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Most nouns make their plurals by simply adding s to the end

actor - actors airplanes - airplanes answer - answers apple - apples apparel apparels
arm arms apple apples alarm - alarms action - actions anger - angers
ant ants appliance appliances aunt - aunts adventure adventures adult adults
baseball baseballs battle battles beggar beggars brain brains bubble bubbles
bucket buckets bean beans boot boots brick bricks brother brothers
bell bells balloon - balloons band - bands ballot - ballots bandage - bandages
baron barons bartender bartenders bone - bones bait baits bat - bats
bead beads beard beards broom brooms bonnet bonnets bowl bowls
cab cabs cabbage cabbages cake cakes cage cages cafeteria - cafeterias
camera cameras car - cars case cases cellar cellars cell - cells
capsule capsules caravan caravans carriage carriages carrot carrots cartoon cartoons
case cases cave caves clip clips clamp clamps clown clowns
crown crowns crowd crowds cove coves cottage cottages cousin cousins
dad dads dam dams date dates dagger daggers dcor decors
detergent detergents destroy destroys diplomat diplomats dipper dippers director directors
dime dimes dinner dinners dill dills digit digits diet diets
dock docks doctor doctors document documents door doors doorbell doorbells
dragon dragons drum drums drawbridge - drawbridges drawer drawer dresser dressers
eel eels editor editors elastic elastics elbow elbows elder elders
elevator elevators elm - elms errand errands engine- engines egg eggs
fabric fabrics face faces factor factors fad fads feather feathers
ghoul ghouls goal goals gear gears giant giants gate gates
head heads` hotel hotels ham hams hunter hunters heart hearts
island islands impostor impostors inspector- inspectors ink inks illustrator illustrators
jam jams jean jeans journal journals junk junks judge judges
kettle kettles keyboard keyboards king kings knob knobs kitchen kitchens
leak leaks leg legs legend legends letter letters log - logs
lemon lemons list lists line lines lotion lotions lock locks
luck lucks log logs loan loans lounge lounges loot loots
machine machines mask masks mayor mayors meadow meadows meal meals
mole moles mile miles mint mints muscle muscles mouth mouths
neck necks nickel nickel niece nieces needles needles nurse nurses
odor odors oak oaks other others otter otters oyster oysters
paste pastes pant pants perfume perfumes pick picks pore pores
plastic plastics plate plates park parks puzzle - puzzles pencil pencils
queen queens quilt quilts quote quotes quart quarts quest quests
rag rags rake rakes rib ribs road roads ruler rulers
rat rats road roads robot robots robe robes rug rugs
sailor sailors scar scars seed seeds silk silks soap soaps
suspect suspects swamp - swamps telephone telephones table tables tablet tablets
teaspoon teaspoons tear tears umbrella umbrellas urn urns unit units
vase vases vegetable vegetables vacation vacations whisker whiskers water waters
whistle whistles weapon weapons wine wines yoke yokes yacht yachts
year years yard yards zeal zeals zigzag zigzags zipper - zippers
Nouns ending in s, ss, z, x, sh, and ch form the
plural by adding es.

s ss z x sh ch
abacus -
class -
box boxes bush bushes clash clashes
bus buses kiss kisses jazz -
fox - foxes brush
batch - batches
gas gases bass -
hex - hexes blush -
coach - coaches
lens lenses boss - bosses influx -
crouch -
kiss - kisses lass - lasses jinx - jinxes dash dashes catch catches
mass -
six - sixes fish - fishes clutch
miss -
sax - saxes flash
mess -
mix - mixes gash - gashes hitch hitches
tax taxes sash sashes inch inches
slash - slashes itch itches
wax waxes smash-
mash -
marsh -
lunch lunches
mesh - meshes march
push - pushes notch notches
rash - rashes peach - peaches
rush - rushes rich - riches
reach reaches
wish - wishes witch witches
watch watches
match - matches

Nouns ending in y preceded by a consonant is formed into a
plural by changing y to i + es.

COMMON NOUN Remove the Y add ies
activity activities
accessory accessories
agency agencies
apply applies
baby babies
berry berries
bully bullies
bunny bunnies
butterfly butterflies
canary canaries
city cities
cry cries
carry carries
daisy daisies
duty duties
enemy enemies
fly flies
fairy fairies
factory factories
ferry ferries
lady ladies
legacy legacies
library libraries
lorry lorries
marry marries
nappy nappies
penny pennies
pony ponies
poppy poppies
puppy puppies
rally rallies
rely relies
secretary secretaries
sky skies
spy spies
story stories
study studies
sty sties
supply supplies
theory theories

Nouns ending in y preceded by a vowel form their plurals by
adding s.

airway airways
alley alleys
annoy annoys
array arrays
attorney attorneys
birthday birthdays
boy boys
chimney chimneys
day days
delay delays
donkey donkeys
employ employs
essay essays
galley galleys
guy guys
holiday holidays
joy joys
key keys
monkey monkeys
play plays
pray prays
ray rays
relay relays
survey surveys
stay stays
stray strays
toy toys
tray trays
turkey turkeys
valley valleys
volley volleys
way ways

Nouns ending in -o can add either -s or -es in the plural,
and some can be spelled either way.
As a general rule, most nouns ending in -o add -s to make the plural:
singular plural
solo solos
zero zeros
avocado avocados
Those which have a vowel before the final -o always just add -s:

Heres a list of the most common nouns ending in -o that are always spelled with -es in
the plural:
singular plural
buffalo buffaloes
domino dominoes
echo echoes
embargo embargoes
hero heroes
mosquito mosquitoes
potato potatoes
tomato tomatoes
torpedo torpedoes
veto vetoes
singular plural
studio studios
zoo zoos
embryo embryos
Here are some of the common nouns ending in -o that can be spelled with either -
s or -es in the plural:
singular plural
banjo banjos or banjoes
cargo cargos or cargoes
flamingo flamingos or flamingoes
fresco frescos or frescoes
ghetto ghettos or ghettoes
halo halos or haloes
mango mangos or mangoes
memento mementos or mementoes
motto mottos or mottoes
tornado tornados or tornadoes
tuxedo tuxedos or tuxedoes
volcano volcanos or volcanoes

With nouns that end in a consonant or a single vowel plus -f or -fe, change the -f or -
fe to -ves:

singular plural
loaf loaves
calf calves
half halves
knife knives
life lives
thief thieves
wife wives
leaf leaves
shelf shelves
wolf wolves
scarf scarves
Nouns which end in two vowels plus -f usually form plurals in the normal way, with just an s

singular plural
chiefs chiefs
spoof spoofs
surf surfs
giraffe giraffes
cliff cliffs

Some others have two forms of the plural:
dwarf - dwarfs or dwarves
hoof - hoofs or hooves
scarf - scarfs or scarves
staff - staffs or staves
wharf - wharfs or wharves

Rule # 7
An irregular plural noun is an irregular noun in the plural form. An irregular noun is a noun
that becomes plural by changing its spelling in other ways than adding an s or es to the
end of the word. This change can happen in a variety of ways.

Irregular nouns made plural by changing vowels, changing the word, or adding a different ending:
More than one man = men
More than one person = people
More than one mouse = mice
More than one child = children
More than one foot = feet
More than one goose = geese
More than one tooth = teeth
More than one louse = lice
More than one cactus = cacti
More than one appendix = appendices
More than one ox =oxen
More than one person = people
Some irregular plural nouns have the same spelling as their singular form such as scissors, pants, bison,
deer, and sheep.And then some animal nouns become plural by keeping the same spelling as the
singular form or by adding an s or es. More than one shrimp = shrimp or shrimps
More than one fish = fish or fishes
More than one quail = quail or quails
More than one cod = cod or cods
there are nouns that maintain their Latin or Greek form in the plural.
more than one nucleus = nuclei
more than one syllabus = syllabi
more than one focus = foci
more than one fungus = fungi
more than one cactus = cacti (cactuses is acceptable)
more than one thesis = theses
more than one crisis = crises*
more than one phenomenon = phenomena
more than one index = indices (indexes is acceptable)
more than one appendix = appendices (appendixes is acceptable)
more than one criterion = criteria

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