ?ho !s a )o"0o5nd o* d!2!n!t and h5"an!t, and e7!sts !n
d!2!n!t and h5"an!t, t+5$ s5**e+ed, that 0a+t (h!)h !s )a0a&$e o* 0ass!on s5**e+ed as !t (as nat5+a$ !t sho5$d,
&5t that 0a+t (h!)h (as 2o!d o* 0ass!on d!d not sha+e !n the s5**e+!n'/ Fo+ the so5$, !ndeed, s!n)e !t !s )a0a&$e o*
0ass!on sha+es !n the 0a!n and s5**e+!n' o* a &od!$ )5t, tho5'h !t !s not )5t !tse$* &5t on$ the &od: &5t the
d!2!ne 0a+t (h!)h !s 2o!d o* 0ass!on does not sha+e !n the s5**e+!n' o* the &od/
O&se+2e, *5+the+,9., that (e sa that God s5**e+ed !n the *$esh, &at ne2e+ that H!s d!2!n!t s5**e+ed !n the *$esh, o+
that God s5**e+ed th+o5'h the *$esh/ Fo+ !*, (hen the s5n !s sh!n!n' 50on a t+ee, the a7e sho5$d )$ea2e the t+ee,
and, ne2e+the$ess, the s5n +e"a!ns 5n)$e*t and 2o!d o* 0ass!on, "5)h "o+e (!$$ the 0ass!on$ess d!2!n!t o* the
?o+d, 5n!ted !n s5&s!sten)e to the *$esh, +e"a!n 2o!d o* 0ass!on (hen the &od 5nde+'oes 0ass!on,;./ And sho5$d
an one 0o5+ (ate+ o2e+ *$a"!n' stee$, !t !s that (h!)h nat5+a$$ s5**e+s & the (ate+, I "ean, the *!+e, that !s
C5en)hed, &5t the stee$ +e"a!ns 5nto5)hed ,*o+ !t !s not the nat5+e o* stee$ to &e dest+oed & (ate+.: "5)h "o+e,
then, (hen the *$esh s5**e+ed d!d H!s on$ 0ass!on$ess d!2!n!t es)a0e a$$ 0ass!on a$tho5'h a&!d!n' !nse0a+a&$e
*+o" !t/ Fo+ one "5st not ta1e the e7a"0$es too a&so$5te$ and st+!)t$: !ndeed, !n the e7a"0$es, one "5st
)ons!de+ &oth (hat !s $!1e and (hat !s 5n$!1e, othe+(!se !t (o5$d not &e an e7a"0$e/ Fo+, !* the (e+e $!1e !n a$$
+es0e)ts the (o5$d &e !dent!t!es, and not e7a"0$es, and a$$ the "o+e so !n dea$!n' (!th d!2!ne "atte+s/ Fo+ one
)annot *!nd an e7a"0$e that !s $!1e !n a$$ +es0e)ts (hethe+ (e a+e dea$!n' (!th theo$o' o+ the d!s0ensat!on/
$A"!E% XX4II(
oncernin/ the 2act that the di0init) o2 the 6ord remained inse*ara+,e 2rom the sou, and the +od)- e0en
at our @ord=s death- and that $is su+sistence continued one(
S!n)e o5+ :o+d Jes5s Ch+!st (as (!tho5t s!n ,*o+ He )o""!tted no s!n, He ?ho too1 a(a the s!n o* the (o+$d,
no+ (as the+e an de)e!t *o5nd !n H!s "o5th,<.. He (as not s5&8e)t to death, s!n)e death )a"e !nto the (o+$d
th+o5'h s!n,=./ He d!es, the+e*o+e, &e)a5se He too1 on H!"se$* death on o5+ &eha$*, and He "a1es H!"se$* an
o**e+!n' to the Fathe+ *o+ o5+ sa1es/ Fo+ (e had s!nned a'a!nst H!", and !t (as "eet that He sho5$d +e)e!2e the
+anso" *o+ 5s, and that (e sho5$d th5s he de$!2e+ed *+o" the )onde"nat!on/ God *o+&!d that the &$ood o* the
:o+d sho5$d ha2e &een o**e+ed to the t+ant,>./ ?he+e*o+e death a00+oa)hes, and s(a$$o(!n' 50 the &od as a
&a!t !s t+ans*!7ed on the hoo1 o* d!2!n!t, and a*te+ tast!n' o* a s!n$ess and $!*e%'!2!n' &od, 0e+!shes, and &+!n's
50 a'a!n a$$ (ho" o* o$d he s(a$$o(ed 50/ Fo+ 85st as da+1ness d!sa00ea+s on the !nt+od5)t!on o* $!'ht, so !s
death +e05$sed &e*o+e the assa5$t o* $!*e, and &+!n's $!*e to a$$, &5t death to the dest+oe+/
;3
?he+e*o+e, a$tho5'h,@. He d!ed as "an and H!s Ho$ S0!+!t (as se2e+ed *+o" H!s !""a)5$ate &od, et H!s
d!2!n!t +e"a!ned !nse0a+a&$e *+o" &oth, I "ean, *+o" H!s so5$ and H!s &od, and so e2en th5s H!s one
h0ostas!s (as not d!2!ded !nto t(o h0ostases/ Fo+ &od and so5$ +e)e!2ed s!"5$taneo5s$ !n the &e'!nn!n'
the!+ &e!n' !n the s5&s!sten)e,@a. o* the ?o+d, and a$tho5'h the (e+e se2e+ed *+o" one anothe+ & death, et
the )ont!n5ed, ea)h o* the", ha2!n' the one s5&s!sten)e o* the ?o+d/ So that the one s5&s!sten)e o* the ?o+d !s
a$!1e the s5&s!sten)e o* the ?o+d, and o* so5$ and &od/ Fo+ at no t!"e had e!the+ so5$ o+ &od a se0a+ate
s5&s!sten)e o* the!+ o(n, d!**e+ent *+o" that o* the ?o+d, and the s5&s!sten)e o* the ?o+d !s *o+ e2e+ one, and at
no t!"e t(o/ So that the s5&s!sten)e o* Ch+!st !s a$(as one/ Fo+, a$tho5'h the so5$ (as se0a+ated *+o" the &od
to0!)a$$, et h0ostat!)a$$ the (e+e 5n!ted th+o5'h the ?o+d/
$A"!E% XX4III(
oncernin/ orru*tion and Destruction(
The (o+d )o++50t!on,-. has t(o "ean!n's,3./ Fo+ !t s!'n!*!es a$$ the h5"an s5**e+!n's, s5)h as h5n'e+, th!+st,
(ea+!ness, the 0!e+)!n' (!th na!$s, death, that !s, the se0a+at!on o* so5$ and &od, and so *o+th/ In th!s sense (e
sa that o5+ :o+d6s &od (as s5&8e)t to )o++50t!on/ Fo+ He 2o$5nta+!$ a))e0ted a$$ these th!n's/ B5t )o++50t!on
"eans a$so the )o"0$ete +eso$5t!on o* the &od !nto !ts )onst!t5ent e$e"ents, and !ts 5tte+ d!sa00ea+an)e, (h!)h !s
s0o1en o* & "an 0+e*e+a&$ as dest+5)t!on/ The &od o* o5+ :o+d d!d not e70e+!en)e th!s *o+" o* )o++50t!on, as
the 0+o0het Da2!d sas, Fo+ Tho5 (!$$ not $ea2e " so5$ !n he$$, ne!the+ (!$t Tho5 s5**e+ Th!ne ho$ one to see
)o++50t!on,4./
?he+e*o+e to sa, (!th that *oo$!sh J5$!an5s and Ga!an5s, that o5+ :o+d6s &od (as !n)o++50t!&$e, !n the *!+st
sense o* the (o+d, &e*o+e H!s +es5++e)t!on !s !"0!o5s/ Fo+ !* !t (e+e !n)o++50t!&$e !t (as not +ea$$, &5t on$
a00a+ent$, o* the sa"e essen)e as o5+s, and (hat the Gos0e$ te$$s 5s ha00ened, 2!D/ the h5n'e+, the th!+st, the
na!$s, the (o5nd !n H!s s!de, the death, d!d not a)t5a$$ o))5+/ B5t !* the on$ a00a+ent$ ha00ened, then the
"ste+ o* the d!s0ensat!on !s an !"0ost5+e and a sha", and He &e)a"e "an on$ !n a00ea+an)e, and not !n
a)t5a$ *a)t, and (e a+e sa2ed on$ !n a00ea+an)e, and not !n a)t5a$ *a)t/ B5t God *o+&!d, and "a those (ho so
sa ha2e no 0a+t !n the sa$2at!on,9./ B5t (e ha2e o&ta!ned and sha$$ o&ta!n the t+5e sa$2at!on/ B5t !n the se)ond
"ean!n' o* the (o+d H)o++50t!on,H (e )on*ess that o5+ :o+d6s &od !s !n)o++50t!&$e, that !s, !ndest+5)t!&$e, *o+
s5)h !s the t+ad!t!on o* the !ns0!+ed Fathe+s/ Indeed, a*te+ the +es5++e)t!on o* o5+ Sa2!o5+ *+o" the dead, (e sa
that o5+ :o+d6s &od !s !n)o++50t!&$e e2en !n the *!+st sense o* the (o+d/ Fo+ o5+ :o+d & H!s o(n &od &esto(ed
the '!*ts &oth o* +es5++e)t!on and o* s5&seC5ent !n)o++50t!on e2en on o5+ o(n &od, He H!"se$* ha2!n' &e)o"e
to 5s the *!+st*+5!ts &oth o* +es5++e)t!on and !n)o++50t!on, and o* 0ass!on$essness,;./ Fo+ as the d!2!ne A0ost$e
sas, Th!s )o++50t!&$e "5st 05t an !n)o++50t!on,<./
$A"!E% XXIX(
oncernin/ the Descent to $ades(
The so5$,=. (hen !t (as de!*!ed des)ended !nto Hades, !n o+de+ that, 85st as the S5n o* R!'hteo5sness,>. +ose *o+
those 50on the ea+th, so $!1e(!se He "!'ht &+!n' $!'ht to those (ho s!t 5nde+ the ea+th !n da+1ness and shado( o*
death,@.: !n o+de+ that 85st as He &+o5'ht the "essa'e o* 0ea)e to those 50on the ea+th, and o* +e$ease to the
0+!sone+s, and o* s!'ht to the &$!nd,-., and &e)a"e to those (ho &e$!e2ed the A5tho+ o* e2e+$ast!n' sa$2at!on and
to those (ho d!d not &e$!e2e a +e0+oa)h o* the!+ 5n&e$!e*,3., so He "!'ht &e)o"e the sa"e to those !n Hades,4.:
That e2e+ 1nee sho5$d &o( to H!", o* th!n's !n hea2en, and th!n's !n ea+th and th!n's 5nde+ the ea+th,9./ And
th5s a*te+ He had *+eed those (ho had &een &o5nd *o+ a'es, st+a!'ht(a He +ose a'a!n *+o" the dead, she(!n' 5s
the (a o* +es5++e)t!on/
&OO' I4(
$A"!E% I(
oncernin/ .hat 2o,,o.ed the %esurrection(
A*te+ Ch+!st (as +!sen *+o" the dead He $a!d as!de a$$ H!s 0ass!ons, I "ean H!s )o++50t!on o+ h5n'e+ o+ th!+st o+
s$ee0 o+ (ea+!ness o+ s5)h $!1e/ Fo+, a$tho5'h He d!d taste *ood a*te+ the +es5++e)t!on,-., et He d!d not do so
&e)a5se !t (as a $a( o* H!s nat5+e ,*o+ He *e$t no h5n'e+., &5t !n the (a o* e)ono", !n o+de+ that He "!'ht
)on2!n)e 5s o* the +ea$!t o* the +es5++e)t!on, and that !t (as one and the sa"e *$esh (h!)h s5**e+ed and +ose
a'a!n,3./ B5t He $a!d as!de none o* the d!2!s!ons o* H!s nat5+e, ne!the+ &od no+ s0!+!t, &5t 0ossesses &oth the
&od and the so5$ !nte$$!'ent and +easona&$e, 2o$!t!ona$ and ene+'et!), and !n th!s (!se He s!ts at the +!'ht hand o*
the Fathe+, 5s!n' H!s (!$$ &oth as God and as "an !n &eha$* o* o5+ sa$2at!on, ene+'!s!n' !n H!s d!2!ne )a0a)!t to
0+o2!de *o+ and "a!nta!n and 'o2e+n a$$ th!n's, and +e"e"&e+!n' !n H!s h5"an )a0a)!t the t!"e He s0ent on
ea+th, (h!$e a$$ the t!"e He &oth sees and 1no(s that He !s ado+ed & a$$ +at!ona$ )+eat!on/ Fo+ H!s Ho$ S0!+!t
1no(s that He !s one !n s5&stan)e (!th God the ?o+d, and sha+es as S0!+!t o* God and not s!"0$ as S0!+!t the
(o+sh!0 a))o+ded to H!"/ Mo+eo2e+, H!s as)ent *+o" ea+th to hea2en, and a'a!n, H!s des)ent *+o" hea2en to
ea+th, a+e "an!*estat!ons o* the ene+'!es o* H!s )!+)5"s)+!&ed &od/ Fo+ He sha$$ so )o"e a'a!n to o5, sa!th he,
!n $!1e "anne+ as e ha2e seen H!" 'o !nto Hea2en,4./
$A"!E% II(
oncernin/ the sittin/ at the ri/ht hand o2 the Father(
;4
?e ho$d, "o+eo2e+, that Ch+!st s!ts !n the &od at the +!'ht hand o* God the Fathe+, &5t (e do not ho$d that the
+!'ht hand o* the Fathe+ !s a)t5a$ 0$a)e/ Fo+ ho( )o5$d He that !s 5n)!+)5"s)+!&ed ha2e a +!'ht hand $!"!ted &
0$a)eB R!'ht hands and $e*t hands &e$on' to (hat !s )!+)5"s)+!&ed/ B5t (e 5nde+stand the +!'ht hand o* the
Fathe+ to &e the '$o+ and hono5+ o* the Godhead !n (h!)h the Son o* God, (ho e7!sted as God &e*o+e the a'es,
and !s o* $!1e essen)e to the Fathe+, and !n the end &e)a"e *$esh, has a seat !n the &od, H!s *$esh sha+!n' !n the
'$o+/ Fo+ He a$on' (!th H!s *$esh !s ado+ed (!th one ado+at!on & a$$ )+eat!on,9./
$A"!E% III(
In re*,) to those .ho sa)859 <I2 hrist has t.o natures- either )e do ser0ice to the creature in .orshi**in/
created nature- or )e sa) that there is one nature to +e .orshi**ed- and another not to +e .orshi**ed(<
A$on' (!th the Fathe+ and the Ho$ S0!+!t (e (o+sh!0 the Son o* God, ?ho (as !n)o+0o+ea$ &e*o+e He too1 on
h5"an!t, and no( !n H!s o(n 0e+son !s !n)a+nate and has &e)o"e "an tho5'h st!$$ &e!n' a$so God/ H!s *$esh,
then, !n !ts o(n nat5+e,<., !* one (e+e to "a1e s5&t$e "enta$ d!st!n)t!ons &et(een (hat !s seen and (hat !s
tho5'ht, !s not dese+2!n' o* (o+sh!0 s!n)e !t !s )+eated/ B5t as !t !s 5n!ted (!th God the ?o+d, !t !s (o+sh!00ed on
a))o5nt o* H!" and !n H!"/ Fo+ 85st as the 1!n' dese+2es ho"a'e a$!1e (hen 5n%+o&ed and (hen +o&ed, and 85st
as the 05+0$e +o&e, )ons!de+ed s!"0$ as a 05+0$e +o&e, !s t+a"0$ed 50on and tossed a&o5t, &5t a*te+ &e)o"!n' the
+oa$ d+ess +e)e!2es a$$ hono5+ and '$o+, and (hoe2e+ d!shono5+s !t !s 'ene+a$$ )onde"ned to death: and a'a!n,
85st as (ood !n !tse$*,=. !s not o* s5)h a nat5+e that !t )annot &e to5)hed, &5t &e)o"es so (hen *!+e !s a00$!ed to
!t, and !t &e)o"es )ha+)oa$, and et th!s !s not &e)a5se o* !ts o(n nat5+e, &5t &e)a5se o* the *!+e 5n!ted to !t, and
the nat5+e o* the (ood !s not s5)h as )annot &e to5)hed, &5t +athe+ the )ha+)oa$ o+ &5+n!n' (ood: so a$so the
*$esh, !n !ts o(n nat5+e, !s not to &e (o+sh!00ed, &5t !s (o+sh!00ed !n the !n)a+nate God ?o+d, not &e)a5se o*
!tse$*, &5t &e)a5se o* !ts 5n!on !n s5&s!sten)e (!th God the ?o+d/ And (e do not sa that (e (o+sh!0 "e+e *$esh,
&5t God6s *$esh, that !s, God !n)a+nate/
$A"!E% I4(
6h) it .as the #on o2 3od- and not the Father or the #*irit- that +ecame man5 and .hat ha0in/ +ecame
man $e achie0ed(
The Fathe+ !s Fathe+,>. and not Son,@.: the Son !s Son and not Fathe+: the Ho$ S0!+!t !s S0!+!t and not Fathe+ o+
Son/ Fo+ the !nd!2!d5a$!t,@a. !s 5n)han'ea&$e/ Ho(, !ndeed, )o5$d !nd!2!d5a$!t )ont!n5e to e7!st at a$$ !* !t (e+e
e2e+ )han'!n' and a$te+!n'B ?he+e*o+e the Son o* God &e)a"e Son o* Man !n o+de+ that H!s !nd!2!d5a$!t "!'ht
end5+e/ Fo+ s!n)e He (as the Son o* God, He &e)a"e Son o* Man, &e!n' "ade *$esh o* the ho$ A!+'!n and not
$os!n' the !nd!2!d5a$!t o* Sonsh!0,-./
F5+the+, the Son o* God &e)a"e "an, !n o+de+ that He "!'ht a'a!n &esto( on "an that *a2o5+ *o+ the sa1e o*
(h!)h He )+eated h!"/ Fo+ He )+eated h!" a*te+ H!s o(n !"a'e, endo(ed (!th !nte$$e)t and *+ee%(!$$, and a*te+
H!s o(n $!1eness, that !s to sa, 0e+*e)t !n a$$ 2!+t5e so *a+ as !t !s 0oss!&$e *o+ "an6s nat5+e to atta!n 0e+*e)t!on/
Fo+ the *o$$o(!n' 0+o0e+t!es a+e, so to s0ea1, "a+1s o* the d!2!ne nat5+e: 2!D/ a&sen)e o* )a+e and d!st+a)t!on and
'5!$e, 'oodness, (!sdo", 85st!)e, *+eedo" *+o" a$$ 2!)e/ So then, a*te+ He had 0$a)ed "an !n )o""5n!on (!th
H!"se$* ,*o+ ha2!n' "ade h!" *o+ !n)o++50t!on,3., He $ed h!" 50 th+o5'h )o""5n!on (!$$s H!"se$* to
!n)o++50t!on., and (hen "o+eo2e+, th+o5'h the t+ans'+ess!on o* the )o""and (e had )on*5sed and o&$!te+ated
the "a+1s o* the d!2!ne !"a'e, and had &e)o"e e2!$, (e (e+e st+!00ed o* o5+ )o""5n!on (!th God ,*o+ (hat
)o""5n!on hath $!'ht (!th da+1ness,4.B.: and ha2!n' &een sh5t o5t *+o" $!*e (e &e)a"e s5&8e)t to the
)o++50t!on o* death: ea, s!n)e He 'a2e 5s to sha+e !n the &ette+ 0a+t, and (e d!d not 1ee0 !t se)5+e, He sha+es !n
the !n*e+!o+ 0a+t, I "ean o5+ o(n nat5+e, !n o+de+ that th+o5'h H!"se$* and !n H!"se$* He "!'ht +ene( that
(h!)h (as "ade a*te+ H!s !"a'e and $!1eness, and "!'ht tea)h 5s, too, the )ond5)t o* a 2!+t5o5s $!*e, "a1!n'
th+o5'h H!"se$* the (a th!the+ eas *o+ 5s, and "!'ht & the )o""5n!)at!on o* $!*e de$!2e+ 5s *+o" )o++50t!on,
&e)o"!n' H!"se$* the *!+st*+5!ts o* o5+ +es5++e)t!on, and "!'ht +eno2ate the 5se$ess and (o+n 2esse$ )a$$!n' 5s to
the 1no($ed'e o* God that He "!'ht +edee" 5s *+o" the t+ann o* the de2!$, and "!'ht st+en'then and tea)h 5s
ho( to o2e+th+o( the t+ant th+o5'h 0at!en)e and h5"!$!t,9./
The (o+sh!0 o* de"ons then has )eased: )+eat!on has &een san)t!*!ed & the d!2!ne &$ood: a$ta+s and te"0$es o*
!do$s ha2e &een o2e+th+o(n, the 1no($ed'e o* God has &een !"0$anted !n "en6s "!nds, the )o%essent!a$ T+!n!t,
the 5n)+eate d!2!n!t, one t+5e God, C+eato+ and :o+d o* a$$ +e)e!2es "en6s se+2!)e: 2!+t5es a+e )5$t!2ated, the
ho0e o* +es5++e)t!on has &een '+anted th+o5'h the +es5++e)t!on o* Ch+!st, the de"ons sh5dde+ at those "en (ho
o* o$d (e+e 5nde+ the!+ s5&8e)t!on/ And the "a+2e$, !ndeed, !s that a$$ th!s has &een s5))ess*5$$ &+o5'ht a&o5t
th+o5'h H!s )+oss and 0ass!on and death/ Th+o5'ho5t a$$ the ea+th the Gos0e$ o* the 1no($ed'e o* God has &een
0+ea)hed# no (a+s o+ (ea0ons o+ a+"!es &e!n' 5sed to +o5t the ene", &5t on$ a *e(, na1ed, 0oo+, !$$!te+ate,
0e+se)5ted and to+"ented "en, (ho (!th the!+ $!2es !n the!+ hands, 0+ea)hed H!" ?ho (as )+5)!*!ed !n the *$esh
and d!ed, and (ho &e)a"e 2!)to+s o2e+ the (!se and 0o(e+*5$/ Fo+ the o"n!0otent 0o(e+ o* the C+oss
a))o"0an!ed the"/ Death !tse$*, (h!)h on)e (as "a(s )h!e*est te++o+, has &een o2e+th+o(n, and no( that (h!)h
(as on)e the o&8e)t o* hate and $oath!n' !s 0+e*e++ed to $!*e/ These a+e the a)h!e2e"ents o* Ch+!st6s 0+esen)e:
these a+e the to1ens o* H!s 0o(e+/ Fo+ !t (as not one 0eo0$e that He sa2ed, as (hen th+o5'h Moses He d!2!ded
the sea and de$!2e+ed Is+ae$ o5t o* E'0t and the &onda'e o* Pha+aoh,;.# na, +athe+ He +es)5ed a$$ "an1!nd
*+o" the )o++50t!on o* death and the &!tte+ t+ann o* s!n: not $ead!n' the" & *o+)e to 2!+t5e, not o2e+(he$"!n'
;9
the" (!th ea+th o+ &5+n!n' the" (!th *!+e, o+ o+de+!n' the s!nne+s to &e stoned, &5t 0e+s5ad!n' "en & 'ent$eness
and $on'%s5**e+!n' to )hoose 2!+t5e and 2!e (!th one anothe+, and *!nd 0$eas5+e !n the st+5''$e to atta!n !t/ Fo+,
*o+"e+$, !t (as s!nne+s (ho (e+e 0e+se)5ted, and et the )$5n' a$$ the )$ose+ to s!n, and s!n (as $oo1ed 50on
& the" as the!+ God: &5t no( *o+ the sa1e o* 0!et and 2!+t5e "en )hoose 0e+se)5t!ons and )+5)!*!7!ons and
death/
Ha!$N O Ch+!st, the ?o+d and ?!sdo" and Po(e+ o* God, and God o"n!0otentN ?hat )an (e he$0$ess ones '!2e
Thee !n +et5+n *o+ a$$ these 'ood '!*tsB Fo+ a$$ a+e Th!ne, and Tho5 as1est na5'ht *+o" 5s sa2e o5+ sa$2at!on,
Tho5 ?ho Thse$* a+t the G!2e+ o* th!s, and et a+t '+ate*5$ to those (ho +e)e!2e !t, th+o5'h Th 5ns0ea1a&$e
'oodness/ Than1s &e to Thee ?ho 'a2e 5s $!*e, and '+anted 5s the '+a)e o* a ha00 $!*e, and +esto+ed 5s to that,
(hen (e had 'one ast+a, th+o5'h Th 5ns0ea1a&$e )ondes)ens!on/
$A"!E% 4(
In re*,) to those .ho as1 i2 hrist=s su+sistence is create or uncreate(
The s5&s!sten)e,<. o* God the ?o+d &e*o+e the In)a+nat!on (as s!"0$e and 5n)o"0o5nd, and !n)o+0o+ea$ and
5n)+eate: &5t a*te+ !t &e)a"e *$esh, !t &e)a"e a$so the s5&s!sten)e o* the *$esh, and &e)a"e )o"0o5nded o*
d!2!n!t (h!)h !t a$(as 0ossessed, and o* *$esh (h!)h !t had ass5"ed: and !t &ea+s the 0+o0e+t!es o* the t(o
nat5+es, &e!n' "ade 1no(n !n t(o nat5+es: so that the one sa"e s5&s!sten)e !s &oth 5n)+eate !n d!2!n!t and
)+eate !n h5"an!t, 2!s!&$e and !n2!s!&$e/ Fo+ othe+(!se (e a+e )o"0e$$ed e!the+ to d!2!de the one Ch+!st and
s0ea1 o* t(o s5&s!sten)es, o+ to den the d!st!n)t!on &et(een the nat5+es and th5s !nt+od5)e )han'e and
)on*5s!on/
$A"!E% 4I(
oncernin/ the :uestion- .hen hrist .as ca,,ed(
The "!nd (as not 5n!ted (!th God the ?o+d, as so"e *a$se$ asse+t,=., &e*o+e the In)a+nat!on & the A!+'!n and
*+o" that t!"e )a$$ed Ch+!st/ That !s the a&s5+d nonsense o* O+!'en,>. (ho $as do(n the do)t+!ne o* the 0+!o+!t
o* the e7!sten)e o* so5$s/ B5t (e ho$d that the Son and ?o+d o* God &e)a"e Ch+!st a*te+ He had d(e$t !n the
(o"& o* H!s ho$ e2e+%2!+'!n Mothe+, and &e)a"e *$esh (!tho5t )han'e, and that the *$esh (as ano!nted (!th
d!2!n!t/ Fo+ th!s !s the ano!nt!n' o* h5"an!t, as G+e'o+ the Theo$o'!an sas,@./ And he+e a+e the (o+ds o* the
"ost ho$ C+!$ o* A$e7and+!a (h!)h he (+ote to the E"0e+o+ Theodos!5s,-.: HFo+ I !ndeed ho$d that one o5'ht
to '!2e the na"e Jes5s Ch+!st ne!the+ to the ?o+d that !s o* God !* He !s (!tho5t h5"an!t, no+ et to the te"0$e
&o+n o* (o"an !* !t !s not 5n!ted (!th the ?o+d/ Fo+ the ?o+d that !s o* God !s 5nde+stood to &e Ch+!st (hen
5n!ted (!th h5"an!t !n !ne**a&$e "anne+ !n the 5n!on o* the oe)ono",3./H And a'a!n, he (+!tes to the
E"0+esses th5s,4.: HSo"e ho$d that the na"e 6Ch+!st6 !s +!'ht$ '!2en to the ?o+d that !s &e'otten o* God the
Fathe+, to H!" a$one, and +e'a+ded se0a+ate$ & H!"se$*/ B5t (e ha2e not &een ta5'ht so to th!n1 and s0ea1/
Fo+ (hen the ?o+d &e)a"e *$esh, then !t (as, (e sa, that He (as )a$$ed Ch+!st Jes5s/ Fo+ s!n)e He (as ano!nted
(!th the o!$ o* '$adness, that !s the S0!+!t, & H!" ?ho !s God and Fathe+, He !s *o+ th!s +eason,9. )a$$ed Ch+!st/
B5t that the ano!nt!n' (as an a)t that )on)e+ned H!" as "an )o5$d &e do5&ted & no one (ho !s a))5sto"ed to
th!n1 +!'ht$/H Mo+eo2e+, the )e$e&+ated Athanas!5s sas th!s !n h!s d!s)o5+se HCon)e+n!n' the Sa2!n'
Man!*estat!on:H HThe God ?ho (as &e*o+e the so8o5+n !n the *$esh (as not "an, &5t God !n God, &e!n' !n2!s!&$e
and (!tho5t 0ass!on, &5t (hen He &e)a"e "an, He +e)e!2ed !n add!t!on the na"e o* Ch+!st &e)a5se o* the *$esh,
s!n)e, !ndeed, 0ass!on and death *o$$o( !n the t+a!n o* th!s na"e/H
And a$tho5'h the ho$ S)+!0t5+e,9. sas, The+e*o+e God, th God, hath ano!nted thee (!th the o!$ o* '$adness,;.,
!t !s to &e o&se+2ed that the ho$ S)+!0t5+e o*ten 5ses the 0ast tense !nstead o* the *5t5+e, as *o+ e7a"0$e he+e:
The+ea*te+ He (as seen 50on the ea+th and d(e$t a"on' "en,<./ Fo+ as et God (as not seen no+ d!d He d(e$$
a"on' "en (hen th!s (as sa!d/ And he+e a'a!n: B the +!2e+s o* Ba&$on, the+e (e sat do(n# ea (e0t,=./ Fo+
as et these th!n's had not )o"e to 0ass/
$A"!E% 4II(
In ans.er to those .ho en:uire .hether the ho,) 7other o2 3od +ore t.o natures- and .hether t.o
natures hun/ u*on the rass(
E'+ee1Fa'enhtonEG'+ee1F and E'+ee1F'enhtonEG'+ee1F, (+!tten (!th one 6E'+ee1FnEG'+ee1F6,>. and "ean!n'
5n)+eated and )+eated, +e*e+ to nat5+e: &5t E'+ee1Fa'ennhtonEG'+ee1F and E'+ee1F'ennhtonEG'+ee1F, that !s to
sa, 5n&e'otten and &e'otten, as the do5&$e 6E'+ee1FnEG'+ee1F6 !nd!)ates, +e*e+ not to nat5+e &5t to s5&s!sten)e/
The d!2!ne nat5+e then !s E'+ee1Fa'enhtosEG'+ee1F, that !s to sa, 5n)+eate, &5t a$$ th!n's that )o"e a*te+ the
d!2!ne nat5+e a+e E'+ee1F'enhhtaEG'+ee1F, that !s, )+eated/ In the d!2!ne and 5n)+eated nat5+e, the+e*o+e, the
0+o0e+t o* &e!n' E'+ee1Fa'ennhtonEG'+ee1F o+ 5n&e'otten !s )onte"0$ated !n the Fathe+ ,*o+ He (as not
&e'otten., that o* &e!n' E'+ee1F'ennhtonEG'+ee1F o+ &e'otten !n the Son ,*o+ He has &een ete+na$$ &e'otten o*
the Fathe+., and that o* 0+o)ess!on !n the Ho$ S0!+!t/ Mo+eo2e+ o* ea)h s0e)!es o* $!2!n' )+eat5+es, the *!+st
"e"&e+s (e+e E'+ee1Fa'ennhtaEG'+ee1F &5t not E'+ee1Fa'enhtaEG'+ee1F: *o+ the (e+e &+o5'ht !nto &e!n' &
the!+ Ma1e+, &5t (e+e not the o**s0+!n' o* )+eat5+es $!1e the"se$2es/ Fo+ E'+ee1F'enes!sEG'+ee1F !s )+eat!on,
(h!$e E'+ee1F'ennhs!sEG'+ee1F o+ &e'ett!n' !s !n the )ase o* God the o+!'!n o* a )o%essent!a$ Son a+!s!n' *+o"
the Fathe+ a$one, and !n the )ase o* &od!es, the o+!'!n o* a )o%essent!a$ s5&s!sten)e a+!s!n' *+o" the )onta)t o*
"a$e and *e"a$e/ And th5s (e 0e+)e!2e that &e'ett!n' +e*e+s not to nat5+e &5t to s5&s!sten)e,@./ Fo+ !* !t d!d +e*e+
;;
to nat5+e, E'+ee1FtoEG'+ee1F E'+ee1Fa'ennhtonEG'+ee1F and E'+ee1FtoEG'+ee1F E'+ee1F'ennhtonEG'+ee1F,
!/e/ the 0+o0e+t!es o* &e!n' &e'otten and 5n&e'otten, )o5$d not &e )onte"0$ated !n one and the sa"e nat5+e/
A))o+d!n'$ the ho$ Mothe+ o* God &o+e a s5&s!sten)e +e2ea$ed !n t(o nat5+es# &e!n' &e'otten on the one hand,
& +eason o* !ts d!2!n!t, o* the Fathe+ t!"e$ess$, and, at $ast, on the othe+ hand, &e!n' !n)a+nated o* he+ !n t!"e
and &o+n !n the *$esh/
B5t !* o5+ !nte++o'ato+s sho5$d h!nt that He ?ho !s &e'otten o* the ho$ Mothe+ o* God !s t(o nat5+es, (e +e0$,
HIeaN He !s t(o nat5+es: *o+ He !s !n H!s o(n 0e+son God and "an/ And the sa"e !s to &e sa!d )on)e+n!n' the
)+5)!*!7!on and +es5++e)t!on and as)ens!on/ Fo+ these +e*e+ not to nat5+e &5t to s5&s!sten)e/ Ch+!st then, s!n)e He
!s !n t(o nat5+es, s5**e+ed and (as )+5)!*!ed !n the nat5+e that (as s5&8e)t to 0ass!on/ Fo+ !t (as !n the *$esh and
not !n H!s d!2!n!t that He h5n' 50on the C+oss/ Othe+(!se, $et the" ans(e+ 5s, (hen (e as1 !* t(o nat5+es d!ed/
No, (e sha$$ sa/ And so t(o nat5+es ?e+e not )+5)!*!ed &5t Ch+!st (as &e'otten, that !s to sa, the d!2!ne ?o+d
ha2!n' &e)o"e "an (as &e'otten !n the *$esh, (as )+5)!*!ed !n the *$esh, s5**e+ed !n the *$esh, (h!$e H!s d!2!n!t
)ont!n5ed to &e !"0oss!&$e/H
$A"!E% 4III(
$o. the On,)-+e/otten #on o2 3od is ca,,ed 2irst-+orn(
He (ho !s *!+st &e'otten !s )a$$ed *!+st%&o+n,-., (hethe+ he !s on$%&e'otten o+ the *!+st o* a n5"&e+ o* &+othe+s/ I*
then the Son o* God (as )a$$ed *!+st%&o+n, &5t (as not )a$$ed On$%&e'otten, (e )o5$d !"a'!ne that He (as the
*!+st%&o+n o* )+eat5+es, as &e!n' a )+eat5+e,3./ B5t s!n)e He !s )a$$ed &oth *!+st%&o+n and On$%&e'otten, &oth
senses "5st &e 0+ese+2ed !n H!s )ase/ ?e sa that He !s *!+st%&o+n o* a$$ )+eat!on,4. s!n)e &oth He H!"se$* !s o*
God and )+eat!on !s o* God, &5t as He H!"se$* !s &o+n a$one and t!"e$ess$ o* the essen)e o* God the Fathe+, He
"a (!th +eason &e )a$$ed On$%&e'otten Son, *!+st%&o+n and not *!+st%)+eated/ Fo+ the )+eat!on (as not &+o5'ht
!nto &e!n' o5t o* the essen)e o* the Fathe+, &5t & H!s (!$$ o5t o* noth!n',9./ And He !s )a$$ed F!+st%&o+n a"on'
"an &+eth+en,;., *o+ a$tho5'h &e!n' On$%&e'otten, He (as a$so &o+n o* a "othe+/ S!n)e, !ndeed, He
0a+t!)!0ated 85st as (e o5+se$2es do !n &$ood and *$esh and &e)a"e "an, (h!$e (e too th+o5'h H!" &e)a"e sons
o* God, &e!n' ado0ted th+o5'h the &a0t!s", He ?ho !s & nat5+e Son o* God &e)a"e *!+st%&o+n a"on'st 5s (ho
(e+e "ade & ado0t!on and '+a)e sons o* God, and stand to H!" !n the +e$at!on o* &+othe+s/ ?he+e*o+e He sa!d, I
as)end 5nto M Fathe+ and o5+ Fathe+,<./ He d!d not sa Ho5+ Fathe+,H &5t HM Fathe+,H )$ea+$ !n the sense o*
Fathe+ & nat5+e, and Ho5+ Fathe+,H !n the sense o* Fathe+ & '+a)e/ And HM God and o5+ God,=./H He d!d not
sa Ho5+ God,H &5t HM God:H and !* o5 d!st!n'5!sh (!th s5&t$e tho5'ht that (h!)h !s seen *+o" that (h!)h !s
tho5'ht, a$so Ho5+ God,H as Ma1e+ and :o+d/
$A"!E% IX(
oncernin/ Faith and &a*tism(
?e )on*ess one &a0t!s" *o+ the +e"!ss!on o* s!ns and *o+ $!*e ete+na$/ Fo+ &a0t!s" de)$a+es the :o+d6s death/ ?e
a+e !ndeed H&5+!ed (!th the :o+d th+o5'h &a0t!s",>.,H as sa!th the d!2!ne A0ost$e/ So then, as o5+ :o+d d!ed on)e
*o+ a$$, (e a$so "5st &e &a0t!Ded on)e *o+ a$$, and &a0t!Ded a))o+d!n' to the ?o+d o* the :o+d, In the Na"e o* the
Fathe+, and o* the Son, and o* the Ho$ S0!+!t,@., &e!n' ta5'ht the )on*ess!on !n Fathe+, Son, and Ho$ S0!+!t/
Those,-., then, (ho, a*te+ ha2!n' &een &a0t!Ded !nto Fathe+, Son, and Ho$ S0!+!t, and ha2!n' &een ta5'ht that
the+e !s one d!2!ne nat5+e !n th+ee s5&s!sten)es, a+e +e&a0t!Ded, these, as the d!2!ne A0ost$e sas, )+5)!* the
Ch+!st a*+esh/ Fo+ !t !s !"0oss!&$e, he sa!th, *o+ those (ho (e+e on)e en$!'htened, Q)/, to +ene( the" a'a!n 5nto
+e0entan)e: see!n' the )+5)!* to the"se$2es the Ch+!st a*+esh, and 05t H!" to an o0en sha"e,3./ B5t those (ho
(e+e not &a0t!Ded !nto the Ho$ T+!n!t, these "5st &e &a0t!Ded a'a!n/ Fo+ a$tho5'h the d!2!ne A0oSt$e sas: Into
Ch+!st and !nto H!s death (e+e (e &a0t!Ded,4., he does not "ean that the !n2o)at!on o* &a0t!s" "5st &e !n these
(o+ds, &5t that &a0t!s" !s an !"a'e o* the death o* Ch+!st/ Fo+ & the th+ee !""e+s!ons,9., &a0t!s" s!'n!*!es the
th+ee das o* o5+ :o+d6s ento"&"ent,;./ The &a0t!s" then !nto Ch+!st "eans that &e$!e2e+s a+e &a0t!Ded !nto
H!"/ ?e )o5$d not &e$!e2e !n Ch+!st !* (e (e+e not ta5'ht )on*ess!on !n Fathe+, Son, and Ho$ S0!+!t,<./ Fo+
Ch+!st !s the Son o* the :!2!n' God,=., ?ho" the Fathe+ ano!nted (!th the Ho$ S0!+!t,>.: !n the (o+ds o* the
d!2!ne Da2!d, The+e*o+e God, th God, hath ano!nted thee (!th the o!$ o* '$adness a&o2e th *e$$o(s,@./ And
Isa!ah a$so s0ea1!n' !n the 0e+son o* the :o+d sas, The S0!+!t o* the :o+d !s 50on "e &e)a5se He hath ano!nted
"e,-./ Ch+!st, ho(e2e+, ta5'ht H!s o(n d!s)!0$es the !n2o)at!on and sa!d, Ba0t!D!n' the" !n the Na"e o* the
Fathe+, and o* the Son, and o* the Ho$ S0!+!t,3./ Fo+ s!n)e Ch+!st "ade 5s *o+ !n)o++50t!on,4.,9., and (e
t+ans'+essed H!s sa2!n' )o""and/ He )onde"ned 5s to the )o++50t!on o* death !n o+de+ that that (h!)h !s e2!$
sho5$d not &e !""o+ta$, and (hen !n H!s )o"0ass!on He stoo0ed to H!s se+2ants and &e)a"e $!1e 5s, He
+edee"ed 5s *+o" )o++50t!on th+o5'h H!s o(n 0ass!on/ He )a5sed the *o5nta!n o* +e"!ss!on to (e$$ *o+th *o+ 5s
o5t o* H!s ho$ and !""a)5$ate s!de,;., (ate+ *o+ o5+ +e'ene+at!on, and the (ash!n' a(a o* s!n and )o++50t!on#
and &$ood to d+!n1 as the hosta'e o* $!*e ete+na$/ And He $a!d on 5s the )o""and to &e &o+n a'a!n o* (ate+ and o*
the S0!+!t,<., th+o5'h 0+ae+ and !n2o)at!on, the Ho$ S0!+!t d+a(!n' n!'h 5nto the (ate+,=./ Fo+ s!n)e "an6s
nat5+e !s t(o*o$d, )ons!st!n' o* so5$ and &od, He &esto(ed on 5s a t(o*o$d 05+!*!)at!on, o* (ate+ and o* the
S0!+!t the S0!+!t +ene(!n' that 0a+t !n 5s (h!)h !s a*te+ H!s !"a'e and $!1eness, and the (ate+ & the '+a)e o* the
S0!+!t )$eans!n' the &od *+o" s!n and de$!2e+!n' !t *+o" )o++50t!on, the (ate+ !ndeed e70+ess!n' the !"a'e o*
death, &5t the S0!+!t a**o+d!n' the ea+nest o* $!*e/
;<
Fo+ *+o" the &e'!nn!n' the S0!+!t o* God "o2ed 50on the *a)e o* the (ate+s,>., and ane( the S)+!0t5+e
(!tnesseth that (ate+ has the 0o(e+ o* 05+!*!)at!on,@./ In the t!"e o* Noah God (ashed a(a the s!n o* the
(o+$d & (ate+,-./ B (ate+ e2e+ !"05+e 0e+son !s 05+!*!ed,3., a))o+d!n' to the $a(, e2en the 2e+ 'a+"ents
&e!n' (ashed (!th (ate+/ E$!as she(ed *o+th the '+a)e o* the S0!+!t "!n'$ed (!th the (ate+ (hen he &5+ned the
ho$o)a5st & 0o5+!n' on (ate+,4./ And a$"ost e2e+th!n' !s 05+!*!ed & (ate+ a))o+d!n' to the $a(: *o+ the th!n's
o* s!'ht a+e s"&o$s o* the th!n's o* tho5'ht/ The +e'ene+at!on, ho(e2e+, ta1es 0$a)e !n the s0!+!t: *o+ *a!th has
the 0o(e+ o* "a1!n' 5s sons ,o* God,9.., )+eat5+es as (e a+e, & the S0!+!t, and o* $ead!n' 5s !nto o5+ o+!'!na$
&$essedness/
The +e"!ss!on o* s!ns, the+e*o+e, !s '+anted a$!1e to a$$ th+o5'h &a0t!s": &5t the '+a)e o* the S0!+!t !s 0+o0o+t!ona$
to the *a!th and 0+e2!o5s 05+!*!)at!on/ No(, !ndeed, (e +e)e!2e the *!+st*+5!ts o* the Ho$ S0!+!t th+o5'h &a0t!s",
and the se)ond &!+th !s *o+ 5s the &e'!nn!n' and sea$ and se)5+!t and !$$5"!nat!on s o* anothe+ $!*e/
It &eho2es as, then, (!th a$$ o5+ st+en'th to stead*ast$ 1ee0 o5+se$2es 05+e *+o" *!$th (o+1s, that (e "a not,
$!1e the do' +et5+n!n' to h!s 2o"!t,<., "a1e o5+se$2es a'a!n the s$a2es o* s!n/ Fo+ *a!th a0a+t *+o" (o+1s !s dead,
and so $!1e(!se a+e (o+1s a0a+t *+o" *a!th,=./ Fo+ the t+5e *a!th !s attested & (o+1s/
No( (e a+e &a0t!Ded,>. !nto the Ho$ T+!n!t &e)a5se those th!n's (h!)h a+e &a0t!Ded ha2e need o* the Ho$
T+!n!t *o+ the!+ "a!ntenan)e and )ont!n5an)e, and the th+ee s5&s!sten)es )annot &e othe+(!se than 0+esent, the
one (!th the othe+/ Fo+ the Ho$ T+!n!t !s !nd!2!s!&$e/
The *!+st &a0t!s",@. (as that o* the *$ood *o+ the e+ad!)at!on o* s!n/ The se)ond,-. (as th+o5'h the sea and the
)$o5d: *o+ the )$o5d !s the s"&o$ o* the S0!+!t and the sea o* the (ate+,3./ The th!+d &a0t!s" (as that o* the
:a(: *o+ e2e+ !"05+e 0e+son (ashed h!"se$* (!th (ate+, and e2en (ashed h!s 'a+"ents, and so ente+ed !nto the
)a"0,4./ The *o5+th,9. (as that o* John,;., &e!n' 0+e$!"!na+ and $ead!n' those (ho (e+e &a0t!Ded to +e0ent%
on)e, that the "!'ht &e$!e2e !n Ch+!st: I, )e+ta!n$ +et5+n 5nto thee at th!s t!"e he+ea*te+, and Sa+ah th (!*e
sha$$ ha2e a son,<. # and a*te+(a+ds the :o+d sa!d to H!", I (!$$ not )on)ea$ *+o" A&+aha" M se+2ant the th!n's
that I (!$$ do,=. # and a'a!n, Mo+eo2e+ the :o+d sa!d, The )+ o* Sodo" and Go"o++ah !s *!$$ed 50, and the!+ s!ns
a+e e7)eed!n' '+eat,>./ Then a*te+ $on' d!s)o5+se, (h!)h *o+ the sa1e o* &+e2!t sha$$ &e o"!tted, A&+aha",
d!st+essed at the dest+5)t!on (h!)h a(a!ted the !nno)ent as (e$$ as the '5!$t, sa!d, In no (!se (!$t Tho5, ?ho
85d'est the ea+th, e7e)5te th!s 85d'"ent/ And the :o+d sa!d, I* I *!nd !n Sodo" *!*t +!'hteo5s (!th!n the )!t,
then I (!$$ s0a+e a$$ the 0$a)e *o+ the!+ sa1es,@./ A*te+(a+ds (hen the (a+n!n' to :ot, A&+aha"6s &+othe+, (as
ended, the S)+!0t5+e sas, And the :o+d +a!ned 50on Sodo" and 50on Go"o++ah &+!"stone and *!+e * +o" the
:o+d o5t o* hea2en,-. # and, a*te+ a (h!$e, And the :o+d 2!s!ted Sa+ah as He had sa!d, and d!d 5nto Sa+ah as He
had s0o1en, and Sa+ah )on)e!2ed and &a+e A&+aha" a son !n h!s o$d a'e, at the set t!"e o* (h!)h God had
s0o1en to h!",3./ And a*te+(a+ds, (hen the hand"a!d (!th he+ son had &een d+!2en *+o" A&+aha"6s ho5se, and
(as d+ead!n' $est he+ )h!$d sho5$d d!e !n the (!$de+ness *o+ (ant o* (ate+, the sa"e S)+!0t5+e sas, And the :o+d
God hea+d the 2o!)e o* the $ad, (he+e he (as, and the An'e$ o* God )h!$d to Ha'a+ o5t o* hea2en, and sa!d 5nto
he+, ?hat !s !t, Ha'a+B Fea+ not, *o+ God hath hea+d the 2o!)e o* the $ad *+o" the 0$a)e (he+e he !s/ A+!se, and
ta1e the $ad, and ho$d h!s hand, *o+ I (!$$ "a1e h!" a '+eat nat!on,4./
3</ ?hat &$!nd *a!th$essness !t !s, (hat d5$ness o* an 5n&e$!e2!n' hea+t, (hat headst+on' !"0!et, to a&!de !n
!'no+an)e o* a$$ th!s, o+ e$se to 1no( and et ne'$e)t !tN Ass5+ed$ !t !s (+!tten *o+ the 2e+ 05+0ose that e++o+ o+
o&$!2!on "a not h!nde+ the +e)o'n!t!on o* the t+5th/ I*, as (e sha$$ 0+o2e, !t !s !"0oss!&$e to es)a0e 1no($ed'e
o* the *a)ts, then !t "5st &e noth!n' $ess than &$as0he" to den the"/ Th!s +e)o+d &e'!ns (!th the s0ee)h o* the
An'e$ to Ha'a+, H!s 0+o"!se to "5$t!0$ Ish"ae$ !nto a '+eat nat!on and to '!2e h!" a )o5nt$ess o**s0+!n'/ She
$!stens, and & he+ )on*ess!on +e2ea$s that He !s :o+d and God/ The sto+ &e'!ns (!th H!s a00ea+an)e as the
An'e$ o* God# at !ts te+"!nat!on He stands )on*essed as God H!"se$*/ Th5s He ?ho, (h!$e He e7e)5tes the
"!n!st+ o* de)$a+!n' the '+eat )o5nse$ !s God6s An'e$, !s H!"se$* !n na"e and nat5+e God/ The na"e
)o++es0onds to the nat5+e# the nat5+e !s not *a$s!*!ed to "a1e !t )on*o+" to the na"e/ A'a!n, God s0ea1s to
A&+aha" o* th!s sa"e "atte+# he !s to$d that Ish"ae$ has a$+ead +e)e!2ed a &$ess!n', and sha$$ &e !n)+eased !nto
a nat!on# I ha2e &$essed h!", God sas/ Th!s !s no )han'e *+o" the Pe+son !nd!)ated &e*o+e# He she(s that !t (as
He ?ho had a$+ead '!2en the &$ess!n'/ The S)+!0t5+e has o&2!o5s$ &een )ons!stent th+o5'ho5t !n !ts 0+o'+ess
*+o" "ste+ to )$ea+ +e2e$at!on# !t &e'an (!th the An'e$ o* God, and 0+o)eeds to +e2ea$ that !t (as God H!"se$*
?ho had s0o1en !n th!s sa"e "atte+/
3=/ The )o5+se o* the D!2!ne na++at!2e !s a))o"0an!ed & a 0+o'+ess!2e de2e$o0"ent o* do)t+!ne/ In the 0assa'e
(h!)h (e ha2e d!s)5ssed God s0ea1s to A&+aha", and 0+o"!ses that Sa+ah sha$$ &ea+ a son/ A*te+(a+ds th+ee
"en stand & h!"# he (o+sh!0s One and a)1no($ed'es H!" as :o+d/ A*te+ th!s (o+sh!0 and a)1no($ed'"ent &
A&+aha", the One 0+o"!ses that He (!$$ +et5+n he+ea*te+ at the sa"e season, and that then Sa+ah sha$$ ha2e he+
son/ Th!s One a'a!n !s seen & A&+aha" !n the '5!se o* a "an, and sa$5tes h!" (!th the sa"e 0+o"!se/ The
)han'e !s one o* na"e on$# A&+aha"6s a)1no($ed'"ent !n ea)h ease !s the sa"e/ It (as a Man (ho" he sa(,
et A&+aha" (o+sh!00ed H!" as :o+d# he &ehe$d, no do5&t, !n a "ste+ the )o"!n' In)a+nat!on/ Fa!th so st+on'
has not "!ssed !ts +e)o'n!t!on# the :o+d sas !n the Gos0e$, Io5+ *athe+ A&+aha" +e8o!)ed to see M da# and he
sa( !t, and (as '$ad,9./ To )ont!n5e the h!sto+# the Man ?ho" he sa( 0+o"!sed that He (o5$d +et5+n at the
sa"e season/ Ma+1 the *5$*!$"ent o* the 0+o"!se, +e"e"&e+!n' "ean(h!$e that !t (as a Man ?ho "ade !t/ ?hat
;=
sas the S)+!0t5+eB And the :o+d 2!s!ted Sa+ah/ So th!s Man !s the :o+d, *5$*!$$!n' H!s o(n 0+o"!se/ ?hat
*o$$o(s ne7tB And God d!d 5nto Sa+ah as He had sa!d/ The na++at!2e )a$$s H!s (o+ds those o* a Man, +e$ates that
Sa+ah (as 2!s!ted & the :o+d, 0+o)$a!"s that the +es5$t (as the (o+1 o* God/ Io5 a+e s5+e that !t (as a Man (ho
s0o1e, *o+ A&+aha" not on$ hea+d, &5t sa( H!"/ Can o5 &e $ess )e+ta!n that He (as God, (hen the sa"e
S)+!0t5+e, (h!)h had )a$$ed H!" Man, )on*esses H!" GodB Fo+ !ts (o+ds a+e, And Sa+ah )on)e!2ed, and &a+e
A&+aha" a son !n h!s o$d a'e, and at the set t!"e o* (h!)h God had s0o1en to h!"/ B5t !t (as the Man (ho had
0+o"!sed that He (o5$d )o"e/ Be$!e2e that He (as noth!n' "o+e than "an# 5n$ess, !n *a)t, He ?ho )a"e (as
God and :o+d/ Conne)t the !n)!dents/ It (as, )on*essed$, the Man (ho 0+o"!sed that He (o5$d )o"e that Sa+ah
"!'ht )on)e!2e/ //// and o"n!0oten)e and t+5th and (!sdo" and 85st!)e, he (!$$ *!nd a$$ th!n's s"ooth and e2en,
and the (a st+a!'ht/ B5t (!tho5t *a!th !t !s !"0oss!&$e to &e sa2ed,3./ Fo+ !t !s & *a!th that a$$ th!n's, &oth
h5"an and s0!+!t5a$, a+e s5sta!ned/ Fo+ (!tho5t *a!th ne!the+ does the *a+"e+,4. )5t h!s *5++o(, no+ does the
"e+)hant )o""!t h!s $!*e to the +a'!n' (a2es o* the sea on a s"a$$ 0!e)e o* (ood, no+ a+e "a++!a'es )ont+a)ted
no+ an othe+ ste0 !n $!*e ta1en/ B *a!th (e )ons!de+ that a$$ th!n's (e+e &+o5'ht o5t o* noth!n' !nto &e!n' &
God6s 0o(e+/ And (e d!+e)t a$$ th!n's, &oth d!2!ne and h5"an, & *a!th/ F5+the+, *a!th !s assent *+ee *+o" a$$
"edd$eso"e !nC5!s!t!2eness,9./
E2e+ a)t!on, the+e*o+e, and 0e+*o+"an)e o* "!+a)$es & Ch+!st a+e "ost '+eat and d!2!ne and "a+2e$$o5s: &5t the
"ost "a+2e$$o5s o* a$$ !s H!s 0+e)!o5s C+oss/ Fo+ no othe+ th!n' has s5&d5ed death, e70!ated the s!n o* the *!+st
0a+ent,;., des0o!$ed Hades, &esto(ed the +es5++e)t!on, '+anted the 0o(e+ to 5s o* )onte"n!n' the 0+esent and
e2en death !tse$*, 0+e0a+ed the +et5+n to o5+ *o+"e+ &$essedness, o0ened the 'ates o* Pa+ad!se,<., '!2en o5+ nat5+e
a seat at the +!'ht hand o* God, and "ade 5s the )h!$d+en and he!+s o* God,=., sa2e the C+oss o* o5+ :o+d Jes5s
Ch+!st/ Fo+ & the C+oss s a$$ th!n's ha2e &een "ade +!'ht/ So "an o* 5s, the a0ost$e sas, as (e+e &a0t!Ded !nto
Ch+!st, (e+e &a0t!Ded !nto H!s death,@., and as "an o* o5 as ha2e &een &a0t!Ded !nto Ch+!st, ha2e 05t on
Ch+!st,-./ F5+the+ Ch+!st !s the 0o(e+ o* God and the (!sdo" o* God,3./ :oN the death o* Ch+!st, that !s, the
C+oss, )$othed 5s (!th the enh0ostat!) (!sdo" and 0o(e+ o* God/ And the 0o(e+ o* God !s the ?o+d o* the
C+oss, e!the+ &e)a5se God6s "!'ht, that !s, the 2!)to+ o2e+ death, has &een +e2ea$ed to 5s & !t, o+ &e)a5se, 85st
as the *o5+ e7t+e"!t!es o* the C+oss a+e he$d *ast and &o5nd to'ethe+ & the &o$t !n the "!dd$e, so a$so & God6s
0o(e+ the he!'ht and the de0th, the $en'th and the &+eadth, that !s, e2e+ )+eat5+e 2!s!&$e and !n2!s!&$e, !s
"a!nta!ned,4./
Th!s (as '!2en to 5s as a s!'n on o5+ *o+ehead, 85st as the )!+)5")!s!on (as '!2en to Is+ae$: *o+ & !t (e &e$!e2e+s
a+e se0a+ated and d!st!n'5!shed *+o" 5n&e$!e2e+s/ Th!s !s the sh!e$d and (ea0on a'a!nst, and t+o0h o2e+, the
de2!$/ Th!s !s the sea$ that the dest+oe+ "a not to5)h o5,9., as sa!th the S)+!0t5+e/ Th!s !s the +es5++e)t!on o*
those $!n' !n death, the s500o+t o* the stand!n', the sta** o* the (ea1, the +od o* the *$o)1, the sa*e )ond5)t o*
the ea+nest, the 0e+*e)t!on o* those that 0+ess *o+(a+ds, the sa$2at!on o* so5$ and &od, the a2e+s!on o* a$$ th!n's
e2!$, the 0at+on o* a$$ th!n's 'ood, the ta1!n' a(a o* s!n, the 0$ant o* +es5++e)t!on, the t+ee o* ete+na$ $!*e/
So, then, th!s sa"e t+5$ 0+e)!o5s and a5'5st t+ee,;., on (h!)h Ch+!st hath o**e+ed H!"se$* as a sa)+!*!)e *o+ o5+
sa1es, !s to &e (o+sh!00ed as san)t!*!ed & )onta)t (!th H!s ho$ &od and &$ood# $!1e(!se the na!$s, the s0ea+,
the )$othes, H!s sa)+ed ta&e+na)$es (h!)h a+e the "an'e+, the )a2e, Go$'otha, (h!)h &+!n'eth sa$2at!on,<., the
to"& (h!)h '!2eth $!*e, S!on, the )h!e* st+on'ho$d o* the )h5+)hes and the $!1e, a+e to &e (o+sh!00ed/ In the
(o+ds o* Da2!d, the *athe+ o* God,=., ?e sha$$ 'o !nto H!s ta&e+na)$es, (e sha$$ (o+sh!0 at the 0$a)e (he+e H!s
*eet stood,>./ And that !t !s the C+oss that !s "eant !s "ade )$ea+ & (hat *o$$o(s, A+!se, O :o+d, !nto Th Rest
,@./ Fo+ the +es5++e)t!on )o"es a*te+ the C+oss/ Fo+ !* o* those th!n's (h!)h (e $o2e, ho5se and )o5)h and
'a+"ent, a+e to &e $on'ed a*te+, ho( "5)h the +athe+ sho5$d (e $on' a*te+ that (h!)h &e$on'ed to God, o5+
Sa2!o5+,-., & "eans o* (h!)h (e a+e !n t+5th sa2ed/
Mo+eo2e+ (e (o+sh!0 e2en the !"a'e o* the 0+e)!o5s and $!*e%'!2!n' C+oss, a$tho5'h "ade o* anothe+ t+ee, not
hono5+!n' the t+ee ,God *o+&!d. &5t the !"a'e as a s"&o$ o* Ch+!st/ Fo+ He sa!d to H!s d!s)!0$es, ad"on!sh!n'
the", Then sha$$ a00ea+ the s!'n o* the Son o* Man !n Hea2en,3., "ean!n' the C+oss/ And so a$so the an'e$ o*
the +es5++e)t!on sa!d to the (o"an, Ie see1 Jes5s o* NaDa+eth (h!)h (as )+5)!*!ed,4./ And the A0ost$e sa!d, ?e
0+ea)h Ch+!st )+5)!*!ed,9./ Fo+ the+e a+e "an Ch+!sts and "an Jes5ses, &5t one )+5)!*!ed/ He does not sa
s0ea+ed &5t )+5)!*!ed/ It &eho2es 5s, then, to (o+sh!0 the s!'n o* Ch+!st,;./ Fo+ (he+e2e+ the s!'n "a &e, the+e
a$so (!$$ He &e/ B5t !t does not &eho2e 5s to (o+sh!0 the "ate+!a$ o* (h!)h the !"a'e o* the C+oss !s )o"0osed,
e2en tho5'h !t &e 'o$d o+ 0+e)!o5s stones, a*te+ !t !s dest+oed, !* that sho5$d ha00en/ E2e+th!n', the+e*o+e, that
!s ded!)ated to God (e (o+sh!0, )on*e++!n' the ado+at!on on H!"/
The t+ee o* $!*e (h!)h (as 0$anted & God !n Pa+ad!se 0+e%*!'5+ed th!s 0+e)!o5s C+oss/ Fo+ s!n)e death (as & a
t+ee, !t (as *!tt!n' that $!*e and +es5++e)t!on sho5$d &e &esto(ed & a t+ee,<./ Ja)o&, (hen He (o+sh!00ed the to0
o* Jose0h6s sta**, (as the *!+st to !"a'e the C+oss, and (hen he &$essed h!s sons (!th )+ossed hands,=. he "ade
"ost )$ea+$ the s!'n o* the )+oss/ :!1e(!se,>. a$so d!d Moses6 +od, (hen !t s"ote the sea !n the *!'5+e o* the
)+oss and sa2ed Is+ae$, (h!$e !t o2e+(he$"ed Pha+aoh !n the de0ths# $!1e(!se a$so the hands st+et)hed o5t
)+oss(!se and +o5t!n' A"a$e1# and the &!tte+ (ate+ "ade s(eet & a t+ee, and the +o)1 +ent and 0o5+!n' *o+th
st+ea"s o* (ate+,@., and the +od that "eant *o+ Aa+on the d!'n!t o* the h!'h 0+!esthood,-.: and the se+0ent $!*ted
!n t+!5"0h on a t+ee as tho5'h !t (e+e dead,3., the t+ee &+!n'!n' sa$2at!on to those (ho !n *a!th sa( the!+ ene"
;>
dead, 85st as Ch+!st (as na!$ed to the t+ee !n the *$esh o* s!n (h!)h et 1ne( no s!n,4./ The "!'ht Moses
)+!ed,9., Io5 (!$$ see o5+ $!*e han'!n' on the t+ee &e*o+e o5+ ees, and Isa!ah $!1e(!se, I ha2e s0+ead o5t "
hands a$$ the da 5nto a *a!th$ess and +e&e$$!o5s 0eo0$e,;./ B5t "a (e (ho (o+sh!0 th!s,<. o&ta!n a 0a+t !n
Ch+!st the )+5)!*!ed/ A"en/
$A"!E% XII(
oncernin/ 6orshi* to.ards the East(
It !s not (!tho5t +eason o+ & )han)e that (e (o+sh!0 to(a+ds the East/ B5t see!n' that (e a+e )o"0osed o* a
2!s!&$e and an !n2!s!&$e nat5+e, that !s to sa, o* a nat5+e 0a+t$ o* s0!+!t and 0a+t$ o* sense, (e +ende+ a$so a
t(o*o$d (o+sh!0 to the C+eato+# 85st as (e s!n' &oth (!th o5+ s0!+!t and o5+ &od!$ $!0s, and a+e &a0t!Ded (!th
&oth (ate+ and S0!+!t, and a+e 5n!ted (!th the :o+d !n a t(o*o$d "anne+, &e!n' sha+e+s !n the "ste+!es and !n the
'+a)e o* the S0!+!t/
S!n)e, the+e*o+e, God,=. !s s0!+!t5a$ $!'ht,>., and Ch+!st !s )a$$ed !n the S)+!0t5+es S5n o* R!'hteo5sness,-. and
Das0+!n',3., the East !s the d!+e)t!on that "5st &e ass!'ned to H!s (o+sh!0/ Fo+ e2e+th!n' 'ood "5st &e
ass!'ned to H!" *+o" ?ho" e2e+ 'ood th!n' a+!ses/ Indeed the d!2!ne Da2!d a$so sas, S!n' 5nto God, e
1!n'do"s o* the ea+th: O s!n' 0+a!ses 5nto the :o+d: to H!" that +!deth 50on the Hea2ens o* hea2ens to(a+ds the
East,4./ Mo+eo2e+ the S)+!0t5+e a$so sas, And God 0$anted a 'a+den east(a+d !n Eden# and the+e He 05t the "an
(ho" He had *o+"ed,9.: and (hen he had t+ans'+essed H!s )o""and He e70e$$ed h!" and "ade h!" to d(e$$
o2e+ a'a!nst the de$!'hts o* Pa+ad!ses,;., (h!)h )$ea+$ !s the ?est/ So, then, (e (o+sh!0 God see1!n' and
st+!2!n' a*te+ o5+ o$d *athe+$and/ Mo+eo2e+ the tent o* Moses,<. had !ts 2e!$ and "e+) seat,=. to(a+ds the East/
A$so the t+!&e o* J5dah as the "ost 0+e)!o5s 0!t)hed the!+ )a"0 on the East,>./ A$so !n the )e$e&+ated te"0$e o*
So$o"on the Gate o* the :o+d (as 0$a)ed east(a+d/ Mo+eo2e+ Ch+!st, (hen He h5n' on the C+oss, had H!s *a)e
t5+ned to(a+ds the ?est, and so (e (o+sh!0, st+!2!n' a*te+ H!"/ And (hen He (as +e)e!2ed a'a!n !nto Hea2en
He (as &o+ne to(a+ds the East, and th5s H!s a0ost$es (o+sh!0 H!", and th5s He (!$$ )o"e a'a!n !n the (a !n
(h!)h the &ehe$d H!" 'o!n' to(a+ds Hea2en,@.# as the :o+d H!"se$* sa!d, As the $!'htn!n' )o"eth o5t o* the
East and sh!neth,-. e2en 5nto the ?est, so a$so sha$$ the )o"!n' o* the Son o* Man &E'+ee1FeEG'+ee1F,3./
So, then, !n e70e)tat!on o* H!s )o"!n' (e (o+sh!0 to(a+ds the East/ B5t th!s t+ad!t!on o* the a0ost$es !s
5n(+!tten/ Fo+ "5)h that has &een handed do(n to 5s & t+ad!t!on !s 5n(+!tten,4./
$A"!E% XIII(
oncernin/ the ho,) and immacu,ate 7)steries o2 the @ord(
God,9. ?ho !s 'ood and a$to'ethe+ 'ood and "o+e than 'ood, ?ho !s 'oodness th+o5'ho5t, & +eason o* the
e7)eed!n' +!)hes o* H!s 'oodness d!d not s5**e+ H!"se$*, that !s H!s nat5+e, on$ to &e 'ood, (!th no othe+ to
0a+t!)!0ate the+e!n, &5t &e)a5se o* th!s He "ade *!+st the s0!+!t5a$ and hea2en$ 0o(e+s: ne7t the 2!s!&$e and
sens!&$e 5n!2e+se: ne7t "an (!th h!s s0!+!t5a$ and sent!ent nat5+e/ A$$ th!n's, the+e*o+e, (h!)h he "ade, sha+e !n
H!s 'oodness !n +es0e)t o* the!+ e7!sten)e/ Fo+ He H!"se$* !s e7!sten)e to a$$, s!n)e a$$ th!n's that a+e, a+e !n
H!",;., not on$ &e)a5se !t (as He that &+o5'ht the" o5t o* noth!n' !nto &e!n', &5t &e)a5se H!s ene+'
0+ese+2es and "a!nta!ns a$$ that He "ade: and !n es0e)!a$ the $!2!n' )+eat5+es/ Fo+ &oth !n that the e7!st and !n
that the en8o $!*e the sha+e !n H!s 'oodness/ B5t !n t+5th those o* the" that ha2e +eason ha2e a st!$$ '+eate+
sha+e !n that, &oth &e)a5se o* (hat has &een a$+ead sa!d and a$so &e)a5se o* the 2e+ +eason (h!)h the 0ossess/
Fo+ the a+e so"eho( "o+e dea+$ a1!n to H!", e2en tho5'h He !s !n)o"0a+a&$ h!'he+ than the/
Man, ho(e2e+, &e!n' endo(ed (!th +eason and *+ee (!$$, +e)e!2ed the 0o(e+ o* )ont!n5o5s 5n!on (!th God
th+o5'h h!s o(n )ho!)e, !* !ndeed he sho5$d a&!de !n 'oodness, that !s !n o&ed!en)e to h!s Ma1e+/ S!n)e, ho(e2e+,
he t+ans'+essed the )o""and o* h!s C+eato+ and &e)a"e $!a&$e to death and )o++50t!on, the C+eato+ and Ma1e+ o*
o5+ +a)e, &e)a5se o* H!s &o(e$s o* )o"0ass!on, too1 on o5+ $!1eness, &e)o"!n' "an !n a$$ th!n's &5t (!tho5t s!n,
and (as 5n!ted to o5+ nat5+e,<./ Fo+ s!n)e He &esto(ed on 5s H!s o(n !"a'e and H!s o(n s0!+!t and (e d!d not
1ee0 the" sa*e, He too1 H!"se$* a sha+e !n o5+ 0oo+ and (ea1 nat5+e, !n o+de+ that He "!'ht )$eanse 5s and
"a1e 5s !n)o++50t!&$e, and esta&$!sh 5s on)e "o+e as 0a+ta1e+s o* H!s d!2!n!t/
Fo+ !t (as *!tt!n' that not on$ the *!+st%*+5!ts o* o5+ nat5+e sho5$d 0a+ta1e !n the h!'he+ 'ood &5t e2e+ "an (ho
(!shed !t, and that a se)ond &!+th sho5$d ta1e 0$a)e and that the no5+!sh"ent sho5$d &e ne( and s5!ta&$e to the
&!+th and th5s the "eas5+e o* 0e+*e)t!on &e atta!ned/ Th+o5'h H!s &!+th, that !s, H!s !n)a+nat!on, and &a0t!s" and
0ass!on and +es5++e)t!on, He de$!2e+ed o5+ nat5+e *+o" the s!n o* o5+ *!+st 0a+ent and death and )o++50t!on, and
&e)a"e the *!+st%*+5!ts o* the +es5++e)t!on, and "ade H!"se$* the (a and !"a'e and 0atte+n, !n o+de+ that (e,
too, *o$$o(!n' !n H!s *ootste0s, "a &e)o"e & ado0t!on (hat He !s H!"se$* & nat5+e,=., sons and he!+s o* God
and 8o!nt he!+s (!th H!",>./ He 'a2e 5s the+e*o+e, as I sa!d, a se)ond &!+th !n o+de+ that, 85st as (e (ho a+e &o+n
o* Ada" a+e !n h!s !"a'e and a+e the he!+s o* the )5+se and )o++50t!on, so a$so &e!n' &o+n o* H!" (e "a &e !n
H!s $!1eness and he!+s,@. o* H!s !n)o++50t!on and &$ess!n' and '$o+/
No( see!n' that th!s Ada" !s s0!+!t5a$, !t (as "eet that &oth the &!+th and $!1e(!se the *ood sho5$d &e s0!+!t5a$
too, &5t s!n)e (e a+e o* a do5&$e and )o"0o5nd nat5+e, !t !s "eet that &oth the &!+th sho5$d &e do5&$e and
$!1e(!se the *ood )o"0o5nd/ ?e (e+e the+e*o+e '!2en a &!+th & (ate+ and S0!+!t: I "ean, & the ho$
&a0t!s",-.: and the *ood !s the 2e+ &+ead o* $!*e, o5+ :o+d Jes5s Ch+!st, ?ho )a"e do(n *+o" hea2en,3./ Fo+
(hen He (as a&o5t to ta1e on H!"se$* a 2o$5nta+ death *o+ o5+ sa1es, on the n!'ht on (h!)h He 'a2e H!"se$*
;@
50, He $a!d a ne( )o2enant on H!s ho$ d!s)!0$es and a0ost$es, and th+o5'h the" on a$$ (ho &e$!e2e on H!"/ In
the 500e+ )ha"&e+, then, o* ho$ and !$$5st+!o5s S!on, a*te+ He had eaten the an)!ent Passo2e+ (!th H!s d!s)!0$es
and had *5$*!$$ed the an)!ent )o2enant, He (ashed H!s d!s)!0$es6 *eet,4. !n to1en o* the ho$ &a0t!s"/ Then
ha2!n' &+o1en &+ead He 'a2e !t to the" sa!n', Ta1e, eat, th!s !s M &od &+o1en *o+ o5 *o+ the +e"!ss!on o*
s!ns,9./ :!1e(!se a$so He too1 the )50 o* (!ne and (ate+ and 'a2e !t to the" sa!n', D+!n1 e a$$ o* !t: *o+ th!s !s
M &$ood, the &$ood o* the Ne( Testa"ent (h!)h !s shed *o+ o5 *o+ the +e"!ss!on o* s!ns/ Th!s do e !n
+e"e"&+an)e o* Me/ Fo+ as o*ten as e eat th!s &+ead and d+!n1 th!s )50, e do she( the death o* the Son o* "an
and )on*ess H!s +es5++e)t!on 5nt!$ He )o"e,;./
I* then the ?o+d o* God !s C5!)1 and ene+'!s!n',<., and the :o+d d!d a$$ that He (!$$ed,=.# !* He sa!d, :et the+e
&e $!'ht and the+e (as $!'ht, $et the+e &e a *!+"a"ent and the+e (as a *!+"a"ent,>.# !* the hea2ens (e+e
esta&$!shed & the ?o+d o* the :o+d and a$$ the host o* the" & the &+eath o* H!s "o5th,@.# !* the hea2en and the
ea+th, (ate+ and *!+e and a!+ and the (ho$e '$o+ o* these, and, !n sooth, th!s "ost no&$e )+eat5+e, "an, (e+e
0e+*e)ted & the ?o+d o* the :o+d# !* God the ?o+d o* H!s o(n (!$$ &e)a"e "an and the 05+e and 5nde*!$ed
&$ood o* the ho$ and e2e+%2!+'!na$ One "ade H!s *$esh (!tho5t the a!d o* seed,-., )an He not then "a1e the
&+ead H!s &od and the (!ne and (ate+ H!s &$oodB He sa!d !n the &e'!nn!n', :et the ea+th &+!n' *o+th '+ass,3.,
and e2en 5nt!$ th!s 0+esent da, (hen the +a!n )o"es !t &+!n's *o+th !ts 0+o0e+ *+5!ts, 5+'ed on and st+en'thened
& the d!2!ne )o""and/ God sa!d, Th!s !s M &od, and Th!s !s M &$ood, and th!s do e !n +e"e"&+an)e o* Me/
And so !t !s at H!s o"n!0otent )o""and 5nt!$ He )o"e: *o+ !t (as !n th!s sense that He sa!d 5nt!$ He )o"e: and
the o2e+shado(!n' 0o(e+ o* the Ho$ S0!+!t &e)o"es th+o5'h the !n2o)at!on the +a!n to th!s ne( t!$$a'e,4./ Fo+
85st as God "ade a$$ that He "ade & the ene+' o* the Ho$ S0!+!t, so a$so no( the ene+' o* the S0!+!t 0e+*o+"s
those th!n's that a+e s50e+nat5+a$ and (h!)h !t !s not 0oss!&$e to )o"0+ehend 5n$ess & *a!th a$one/ Ho( sha$$
th!s &e, sa!d the ho$ A!+'!n, see!n' I 1no( not a "anB And the a+)han'e$ Ga&+!e$ ans(e+ed he+: The Ho$ S0!+!t
sha$$ )o"e 50on thee, and the 0o(e+ o* the H!'hest sha$$ o2e+shado( thee,9./ And no( o5 as1, ho( the &+ead
&e)a"e Ch+!st6s &od and the (!ne and (ate+ Ch+!st6s &$ood/ And I sa 5nto thee, HThe Ho$ S0!+!t !s 0+esent and
does those th!n's (h!)h s5+0ass +eason and tho5'ht/H
F5+the+, &+ead and (!ne s a+e e"0$oed: *o+ God 1no(eth "an6s !n*!+"!t: *o+ !n 'ene+a$ "an t5+ns a(a
d!s)ontented$ *+o" (hat !s not (e$$%(o+n & )5sto": and so (!th H!s 5s5a$ !nd5$'en)e H e 0e+*o+"s H!s
s50e+nat5+a$ (o+1s th+o5'h *a"!$!a+ o&8e)ts: and 85st as, !n the )ase o* &a0t!s", s!n)e !t !s "an6s )5sto" to (ash
h!"se$* (!th (ate+ and ano!nt h!"se$* (!th o!$, He )onne)ted the '+a)e o* the S0!+!t (!th the o!$ and the (ate+
and "ade !t the (ate+ o* +e'ene+at!on, !n $!1e "anne+ s!n)e !t !s "an6s )5sto" to eat and to d+!n1 (ate+ and
(!ne,<., He )onne)ted H!s d!2!n!t (!th these and "ade the" H!s &od and &$ood !n o+de+ that (e "a +!se to
(hat !s s50e+nat5+a$ th+o5'h (hat !s *a"!$!a+ and nat5+a$/
The &od (h!)h !s &o+n o* the ho$ A!+'!n !s !n t+5th &od 5n!ted (!th d!2!n!t, not that the &od (h!)h (as
+e)e!2ed 50 !nto the hea2ens des)ends, &5t that the &+ead !tse$* and the (!ne a+e )han'ed !nto God6s &od and
&$ood,=./ B5t !* o5 enC5!+e ho( th!s ha00ens, !t !s eno5'h *o+ o5 to $ea+n that !t (as th+o5'h the Ho$ S0!+!t,
85st as the :o+d too1 on H!"se$* *$esh that s5&s!sted !n H!" and (as &o+n o* the ho$ Mothe+ o* God th+o5'h the
S0!+!t/ And (e 1no( noth!n' *5+the+ sa2e that the ?o+d o* God !s t+5e and ene+'!ses and !s o"n!0otent, &5t the
"anne+ o* th!s )annot &e sea+)hed o5t,>./ B5t one )an 05t !t (e$$ th5s, that 85st as !n nat5+e the &+ead & the
eat!n' and the (!ne and the (ate+ & the d+!n1!n' a+e )han'ed !nto the &od and &$ood o* the eate+ and d+!n1e+,
and do not,@. &e)o"e a d!**e+ent &od *+o" the *o+"e+ one, so the &+ead o* the ta&$e,-. and the (!ne and (ate+
a+e s50e+nat5+a$$ )han'ed & the !n2o)at!on and 0+esen)e o* the Ho$ S0!+!t !nto the &od and &$ood o* Ch+!st,
and a+e not t(o &5t one,3. and the sa"e/
?he+e*o+e to those (ho 0a+ta1e (o+th!$ (!th *a!th, !t !s *o+ the +e"!ss!on o* s!ns and *o+ $!*e e2e+$ast!n' and *o+
the sa*e'5a+d!n' o* so5$ and &od# &5t to those (ho 0a+ta1e 5n(o+th!$ (!tho5t *a!th, !t !s *o+ )hast!se"ent and
05n!sh"ent, 85st as a$so the death o* the :o+d &e)a"e to those (ho &e$!e2e $!*e and !n)o++50t!on *o+ the
en8o"ent o* ete+na$ &$essedness, (h!$e to those (ho do not &e$!e2e and to the "5+de+e+s o* the :o+d !t !s *o+
e2e+$ast!n' )hast!se"ent and 05n!sh"ent/
The &+ead and the (!ne a+e not "e+e$ *!'5+es o* the &od and &$ood o* Ch+!st ,God *o+&!dN. &5t the de!*!ed &od
o* the :o+d !tse$*: *o+ the :o+d has sa!d, HTh!s !s M &od,H not, th!s !s a *!'5+e o* M &od: and HM &$ood,H not,
a *!'5+e o* M &$ood/ And on a 0+e2!o5s o))as!on He had sa!d to the Je(s, E7)e0t e eat the *$esh o* the Son o*
Man and d+!n1 H!s &$ood, e ha2e no $!*e !n o5/ Fo+ M *$esh !s "eat !ndeed and M &$ood !s d+!n1 !ndeed/ And
a'a!n, He that eateth Me, sha$$ $!2e,4.,9./
?he+e*o+e (!th a$$ *ea+ and a 05+e )ons)!en)e and )e+ta!n *a!th $et 5s d+a( nea+ and !t (!$$ ass5+ed$ &e to 5s as
(e &e$!e2e, do5&t!n' noth!n'/ :et 5s 0a ho"a'e to !t !n a$$ 05+!t &oth o* so5$ and &od: *o+ !t !s t(o*o$d/ :et 5s
d+a( nea+ to !t (!th an a+dent des!+e, and (!th o5+ hands he$d !n the *o+" o* the )+oss s $et 5s +e)e!2e the &od o*
the C+5)!*!ed One: and $et 5s a00$ o5+ ees and $!0s and &+o(s and 0a+ta1e o* the d!2!ne )oa$, !n o+de+ that the
*!+e o* the $on'!n', that !s !n 5s, (!th the add!t!ona$ heat de+!2ed *+o" the )oa$ "a 5tte+$ )ons5"e o5+ s!ns and
!$$5"!ne o5+ hea+ts, and that (e "a &e !n*$a"ed and de!*!ed & the 0a+t!)!0at!on !n the d!2!ne *!+e/ Isa!ah sa(
the )oa$,<./ B5t )oa$ !s not 0$a!n (ood &5t (ood 5n!ted (!th *!+e: !n $!1e "anne+ a$so the &+ead o* the
)o""5n!on,=. !s not 0$a!n &+ead &5t &+ead 5n!ted (!th d!2!n!t/ B5t a &od s (h!)h !s 5n!ted (!th d!2!n!t !s not
<J
one nat5+e, &5t has one nat5+e &e$on'!n' to the &od and anothe+ &e$on'!n' to the d!2!n!t that !s 5n!ted to !t, so
that the )o"0o5nd !s not one nat5+e &5t t(o/
?!th &+ead and (!ne Me$)h!sede1, the 0+!est o* the "ost h!'h God, +e)e!2ed A&+aha" on h!s +et5+n *+o" the
s$a5'hte+ o* the Gent!$es,@./ That ta&$e 0+e%!"a'ed th!s "st!)a$ ta&$e, 85st as that 0+!est (as a t0e and !"a'e o*
Ch+!st, the t+5e h!'h%0+!est,-./ Fo+ tho5 a+t a 0+!est *o+ e2e+ a*te+ the o+de+ o* Me$)h!sede1,3./ O* th!s &+ead the
sho(%&+ead (as an !"a'e,4./ Th!s s5+e$ !s that 05+e and &$ood$ess sa)+!*!)e (h!)h the :o+d th+o5'h the 0+o0het
sa!d !s o**e+ed to H!" *+o" the +!s!n' to the sett!n' o* the s5n,9./
The &od and &$ood o* Ch+!st a+e "a1!n' *o+ the s500o+t o* o5+ so5$ and &od, (!tho5t &e!n' )ons5"ed o+
s5**e+!n' )o++50t!on, not "a1!n' *o+ the d+a5'ht ,God *o+&!dN. &5t *o+ o5+ &e!n' and 0+ese+2at!on, a 0+ote)t!on
a'a!nst a$$ 1!nds o* !n85+, a 05+'!n' *+o" a$$ 5n)$eanness: sho5$d one +e)e!2e &ase 'o$d, the 05+!* !t & the
)+!t!)a$ &5+n!n' $est !n the *5t5+e (e &e )onde"ned (!th th!s (o+$d/ The 05+!* *+o" d!seases and a$$ 1!nds o*
)a$a"!t!es# a))o+d!n' to the (o+ds o* the d!2!ne A0ost$es,;., Fo+ !* (e (o5$d 85d'e o5+se$2es, (e sho5$d not &e
85d'ed/ B5t (hen (e a+e 85d'ed, (e a+e )hastened o* the :o+d, that (e sho5$d not &e )onde"ned (!th the (o+$d/
Th!s too !s (hat he sas, So that he that 0a+ta1eth o* the &od and &$ood o* Ch+!st 5n(o+th!$, eateth and d+!n1eth
da"nat!on to h!"se$*,<./ Be!n' 05+!*!ed & th!s, (e a+e 5n!ted to the &od o* Ch+!st and to H!s S0!+!t and &e)o"e
the &od o* Ch+!st/
Th!s &+ead !s the *!+st%*+5!ts,=. o* the *5t5+e &+ead (h!)h !s E'+ee1Fe0!oBs!osEG'+ee1F, !/e/ ne)essa+ *o+
e7!sten)e/ Fo+ the (o+d E'+ee1Fe0!oBs!onEG'+ee1F s!'n!*!es e!the+ the *5t5+e, that !s H!" ?ho !s *o+ a *5t5+e
a'e, o+ e$se H!" o* ?ho" (e 0a+ta1e *o+ the 0+ese+2at!on o* o5+ essen)e/ ?hethe+ then !t !s !n th!s sense o+ that,
!t !s *!tt!n' to s0ea1 so o* the :o+d6s &od/ Fo+ the :o+d6s *$esh !s $!*e%'!2!n' s0!+!t &e)a5se !t (as )on)e!2ed o* the
$!*e%'!2!n' S0!+!t/ Fo+ (hat !s &o+n o* the S0!+!t !s s0!+!t/ B5t I do not sa th!s to ta1e a(a the nat5+e o* the &od,
&5t I (!sh to "a1e )$ea+ !ts $!*e%'!2!n' and d!2!ne 0o(e+,>./
B5t !* so"e 0e+sons )a$$ed the &+ead and the (!ne ant!t0es,@. o* the &od and &$ood o* the :o+d, as d!d the
d!2!ne$ !ns0!+ed Bas!$, the sa!d so not a*te+ the )onse)+at!on &5t &e*o+e the )onse)+at!on, so )a$$!n' the o**e+!n'
!tse$*/
Pa+t!)!0at!on !s s0o1en o*# *o+ th+o5'h !t (e 0a+ta1e o* the d!2!n!t o* Jes5s/ Co""5n!on, too, !s s0o1en o*, and
!t !s an a)t5a$ )o""5n!on, &e)a5se th+o5'h !t (e ha2e )o""5n!on (!th Ch+!st and sha+e !n H!s *$esh and H!s
d!2!n!t: ea, (e ha2e )o""5n!on and a+e 5n!ted (!th one anothe+ th+o5'h !t/ Fo+ s!n)e (e 0a+ta1e o* one &+ead,
(e a$$ &e)o"e one &od o* Ch+!st and one &$ood, and "e"&e+s one o* anothe+, &e!n' o* one &od (!th Ch+!st/
?!th a$$ o5+ st+en'th, the+e*o+e, $et 5s &e(a+e $est (e +e)e!2e )o""5n!on *+o" o+ '+ant !t to he+et!)s# G!2e not
that (h!)h !s ho$ 5nto the do's, sa!th the :o+d, ne!the+ )ast e o5+ 0ea+$s &e*o+e s(!ne,-., $est (e &e)o"e
0a+ta1e+s !n the!+ d!shono5+ and )onde"nat!on/ Fo+ !* t+o8an !s !n t+5th (!th Ch+!st and (!th one anothe+, (e a+e
ass5+ed$ 2o$5nta+!$ 5n!ted a$so (!th a$$ those (ho 0a+ta1e (!th 5s/ Fo+ th!s 5n!on !s e**e)ted 2o$5nta+!$ and not
a'a!nst o5+ !n)$!nat!on/ Fo+ (e a+e a$$ one &od &e)a5se (e 0a+ta1e o* the one &+ead, as the d!2!ne A0ost$e
sas,3./
F5+the+, ant!t0es o* *5t5+e th!n's a+e s0o1en o*, not as tho5'h the (e+e not !n +ea$!t Ch+!st6s &od and &$ood,
&5t that no( th+o5'h the" (e 0a+ta1e o* Ch+!st6s d!2!n!t, (h!$e then (e sha$$ 0a+ta1e "enta$$,4. th+o5'h the
2!s!on a$one/
$A"!E% XI4(
oncernin/ our @ord=s /enea,o/) and concernin/ the ho,) 7other o2 3od849(
Con)e+n!n' the ho$ and "5)h%$a5ded e2e+%2!+'!n one, Ma+, the Mothe+ o* God, (e ha2e sa!d so"eth!n' !n the
0+e)ed!n' )ha0te+s, &+!n'!n' *o+(a+d (hat (as "ost o00o+t5ne, 2!D/, that st+!)t$ and t+5$ she !s and !s )a$$ed
the Mothe+ o* God/ No( $et 5s *!$$ 50 the &$an1s/ Fo+ she &e!n' 0+e%o+da!ned & the ete+na$ 0+es)!ent )o5nse$ o*
God and !"a'ed *o+th and 0+o)$a!"ed !n d!2e+se !"a'es and d!s)o5+ses o* the 0+o0hets th+o5'h the Ho$ S0!+!t,
s0+an' at the 0+e%dete+"!ned t!"e *+o" the +oot o* Da2!d, a))o+d!n' to the 0+o"!ses that (e+e "ade to h!"/ Fo+
the $o+d hath s(o+n, He sa!th !n t+5th to Da2!d, He (!$$ not t5+n *+o" !t: o* the *+5!t o* Th &od (!$$ I set 50on
Th th+one,;./ And a'a!n, On)e ha2e I s(o+n & M ho$!ness, that I (!$$ not $!e 5nto Da2!d/ H!s seed sha$$
end5+e *o+ e2e+, and H!s th+one as the s5n &e*o+e Me/ It sha$$ &e esta&$!shed *o+ e2e+ as the "oon, and as a
*a!th*5$ (!tness !n hea2en,<./ And Isa!ah sas: And the+e sha$$ )o"e o5t a +od o5t o* the ste" o* Jesse and a
&+an)h sha$$ '+o( o5t o* h!s +oots,=./
B5t that Jose0h !s des)ended *+o" the t+!&e o* Da2!d !s e70+ess$ de"onst+ated & Matthe( and :51e, the "ost
ho$ e2an'e$!sts/ B5t Matthe( de+!2es Jose0h *+o" Da2!d th+o5'h So$o"on, (h!$e :51e does so th+o5'h
Nathan# (h!$e o2e+ the ho$ A!+'!n6s o+!'!n &oth 0ass !n s!$en)e/
One o5'ht to +e"e"&e+ that !t (as not the )5sto" o* the He&+e(s no+ o* the d!2!ne S)+!0t5+e to '!2e 'enea$o'!es
o* (o"en# and the $a( (as to 0+e2ent one t+!&e see1!n' (!2es *+o" anothe+,>./ And so s!n)e Jose0h (as
des)ended *+o" the t+!&e o* Da2!d and (as a 85st "an ,*o+ th!s the d!2!ne Gos0e$ test!*!es., he (o5$d not ha2e
es0o5sed the ho$ A!+'!n )ont+a+ to the $a(# he (o5$d not ha2e ta1en he+ 5n$ess she had &een o* the sa"e
t+!&e,>a./ It (as s5**!)!ent, the+e*o+e, to de"onst+ate the des)ent o* Jose0h/
<-
One o5'ht a$so to o&se+2e,@. th!s, that the $a( (as that (hen a "an d!ed (!tho5t seed, th!s "a(s &+othe+ sho5$d
ta1e to (!*e the (!*e o* the dead "an and +a!se 50 seed to h!s &+othe+,-./ The o**s0+!n', the+e*o+e, &e$on'ed &
nat5+e to the se)ond, that !s, to h!" that &e'at !t, &5t & $a( to the dead/
Bo+n then o* the $!ne o* Nathan, the son o* Da2!d, :e2! &e'at Me$)h!,3. and Panthe+: Panthe+ &e'at Ba+0anthe+,
so )a$$ed/ Th!s Ba+0anthe+ &e'at Joa)h!": Joa)h!" &e'at the ho$ Mothe+ o* God,4.,9./ And o* the $!ne o*
So$o"on, the son o* Da2!d, Mathan had a (!*e,;. o* (ho" he &e'at Ja)o&/ No( on the death o* Mathan,
Me$)h!, o* the t+!&e o* Nathan, the son o* :e2! and &+othe+ o* Panthe+, "a++!ed the (!*e o* Mathan, Ja)o&6s
"othe+, o* (ho" he &e'at He$!/ The+e*o+e Ja)o& and He$$ &e)a"e &+othe+s on t!$e "othe+6s s!de, Ja)o& &e!n' o*
the t+!&e o* So$o"on and He$! o* the t+!&e o* Nathan/ Then He$! o* the t+!&e o* Nathan d!ed )h!$d$ess, and Ja)o&
h!s &+othe+, o* the t+!&e o* So$o"on, too1 h!s (!*e and +a!sed 50 seed to h!s &+othe+ and &e'at Jose0h/ Jose0h,
the+e*o+e, !s & nat5+e the son o* Ja)o&, o* the $!ne o* So$o"on, &5t & $a( he !s the son o* He$$ o* the $!ne o*
Nathan/
Joa)h!" then,<. too1 to (!*e that +e2e+ed and 0+a!se(o+th (o"an, Anna/ B5t 85st as the ea+$!e+ Anna,=., (ho
(as &a++en, &o+e Sa"5e$ & 0+ae+ and & 0+o"!se, so a$so th!s Anna & s500$!)at!on and 0+o"!se *+o" God
&a+e the Mothe+ o* God !n o+de+ that she "!'ht not e2en !n th!s &e &eh!nd the "at+ons o* *a"e,>./ A))o+d!n'$ !t
(as '+a)e ,*o+ th!s !s the !nte+0+etat!on o* Anna. that &o+e the $ad: ,*o+ she &e)a"e t+5$ the :ad o* a$$ )+eated
th!n's !n &e)o"!n' the Mothe+ o* the C+eato+./ F5+the+, Joa)h!",@. (as &o+n !n the ho5se o* the P+o&at!)a,-.,
and (as &+o5'ht 50 to the te"0$e/ Then 0$anted !n the Ho5se o* God and !n)+eased & the S0!+!t, $!1e a *+5!t*5$
o$!2e t+ee, she &e)a"e the ho"e o* e2e+ 2!+t5e, t5+n!n' he+ "!nd a(a *+o" e2e+ se)5$a+ and )a+na$ des!+e, and
th5s 1ee0!n' he+ so5$ as (e$$ as he+ hot$ 2!+'!na$, as (as "eet *o+ he+ (ho (as to +e)e!2e God !nto he+ &oso":
*o+ as He !s ho$, He *!nds +est a"on' the ho$,3./ Th5s, the+e*o+e, she st+o2e a*te+ ho$!ness, and (as de)$a+ed a
ho$ and (onde+*5$ te"0$e *!t *o+ the "ost h!'h God/
Mo+eo2e+, s!n)e the ene" o* o5+ sa$2at!on (as 1ee0!n' a (at)h*5$ ee on 2!+'!ns, a))o+d!n' to the 0+o0he) o*
Isa!ah, (ho sa!d, Beho$d a 2!+'!n sha$$ )on)e!2e and &a+e a Son and sha$$ )a$$ H!s na"e E""an5e$, (h!)h !s,
&e!n' !nte+0+eted, 6God (!th 5s,4.,6 !n o+de+ that he (ho ta1eth the (!se !n the!+ o(n )+a*t!ness,9. "a de)e!2e
h!" (ho a$(as '$o+!eth !n h!s (!sdo", the "a!den !s '!2en !n "a++!a'e to Jose0h & the 0+!ests, a ne( &oo1 to
h!" (ho !s 2e+sed !n $ette+s,;.: &5t the "a++!a'e (as &oth the 0+ote)t!on o* the 2!+'!n and the de$5s!on o* h!"
(ho (as 1ee0!n' a (at)h*5$ ee on 2!+'!ns/ B5t (hen the *5$ness o* t!"e (as )o"e, the "essen'e+ o* the :o+d
(as sent to he+, (!th the 'ood ne(s o* o5+ :o+d6s )on)e0t!on/ And th5s she )on)e!2ed the Son o* God, the
h0ostat!) 0o(e+ o* the Fathe+, not o* the (!$$ o* the *$esh no+ o* the (!$$ o* "an,<., that !s to sa, & )onne)t!on
and seed, &5t & the 'ood 0$eas5+e o* the Fathe+ and )o%o0e+at!on o* the Ho$ S0!+!t/ She "!n!ste+ed to the
C+eato+ !n that He (as )+eated, to the Fash!one+ !n that He (as *ash!oned, and to the Son o* God and God !n that
He (as "ade *$esh and &e)a"e "an *+o" he+ 05+e and !""a)5$ate *$esh and &$ood, sat!s*!n' the de&t o* the
*!+st "othe+/ Fo+ 85st as the $atte+ (as *o+"ed *+o" Ada" (!tho5t )onne)t!on, so a$so d!d the *o+"e+ &+!n' *o+th
the ne( Ada", (ho (as &+o5'ht *o+th !n a))o+dan)e (!th the $a(s o* 0a+t5+!t!on and a&o2e the nat5+e o*
'ene+at!on/
Fo+ He (ho (as o* the Fathe+, et (!tho5t "othe+, (as &o+n o* (o"an (!tho5t a *athe+6s )o%o0e+at!on/ And so
*a+ as He (as &o+n o* (o"an, H!s &!+th (as !n a))o+dan)e (!th the $a(s o* 0a+t5+!t!on, (h!$e so *a+ as He had no
*athe+, H!s &!+th (as a&o2e the nat5+e o* 'ene+at!on: and !n that !t (as at the 5s5a$ t!"e ,*o+ He (as &o+n on the
)o"0$et!on o* the n!nth "onth (hen the tenth (as 85st &e'!nn!n'., H!s &!+th (as !n a))o+dan)e (!th the $a(s o*
0a+t5+!t!on, (h!$e !n that !t (as 0a!n$ess !t (as a&o2e the $a(s o* 'ene+at!on/ Fo+, as 0$eas5+e d!d not 0+e)ede !t,
0a!n d!d not *o$$o( !t, a))o+d!n' to the 0+o0het (ho sas, Be*o+e she t+a2a!$ed, she &+o5'ht *o+th, and a'a!n,
&e*o+e he+ 0a!n )a"e she (as de$!2e+ed o* a "an%)h!$d,=./ The Son o* God !n)a+nate, the+e*o+e, (as &o+n o* he+,
not a d!2!ne$%!ns0!+ed,>. "an &5t God !n)a+nate not a 0+o0het ano!nted (!th ene+' &5t & the 0+esen)e o* the
ano!nt!n' One !n H!s )o"0$eteness, so that the Ano!nte+ &e)a"e "an and the Ano!nted God, not & a )han'e o*
nat5+e &5t & 5n!on !n s5&s!sten)e/ Fo+ the Ano!nte+ and the Ano!nted (e+e one and the sa"e, ano!nt!n' !n the
)a0a)!t o* God H!"se$* as "an/ M5st the+e not the+e*o+e &e a Mothe+ o* God (ho &o+e God !n)a+nateB
Ass5+ed$ she (ho 0$aed the 0a+t o* the C+eato+6s se+2ant and "othe+ !s !n a$$ st+!)tness and t+5th !n +ea$!t
God6s Mothe+ and :ad and R5een o2e+ a$$ )+eated th!n's/ B5t 85st as He (ho (as )on)e!2ed 1e0t he+ (ho
)on)e!2ed st!$$ 2!+'!n, !n $!1e "anne+ a$so He (ho (as &o+n 0+ese+2ed he+ 2!+'!n!t !nta)t, on$ 0ass!n' th+o5'h
he+ and 1ee0!n' he+ )$osed,@./ The )on)e0t!on, !ndeed, (as th+o5'h the sense o* hea+!n', &5t the &!+th th+o5'h
the 5s5a$ 0ath & (h!)h )h!$d+en )o"e, a$tho5'h so"e te$$ ta$es o* H!s &!+th th+o5'h the s!de o* the Mothe+ o*
God/ Fo+ !t (as not !"0oss!&$e *o+ H!" to ha2e )o"e & th!s 'ate, (!tho5t !n85+!n' he+ sea$ !n an
(a/
The e2e+%2!+'!n One th5s +e"a!ns e2en a*te+ the &!+th st!$$ 2!+'!n, ha2!n' ne2e+ at an t!"e 50 t!$$ death )onso+ted
(!th a "an/ Fo+ a$tho5'h !t !s (+!tten, And 1ne( he+ not t!$$ she had &+o5'ht *o+th he+ *!+st%&o+n Son,-., et note
that he (ho !s *!+st%&e'otten !s *!+st%&o+n e2en !* he !s on$%&e'otten/ Fo+ the (o+d H*!+st%&o+nH "eans that he (as
&o+n *!+st &5t does not at a$$ s5''est the &!+th o* othe+s/ And the (o+d Ht!$$H s!'n!*!es the $!"!t o* the a00o!nted
t!"e &5t does not e7)$5de the t!"e the+ea*te+/ Fo+ the :o+d sas, And $o, I a" (!th o5 a$(as, e2en 5nto the end
<3
o* the (o+$d,3., not "ean!n' the+e& that He (!$$ &e se0a+ated *+o" 5s a*te+ the )o"0$et!on o* the a'e/ The
d!2!ne a0ost$e, !ndeed, sas, And so sha$$ (e e2e+ &e (!th the :o+d,4., "ean!n' a*te+ the 'ene+a$ +es5++e)t!on/
Fo+ )o5$d !t &e 0oss!&$e that she, (ho had &o+ne God and *+o" e70e+!en)e o* the s5&seC5ent e2ents had )o"e to
1no( the "!+a)$e, sho5$d +e)e!2e the e"&+a)e o* a "an/ God *o+&!dN It !s not the 0a+t o* a )haste "!nd to th!n1
s5)h tho5'hts, *a+ $ess to )o""!t s5)h a)ts
B5t th!s &$essed (o"an, (ho (as dee"ed (o+th o* '!*ts that a+e s50e+nat5+a$, s5**e+ed those 0a!ns, (h!)h she
es)a0ed at the &!+th, !n the ho5+ o* the 0ass!on, end5+!n' *+o" "othe+$ s"0ath the +end!n' o* the &o(e$s, and
(hen she &ehe$d H!", ?ho" she 1ne( to &e God & the "anne+ o* H!s 'ene+at!on, 1!$$ed as a "a$e*a)to+, he+
tho5'hts 0!e+)ed he+ as a s(o+d, and th!s !s the "ean!n' o* th!s 2e+se: Iea, a s(o+d sha$$ 0!e+)e th+o5'h th o(n
sa5$ a$so,9.,;./ B5t the 8o o* the +es5++e)t!on t+ans*o+"s the 0a!n, 0+o)$a!"!n' H!", ?ho d!ed !n the *$esh, to &e
God/
$A"!E% X4(
oncernin/ the honour due to the #aints and their remains(
To the sa!nts hono5+ "5st &e 0a!d as *+!ends o* Ch+!st, as sons and he!+s o* God: !n the (o+ds o* John the
theo$o'!an and e2an'e$!st, As "an as +e)e!2ed H!", to the" 'a2e He 0o(e+ to &e)a"e sons o* God,<./ So that
the a+e no $on'e+ se+2ants, &5t sons: and !* sons, a$so he!+s, he!+s o* God and 8o!nt he!+s (!th Ch+!st,=.: and the
:o+d !n the ho$ Gos0e$s sas to H!s a0ost$es, Ie a+e M *+!ends,>./ Hen)e*o+th I )a$$ o5 not se+2ants, *o+ the
se+2ant 1no(eth not (hat h!s $o+d doeth,@./ And *5+the+, !* the C+eato+ and :o+d o* a$$ th!n's !s )a$$ed a$so K!n'
o* K!n's and :o+d o* :o+ds,-. and God o* Gods, s5+e$ a$so the sa!nts a+e 'ods and $o+ds and 1!n's/ Fo+ o* these
God !s and !s )a$$ed God and :o+d and K!n'/ Fo+ I a" the God o* A&+aha", He sa!d to Moses, the God o* Isaa)
and the God o* Ja)o&,3./ And God "ade Moses a 'od to Pha+aoh,4./ No( I "ean 'ods and 1!n's and $o+ds not
!n nat5+e, &5t as +5$e+s and "aste+s o* the!+ 0ass!ons, and as 0+ese+2!n' a t+5th*5$ $!1eness to the d!2!ne !"a'e
a))o+d!n' to (h!)h the (e+e "ade ,*o+ the !"a'e o* a 1!n' !s a$so )a$$ed 1!n'., and as &e!n' 5n!ted to God o*
the!+ o(n *+ee%(!$$ and +e)e!2!n' H!" as an !nd(e$$e+ and &e)o"!n' & '+a)e th+o5'h 0a+t!)!0at!on (!th H!"
(hat He !s H!"se$* & nat5+e/ S5+e$, then, the (o+sh!00e+s and *+!ends and sons o* God a+e to &e he$d !n
hono5+B Fo+ the hono5+ she(n to the "ost tho5'ht*5$ o* *e$$o(%se+2ants !s a 0+oo* o* 'ood *ee$!n' to(a+ds the
)o""on Maste+,9./
These a+e "ade t+eas5+!es and 05+e ha&!tat!ons o* God: Fo+ I (!$$ d(e$$ !n the", sa!d God, and (a$1 !n the", and
I (!$$ &e the!+ God,;./ The d!2!ne S)+!0t5+e $!1e(!se sa!th that the so5$s o* the 85st a+e !n God6s hand,<. and death
)annot $a ho$d o* the"/ Fo+ death !s +athe+ the s$ee0 o* the sa!nts than the!+ death/ Fo+ the t+a2a!$ed !n th!s $!*e
and sha$$ to the end,=., and P+e)!o5s !n the s!'ht o* the :o+d !s the death o* H!s sa!nts,>./ ?hat then, !s "o+e
0+e)!o5s than to &e !n the hand o* GodB Fo+ God !s :!*e and :!'ht, and those (ho a+e !n God6s hand a+e !n $!*e
and $!'ht/
F5+the+, that God d(e$t e2en !n the!+ &od!es !n s0!+!t5a$ (!se,>a., the A0ost$e te$$s 5s, sa!n', Kno( e not that
o5+ &od!es a+e the te"0$es o* the Ho$ S0!+!t d(e$$!n' !n o5B,@., and The :o+d !s that S0!+!t,-., and I* an one
dest+o the te"0$e o* God, h!" (!$$ God dest+o,3./ S5+e$, then, (e "5st as)+!&e hono5+ to the $!2!n' te"0$es
o* God, the $!2!n' ta&e+na)$es o* God/ These (h!$e the $!2ed stood (!th )on*!den)e &e*o+e God/
The Maste+ Ch+!st "ade the +e"a!ns o* the sa!nts to &e *o5nta!ns o* sa$2at!on to 5s, 0o5+!n' *o+th "an!*o$d
&$ess!n's and a&o5nd!n' !n o!$ o* s(eet *+a'+an)e: and $et no one d!s&e$!e2e th!s,4./ Fo+ !* (ate+ &5+st !n the
dese+t *+o" the stee0 and so$!d +o)1 at God6s (!$$,9. and *+o" the 8a(%&one o* an ass to C5en)h Sa"son6s
th!+st,;., !s !t !n)+ed!&$e that *+a'+ant o!$ sho5$d &5+st *o+th *+o" the "a+t+s6 +e"a!nsB B no "eans, at $east to
those (ho 1no( the 0o(e+ o* God and the hono5+ (h!)h He a))o+ds H!s sa!nts/
In the $a( e2e+ one (ho to5)heth a dead &od (as )ons!de+ed !"05+e,<., &5t these a+e not dead/ Fo+ *+o" the
t!"e (hen He that !s H!"se$* $!*e and the A5tho+ o* $!*e (as +e)1oned a"on' the dead, (e do not )a$$ those dead
(ho ha2e *a$$en as$ee0 !n the ho0e o* the +es5++e)t!on and !n *a!th on H!"/ Fo+ ho( )o5$d a dead &od (o+1
"!+a)$esB Ho(, the+e*o+e, a+e de"ons d+!2en o** & the", d!seases d!s0e$$ed, s!)1 0e+sons "ade (e$$, the &$!nd
+esto+ed to s!'ht, $e0e+s 05+!*!ed, te"0tat!ons and t+o5&$es o2e+)o"e, and ho( does e2e+ 'ood '!*t *+o" the
Fathe+ o* $!'hts,=. )o"e do(n th+o5'h the" to those (ho 0+a (!th s5+e *a!thB Ho( "5)h $a&o5+ (o5$d o5 not
5nde+'o to *!nd a 0at+on to !nt+od5)e o5 to a "o+ta$ 1!n' and s0ea1 to h!" on o5+ &eha$*B A+e not those, then,
(o+th o* hono5+ (ho a+e the 0at+ons o* the (ho$e +a)e, and "a1e !nte+)ess!on to God *o+ 5sB Iea, 2e+!$, (e
o5'ht to '!2e hono5+ to the" & +a!s!n' te"0$es to God !n the!+ na"e, &+!n'!n' the" *+5!t%o**e+!n's, hono5+!n'
the!+ "e"o+!es and ta1!n' s0!+!t5a$ de$!'ht !n the", !n o+de+ that the 8o o* those (ho )a$$ on 5s "a &e o5+s, that
!n o5+ atte"0ts at (o+sh!0 (e "a not on the )ont+a+ )a5se the" o**en)e/ Fo+ those (ho (o+sh!0 God (!$$ ta1e
0$eas5+e !n those th!n's (he+e& God !s (o+sh!00ed, (h!$e H!s sh!e$d%&ea+e+s (!$$ &e (+ath at those th!n's
(he+e(!th God !s (+oth/ In 0sa$"s and h"ns and s0!+!t5a$ son's,>., !n )ont+!t!on and !n 0!t *o+ the need, $et
5s &e$!e2e+s,@. (o+sh!0 the sa!nts, as God a$so !s "ost (o+sh!00ed !n s5)h (!se/ :et 5s +a!se "on5"ents to the"
and 2!s!&$e !"a'es, and $et 5s o5+se$2es &e)o"e, th+o5'h !"!tat!on o* the!+ 2!+t5es, $!2!n' "on5"ents and !"a'es
o* the"/ :et 5s '!2e hono5+ to he+ (ho &o+e God as &e!n' st+!)t$ and t+5$ the Mothe+ o* God/ :et 5s hono5+
a$so the 0+o0het John as *o+e+5nne+ and &a0t!st,-., as a0ost$e and "a+t+, Fo+ a"on' the" that a+e &o+n o*
(o"en the+e hath not +!sen a '+eate+ than John the Ba0t!st,3., as sa!th the :o+d, and he &e)a"e the *!+st to
<4
0+o)$a!" the K!n'do"/ :et 5s hono5+ the a0ost$es as the :o+d6s &+othe+s, (ho sa( H!" *a)e to *a)e and
"!n!ste+ed to H!s 0ass!on, *o+ (ho" God the Fathe+ d!d *o+e1no( He a$so d!d 0+edest!nate to &e )on*o+"ed to
the !"a'e o* H!s Son,4., *!+st a0ost$es, se)ond 0+o0hets,9., th!+d 0asto+s end tea)he+s,;./ :et 5s a$so hono5+ the
"a+t+s o* the :o+d )hosen o5t o* e2e+ )$ass, as so$d!e+s o* Ch+!st (ho ha2e d+5n1 H!s )50 and (e+e then
&a0t!Ded (!th the &a0t!s" o* H!s $!*e%&+!n'!n' death, to &e 0a+ta1e+s o* H!s 0ass!on and '$o+: o* (ho" the
$eade+ !s Ste0hen, the *!+st dea)on o* Ch+!st and a0ost$e and *!+st "a+t+/ A$so $et 5s hono5+ o5+ ho$ *athe+s, the
God%0ossessed as)et!)s, (hose st+5''$e (as the $on'e+ and "o+e to!$so"e one o* the )ons)!en)e: (ho (ande+ed
a&o5t !n shee0s1!ns and 'oats1!ns, &e!n' dest!t5te, a**$!)ted, to+"ented# the (ande+ed !n dese+ts and !n
"o5nta!ns and !n dens and )a2es o* the ea+th, o* (ho" the (o+$d (as not (o+th,<./ :et 5s hono5+ those (ho
(e+e 0+o0hets &e*o+e '+a)e, the 0at+!a+)hs ant! 85st "en (ho *o+eto$d the :o+d6s )o"!n'/ :et 5s )a+e*5$$ +e2!e(
the $!*e o* these "en, and $et 5s e"5$ate the!+ *a!th,=. and $o2e and ho0e and Dea$ and (a o* $!*e, and end5+an)e
o* s5**e+!n's and 0at!en)e e2en to &$ood, !n o+de+ that (e "a &e sha+e+s (!th the" !n the!+ )+o(ns o* '$o+/
$A"!E% X4I(
oncernin/ Ima/es8?9(
B5t s!n)e so"e,@. *!nd *a5$t (!th 5s *o+ (o+sh!00!n' and hono5+!n' the !"a'e o* o5+ Sa2!o5+ and that o* o5+
:ad, and those, too, o* the +est o* the sa!nts and se+2ants o* Ch+!st, $et the" +e"e"&e+ that !n the &e'!nn!n' God
)+eated "an a*te+ H!s o(n !"a'e,-./ On (hat '+o5nds, then, do (e she( +e2e+en)e to ea)h othe+ 5n$ess &e)a5se
(e a+e "ade a*te+ God6s !"a'eB Fo+ as Bas!$, that "5)h%2e+sed e70o5nde+ o* d!2!ne th!n's, sas, the hono5+
'!2en to the !"a'e 0asses o2e+ to the 0+otot0e,3./ No( a 0+otot0e !s that (h!)h !s !"a'ed, *+o" (h!)h the
de+!2at!2e !s o&ta!ned/ ?h (as !t that the Mosa!) 0eo0$e hono5+ed on a$$ hands the ta&e+na)$e,4. (h!)h &o+e an
!"a'e and t0e o* hea2en$ th!n's, o+ +athe+ o* the (ho$e )+eat!onB God !ndeed sa!d to Moses, :oo1 that tho5
"a1e the" a*te+ the!+ 0atte+n (h!)h (as she(ed thee !n the "o5nt,9./ The Che+5&!", too, (h!)h o6e+shado( the
"e+) seat, a+e the not the (o+1 o* "en6s hands,;.B ?hat, *5+the+, !s the )e$e&+ated te"0$e at Je+5sa$e"B Is !t
not hand%"ade and *ash!oned & the s1!$$ o* "en,<.B
Mo+eo2e+ the d!2!ne S)+!0t5+e &$a"es those (ho (o+sh!0 '+a2en !"a'es, &5t a$so those (ho sa)+!*!)e to de"ons/
The G+ee1s sa)+!*!)ed and the Je(s a$so sa)+!*!)ed: &5t the G+ee1s to de"ons and the Je(s to God/ And the
sa)+!*!)e o* the G+ee1s (as +e8e)ted and )onde"ned, &5t the sa)+!*!)e o* the 85st (as 2e+ a))e0ta&$e to God/ Fo+
Noah sa)+!*!)ed, and God s"e$$ed a s(eet sa2o5+,=., +e)e!2!n' the *+a'+an)e o* the +!'ht )ho!)e and 'ood%(!$$
to(a+ds H!"/ And so the '+a2en !"a'es o* the G+ee1s, s!n)e the (e+e !"a'es o* de!t!es, (e+e +e8e)ted and
*o+&!dden/
B5t &es!des th!s (ho )an "a1e an !"!tat!on o* the !n2!s!&$e, !n)o+0o+ea$, 5n)!+)5"s)+!&ed, *o+"$ess GodB
The+e*o+e to '!2e *o+" to the De!t !s the he!'ht o* *o$$ and !"0!et/ And hen)e !t !s that !n the O$d Testa"ent
the 5se o* !"a'es (as not )o""on/ B5t a*te+ God,>. !n H!s &o(e$s o* 0!t &e)a"e !n t+5th "an *o+ o5+
sa$2at!on, not as He (as seen & A&+aha" !n the se"&$an)e o* a "an, no+ as He (as seen & the 0+o0hets, &5t !n
&e!n' t+5$ "an, and a*te+ He $!2ed 50on the ea+th and d(e$t a"on' "en,@., (o+1ed "!+a)$es, s5**e+ed, (as
)+5)!*!ed, +ose a'a!n and (as ta1en &a)1 to Hea2en, s!n)e a$$ these th!n's a)t5a$$ too1 0$a)e and (e+e seen &
"en, the (e+e (+!tten *o+ the +e"e"&+an)e and !nst+5)t!on o* 5s (ho (e+e not a$!2e at that t!"e !n o+de+ that
tho5'h (e sa( not, (e "a st!$$, hea+!n' and &e$!e2!n', o&ta!n the &$ess!n' o* the :o+d/ B5t see!n' that not e2e+
one has a 1no($ed'e o* $ette+s no+ t!"e *o+ +ead!n', the Fathe+s 'a2e the!+ san)t!on to de0!)t!n' these e2ents on
!"a'es as &e!n' a)ts o* '+eat he+o!s", !n o+de+ that the sho5$d *o+" a )on)!se "e"o+!a$ o* the"/ O*ten,
do5&t$ess, (hen (e ha2e not the :o+d6s 0ass!on !n "!nd and see the !"a'e o* Ch+!st6s )+5)!*!7!on, H!s sa2!n'
0ass!on !s &+o5'ht &a)1 to +e"e"&+an)e, and (e *a$$ do(n and (o+sh!0 not the "ate+!a$ &5t that (h!)h !s
!"a'ed: 85st as (e do not (o+sh!0 the "ate+!a$ o* (h!)h the Gos0e$s a+e "ade, no+ the "ate+!a$ o* the C+oss, &5t
that (h!)h these t0!*/ Fo+ (he+e!n does the )+oss, that t0!*!es the :o+d, d!**e+ *+o" a )+oss that does not do soB
It !s 85st the sa"e a$so !n the )ase o* the Mothe+ o* the :o+d/ Fo+ the hono5+ (h!)h (e '!2e to he+ !s +e*e++ed to
H!" ?ho (as "ade o* he+ !n)a+nate/ And s!"!$a+$ a$so the &+a2e a)ts o* ho$ "en st!+ 5s 50 to &e &+a2e and to
e"5$ate and !"!tate the!+ 2a$o5+ and to '$o+!* God/ Fo+ as (e sa!d, the hono5+ that !s '!2en to the &est o* *e$$o(%
se+2ants !s a 0+oo* o* 'ood%(!$$ to(a+ds o5+ )o""on :ad, and the hono5+ +ende+ed to the !"a'e 0asses o2e+ to
the 0+otot0e,-./ B5t th!s !s an 5n(+!tten t+ad!t!on,3., 85st as !s a$so the (o+sh!00!n' to(a+ds the East and the
(o+sh!0 o* the C+oss, and 2e+ "an othe+ s!"!$a+ th!n's/
A )e+ta!n ta$e,4., too, !s to$d,9., ho( that (hen A5'a+5s,;. (as 1!n' o2e+ the )!t o* the Edessenes, he sent a
0o+t+a!t 0a!nte+ to 0a!nt a $!1eness o* the :o+d, and (hen the 0a!nte+ )o5$d not 0a!nt &e)a5se o* the &+!'htness that
shone *+o" H!s )o5ntenan)e, the :o+d H!"se$* 05t a 'a+"ent o2e+ H!s o(n d!2!ne and $!*e%'!2!n' *a)e and
!"0+essed on !t an !"a'e o* H!"se$* and sent th!s to A5'a+5s, to sat!s* th5s h!s des!+e/
Mo+eo2e+ that the A0ost$es handed do(n "5)h that (as 5n(+!tten, Pa5$, the A0ost$e o* the Gent!$es, te$$s 5s !n
these (o+ds: The+e*o+e, &+eth+en, stand *ast and ho$d the t+ad!t!ons (h!)h e ha2e &een ta5'ht o* 5s, (hethe+ &
(o+d o+ & e0!st$e,<./ And to the Co+!nth!ans he (+!tes, No( I 0+a!se o5, &+eth+en, that e +e"e"&e+ "e !n a$$
th!n's, and 1ee0 the t+ad!t!ons as I ha2e de$!2e+ed the" to o5,=./H
$A"!E% X4II(
oncernin/ #cri*ture8?9(
<9
It !s one and the sa"e God ?ho" &oth the O$d and the Ne( Testa"ent 0+o)$a!", ?ho !s 0+a!sed and '$o+!*!ed !n
the T+!n!t: I a" )o"e, sa!th the :o+d, not to dest+o $!*e $a( &5t to *5$*!$ !t,@./ Fo+ He H!"se$* (o+1ed o5t o5+
sa$2at!on *o+ (h!)h a$$ S)+!0t5+e and a$$ "ste+ e7!sts/ And a'a!n, Sea+)h the S)+!0t5+es *o+ the a+e the that
test!* o* Me,-./ And the A0ost$e sas, God, ?ho at s5nd+ t!"es and !n d!2e+se "anne+s s0a1e !n t!"e 0ast 5nto
the *athe+s & the 0+o0hets, hath !n these $ast das s0o1en 5nto 5s & H!s Son,3./ Th+o5'h the Ho$ S0!+!t,
the+e*o+e, &oth the $a( and the 0+o0hets, the e2an'e$!sts and a0ost$es and 0asto+s and tea)he+s, s0a1e/
A$$ S)+!0t5+e, then, !s '!2en & !ns0!+at!on o* God and !s a$so ass5+ed$ 0+o*!ta&$e,4./ ?he+e*o+e to sea+)h the
S)+!0t5+es !s a (o+1 "ost *a!+ and "ost 0+o*!ta&$e *o+ so5$s/ Fo+ 85st as the t+ee 0$anted & the )hanne$s o* (ate+s,
so a$so the so5$ (ate+ed & the d!2!ne S)+!0t5+e !s en+!)hed and '!2es *+5!t !n !ts season,9., 2!D/ o+thodo7 &e$!e*,
and !s ado+ned (!th e2e+'+een $ea*a'e, I "ean, a)t!ons 0$eas!n' to God/ Fo+ th+o5'h the Ho$ S)+!0t5+es (e a+e
t+a!ned to a)t!on that !s 0$eas!n' to God, and 5nt+o5&$ed )onte"0$at!on/ Fo+ !n these (e *!nd &oth e7ho+tat!on to
e2e+ 2!+t5e and d!ss5as!on *+o" e2e+ 2!)e/ I*, the+e*o+e, (e a+e $o2e+s o* $ea+n!n', (e sha$$ a$so &e $ea+ned !n
"an th!n's/ Fo+ & )a+e and to!$ and the '+a)e o* God the G!2e+, a$$ th!n's a+e a))o"0$!shed/ Fo+ e2e+ one that
as1eth +e)e!2eth, and he that see1eth *!ndeth, and to h!nt that 1no)1eth !t sha$$ &e o0ened,;./ ?he+e*o+e $et 5s
1no)1 at that 2e+ *a!+ 'a+den o* the S)+!0t5+es, so *+a'+ant and s(eet and &$oo"!n', (!th !ts 2a+!ed so5nds o*
s0!+!t5a$ and d!2!ne$%!ns0!+ed &!+ds +!n'!n' a$$ +o5nd o5+ ea+s, $a!n' ho$d o* o5+ hea+ts, )o"*o+t!n' the "o5+ne+,
0a)!*!n' the an'+ and *!$$!n' h!" (!th 8o e2e+$ast!n': (h!)h sets o5+ "!nd on the 'o$d%'$ea"!n', &+!$$!ant
&a)1 o* the d!2!ne do2e,<., (hose &+!'ht 0!n!ons &ea+ 50 to the on$%&e'otten Son and He!+ o* the
H5s&and"an,=. o* that s0!+!t5a$ A!nea+d and &+!n' 5s th+o5'h H!" to the Fathe+ o* :!'hts,>./ B5t $et 5s not
1no)1 )a+e$ess$ &5t +athe+ Dea$o5s$ and )onstant$: $est 1no)1!n' (e '+o( (ea+/ Fo+ th5s !t (!$$ &e o0ened to
5s/ I* (e +ead on)e o+ t(!)e and do not 5nde+stand (hat (e +ead, $et 5s not '+o( (ea+, &5t $et 5s 0e+s!st, $et 5s
ta$1 "5)h, $et 5s enC5!+e/ Fo+ as1 th Fathe+, he sa!th, and He (!$$ she( thee: th e$de+s and the (!$$ te$$
thee,@./ Fo+ the+e !s not !n e2e+ "an that 1no($ed'e,-./ :et 5s d+a( o* the *o5nta!n o* the 'a+den 0e+enn!a$ and
05+est (ate+s s0+!n'!n' !nto $!*e ete+na$,3./ He+e $et 5s $575+!ate, $et 5s +e2e$ !nsat!ate: *o+ the S)+!0t5+es 0ossess
!ne7ha5st!&$e '+a)e/ B5t !* (e a+e a&$e to 0$5)1 anth!n' 0+o*!ta&$e *+o" o5ts!de so5+)es, the+e !s noth!n' to
*o+&!d that/ :et 5s &e)o"e t+!ed "one%dea$e+s, hea0!n' 50 the t+5e and 05+e 'o$d and d!s)a+d!n' the s05+!o5s/
:et 5s 1ee0 the *a!+est sa!n's &5t $et 5s th+o( to the do's a&s5+d 'ods and st+an'e "ths: *o+ (e "!'ht 0+e2a!$
"ost "!'ht!$ a'a!nst the" th+o5'h the"se$2es/
O&se+2e, *5+the+,4., that the+e a+e t(o and t(ent &oo1s o* the O$d Testa"ent, one *o+ ea)h $ette+ o* the He&+e(
ton'5e/ Fo+ the+e a+e t(ent%t(o $ette+s o* (h!)h *!2e a+e do5&$e, and so the )o"e to &e t(ent%se2en/ Fo+ the
$ette+s Ca0h, Me+e, N5n, Pe,9., Sade a+e do5&$e/ And th5s the n5"&e+ o* the &oo1s !n th!s (a !s t(ent%t(o,
&5t !s *o5nd to &e t(ent%se2en &e)a5se o* the do5&$e )ha+a)te+ o* *!2e/ Fo+ R5th !s 8o!ned on to J5d'es, and the
He&+e(s )o5nt the" one &oo1: the *!+st and se)ond &oo1s o* K!n's a+e )o5nted one: and so a+e the th!+d and
*o5+th &oo1s o* K!n's: and a$so the *!+st and se)ond o* Pa+a$e!0o"ena: and the *!+st and se)ond o* Esd+a/ In th!s
(a, then, the &oo1s a+e )o$$e)ted to'ethe+ !n *o5+ Pentate5)hs and t(o othe+s +e"a!n o2e+, to *o+" th5s the
)anon!)a$ &oo1s/ F!2e o* the" a+e o* the :a(, 2!D/ Genes!s, E7od5s, :e2!t!)5s, N5"&e+s, De5te+ono"/ Th!s
(h!)h !s the )ode o* the :a(, )onst!t5tes the *!+st Pentate5)h/ Then )o"es anothe+ Pentate5)h, the so%)a$$ed
G+a0he!a,;., o+ as the a+e )a$$ed & so"e, the Ha'!o'+a0ha, (h!)h a+e the *o$$o(!n': Jes5s the Son o* Na2e,<.,
J5d'es a$on' (!th R5th, *!+st and se)ond K!n's, (h!)h a+e one &oo1, th!+d and *o5+th K!n's, (h!)h a+e one &oo1,
and the t(o &oo1s o* the Pa+a$e!0o"ena,=. (h!)h a+e one &oo1/ Th!s !s the se)ond Pentate5)h/ The th!+d
Pentate5)h !s the &oo1s !n 2e+se, 2!D/ Jo&, Psa$"s, P+o2e+&s o* So$o"on, E))$es!astes o* So$o"on and the Son'
o* Son's o* So$o"on/ The *o5+th Pentate5)h !s the P+o0het!)a$ &oo1s, 2!D the t(e$2e 0+o0hets )onst!t5t!n' one
&oo1, Isa!ah, Je+e"!ah, EDe1!e$, Dan!e$/ Then )o"e the t(o &oo1s o* Esd+a "ade !nto one, and Esthe+,>./ The+e
a+e a$so the Pana+et5s, that !s the ?!sdo" o* So$o"on, and the ?!sdo" o* Jes5s, (h!)h (as 05&$!shed !n
He&+e( & the *athe+ o* S!+a)h, and a*te+(a+ds t+ans$ated !nto G+ee1 & h!s '+andson, Jes5s, the Son o* S!+a)h/
These a+e 2!+t5o5s and no&$e, &5t a+e not )o5nted no+ (e+e the 0$a)ed !n the a+1/
The Ne( Testa"ent )onta!ns *o5+ 'os0e$s, that a))o+d!n' to Matthe(, that a))o+d!n' to Ma+1, that a))o+d!n' to
:51e, that a))o+d!n' to John: the A)ts o* the Ho$ A0ost$es & :51e the E2an'e$!st: se2en )atho$!) e0!st$es, 2!D/
one o* Ja"es, t(o o* Pete+, th+ee o* John, one o* J5de: *o5+teen $ette+s o* the A0ost$e Pa5$: the Re2e$at!on o*
John the E2an'e$!st: the Canons,@. o* the ho$ a0ost$es,-., & C$e"ent/
$A"!E% X4III(
%e/ardin/ the thin/s said concernin/ hrist(
The th!n's sa!d )on)e+n!n' Ch+!st *a$$ !nto *o5+ 'ene+!) "odes/ Fo+ so"e *!t H!" e2en &e*o+e the !n)a+nat!on,
othe+s !n the 5n!on, othe+s a*te+ the 5n!on, and othe+s a*te+ the +es5++e)t!on/ A$so o* those that +e*e+ to the 0e+!od
&e*o+e the !n)a+nat!on the+e a+e s!7 "odes: *o+ so"e o* the" de)$a+e the 5n!on o* nat5+e and the !dent!t !n
essen)e (!th the Fathe+, as th!s, I and M Fathe+ a+e one,3.: a$so th!s, He that hath seen Me hath seen the
Fathe+,4.: and th!s, ?ho &e!n' !n the *o+" o* God,9., and so *o+th/ Othe+s de)$a+e the 0e+*e)t!on o* s5&s!sten)e,
as these, Son o* God, and the E70+ess I"a'e o* H!s 0e+son,;., and Messen'e+ o* '+eat )o5nse$, ?onde+*5$
Co5nse$$o+,<., and the $!1e/
<;
A'a!n, othe+s de)$a+e the !nd(e$$!n',=. o* the s5&s!sten)es !n one anothe+, as, I a" !n the Fathe+ and the Fathe+ !n
Me,>.# and the !nse0a+a&$e *o5ndat!on,@., as, *o+ !nstan)e, the ?o+d, ?!sdo", Po(e+, E**5$'en)e/ Fo+ the (o+d
!s !nse0a+a&$ esta&$!shed !n the "!nd ,and !t !s the essent!a$ "!nd that I "ean., and so a$so !s (!sdo", and 0o(e+
!n h!" that !s 0o(e+*5$, and e**5$'en)e !n the $!'ht, a$$ s0+!n'!n' *o+th *+o" these,-./
And othe+s "a1e 1no(n the *a)t o* H!s o+!'!n *+o" the Fathe+ as )a5se, *o+ !nstan)e M Fathe+ !s '+eate+ than
I,3./ Fo+ *+o" H!" He de+!2es &oth H!s &e!n' and a$$ that He has,4.: H!s &e!n' (as & 'ene+at!2e and not &
)+eat!2e "eans, as, I )a"e *o+th *+o" the Fathe+ and a" )o"e,9., and I $!2e & the Fathe+,4./ B5t a$$ that He hath
!s not H!s & *+ee '!*t o+ & tea)h!n', &5t !n a )a5sa$ sense, as, The Son )an do noth!n' o* H!"se$* &5t (hat He
seeth the Fathe+ do,<./ Fo+ !* the Fathe+ !s not, ne!the+ !s the Son/ Fo+ the Son !s o* the Fathe+ and !n the Fathe+
and (!th the Fathe+, and not a*te+,=. the Fathe+/ In $!1e "anne+ a$so (hat He doeth !s o* H!" and (!th H!"/ Fo+
the+e !s one and the sa"e, not s!"!$a+ &5t the sa"e, (!$$ and ene+' and 0o(e+ !n the Fathe+, Son and Ho$ S0!+!t/
Mo+eo2e+, othe+ th!n's a+e sa!d as tho5'h the Fathe+6s 'ood%(!$$ (as *5$*!$$ed,>. th+o5'h H!s ene+', and not as
th+o5'h an !nst+5"ent o+ a se+2ant, &5t as th+o5'h H!s essent!a$ and h0ostat!) ?o+d and ?!sdo" and Po(e+,
&e)a5se &5t one a)t!on,@. !s o&se+2ed !n Fathe+ and Son, as *o+ e7a"0$e, A$$ th!n's (e+e "ade & H!",@a., and
He sent H!s ?o+d and hea$ed the",-., and That the "a &e$!e2e that Than hast sent Me,3./
So"e, a'a!n, ha2e a 0+o0het!) sense, and o* these so"e a+e !n the *5t5+e tense: *o+ !nstan)e, He sha$$ )o"e
o0en$,4., and th!s *+o" Se)ha+!ah, Beho$d, th K!n' )o"eth 5nto thee,9., and th!s *+o" M!)ah, Beho$d, the
:o+d )o"eth o5t o* H!s 0$a)e and (!$$ )a"e do(n and t+ead 50on the h!'h 0$a)es o* the ea+th,;./ B5t othe+s,
tho5'h *5t5+e, a+e 05t !n the 0ast tense, as, *o+ !nstan)e, Th!s !s o5+ God: The+e*o+e He (as seen 50on the ea+th
and d(e$$ a"on' "en,<., and The :o+d )+eated "e !n the &e'!nn!n' o* H!s (as *o+ H!s (o+1s,=., and
?he+e*o+e God, th God, ano!nted thee (!th the o!$ o* '$adness a&o2e th *e$$o(s,>., and s5)h $!1e/
The th!n's sa!d, then, that +e*e+ to the 0e+!od &e*o+e the 5n!on (!$$ &e a00$!)a&$e to H!" e2en a*te+ the 5n!on: &5t
those that +e*e+ to the 0e+!od a*te+ the 5n!on (!$$ not &e a00$!)a&$e at a$$ &e*o+e the 5n!on, 5n$ess !ndeed !n a
0+o0het!) sense, as (e sa!d/ Those that +e*e+ to the t!"e o* the 5n!on ha2e th+ee "odes/ Fo+ (hen o5+ d!s)o5+se
dea+s (!th the h!'he+ as0e)t, (e s0ea1 o* the de!*!)at!on o* the *$esh, and H!s ass5"0t!on o* the ?o+d and
e7)eed!n' e7a$tat!on, and so *o+th, "a1!n' "an!*est the +!)hes that a+e added to the *$esh t+a" the 5n!on and
nat5+a$ )on85n)t!on (!th the "ost h!'h God the ?o+d/ And (hen o5+ d!s)o5+se dea$s (!th the $o(e+ as0e)t, (e
s0ea1 o* the !n)a+nat!on o* God the ?o+d, H!s &e)o"!n' "an, H!s e"0t!n' o* H!"se$*, H!s 0o2e+t, H!s
h5"!$!t/ Fo+ these and s5)h $!1e a+e !"0osed 50on the ?o+d and God th+o5'h H!s ad"!7t5+e (!th h5"an!t/
?hen a'a!n (e 1ee0 &oth s!des !n 2!e( at the sa"e t!"e, (e s0ea1 o* 5n!on, )o""5n!t, ano!nt!n', nat5+a$
)on85n)t!on, )on*o+"at!on and the $!1e/ The *o+"e+ t(o "odes, then, ha2e the!+ +eason !n th!s th!+d "ode/ Fo+
th+o5'h the 5n!on !t !s "ade )$ea+ (hat e!the+ has o&ta!ned *+o" the !nt!"ate 85n)t!on (!th and 0e+"eat!on
th+o5'h the othe+/ Fo+ th+o5'h the 5n!on,@. !n s5&s!sten)e the *$esh !s sa!d to &e de!*!ed and to &e)o"e God and
to &e eC5a$$ God (!th the ?o+d# and God the ?o+d !s sa!d to &e "ade *$esh, and to &e)o"e "an, and !s )a$$ed
)+eat5+e and $ast,-.: not !n the sense that the t(o nat5+es a+e )on2e+ted !nto one )o"0o5nd nat5+e ,*o+ !t !s not
0oss!&$e *o+ the o00os!te nat5+a$ C5a$!t!es to e7!st at the sa"e t!"e !n one nat5+e.,3., &5t !n the sense that the t(o
nat5+es a+e 5n!ted !n s5&s!sten)e and 0e+"eate one anothe+ (!tho5t )on*5s!on o+ t+ans"5tat!on The
0e+"eat!on,4. "o+eo2e+ d!d not )o"e o* the *$esh &5t o* the d!2!n!t: *o+ !t !s !"0oss!&$e that the *$esh sho5$d
0e+"eate th+o5'h the d!2!n!t: &5t the d!2!ne nat5+e on)e 0e+"eat!n' th+o5'h the *$esh 'a2e a$so to the *$esh the
sa"e !ne**a&$e 0o(e+ o* 0e+"eat!on,9.# and th!s !ndeed !s (hat (e )a$$ 5n!on/
Note, too, that !n the )ase o* the *!+st and se)ond "odes o* those that &e$on' to the 0e+!od o* the 5n!on,
+e)!0+o)at!on !s o&se+2ed/ Fo+ (hen (e s0ea1 a&o5t the *$esh, (e 5se the te+"s de!*!)at!on and ass5"0t!on o* the
?o+d and e7)eed!n' e7a$tat!on and ano!nt!n'/ Fo+ these a+e de+!2ed *+o" d!2!n!t, &5t a+e o&se+2ed !n )onne)t!on
(!th the *$esh/ And (hen (e s0ea1 a&o5t the ?o+d, (e 5se the te+"s e"0t!n', !n)a+nat!on, &e)o"!n' "an,
h5"!$!t and the $!1e: and these, as (e sa!d, a+e !"0osed on the ?o+d and God th+o5'h the *$esh/ Fo+ He end5+ed
these th!n's !n 0e+son o* H!s o(n *+ee%(!$$/
O* the th!n's that +e*e+ to the 0e+!od a*te+ the 5n!on the+e a+e th+ee "odes/ The *!+st de)$a+es H!s d!2!ne nat5+e,
as, I a" !n the Fathe+ and the Fathe+ !n Me,;., and I and the Fathe+ a+e one,<.: and a$$ those th!n's (h!)h a+e
a**!+"ed o* H!" &e*o+e H!s ass5"0t!on o* h5"an!t, these (!$$ &e a**!+"ed o* H!" e2en a*te+ H!s ass5"0t!on o*
h5"an!t, (!th th!s e7)e0t!on, that He d!d not ass5"e the *$esh and !ts nat5+a$ 0+o0e+t!es/
The se)ond de)$a+es H!s h5"an nat5+e, as, No( e see1 to 1!$$ Me, a "an that hath to$d o5 the t+5th,=., and
E2en so "5st the Son o* Man &e $!*ted 50,>., and the $!1e/
F5+the+, o* the state"ents "ade and (+!tten a&o5t Ch+!st the Sa2!o5+ a*te+ the "anne+ o* "en, (hethe+ the dea$
(!th sa!n's o+ a)t!ons, the+e a+e s!7 "odes/ Fo+ so"e o* the" (e+e done o+ sa!d nat5+a$$ !n a))o+dan)e (!th
the !n)a+nat!on# *o+ !nstan)e, H!s &!+th *+o" a 2!+'!n, H!s '+o(th and 0+o'+ess (!th a'e, H!s h5n'e+, th!+st,
(ea+!ness, *ea+, s$ee0, 0!e+)!n' (!th na!$s, death and a$$ s5)h $!1e nat5+a$ and !nno)ent 0ass!ons,@./ Fo+ !n a$$
these the+e !s a "!7t5+e o* the d!2!ne and h5"an, a$tho5'h the a+e he$d to &e$on' !n +ea$!t to the &od, the
d!2!ne s5**e+!n' none o* these, &5t 0+o)5+!n' th+o5'h the" o5+ sa$2at!on/
Othe+s a+e o* the nat5+e o* as)+!0t!on,@a., as Ch+!st6s C5est!on, ?he+e ha2e e $a!d :aDa+5s,-.B H!s +5nn!n' to the
*!'%t+ee, H!s sh+!n1!n', that !s, H!s d+a(!n' &a)1, H!s 0+a!n', and H!s "a1!n' as tho5'h He (o5$d ha2e 'one
<<
He !n need o* these o+ s!"!$a+ th!n's, &5t on$ &e)a5se H!s *o+" (as that o* a "an as ne)ess!t and e70ed!en)
de"anded,4./ Fo+ e7a"0$e, the 0+a!n' (as to she( that He !s not o00osed to God, *o+ He '!2es hono5+ to the
Fathe+ as the )a5se o* H!"se$*,9.: and the C5est!on (as not 05t !n !'no+an)e &5t to she( that He !s !n t+5th "an
as (e$$ as God,;.# and the d+a(!n' &a)1 !s to tea)h 5s not to &e !"0et5o5s no+ to '!2e o5+se$2es 50/
Othe+s a'a!n a+e sa!d !n the "anne+ o* asso)!at!on and +e$at!on,;a., as, M God, M God, (h hast Tho5
*o+sa1en Me,<.B and He hath "ade H!" to &e s!n *o+ 5s, ?ho 1ne( no s!n,=., and &e!n' "ade a )5+se *o+ 5s,>.#
a$so, Then sha$$ the Son a$so H!"se$* &e s5&8e)t 5nto H!" that 05t a$$ th!n's 5nde+ H!",@./ Fo+ ne!the+ as God
no+ as "an,-. (as He e2e+ *o+sa1en & the Fathe+, no+ d!d He &e)o"e s!n o+ a )5+se, no+ d!d He +eC5!+e to &e
"ade s5&8e)t to the Fathe+/ Fo+ as God He !s eC5a$ to the Fathe+ and not o00osed to H!" no+ s5&8e)ted to H!"#
and as God, He (as ne2e+ at an t!"e d!so&ed!ent to H!s Be'ette+ to "a1e !t ne)essa+ *o+ H!" to "a1e H!"
s5&8e)t,3./ A00+o0+!at!n', then, o5+ 0e+son and +an1!n' H!"se$* (!th 5s, He 5sed these (o+ds/ Fo+ (e a+e &o5nd
!n the *ette+s o* s!n and the )5+se as *a!th$ess and d!so&ed!ent, and the+e*o+e *o+sa1en/
Othe+s a+e sa!d & +eason o* d!st!n)t!on !n tho5'ht/ Fo+ !* o5 d!2!de !n tho5'ht th!n's that a+e !nse0a+a&$e !n
a)t5a$ t+5th, to )5t the *$esh *+o" the ?o+d, the te+"s 6se+2ant6 and 6!'no+ant6 a+e 5sed o* H!", *o+ !ndeed He (as
o* a s5&8e)t and !'no+ant nat5+e, and e7)e0t that !t (as 5n!ted (!th God the ?o+d, H!s *$esh (as se+2!$e and
!'no+ant,4./ B5t &e)a5se o* the 5n!on !n s5&s!sten)e (!th God the ?o+d !t (as ne!the+ se+2!$e no+ !'no+ant/ In
th!s (a, too, He )a$$ed the Fathe+ H!s God/
Othe+s a'a!n a+e *o+ the 05+0ose o* +e2ea$!n' H!" to 5s and st+en'then!n' o5+ *a!th, as, And no(, O Fathe+,
'$o+!* Tho5 Me (!th the '$o+ (h!)h I had (!th Thee, &e*o+e the (o+$d (as,9./ Fo+ He H!"se$* (as '$o+!*!ed
and !s '$o+!*!ed, &5t H!s '$o+ (as not "an!*ested no+ )on*!+"ed to 5s/ A$so that (h!)h the a0ost$e sa!d, De)$a+ed
to &e the Son o* God (!th 0o(e+, a))o+d!n' to the s0!+!t o* ho$!ness, & the +es5++e)t!on *+o" the dead,;./ Fo+ &
the "!+a)$es and the +es5++e)t!on and the )o"!n' o* the Ho$ S0!+!t !t (as "an!*ested and )on*!+"ed to the (o+$d
that He !s the Son o* God,<./ And th!s too,=., The Ch!$d '+e( !n (!sdo" and '+a)e,>./
Othe+s a'a!n ha2e +e*e+en)e to H!s a00+o0+!at!on o* the 0e+sona$ $!*e o* the Je(s, !n n5"&e+!n' H!"se$* a"on'
the Je(s, as He sa!th to the Sa"a+!tan (o"an, Ie (o+sh!0 e 1no( not (hat: (e 1no( (hat (e (o+sh!0, *a+
sa$2at!on !s o* the Je(s,@./
The th!+d "ode !s one (h!)h de)$a+es the one s5&s!sten)e and &+!n's o5t the d5a$ nat5+e: *o+ !nstan)e, And I $!2e
& the Fathe+: so he that eateth Me, e2en he sha$$ $!2e & Me,-./ And th!s: I 'o to M Fathe+ and e see Me no
"o+e,3./ And th!s: The (o5$d not ha2e )+5)!*!ed the :o+d o* G$o+,4./ And th!s: And no "an hath as)ended 50
to hea2en &5t He that )a"e do(n *+o" hea2en, e2en the Son o* Man (h!)h !s !n hea2en,9., and s5)h $!1e/
A'a!n o* the a**!+"at!ons that +e*e+ to the 0e+!od a*te+ the +es5++e)t!on so"e a+e s5!ta&$e to God, as, Ba0t!D!n'
the" !n the na"e o* the Fathe+, and o* the Son, and o* the Ho$ Ghost,;., *o+ he+e 6Son6 !s )$ea+$ 5sed as God#
a$so th!s, And $o, I a" (!th o5 a$(a, e2en 5nto the end o* the (o+$d,<., and othe+ s!"!$a+ ones/ Fo+ He !s (!th
5s as God/ Othe+s a+e s5!ta&$e to "an, as, The he$d H!" & the *eet,=., and The+e the (!$$ see Me,>., and so
*o+th/
F5+the+, o* those +e*e++!n' to the 0e+!od a*te+ the Res5++e)t!on that a+e s5!ta&$e to "an the+e a+e d!**e+ent "odes/
Fo+ so"e d!d a)t5a$$ ta1e 0$a)e, et not a))o+d!n' to nat5+e,@., &5t a))o+d!n' to d!s0ensat!on, !n o+de+ to
)on*!+" the *a)t that the 2e+ &od, (h!)h s5**e+ed, +ose a'a!n# s5)h a+e the (ea$s, the eat!n' and the d+!n1!n'
a*te+ the +es5++e)t!on/ Othe+s too1 0$a)e a)t5a$$ and nat5+a$$, as )han'!n' *+o" 0$a)e to 0$a)e (!tho5t t+o5&$e
and 0ass!n' !n th+o5'h )$osed 'ates/ Othe+s ha2e the )ha+a)te+ o* s!"5$at!on,-., as, He "ade as tho5'h He (o5$d
ha2e 'one *5+the+,3./ Othe+s a+e a00+o0+!ate to the do5&$e nat5+e, as, I as)end 5nto M Fathe+ and o5+ Fathe+,
and M God and o5+ God,4., and The K!n' o* G$o+ sha$$ )a+te !n,9., and He sat do(n on the +!'ht hand o* the
"a8est on H!'h,;./ F!na$$ othe+s a+e to &e 5nde+stood as tho5'h He (e+e +an1!n' H!"se$* (!th 5s, !n the
"anne+ o* se0a+at!on !n 05+e tho5'ht, as, M God and o5+ God,4./
Those then that a+e s5&$!"e "5st &e ass!'ned to the d!2!ne nat5+e, (h!)h !s s50e+!o+ to 0ass!on and &od: and
those that a+e h5"&$e "5st &e as)+!&ed to the h5"an nat5+e# and those that a+e )o""on "5st &e att+!&5ted to the
)o"0o5nd, that !s, the one Ch+!st, ?ho !s God and "an/ And !t sho5$d &e 5nde+stood that &oth &e$on' to one and
the sa"e Jes5s Ch+!st, o5+ :o+d/ Fo+ !* (e 1no( (hat !s 0+o0e+ to ea)h, and 0e+)e!2e that &oth a+e 0e+*o+"ed &
one and the sa"e, (e sha$$ ha2e the t+5e *a!th and sha$$ not 'o ast+a/ And *+o" a$$ these the d!**e+en)e &et(een
the 5n!ted nat5+es !s +e)o'n!sed, and the *a)t,<. that, as the "ost 'od$ C+!$ sas, the a+e not !dent!)a$ !n the
nat5+a$ C5a$!t o* the!+ d!2!n!t and h5"an!t/ B5t et the+e !s &5t one Son and Ch+!st and :o+d: and as He !s one,
He has a$so &5t one 0e+son, the 5n!t !n s5&s!sten)e &e!n' !n no(!se &+o1en 50 !nto 0a+ts & the +e)o'n!t!on o*
the d!**e+en)e o* the nat5+es/
$A"!E% XIX(
!hat 3od879 is not the cause o2 e0i,s(
It !s to &e o&se+2ed,>. that !t !s the )5sto" !n the Ho$ S)+!0t5+e to s0ea1 o* God6s 0e+"!ss!on as H!s ene+', as
(hen the a0ost$e sas !n the E0!st$e to the Ro"ans, Hath not the 0otte+ 0o(e+ o2e+ the )$a, o* the sa"e $5"0 to
"a1e one 2esse$ 5nto hono5+ and anothe+ 5nto d!shono5+,@.B And *o+ th!s +eason, that He H!"se$* "a1es th!s o+
that/ Fo+ He !s H!"se$* a$one the Ma1e+ o* a$$ th!n's# et !t !s not He H!"se$* that *ash!ons no&$e o+ !'no&$e
th!n's, &5t the 0e+sona$ )ho!)e o* ea)h one,-./ And th!s !s "an!*est *+o" (hat the sa"e A0ost$e sas !n the
<=
Se)ond E0!st$e to T!"oth, In a '+eat ho5se the+e a+e not on$ 2esse$s o* 'o$d and o* s!$2e+, &5t a$so o* (ood and
o* ea+th: and so"e to hono5+ and so"e to d!shono5+/ I* a "an the+e*o+e 05+'e h!"se$* *+o" these, he sha$$ &e a
2esse$ 5nto hono5+ san)t!*!ed, and "eet *o+ the "aste+6s 5se, and 0+e0a+ed 5nto e2e+ 'ood (o+1,3./ And !t !s
e2!dent that the 05+!*!)at!on "5st &e 2o$5nta+: *o+ !* a "an, he sa!th, 05+'e h!"se$*/ And the )onseC5ent
ant!st+o0he +es0onds, HI* a "an 05+'e not h!"se$* he (!$$ &e a 2esse$ to d!shono5+, 5n"eet *o+ the "aste+6s 5se
and *!t on$ to &e &+o1en !n 0!e)es/H ?he+e*o+e th!s 0assa'e that (e ha2e C5oted and th!s, God hath )on)$5ded
the" a$$ !n 5n&e$!e*,4., and th!s, God hath '!2en the" the s0!+!t o* s$5"&e+, ees that the sho5$d not see, and
ea+s that the sho5$d not hea+,9., a$$ these "5st &e 5nde+stood not as tho5'h God H!"se$* (e+e ene+'!s!n', &5t as
tho5'h God (e+e 0e+"!tt!n', &oth &e)a5se o* *+ee%(!$$ and &e)a5se 'oodness 1no(s no )o"05$s!on/
H!s 0e+"!ss!on, the+e*o+e, !s 5s5a$$ s0o1en o* !n the Ho$ S)+!0t5+e as H!s ene+' and (o+1/ Na, e2en (hen He
sas that God )+eates e2!$ th!n's, and that the+e !s no e2!$ !n a )!t that the :o+d hath not done, he does not "ean
& these (o+ds,;. that the :o+d !s the )a5se o* e2!$, &5t the (o+d 6e2!$,<.6 !s 5sed !n t(o (as, (!th t(o
"ean!n's/ Fo+ so"et!"es !t "eans (hat !s e2!$ & nat5+e, and th!s !s the o00os!te o* 2!+t5e and the (!$$ o* God:
and so"et!"es !t "eans that (h!)h !s e2!$ and o00+ess!2e to o5+ sensat!on, that !s to sa, a**$!)t!ons and
)a$a"!t!es/ No( these a+e see"!n'$ e2!$ &e)a5se the a+e 0a!n*5$, &5t !n +ea$!t a+e 'ood/ Fo+ to those (ho
5nde+stand the &e)a"e a"&assado+s o* )on2e+s!on and sa$2at!on/ The S)+!0t5+e sas that o* these God !s the
A5tho+/
It !s, "o+eo2e+, to &e o&se+2ed that o* these, too, (e a+e the )a5se: *o+ !n2o$5nta+ e2!$s a+e the o**s0+!n' o*
2o$5nta+ ones,=./
Th!s a$so sho5$d &e +e)o'n!sed, that !t !s 5s5a$ !n the S)+!0t5+es *o+ so"e th!n's that o5'ht to &e )ons!de+ed as
e**e)ts to &e stated !n a )a5sa$ sense,>., as, A'a!nst Thee, Thee on$, ha2e I s!nned and done th!s e2!$ !n Th
s!'ht, that Than "!'htest &e 85st!*!ed (hen Tho5 s0ea1est, and 0+e2a!$ (hen Tho5 85d'est,@./ Fo+ the s!nne+ d!d
not s!n !n o+de+ that God "!'ht 0+e2a!$, no+ a'a!n d!d God +eC5!+e o5+ s!n !n o+de+ that He "!'ht & !t &e +e2ea$ed
as 2!)to+,-./ Fo+ a&o2e )o"0a+!son He (!ns the 2!)to+6s 0+!De a'a!nst a$$, e2en a'a!nst those (ho a+e s!n$ess,
&e!n' Ma1e+, !n)o"0+ehens!&$e, 5n)+eated, and 0ossess!n' nat5+a$ and not ad2ent!t!o5s '$o+/ B5t !t !s &e)a5se
(hen (e s!n God !s not 5n85st !n H!s an'e+ a'a!nst 5s# and (hen He 0a+dons the 0en!tent He !s she(n 2!)to+
o2e+ o5+ (!)1edness/ B5t !t !s not *o+ th!s that (e s!n, &5t &e)a5se the th!n' so t5+ns o5t/ It !s 85st as !* one (e+e
s!tt!n' at (o+1 and a *+!end stood nea+ &, and one sa!d, M *+!end )a"e !n o+de+ that I "!'ht do no (o+1 that
da/ The *+!end, ho(e2e+, (as not 0+esent !n o+de+ that the "an sho5$d do no (o+1, &5t s5)h (as the +es5$t/ Fo+
&e!n' o))50!ed (!th +e)e!2!n' h!s *+!end he d!d not (o+1/ These th!n's, too, a+e s0o1en o* as e**e)ts &e)a5se
a**a!+s so t5+ned o5t/ Mo+eo2e+, God does not (!sh that He a$one sho5$d &e 85st, &5t that a$$ sho5$d, so *a+ as
0oss!&$e, &e "ade $!1e 5nto H!"/
$A"!E% XX(
!hat there are not t.o 'in/doms(
That the+e a+e not t(o 1!n'do"s,3., one 'ood and one &ad, (e sha$$ see *+o" th!s/ Fo+ 'ood and e2!$ a+e o00osed
to one anothe+ and "5t5a$$ dest+5)t!2e, and )annot e7!st !n one anothe+ o+ (!th one anothe+/ Ea)h o* the",
the+e*o+e, !n !ts o(n d!2!s!on (!$$ &e$on' to the (ho$e, and *!+st,4. the (!$$ he )!+)5"s)+!&ed, not & the (ho$e
a$one &5t a$so ea)h o* the" & 0a+t o* the (ho$e/
Ne7t I as1,9., (ho !t !s that ass!'ns,9. to ea)h !ts 0$a)e/ Fo+ the (!$$ not a**!+" that the ha2e )o"e to a *+!end$
a'+ee"ent (!th, o+ &een +e)on)!$ed to, one anothe+/ Fo+ e2!$ !s not e2!$ (hen !t !s at 0ea)e (!th, and +e)on)!$ed
to, 'oodness, no+ !s 'oodness 'ood (hen !t !s on a"!)a&$e te+"s (!th e2!$/ B5t !* He ?ho has "a+1ed o** to ea)h
o* these !ts o(n s0he+e o* a)t!on !s so"eth!n' d!**e+ent *+o" the", He "5st the +athe+ &e God/
One o* t(o th!n's !ndeed !s ne)essa+, e!the+ that the )o"e !n )onta)t (!th and dest+o one anothe+, o+ that the+e
e7!sts so"e !nte+"ed!ate 0$a)e (he+e ne!the+ 'oodness no+ e2!$ e7!sts, se0a+at!n' &oth *+o" one anothe+, $!1e a
0a+t!t!on/ And so the+e (!$$ &e no $on'e+ t(o &5t th+ee 1!n'do"s/
A'a!n, one o* these a$te+nat!2es !s ne)essa+, e!the+ that the a+e at 0ea)e, (h!)h !s C5!te !n)o"0at!&$e (!th e2!$
,*o+ that (h!)h !s at 0ea)e !s not e2!$., o+ the a+e at st+!*e, (h!)h !s !n)o"0at!&$e (!th 'oodness ,*o+ that (h!)h
!s at st+!*e !s not 0e+*e)t$ 'ood., o+ the e2!$ !s at st+!*e and the 'ood does not +eta$!ate, &5t !s dest+oed & the
e2!$, o+ the a+e e2e+ !n t+o5&$e and d!st+ess,<., (h!)h !s not a "a+1 o* 'oodness/ The+e !s, the+e*o+e, &5t one
1!n'do", de$!2e+ed *+o" a$$ e2!$/
B5t !* th!s !s so, the sa, (hen)e )o"es e2!$,=.B Fo+ !t !s C5!te !"0oss!&$e that e2!$ sho5$d o+!'!nate *+o"
'oodness/ ?e ans(e+ then, that e2!$ !s noth!n' e$se than a&sen)e o* 'oodness and a $a0s!n',>. *+o" (hat !s
nat5+a$ !nto (hat !s 5nnat5+a$: *o+ noth!n' e2!$ !s nat5+a$/ Fo+ a$$ th!n's, (hatsoe2e+ God "ade, a+e 2e+ 'ood,@.,
so *a+ as the (e+e "ade: !*, the+e*o+e, the +e"a!n 85st as the (e+e )+eated, the a+e 2e+ 'ood, &5t (hen the
2o$5nta+!$ de0a+t *+o" (hat !s nat5+a$ and t5+n to (hat !s 5nnat5+a$, the s$!0 !nto e2!$/
B nat5+e, the+e*o+e, a$$ th!n's a+e se+2ants o* the C+eato+ and o&e H!"/ ?hene2e+, then, an o* H!s )+eat5+es
2o$5nta+!$ +e&e$s and &e)o"es d!so&ed!ent to h!s Ma1e+, he !nt+od5)es e2!$ !nto h!"se$*/ Fo+ e2!$ !s not an
essen)e no+ a 0+o0e+t o* essen)e, &5t an a))!dent, that !s, a 2o$5nta+ de2!at!on *+o" (hat !s nat5+a$ !nto (hat !s
5nnat5+a$, (h!)h !s s!n/
<>
?hen)e, then, )o"es s!n,-.B It !s an !n2ent!on o* the *+ee%(!$$ o* the de2!$/ Is the de2!$, then, e2!$B In so *a+ as he
(as &+o5'ht !nto e7!sten)e he !s not e2!$ &5t 'ood/ Fo+ he (as )+eated & h!s Ma1e+ a &+!'ht and 2e+ &+!$$!ant
an'e$, endo(ed (!th *+ee%(!$$ as &e!n' +at!ona$/ B5t he 2o$5nta+!$ de0a+ted *+o" the 2!+t5e that !s nat5+a$ and
)a"e !nto the da+1ness o* e2!$, &e!n' *a+ +e"o2ed *+o" God, ?ho a$one !s 'ood and )an '!2e $!*e and $!'ht/ Fo+
*+o" H!" e2e+ 'ood th!n' de+!2es !ts 'oodness, and so *a+ as !t !s se0a+ated *+o" H!" !n (!$$ ,*o+ !t !s not !n
0$a)e., !t *a$$s !nto e2!$/
$A"!E% XXI(
!he *ur*ose8>9 2or .hich 3od in $is 2ore1no.,ed/e created *ersons .ho .ou,d sin and not re*ent(
God !n H!s 'oodness,4. &+o5'ht (hat e7!sts !nto &e!n' o5t o* noth!n', and has *o+e1no($ed'e o* (hat (!$$ e7!st
!n the *5t5+e/ I*, the+e*o+e, the (e+e not to e7!st !n the *5t5+e, the (o5$d ne!the+ &e e2!$ !n the *5t5+e no+ (o5$d
the &e *o+e1no(n/ Fo+ 1no($ed'e !s o* (hat e7!sts and *o+e1no($ed'e !s o* (hat (!$$ s5+e$ e7!st !n the *5t5+e/
Fo+ s!"0$e &e!n' )o"es *!+st and then 'ood o+ e2!$ &e!n'/ B5t !* the 2e+ e7!sten)e o* those, (ho th+o5'h the
'oodness o* God a+e !n the *5t5+e to e7!st, (e+e to &e 0+e2ented & the *a)t that the (e+e to &e)o"e e2!$ o* the!+
o(n )ho!)e, e2!$ (o5$d ha2e 0+e2a!$ed o2e+ the 'oodness o* God/ ?he+e*o+e God "a1es a$$ H!s (o+1s 'ood, &5t
ea)h &e)o"es o* !ts o(n )ho!)e 'ood o+ e2!$/ A$tho5'h, then, the :o+d sa!d, Goad (e+e !t *o+ that "an that he
had ne2e+ &een &a+n,9., He sa!d !t !n )onde"nat!on not o* H!s o(n )+eat!on &5t o* the e2!$ (h!)h H!s o(n
)+eat!on had a)C5!+ed & h!s o(n )ho!)e and th+o5'h h!s o(n heed$essness/ Fo+ the heed$essness that "a+1s
"an6s 85d'"ent "ade H!s C+eato+6s &ene*!)en)e o* no 0+o*!t to h!"/ It !s 85st as !* an one, (hen he had o&ta!ned
+!)hes and do"!n!on *+o" a 1!n', (e+e to $o+d !t o2e+ h!s &ene*a)to+, (ho, (hen he has (o+sted h!", (!$$ 05n!sh
h!" as he dese+2es, !* he sho5$d see h!" 1ee0!n' ho$d o* the so2e+e!'nt to the end/
$A"!E% XXII(
oncernin/ the ,a. o2 3od and the ,a. o2 sin(
The De!t !s 'ood and "o+e than 'ood, and so !s H!s (!$$/ Fo+ that (h!)h God (!shes !s 'ood/ Mo+eo2e+ the
0+e)e0t, (h!)h tea)hes th!s, !s $a(, that (e, ho$d!n' & !t, "a (a$1 !n $!'ht,;.: and the t+ans'+ess!on o* th!s
0+e)e0t !s s!n, and th!s )ont!n5es to e7!st on a))o5nt o* the assa5$t o* the de2!$ and o5+ 5n)onst+a!ned and
2o$5nta+ +e)e0t!on o* !t,<./ And th!s, too, !s )a$$ed $a(,=./
And so the $a( o* God, sett$!n' !n o5+ "!nd, d+a(s !t to(a+ds !tse$* and 0+!)1s o5+ )ons)!en)e/ And o5+
)ons)!en)e, too, !s )a$$ed a $a( o* o5+ "!nd/ F5+the+, the assa5$t o* the (!)1ed one, that !s the $a( o* s!n, sett$!n'
!n the "e"&e+s o* o5+ *$esh, "a1es !ts assa5$t 50on 5s th+o5'h !t/ Fo+ & on)e 2o$5nta+!$ t+ans'+ess!n' the $a(
o* God and +e)e!2!n' the assa5$t o* the (!)1ed one, (e 'a2e ent+an)e to !t, &e!n' so$d & o5+se$2es to s!n/
?he+e*o+e o5+ &od !s +ead!$ !"0e$$ed to !t/ And so the sa2o5+ and 0e+)e0t!on o* s!n that !s sto+ed 50 !n o5+
&od, that !s to sa, $5st and 0$eas5+e o* the &od, !s $a( !n the "e"&e+s o* o5+ *$esh/
The+e*o+e the $a( o* " "!nd, that !s, the )ons)!en)e, s"0ath!ses (!th the $a( o* God, that !s, the 0+e)e0t, and
"a1es that !ts (!$$/ B5t the $a( o* s!n,>., that !s to sa, the assa5$t "ade th+o5'h the $a( that !s !n o5+ "e"&e+s,
o+ th+o5'h the $5st and !n)$!nat!on and "o2e"ent o* the &od and o* the !++at!ona$ 0a+t o* the so5$, !s !n
o00os!t!on to the $a( o* " "!nd, that !s to )ons)!en)e, and ta1es "e )a0t!2e ,e2en tho5'h I "a1e the $a( o*
God " (!$$ and set " $o2e on !t, and "a1e not s!n " (!$$., & +eason o* )o""!7t5+e,@.: and th+o5'h the
so*tness o* 0$eas5+e and the $5st o* the &od and o* the !++at!ona$ 0a+t o* the so5$, as I sa!d, !t $eads "e ast+a and
!nd5)es "e to &e)o"e the se+2ant o* s!n/ B5t (hat the $a( )o5$d not do, !n that !t (as (ea1 th+o5'h the *$esh,
God, send!n' H!s o(n Son !n the $!1eness o* s!n*5$ *$esh ,*o+ He ass5"ed *$esh &5t not s!n. )onde"ned s!n !n the
*$esh, that the +!'hteo5sness o* the $a( "!'ht &e *5$*!$$ed !n 5s (ho (a$1 not a*te+ the *$esh &5t !n the S0!+!t,-./
Fo+ the S0!+!t he$0eth o5+ !n*!+"!t!es,3. and a**o+deth 0o(e+ to the $a( o* o5+ "!nd, a'a!nst the $a( that !s !n o5+
"e"&e+s/ Fo+ the 2e+se, (e 1no( not (hat (e sho5$d 0+a *o+ as (e o5'ht, &5t the S0!+!t !tse$* "a1eth
!nte+)ess!on (!th '+oan!n's that )annot &e 5tte+ed,4., !tse$* tea)heth 5s (hat to 0+a *o+/ Hen)e !t !s !"0oss!&$e to
)a++ o5t the 0+e)e0ts o* the :o+d e7)e0t & 0at!en)e and 0+ae+/
$A"!E% XXIII(
A/ainst the Be.s on the :uestion #a++ath(
The se2enth da !s )a$$ed the Sa&&ath and s!'n!*!es +est/ Fo+ !n !t God +ested *+o" a$$ H!s (o+1s,9., as the d!2!ne
S)+!0t5+e sas: and so the n5"&e+ o* the das 'oes 50 to se2en and then )!+)$es &a)1 a'a!n and &e'!ns at the *!+st/
Th!s !s the 0+e)!o5s n5"&e+ (!th the Je(s/ God ha2!n' o+da!ned that !t sho5$d &e he$d !n hono5+, and that !n no
)han)e *ash!on &5t (!th the !"0os!t!on o* "ost hea2 0ena$t!es *o+ the t+ans'+ess!on,;./ And !t (as not !n a
s!"0$e *ash!on that He o+da!ned th!s, &5t *o+ )e+ta!n +easons 5nde+stood "st!)a$$ & the s0!+!t5a$ and )$ea+%
s!'hted,<./
So *a+, !ndeed, as I !n " !'no+an)e 1no(, to &e'!n (!th !n*e+!o+ and "o+e dense th!n's, God, 1no(!n' the
denseness o* the Is+ae$!tes and the!+ )a+na$ $o2e and 0+o0ens!t to(a+ds "atte+ !n e2e+th!n', "ade th!s $a(: *!+st,
!n o+de+ that the se+2ant and the )att$e sho5$d +est,=. as !t !s (+!tten, *o+ the +!'hteo5s "an +e'a+deth the $!*e o*
h!s &east,>.: ne7t, !n o+de+ that (hen the ta1e the!+ ease *+o" the d!st+a)t!on o* "ate+!a$ th!n's, the "a 'athe+
to'ethe+ 5nto God, s0end!n' the (ho$e o* the se2enth da !n 0sa$"s and h"ns and s0!+!t5a$ son's and the st5d
o* the d!2!ne S)+!0t5+es and +est!n' !n God/ Fo+ (hen,@. the $a( d!d not e7!st and the+e (as no d!2!ne$%!ns0!+ed
S)+!0t5+e, the Sa&&ath (as not )onse)+ated to God/ B5t (hen the d!2!ne$%!ns0!+ed S)+!0t5+e (as '!2en &
<@
Moses, the Sa&&ath (as )onse)+ated to God !n o+de+ that on !t the, (ho do not ded!)ate the!+ (ho$e $!*e to God,
and (ho do not "a1e the!+ des!+e s5&se+2!ent to the as tho5'h to a Fathe+, &5t a+e $!1e *oo$!sh se+2ants, "a on
that da ta$1 "5)h )on)e+n!n' the e7e+)!se o* !t, and "a a&st+a)t a s"a$$, t+5$ a "ost !ns!'n!*!)ant, 0o+t!on o*
the!+ $!*e *o+ the se+2!)e o* God, and th!s *+o" *ea+ o* the )hast!se"ents and 05n!sh"ents (h!)h th+eaten
t+ans'+esso+s/ Fo+ the $a( !s not "ade *o+ a +!'hteo5s "an &5t *o+ the 5n+!'hteo5s,-./ Moses, o* a t+5th, (as the
*!+st to a&!de *ast!n' (!th God *o+ *o+t das and a'a!n *o+ anothe+ *o+t,3., and th5s do5&t$ess to a**$!)t h!"se$*
(!th h5n'e+ on the Sa&&aths a$tho5'h the $a( *o+&ade se$*%a**$!)t!on on the Sa&&ath/ B5t !* the sho5$d o&8e)t
that th!s too1 0$a)e &e*o+e the $a(, (hat (!$$ the sa a&o5t E$!as the Thes&!te (ho a))o"0$!shed a 8o5+ne o*
*o+t das on one "ea$,4.B Fo+ he, & th5s a**$!)t!n' h!"se$* on the Sa&&aths not on$ (!th h5n'e+ &5t (!th the
*o+t das6 8o5+ne!n', &+o1e the Sa&&ath: and et God, ?ho 'a2e the $a(, (as not (+oth (!th h!" &5t she(ed
H!"se$* to h!" on Cho+e& as a +e(a+d *o+ h!s 2!+t5e/ And (hat (!$$ the sa a&o5t Dan!e$B D!d he not s0end
th+ee (ee1s (!tho5t *ood,9.B And a'a!n, d!d not a$$ Is+ae$ )!+)5")!se the )h!$d on the Sa&&ath, !* !t ha00ened to
&e the e!'hth da a*te+ &!+th,;.B And do the not ho$d the '+eat *ast (h!)h the $a( en8o!ns !* !t *a$$s on the
Sa&&ath,<.B And *5+the+, do not the 0+!ests and the :e2!tes 0+o*ane the Sa&&ath !n the (o+1s o* the ta&e+na)$e,=.
and et a+e he$d &$a"e$essB Iea, !* an o7 sho5$d *a$$ !nto a 0!t on the Sa&&ath, he (ho d+a(s !t *o+th !s &$a"e$ess,
(h!$e he (ho ne'$e)ts to do so !s )onde"ned,>./ And d!d not a$$ the Is+ae$!tes )o"0ass the (a$$s o* Je+!)ho
&ea+!n' the A+1 o* God *o+ se2en das, !n (h!)h ass5+ed$ the Sa&&ath (as !n)$5ded,@./ As I sa!d,-., the+e*o+e,
*o+ the 05+0ose o* se)5+!n' $e!s5+e to (o+sh!0 God !n o+de+ that the "!'ht, &oth se+2ant and &east o* &5+den,
de2ote a 2e+ s"a$$ sha+e to H!" and &e at +est, the o&se+2an)e o* the Sa&&ath (as de2!sed *o+ the )a+na$ that
(e+e st!$$ )h!$d!sh and !n the &onds o* the e$e"ents o* the (o+$d,3., and 5na&$e to )on)e!2e o* anth!n' &eond
the &od and the $ette+/ B5t (hen the *5$ness o* the t!"e (as )o"e, God sent *o+th H!s On$%&e'otten Son, "ade
o* a (o"an, "ade 5nde+ the $a(, to +edee" the" that (e+e 5nde+ the $a( that (e "!'ht +e)e!2e the ado0t!on o*
sons,4./ Fo+ to as "an o* 5s as +e)e!2ed H!", He 'a2e 0o(e+ to &e)o"e sons o* God, e2en to the" that &e$!e2e
on H!",9./ So that (e a+e no $on'e+ se+2ants &5t sons,;.: no $on'e+ 5nde+ the $a( &5t 5nde+ '+a)e: no $on'e+ do
(e se+2e God !n 0a+t *+o" *ea+, &5t (e a+e &o5nd to ded!)ate to H!" the (ho$e s0an o* o5+ $!*e, and )a5se that
se+2ant, I "ean (+ath and des!+e, to )ease *+o" s!n and &!d !t de2ote !tse$* to the se+2!)e o* God, a$(as d!+e)t!n'
o5+ (ho$e des!+e to(a+ds God and a+"!n' o5+ (+ath a'a!nst the ene"!es o* God: and $!1e(!se (e h!nde+ that
&east o* &5+den, that !s the &od, *+o" the se+2!t5de o* s!n, and 5+'e !t *o+(a+ds to ass!st to the 5tte+"ost the
d!2!ne 0+e)e0ts/
These a+e the th!n's (h!)h the s0!+!t5a$ $a( o* Ch+!st en8o!ns on 5s and those (ho o&se+2e that &e)o"e s50e+!o+
to the $a( o* Moses/ Fo+ (hen that (h!)h !s 0e+*e)t !s )o"e, then that (h!)h !s !n 0a+t sha$$ &e done a(a,<.:
and (hen the )o2e+!n' o* the $a(, that !s, the 2e!$, !s +ent as5nde+ th+o5'h the )+5)!*!7!on o* the Sa2!o5+, and the
S0!+!t sh!nes *o+th (!th ton'5es o* *!+e, the $ette+ sha$$ &e done a(a (!th, &od!$ th!n's sha$$ )o"e to an end, the
$a( o* se+2!t5de sha$$ &e *5$*!$$ed, and the $a( o* $!&e+t &e &esto(ed on 5s/ Iea,=. (e sha$$ )e$e&+ate the 0e+*e)t
+est o* &5+ea5 nat5+e, I "ean the da a*te+ the +es5++e)t!on, on (h!)h the :o+d Jes5s, the A5tho+ o* :!*e and o5+
Sa2!o5+, sha$$ $ead 5s !nto the he+!ta'e 0+o"!sed to those (ho se+2e God !n the s0!+!t, a he+!ta'e !nto (h!)h He
ente+ed H!"se$* as o5+ *o+e+5nne+ a*te+ He +ose *+o" the dead, and (he+eon, the 'ates o* Hea2en &e!n' o0ened
to H!", He too1 H!s seat !n &od!$ *o+" at the +!'ht hand o* the Fathe+, (he+e those (ho 1ee0 the s0!+!t5a$ $a(
sha$$ a$so )o"e/
?hat &e$on's to 5s,>., the+e*o+e, (ho (a$1 & the s0!+!t and not & the $ette+, !s the )o"0$ete a&andon"ent o*
)a+na$ th!n's, the s0!+!t5a$ se+2!)e and )o""5n!on (!th God/ Fo+ )!+)5")!s!on !s the a&andon"ent o* )a+na$
0$eas5+e and o* (hate2e+ !s s50e+*$5o5s and 5nne)essa+/ Fo+ the *o+es1!n !s noth!n' e$se than the s1!n (h!)h !t
s50e+*$5o5s to the o+'an o* $5st/ And, !ndeed, e2e+ 0$eas5+e (h!)h does not a+!se *+o" God no+ !s !n God !s
s50e+*$5o5s to 0$eas5+e: and o* that the *o+es1!n !s the t0e/ The Sa&&ath, "o+eo2e+, !s the )essat!on *+o" s!n# so
that &oth th!n's ha00en to &e one, and so &oth to'ethe+, (hen o&se+2ed & those (ho a+e s0!+!t5a$, do not &+!n'
a&o5t an &+ea)h o* the $a( at a$$/
F5+the+, o&se+2e,@. that the n5"&e+ se2en denotes a$$ the 0+esent t!"e, as the "ost (!se So$o"on sas, to '!2e a
0o+t!on to se2en and a$so to e!'ht,-./ And Da2!d,3., the d!2!ne s!n'e+ (hen he )o"0osed the e!'hth 0sa$", san'
o* the *5t5+e +esto+at!on a*te+ the +es5++e)t!on *+o" the dead/ S!n)e the :a(, the+e*o+e, en8o!ned that the se2enth
da sho5$d &e s0ent !n +est *+o" )a+na$ th!n's and de2oted to s0!+!t5a$ th!n's, !t (as a "st!) !nd!)at!on to the
t+5e Is+ae$!te (ho had a "!nd to see God, that he sho5$d th+o5'h a$$ t!"e o**e+ h!"se$* to God and +!se h!'he+
than )a+na$ th!n's/
$A"!E% XXI4(
oncernin/ 4ir/init)(
Ca+na$ "en a&5se 2!+'!n!t,4., and the 0$eas5+e%$o2!n' &+!n' *o+(a+d the *o$$o(!n' 2e+se !n 0+oo*, C5+sed &e
e2e+ one that +a!seth not 50 seed !n Is+ae$,9./ B5t (e, "ade )on*!dent & God the ?o+d that (as "ade *$esh o*
the A!+'!n, ans(e+ that 2!+'!n!t (as !"0$anted !n "an6s nat5+e *+o" a&o2e and !n the &e'!nn!n'/ Fo+ "an (as
*o+"ed o* 2!+'!n so!$/ F+o" Ada" a$one (as E2e )+eated/ In Pa+ad!se 2!+'!n!t he$d s(a/ Indeed, D!2!ne
S)+!0t5+e te$$s that &oth Ada" and E2e (e+e na1ed and (e+e not asha"ed,;./ B5t a*te+ the!+ t+ans'+ess!on the
1ne( that the (e+e na1ed, and !n the!+ sha"e the se(ed a0+ons *o+ the"se$2es,<./ And (hen, a*te+ the
=J
t+ans'+ess!on, Ada" hea+d, d5st tho5 a+t and 5nto d5st sha$t tho5 +et5+n,=., (hen death ente+ed !nto the (o+$d &
+eason o* the t+ans'+ess!on, then Ada" 1ne( E2e h!s (!*e, and she )on)e!2ed and &a+e seed,>./ So that to
0+e2ent the (ea+!n' o5t and dest+5)t!on o* the +a)e & death, "a++!a'e (as de2!sed that the +a)e o* "en "a &e
0+ese+2ed th+o5'h the 0+o)+eat!on o* )h!$d+en,@./
B5t the (!$$ 0e+ha0s as1, (hat then !s the "ean!n' o* H"a$e and *e"a$e,-.,H and HBe *+5!t*5$ and "5$t!0$BH In
ans(e+ (e sha$$ sa that HBe *+5!t*5$ and "5$t!0$,3.H does not a$to'ethe+ +e*e+ to the "5$t!0$!n' & the
"a++!a'e )onne)t!on/ Fo+ God had 0o(e+ to "5$t!0$ the +a)e a$so !n d!**e+ent (as, !* the 1e0t the 0+e)e0t
5n&+o1en,4. to the end,9./ B5t God, ?ho 1no(eth a$$ th!n's &e*o+e the ha2e e7!sten)e, 1no(!n' !n H!s
*o+e1no($ed'e that the (o5$d *a$$ !nto t+ans'+ess!on !n the *5t5+e and &e )onde"ned to death, ant!)!0ated th!s
and "ade H"a$e and *e"a$e,H and &ade the" H&e *+5!t*5$ and "5$t!0$/H :et 5s, then, 0+o)eed on o5+ (a and see
the '$o+!es,;. o* 2!+'!n!t: and th!s a$so !n)$5des )hast!t/
Noah (hen he (as )o""anded to ente+ the a+1 and (as ent+5sted (!th the 0+ese+2at!on o* the seed o* the (o+$d
+e)e!2ed th!s )o""and, Go !n, sa!th the :o+d, tho5 and th sons, and th (!*e, and th sons6 (!2es,<./ He
se0a+ated the" *+o" the!+ (!2es,=. !n o+de+ that (!th 05+!t the "!'ht es)a0e the *$ood and that sh!0(+e)1 o*
the (ho$e (o+$d/ A*te+ the )essat!on o* the *$ood, ho(e2e+, He sa!d, Go *o+th o* the a+1, tho5 and th sons, and
th (!*e, and th sons6 (!2es,>./ :o, a'a!n, "a++!a'e !s '+anted *o+ the sa1e o* the "5$t!0$!)at!on o* the +a)e/
Ne7t, E$!as, the *!+e%&+eath!n' )ha+!otee+ and so8o5+ne+ !n hea2en d!d not e"&+a)e )e$!&a), and et (as not h!s
2!+t5e attested & h!s s50e+%h5"an as)ens!on,-.B ?ho )$osed the hea2ensB ?ho +a!sed the dead,3.B ?ho d!2!ded
Jo+dan,4.B ?as !t not the 2!+'!na$ E$!asB And d!d not E$!sha, h!s d!s)!0$e, a*te+ he had '!2en 0+oo* o* eC5a$ 2!+t5e,
as1 and o&ta!n as an !nhe+!tan)e a do5&$e 0o+t!on o* the '+a)e o* the S0!+!t,9.B ?hat o* the th+ee o5thsB D!d
the not & 0+a)t!s!n' 2!+'!n!t &e)o"e "!'ht!e+ than *!+e, the!+ &od!es th+o5'h 2!+'!n!t &e!n' "ade 0+oo*
a'a!nst the *!+e,;.B And (as !t not Dan!e$6s &od that (as so ha+dened & 2!+'!n!t that the (!$d &easts6 teeth
)o5$d not *asten !n !t,<./ D!d not God, (hen He (!shed the Is+ae$!tes to see H!", &!d the" 05+!* the &od,=.B
D!d not the 0+!ests 05+!* the"se$2es and so a00+oa)h the te"0$e6s sh+!ne and o**e+ 2!)t!"sB And d!d not the $a(
)a$$ )hast!t the '+eat 2o(B
The 0+e)e0t o* the $a(, the+e*o+e, !s to &e ta1en !n a "o+e s0!+!t5a$ sense/ Fo+ the+e !s s0!+!t5a$ seed (h!)h !s
)on)e!2ed th+o5'h the $o2e and *ea+ o* God !n the s0!+!t5a$ (o"&, t+a2a!$!n' and &+!n'!n' *o+th the s0!+!t o*
sa$2at!on/ And !n th!s sense "5st &e 5nde+stood th!s 2e+se: B$essed !s he (ho hath seed !n S!on and 0oste+!t !n
Je+5sa$e"/ Fo+ does !t "ean that, a$tho5'h he &e a (ho+e"on'e+ and a d+5n1a+d and an !do$ate+, he !s st!$$
&$essed !* on$ he hath seed !n S!on and 0oste+!t !n Je+5sa$e"B No one !n h!s senses (!$$ sa th!s/
A!+'!n!t !s the +5$e o* $!*e a"on' the an'e$s, the 0+o0e+t o* a$$ !n)o+0o+ea$ nat5+e/ Th!s (e sa (!tho5t s0ea1!n'
!$$ o* "a++!a'e: God *o+&!dN ,*o+ (e 1no( that the :o+d &$essed "a++!a'e & H!s 0+esen)e,>., and (e 1no( h!"
(ho sa!d, Ma++!a'e !s and the &ed 5nde*!$ed,-.., &5t 1no(!n' that 2!+'!n!t !s &ette+ than "a++!a'e, ho(e2e+
'ood/ Fo+ a"on' the 2!+t5es, eC5a$$ as a"on' the 2!)es, the+e a+e h!'he+ and $o(e+ '+ades/ ?e 1no( that a$$
"o+ta$s a*te+ the *!+st 0a+ents o* the +a)e a+e the o**s0+!n' o* "a++!a'e/ Fo+ the *!+st 0a+ents (e+e the (o+1 o*
2!+'!n!t and not o* "a++!a'e/ B5t )e$!&a) !s, as (e sa!d, an !"!tat!on o* the an'e$s/ ?he+e*o+e 2!+'!n!t !s as
"5)h "o+e hono5+a&$e than "a++!a'e, as the an'e$ !s h!'he+ than "an/ B5t (h do I sa an'e$B Ch+!st H!"se$* !s
the '$o+ o* 2!+'!n!t, (ho (as not on$%&e'otten o* the Fathe+ (!tho5t &e'!nn!n' o+ e"!ss!on o+ )onne)t!on, &5t
a$so &e)a"e "an !n o5+ !"a'e, &e!n' "ade *$esh *o+ o5+ sa1es o* the A!+'!n (!tho5t )onne)t!on, and "an!*est!n'
!n H!"se$* the t+5e and 0e+*e)t 2!+'!n!t/ ?he+e*o+e, a$tho5'h He d!d not en8o!n that on 5s & $a( ,*o+ as He sa!d,
a$$ "en )annot +e)e!2e th!s sa!n',3.., et !n a)t5a$ *a)t He ta5'ht 5s that and 'a2e 5s st+en'th *o+ !t/ Fo+ !t !s
s5+e$ )$ea+ to e2e+ one that 2!+'!n!t no( !s *$o5+!sh!n' a"on' "en/
Good !ndeed !s the 0+o)+eat!on o* )h!$d+en en8o!ned & the $a(, and 'ood !s "a++!a'e on a))o5nt o* *o+n!)at!ons,
*o+ !t does a(a (!th these,9., and & $a(*5$ !nte+)o5+se does not 0e+"!t the "adness o* des!+e to he )a+o"ed
!nto 5n$a(*5$ a)ts/ Good !s "a++!a'e *o+ those (ho ha2e no )ont!nen)e: &5t that 2!+'!n!t !s &ette+ (h!)h
!n)+eases the *+5!t*5$ness o* the so5$ and o**e+s to God the seasona&$e *+5!t o* 0+ae+/ Ma++!a'e !s hono5+a&$e and
the &ed 5nde*!$ed, &5t (ho+e"on'e+s and ad5$te+e+s God (!$$ 85d'e,;./
$A"!E% XX4(
oncernin/ the ircumcision(
The C!+)5")!s!on,<. (as '!2en to A&+aha" &e*o+e the $a(, a*te+ the &$ess!n's, a*te+ the 0+o"!se, as a s!'n
se0a+at!n' h!" and h!s o**s0+!n' and h!s ho5seho$d *+o" the Gent!$es (!th (ho" he $!2ed,=./ And th!s !s
e2!dent,>., *o+ (hen the Is+ae$!tes 0assed *o+t ea+s a$one & the"se$2es !n the dese+t, ha2!n' no !nte+)o5+se
(!th an othe+ +a)e, a$$ that (e+e ho+n !n the dese+t (e+e 5n)!+)5")!sed: &5t (hen Josh5a,@. $ed the" a)+oss
Jo+dan, the (e+e )!+)5")!sed, and a se)ond $a( o* )!+)5")!s!on (as !nst!t5ted/ Fo+ !n A&+aha"6s t!"e the $a(
o* )!+)5")!s!on (as '!2en, and *o+ the *o+t ea+s !n the dese+t !t *e$$ !nto a&ean)e/ And a'a!n *o+ the se)ond
t!"e God 'a2e the $a( o* C!+)5")!s!on to Josh5a, a*te+ the )+oss!n' o* Jo+dan, a))o+d!n' as !t !s (+!tten !n the
&oo1 o* Josh5a, the son o* N5n: At that t!"e the :o+d sa!d 5nto Josh5a, Ma1e thee 1n!2es o* stone *+o" the sha+0
+o)1, and asse"&$e and )!+)5")!se the sons o* Is+ae$ a se)ond t!"e,-.# and a $!tt$e $ate+: Fo+ the )h!$d+en o* Is+ae$
(a$1ed *o+t and t(o,3. ea+s !n the (!$de+ness o* Batta+!s,4., t!$$ a$$ the 0eo0$e that (e+e "en o* (a+, (h!)h
)a"e o5t o* E'0t, (e+e 5n)!+)5")!sed, &e)a5se the o&eed not the 2o!)e o* the :o+d: 5nto (ho" the :o+d
=-
s(a+e that He (o5$d not she( the" the 'oad $and, (h!)h the :o+d s(o+e 5nto the!+ *athe+s that He (o5$d '!2e
the", a $and that *$o(eth (!th "!$1 and hone/ And the!+ )h!$d+en, (ho" He +a!sed 50 !n the!+ stead, the"
Josh5a )!+)5")!sed: *o+ the (e+e 5n)!+)5")!sed, &e)a5se the had not )!+)5")!sed the" & the (a,9./ So that
the )!+)5")!s!on (as a s!'n, d!2!d!n' Is+ae$ *+o" the Gent!$es (!th (ho" the d(e$t/
It (as, "o+eo2e+, a *!'5+e o* &a0t!s",;./ Fo+ 85st as the )!+)5")!s!on does not )5t o** a 5se*5$ "e"&e+ o* the
&od &5t on$ a 5se$ess s50e+*$5!t, so & the ho$ &a0t!s" (e a+e )!+)5")!sed *+o" s!n, and s!n )$ea+$ !s, so to
s0ea1, the s50e+*$5o5s 0a+t o* des!+e and not 5se*5$ des!+e/ Fo+ !t !s C5!te !"0oss!&$e that an one sho5$d ha2e no
des!+e at a$$ no+ e2e+ e70e+!en)e the taste o* 0$eas5+e/ B5t the 5se$ess 0a+t o* 0$eas5+e, that !s to sa, 5se$ess
des!+e and 0$eas5+e, !t !s th!s that !s s!n *+o" (h!)h ho$ &a0t!s" )!+)5")!ses 5s, '!2!n' 5s as a to1en the
0+e)!o5s )+oss on the &+o(, not to d!2!de 5s *+o" the Gent!$es ,*o+ a$$ the nat!ons +e)e!2ed &a0t!s" and (e+e
sea$ed (!th the s!'n o* the C+oss., &5t to d!st!n'5!sh !n ea)h nat!on the *a!th*5$ *+o" the Fa!th$ess/ ?he+e*o+e,
(hen the t+5th !s +e2ea$ed, )!+)5")!s!on !s a sense$ess *!'5+e and shade/ So )!+)5")!s!on !s no( s50e+*$5o5s and
)ont+a+ to ho$ &a0t!s"/ Fo+ he (ho !s )!+)5")!sed !s a de&to+ to do the (ha$e $a(,<./ F5+the+, the :o+d (as
)!+)5")!sed that He "!'ht *5$*!$ the $a(: and He *5$*!$$ed the (ho$e $a( and o&se+2ed the Sa&&ath that He "!'ht
*5$*!$ and esta&$!sh the $a(,=./ Mo+eo2e+ a*te+ He (as &a0t!Ded and the Ho$ S0!+!t had a00ea+ed to "en,
des)end!n' on H!" !n the *o+" o* a do2e, *+o" that t!"e the s0!+!t5a$ se+2!)e and )ond5)t o* $!*e and the
K!n'do" o* Hea2en (as 0+ea)hed/
$A"!E% XX4I(
oncernin/ the Antichrist8?9(
It sho5$d &e 1no(n that the Ant!)h+!st !s ho5nd to )o"e/ E2e+ one, the+e*o+e, (ho )on*esses not that the Son o*
God )a"e !n the *$esh and !s 0e+*e)t God and &e)a"e 0e+*e)t "an, a*te+ &e!n' God, !s Ant!)h+!st,@./ B5t !n a
0e)5$!a+ and s0e)!a$ sense he (ho )o"es at the )ons5""at!on o* the a'e !s )a$$ed Ant!)h+!st,-./ F!+st, then, !t !s
+eC5!s!te that the Gos0e$ sho5$d &e 0+ea)hed a"on' a$$ nat!ons, as the :o+d sa!d,3., and then he (!$$ )o"e to
+e*5te the !"0!o5s Je(s/ Fo+ the :o+d sa!d to the": I a" )o"e !n M Fathe+6s na"e and e +e)e!2e Me not: !*
anothe+ sha$$ )o"e !n h!s o(n na"e, h!" e (!$$ +e)e!2e,4./ And the a0ost$e sas, Be)a5se the +e)e!2ed not the
$o2e o* the t+5th that the "!'ht &e sa2ed, *o+ th!s )a5se Gad sha$$ send the" a st+on' de$5s!on that the sho5$d
&e$!e2e a $!e: that the a$$ "!'ht &e da"ned (ho &e$!e2ed not the t+5th, &5t had 0$eas5+e !n 5n+!'hteo5sness,9./
The Je(s a))o+d!n'$ d!d not +e)e!2e the :o+d Jes5s Ch+!st (ho (as the Son o* God and God, &5t +e)e!2e the
!"0osto+ (ho )a$$s h!"se$* God,;./ Fo+ that he (!$$ ass5"e the na"e o* God, the an'e$ tea)hes Dan!e$, sa!n'
these (o+ds, Ne!the+ sha$$ he +e'a+d the God o* h!s *athe+s,<./ And the a0ost$e sas: :et no "an de)e!2e o5 &
an "eans: *o+ that da sha$$ not )o"e e7)e0t the+e )o"e a *a$$!n' a(a *!+st, and that "an o* s!n &e +e2ea$ed,
the son, o* 0e+d!t!on: (ho o00oseth and e7a$$eth h!"se$* a&o2e a$$ that !s )a$$ed Gad o+ that !s (o+sh!00ed, so
that he s!tteth !n the te"0$e o* God,=., she(!n' h!"se$* that he !s God# !n the te"0$e o* God he sa!d# not o5+
te"0$e, &5t the o$d Je(!sh te"0$e,>./ Fo+ he (!$$ )o"e not to 5s &5t to the Je(s: not *o+ Ch+!st o+ the th!n's o*
Ch+!st: (he+e*o+e he !s )a$$ed Ant!)h+!st,@./
F!+st, the+e*o+e, !t !s ne)essa+ that the Gos0e$ sho5$d &e 0+ea)hed a"on' a$$ nat!ons,-.: And then sha$$ that
(!)1ed one &e +e2ea$ed, e2en h!" (hose )o"!n' !s a*te+ the (o+1!n' o* Satan (!th a$$ 0o(e+ and s!'ns and $!n'
(onde+s,3., (!th a$$ de)e!2a&$eness o* 5n+!'hteo5sness !n the" that 0e+!sh, (ho" the :o+d sha$$ )ons5"e (!th
the (o+d o* H!s "o5th and sha$$ dest+o (!th the &+!'htness o* H!s )o"!n',4./ The de2!$ h!"se$*,9., the+e*o+e
does not &e)o"e "an !n the (a that the :o+d (as "ade "an/ God *o+&!dN &5t he &e)o"es "an as the o**s0+!n'
o* *o+n!)at!on and +e)e!2eth a$$ the ene+' o* Satan/ Fo+ God, *o+e1no(!n' the st+an'eness o* the )ho!)e that he
(o5$d "a1e, a$$o(s the de2!$ to ta1e 50 h!s a&ode !n h!",;./
He !s, the+e*o+e, as (e sa!d, the o**s0+!n' o* *o+n!)at!on and !s n5+t5+ed !n se)+et, and on a s5dden he +!ses 50 and
+e&e$s and ass5"es +5$e/ And !n the &e'!nn!n' o* h!s +5$e, o+ +athe+ t+ann, he ass5"es the +o$e o* san)t!t,<./
B5t (hen he &e)o"es "aste+ he 0e+se)5tes the Ch5+)h o* God and d!s0$as a$$ h!s (!)1edness/ B5t he (!$$ )o"e
(!th s!'ns and $!n' (onde+s,=., *!)t!t!o5s and not +ea$, and he (!$$ de)e!2e and $ead a(a *+o" the $!2!n' God
those (hose "!nd +ests on an 5nso5nd and 5nsta&$e *o5ndat!on, so that e2en the e$e)t sha$$, !* !t &e 0oss!&$e, &e
"ade to st5"&$e,>./
B5t Eno)h and E$!as the Thes&!te sha$$ &e sent and sha$$ t5+n the hea+ts o* the *athe+s to the )h!$d+en,@., that !s,
the sna'o'5e to o5+ :o+d Jes5s Ch+!st and the 0+ea)h!n' o* the a0ost$es: and the (!$$ &e dest+oed & h!"/ And
the :o+d sha$$ )o"e o5t o* hea2en, 85st as the ho$ a0ost$es &ehe$d H!" 'o!n' !nto hea2en 0e+*e)t God and
0e+*e)t "an, (!th '$o+ and 0o(e+, and (!$$ dest+o the "an o* $a($essness, the son o* dest+5)t!on, (!th the
&+eath o* H!s "o5th,-./ :et no one, the+e*o+e, $oo1 *o+ the :o+d to )o"e *+o" ea+th, &5t o5t o* Hea2en, as He
h!"se$* has "ade s5+e,3./
$A"!E% XX4II(
oncernin/ the %esurrection(
?e &e$!e2e a$so !n the +es5++e)t!on o* the dead/ Fo+ the+e (!$$ &e !n t+5th, the+e (!$$ &e, a +es5++e)t!on o* the dead,
and & +es5++e)t!on (e "ean +es5++e)t!on o* &od!es,4./ Fo+ +es5++e)t!on !s the se)ond state o* that (h!)h has
*a$$en/ Fo+ the so5$s a+e !""o+ta$, and hen)e ho( )an the +!se a'a!nB Fo+ !* the de*!ne death as the se0a+at!on
o* so5$ and &od, +es5++e)t!on s5+e$ !s the +e%5n!on o* so5$ and &od, and the se)ond state o* the $!2!n' )+eat5+e
=3
that has s5**e+ed d!sso$5t!on and do(n*a$$,9./ It !s, then, th!s 2e+ &od, (h!)h !s )o++50t!&$e and $!a&$e to
d!sso$5t!on, that (!$$ +!se a'a!n !n)o++50t!&$e/ Fo+ He, (ho "ade !t !n the &e'!nn!n' o* the sand o* the ea+th, does
not $a)1 the 0o(e+ to +a!se !t 50 a'a!n a*te+ !t has &een d!sso$2ed a'a!n and +et5+ned to the ea+th *+o" (h!)h !t
(as ta1en, !n a))o+dan)e (!th the +e2e+sa$ o* the C+eato+6s 85d'"ent/
Fo+ !* the+e !s no +es5++e)t!on, $et 5s eat and d+!n1,;.: $et 5s 05+s5e a $!*e o* 0$eas5+e and en8o"ent/ I* the+e !s no
+es5++e)t!on, (he+e!n do (e d!**e+ *+o" the !++at!ona$ &+5tesB I* the+e !s no +es5++e)t!on, $et 5s ho$d the (!$d
&easts o* the *!e$d ha00 (ho ha2e a $!*e *+ee *+o" so++o(/ I* the+e !s no +es5++e)t!on, ne!the+ !s the+e an God
no+ P+o2!den)e, &5t a$$ th!n's a+e d+!2en and &o+ne a$on' o* the"se$2es/ Fo+ o&se+2e ho( (e see "ost +!'hteo5s
"en s5**e+!n' h5n'e+ and !n85st!)e and +e)e!2!n' no he$0 !n the 0+esent $!*e, (h!$e s!nne+s and 5n+!'hteo5s "en
a&o5nd !n +!)hes and e2e+ de$!'ht/ And (ho !n h!s senses (o5$d ta1e th!s *o+ the (o+1 o* a +!'hteo5s 85d'"ent
o+ a (!se 0+o2!den)eB The+e "5st &e, the+e*o+e, the+e "5st &e, a +es5++e)t!on/ Fo+ God !s 85st and !s the +e(a+de+
o* those (ho s5&"!t 0at!ent$ to H!"/ ?he+e*o+e !* !t !s the so5$ a$one that en'a'es !n the )ontests o* 2!+t5e, !t !s
a$so the so5$ a$one that (!$$ +e)e!2e the )+o(n/ And !* !t (e+e the so5$ a$one that +e2e$s !n 0$eas5+es, !t (o5$d a$so
&e the so5$ a$one that (o5$d &e 85st$ 05n!shed/ B5t s!n)e the so5$ does not 05+s5e e!the+ 2!+t5e o+ 2!)e se0a+ate
*+o" the &od, &oth to'ethe+ (!$$ o&ta!n that (h!)h !s the!+ 85st d5e/
Na, the d!2!ne S)+!0t5+e &ea+s (!tness that the+e (!$$ &e a +es5++e)t!on o* the &od/ God !n t+5th sas to Moses
a*te+ the *$ood, E2en as the '+een he+& ha2e I '!2en o5 a$$ th!n's/ B5t *$esh (!th the $!*e the+eo*, (h!)h !s the
&$ood the+eo*, sha$$ e not eat/ And s5+e$ o5+ &$ood o* o5+ $!2es (!$$ I +eC5!+e# at the hand o* e2e+ &east (!$$ I
+eC5!+e !t, and at the hand o* e2e+ "an6s &+othe+ (!$$ I +eC5!+e the $!*e o* "an/ ?hoso sheddeth "an6s &$ood, *o+
h!s &$ood h!s o(n sha$$ &e shed, *o+ !n the !"a'e o* God "ade I "an,<./ Ho( (!$$ He +eC5!+e the &$ood o* "an at
the hand o* e2e+ &east, 5n$ess &e)a5se the &od!es o* dead "en (!$$ +!se a'a!nB Fo+ not *o+ "an (!$$ the &easts
d!e/
And a'a!n to Moses, I a" the God o* A&+aha", the God o* Isaa) and the God o* Ja)o&: God !s not the God o* the
dead ,that !s, those (ho a+e dead and (!$$ &e no "o+e., &5t o* the $!2!n',=., (hose so5$s !ndeed $!2e !n H!s
hand,>., &5t (hose &od!es (!$$ a'a!n )o"e to $!*e th+o5'h the +es5++e)t!on/ And Da2!d, s!+e o* the D!2!ne, sas to
God, Tho5 ta1est a(a the!+ &+eath, the d!e and +et5+n to the!+ d5st,@./ See ho( he s0ea1s a&o5t &od!es/ Then
he s5&8o!ns th!s, Tho5 sendest *o+th Th S0!+!t, the a+e )+eated: and Tho5 +ene(est the *a)e o* the ea+th,-./
F5+the+ Isa!ah sas: The dead sha$$ +!se a'a!n, and the that a+e !n the '+a2es sha$$ a(a1e,3./ And !t !s )$ea+ that
the so5$s do not $!e !n the '+a2es, &5t the &od!es/
And a'a!n, the &$essed EDe1!e$ sas: And !t (as as I 0+o0hes!ed, and &eho$d a sha1!n' and the &ones )a"e
to'ethe+, &one to h!s &one, ea)h to !ts o(n 8o!nt: and (hen I &ehe$d, $o, the s!ne(s )a"e 50 50on the" and the
*$esh '+e( and +ose 50 on the" and the s1!n )o2e+ed the" a&o2e,4./ And $ate+ he tea)hes ho( the s0!+!ts )a"e
&a)1 (hen the (e+e &!dden/
And d!2!ne Dan!e$ a$so sas: And at that t!"e sha$$ M!)hae$ stand 50, the '+eat 0+!n)e (h!)h standeth *o+ the
)h!$d+en o* th 0eo0$e: and the+e sha$$ &e a t!"e o* t+o5&$e, s5)h t+o5&$e as ne2e+ (as s!n)e the+e (as a nat!on on
the ea+th e2en to that sa"e t!"e/ And at that t!"e th 0eo0$e sha$$ &e de$!2e+ed, e2e+ one that sha$$ &e *o5nd
(+!tten !n the &oo1/ And "an o* the" that s$ee0 !n the d5st o* the ea+th sha$$ a(a1e: so"e to e2e+$ast!n' $!*e
and so"e to sha"e and e2e+$ast!n' )onte"0t/ And the that &e (!se sha$$ sh!ne as the &+!'htness o* the
*!+"a"ent, and o5t o* the "5$t!t5de o* the 85st sha$$ sh!ne $!1e sta+s !nto the a'es and &eond,9./ The (o+ds,
"an o* the" that s$ee0 !n the d5st o* the ea+th sha$$ a(a1e, )$ea+$ she( that the+e (!$$ &e a +es5++e)t!on o*
&od!es/ Fo+ no one s5+e$ (o5$d sa that the so5$s s$ee0 !n the d5st o* the ea+th/
Mo+eo2e+, e2en the :o+d !n the ho$ Gos0e$s )$ea+$ a$$o(s that the+e !s a +es5++e)t!on o* the &od!es/ Fo+ the
that a+e !n the '+a2es, He sas, sha$$ hea+ H!s 2o!)e and sha$$ )o"e *o+th: the that ha2e done 'ood 5nto the
+es5++e)t!on o* $!*e, and the that ha2e done e2!$ 5nto the +es5++e)t!on o* da"nat!on,;./ No( no one !n h!s senses
(o5$d e2e+ sa that the so5$s a+e !n the '+a2es/
B5t !t (as not on$ & (o+d, &5t a$so & deed, that the :o+d +e2ea$ed the +es5++e)t!on o* the &od!es/ F!+st He
+a!sed 50 :aDa+5s, e2en a*te+ he had &een dead *o5+ das, and (as st!n1!n',<./ Fo+ He d!d not +a!se the so5$
(!tho5t the &od, &5t the &od a$on' (!th the so5$: and not anothe+ &od &5t the 2e+ one that (as )o++50t/ Fo+
ho( )o5$d the +es5++e)t!on o* the dead "an ha2e &een 1no(n o+ &e$!e2ed !* !t had not &een esta&$!shed & h!s
)ha+a)te+!st!) 0+o0e+t!esB B5t !t (as !n *a)t to "a1e the d!2!n!t o* H!s o(n nat5+e "an!*est and to )on*!+" the
&e$!e* !n H!s o(n and o5+ +es5++e)t!on, that He +a!sed 50 :aDa+5s (ho (as dest!ned on)e "o+e to d!e/ And the
:o+d &e)a"e H!"se$* the *!+st%*+5!ts o* the 0e+*e)t +es5++e)t!on that !s no $on'e+ s5&8e)t to death ?he+e*o+e a$so
the d!2!ne A0ost$e Pa5$ sa!d: I* the dead +!se not, then !s not Ch+!st +a!sed/ And !* Ch+!st &e not +a!sed, o5+ *a!th !s
2a!n: (e a+e 8et !n o5+ s!ns,=./ And, No(, !s Ch+!st +!sen *+o" the dead and &e)o"e the *!+st%*+5!ts o* the" that
s$e0t,>., and the *!+st%&o+n 0+e the dead,@.# and a'a!n, Fo+ !* (e &e$!e2e that Jes5s d!ed and +ose a'a!n, e2en so
the" a$so (h!)h s$ee0 !n Jes5s (!$$ God &+!n' (!th H!",-./ E2en so, he sa!d, as Ch+!st +ose a'a!n/ Mo+eo2e+,
that the +es5++e)t!on o* the :o+d (as the 5n!on o* 5n)o++50ted &od and so5$ ,*o+ !t (as these that had &een
d!2!ded. !s "an!*est: *o+ He sa!d, Dest+o th!s te"0$e, and !n th+ee das I (!$$ +a!se !t 50,3./ And the ho$ Gos0e$
!s a t+5st(o+th (!tness that He s0o1e o* H!s o(n &od/ Hand$e Me and see, the :o+d sa!d to H!s o(n d!s)!0$es
(hen the (e+e th!n1!n' that the sa( a s0!+!t, that !t !s I Mse$*, and that I a" not )han'ed,4.: *o+ a s0!+!t hath
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not *$esh o+ &ones, as e see Me ha2e,9./ And (hen He had sa!d th!s He she(ed the" H!s hands and H!s s!de,
and st+et)hed the" *o+(a+d *o+ Tho"as to to5)h,;./ Is not th!s s5**!)!ent to esta&$!sh &e$!e* !n the +es5++e)t!on o*
&od!esB
A'a!n the d!2!ne a0ost$e sas, Fo+ th!s )o++50t!&$e "5st 05t on !n)o++50t!on, and th!s "o+ta$ "5st 05t on
!""o+ta$!t,<./ And a'a!n: It !s so(n !n )o++50t!on, !t !s +a!sed !n !n)o++50t!on: !t !s sa(n !n (ea1ness, !t !s +a!sed
!n 0o(e+: !t !s so(n !n d!shono5+, !t !s +a!sed !n '$o+: !t !s so(n a nat5+a$ &od ,that !s to sa, )+ass and "o+ta$.,
!t !s +a!sed a s0!+!t5a$ &od,=., s5)h as (as o5+ :o+d6s &od a*te+ the +es5++e)t!on (h!)h 0assed th+o5'h )$osed
doo+s, (as 5n(ea+!n', had no need o* *ood, o+ s$ee0, o+ d+!n1/ Fo+ the (!$$ &e, sa!th the :o+d, as the an'e$s o*
God,>.: the+e (!$$ no $on'e+ &e "a++!a'e no+ 0+o)+eat!on o* )h!$d+en/ The d!2!ne a0ost$e, !n t+5th, sas, Fo+ o5+
)on2e+sat!on !s !n hea2en, *+o" (hen)e a$so (e $oo1 *o+ the Sa2!o5+, the :o+d Jes5s, ?ho sha$$ )han'e o5+ 2!$e
&od that !t "a &e *ash!oned $!1e 5nto H!s '$o+!o5s &od,@.: not "ean!n' )han'e !nto anothe+ *o+" ,God
*o+&!dN., &5t +athe+ the )han'e *+o" )o++50t!on !nto !n)o++50t!on,-./
B5t so"e one (!$$ sa, Ho( a+e the dead +a!sed 50B Oh, (hat d!s&e$!e*N Oh, (hat *o$$N ?!$$ He, ?ho at H!s
so$!ta+ (!$$ )han'ed ea+th !nto &od, ?ho )o""anded the $!tt$e d+o0 o* seed to '+o( !n the "othe+6s (o"& and
&e)o"e !n the end th!s 2a+!ed and "an!*o$d o+'an o* the &od, not the +athe+ +a!se 50 a'a!n at H!s so$!ta+ (!$$
that (h!)h (as and !s d!sso$2edB And (!th (hat &od do the )o"e,3.B Tho5 *oo$, !* th ha+dness (!$$ not
0e+"!t o5 to &e$!e2e the (o+ds o* God, at $east &e$!e2e H!s (o+1s,4./ Fo+ that (h!)h tho5 so(est !s not
C5!)1ened e7)e0t !t d!e,9./ And that (h!)h tho5 so(est, tho5 so(est not that &od that sha$$ &e, &5t &a+e '+a!n, !t
"a )han)e o* (heat o+ o* so"e othe+ '+a!n/ B5t God '!2eth !t a &od as !t hath 0$eased H!", and to e2e+ seed
h!s o(n &od,;./ Beho$d, the+e*o+e, ho( the seed !s &5+!ed !n the *5++o(s as !n to"&s/ ?ho !s !t that '!2eth the"
+oots and sta$1 and $ea2es and ea+s and the "ost de$!)ate &ea+dsB Is !t not the Ma1e+ o* the 5n!2e+seB Is !t not at
the &!dd!n' o* H!" ?ho hath )ont+!2ed a$$ th!n'sB Be$!e2e, the+e*o+e, !n th!s (!se, e2en that the +es5++e)t!on o*
the dead (!$$ )o"e to 0ass at the d!2!ne (!$$ and s!'n/ Fo+ He has 0o(e+ that !s a&$e to 1ee0 0a)e (!th H!s (!$$/
?e sha$$ the+e*o+e +!se a'a!n, o5+ so5$s &e!n' on)e "o+e 5n!ted (!th o5+ &od!es, no( "ade !n)o++50t!&$e and
ha2!n' 05t o** )o++50t!on, and (e sha$$ stand &es!de the a(*5$ 85d'"ent%seat o* Ch+!st: and the de2!$ and h!s
de"ons and the "an that !s h!s, that !s the Ant!)h+!st and the !"0!o5s and the s!n*5$, (!$$ &e '!2en o2e+ to
e2e+$ast!n' *!+e: not "ate+!a$ *!+e,<. $!1e o5+ *!+e, &5t s5)h *!+e as God (o5$d 1no(/ B5t those (ho ha2e done
'ood (!$$ sh!ne *o+th as the s5n (!th the an'e$s !nto $!*e ete+na$, (!th o5+ :o+d Jes5s Ch+!st, e2e+ see!n' H!" and
&e!n' !n H!s s!'ht and de+!2!n' 5n)eas!n' 8o *+o" H!", 0+a!s!n' H!" (!th the Fathe+ and the Ho$ S0!+!t
th+o5'ho5t the $!"!t$ess a'es o* a'es,=./ A"en/
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