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131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab

CLASS : II YEAR/ III SEMSESTER


SUBJECT CODE : 131351
SUBJECT : ELECTRON DEVICES AND CIRCUITS LAB
BATCH : A1
STAFF IN-CHARGE: Ms. K. SUDHA
DESIGNATION : LECTURER
STAFF CODE : EE55
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
131351 ELECTRON DEVICES AND CIRCUITS LABORATORY L T P C
(B.E. (EEE), B.E. (E&I) and B.E. (I & C) 3 !
(R"#$%"d)
1. Characteristics of semiconductor diode and zener diode .
2. Characteristics of transistor under CE, CB and CC .
3. Characteristics of FET .
4. Characteristics of UJT .
5. Characteristics of SC, !"#C and T"#C.
$. %hotodiode, %hototransistor characteristics and stud& of 'i(ht acti)ated
re'a& circuit.
*. Static characteristics of Thermistors.
+. Sin('e ,hase ha'f -a)e and fu'' -a)e rectifiers -ith inducti)e and
ca,aciti)e fi'ters.
.. !ifferentia' am,'ifiers usin( FET.
1/. Stud& of C0.
11. Series and ,ara''e' resonance circuits.
12. ea'ization of ,assi)e fi'ters.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 1
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
E&.N'.1a
C(ARACTERISTICS OF PN )UNCTION DIODE
AIM*
To stud& the %1 2unction diode characteristics under For-ard 3 e)erse
4ias conditions.
APPARATUS RE+UIRED* COMPONENTS RE+UIRED*
S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0. S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
1 .%.S 1
!iode
2 #mmeter
2 esistor
3
Bread
Board
3 5o'tmeter
4 6ires
T(EORY*
# %1 2unction diode is a t-o termina' 2unction de)ice. "t conducts on'& in
one direction 7on'& on for-ard 4iasin(8.
FOR1ARD BIAS*
0n for-ard 4iasin(, initia''& no current f'o-s due to 4arrier ,otentia'. #s the
a,,'ied ,otentia' e9ceeds the 4arrier ,otentia' the char(e carriers (ain sufficient
ener(& to cross the ,otentia' 4arrier and hence enter the other re(ion. The ho'es,
-hich are ma2orit& carriers in the %:re(ion, 4ecome minorit& carriers on enterin(
the 1:re(ions, and e'ectrons, -hich are the ma2orit& carriers in the 1:re(ion,
4ecome minorit& carriers on enterin( the %:re(ion. This in2ection of ;inorit&
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 2
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
carriers resu'ts in the current f'o-, o,,osite to the direction of e'ectron
mo)ement.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 3
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
REVERSE BIAS*
0n re)erse 4iasin(, the ma2orit& char(e carriers are attracted to-ards the
termina's due to the a,,'ied ,otentia' resu'tin( in the -idenin( of the de,'etion
re(ion. Since the char(e carriers are ,ushed to-ards the termina's no current
f'o-s in the de)ice due to ma2orit& char(e carriers. There -i'' 4e some current in
the de)ice due to the therma''& (enerated minorit& carriers. The (eneration of
such carriers is inde,endent of the a,,'ied ,otentia' and hence the current is
constant for a'' increasin( re)erse ,otentia'. This current is referred to as
e)erse Saturation Current 7"
0
8 and it increases -ith tem,erature. 6hen the
a,,'ied re)erse )o'ta(e is increased 4e&ond the certain 'imit, it resu'ts in
4rea<do-n. !urin( 4rea<do-n, the diode current increases tremendous'&.
PROCEDURE*
FOR1ARD BIAS*
1. Connect the circuit as ,er the dia(ram.
2. 5ar& the a,,'ied )o'ta(e 5 in ste,s of /.15.
3. 1ote do-n the corres,ondin( #mmeter readin(s ".
4. %'ot a (ra,h 4et-een 5 3 "
OBSERVATIONS
1. Find the d.c 7static8 resistance = 5>".
2. Find the a.c 7d&namic8 resistance r = 5 > " 72 3 V4I) 3
1 2
1 2
I I
V V

.
3. Find the for-ard )o'ta(e dro, = ?@intA it is eBua' to /.* for Si and /.3 for
CeD
REVERSE BIAS*
1. Connect the circuit as ,er the dia(ram.
!. 5ar& the a,,'ied )o'ta(e 5 in ste,s of 1./5.
3. 1ote do-n the corres,ondin( #mmeter readin(s ".
5. %'ot a (ra,h 4et-een 5 3 "
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 4
(0-100)mA !"
#
-#
#
-#
(0-15)$ !"
#
-#
(0-10)$
%&'
(0-500)(A!"
#
-#
#
-#
(0-30)$ !"
#
-#
(0-30)$
%&'
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
5. Find the d&namic resistance 2 3 V 4 I.
FORMULA FOR REVERSE SATURATION CURRENT (I
O
)*
I
'
3 I46"&/(V4V
T
)781
6here 5
T
is the )o'ta(e eBui)a'ent of Tem,erature = <T>B
:< is Bo'tzmannEs constant, B is the char(e of the e'ectron and T is the
tem,erature in de(rees Fe')in.
=1 for Si'icon and 2 for Cermanium

CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*
FOR1ARD BIAS*
REVERSE BIAS*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 5
4)0
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
4)0
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
S/":$;$:a0$'n ;'2 1N51* S$<$:'n D$'d"
%ea< "n)erse 5o'ta(eA 5/5
"
dc
= 1#.
;a9imum for-ard )o'ta(e dro, at 1 #m, is 1.1 )o'ts
;a9imum re)erse current G5/ )o'ts is 5#
TABULAR COLUMN*
FOR1ARD BIAS* REVERSE BIAS*
MODEL 9RAP(
*f (mA)
"
2
5
4
"
1
7 5o'ts8 5
1
5
2
5
f
75o'ts8

"
r
7#8
Department of electrical and electronics engineering
S.N'. VOLTA9E
(In V'<0%)
CURRENT
(In ,A)
S..N'. VOLTA9E
(In V'<0%)
CURRENT
(In A)
+
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
RESULT*
For-ard and e)erse 4ias characteristics of the %1 2unction diode and the
d&namic resistance under
i8 For-ard 4ias = :::::::::::::::::::::
ii8 e)erse 4ias = ::::::::::::::::::::::.
iii8 e)erse Saturation Current = ::::::::::::::::.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering )
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
E&.N'.1=
C(ARACTERISTICS OF >ENER DIODE
AIM*
To determine the 4rea<do-n )o'ta(e of a (i)en zener diode.
APPARATUS RE+UIRED* COMPONENTS RE+UIRED*
S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0. S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
1 .%.S 1
zener
diode
2 #mmeter
2 esistor
3
Bread
Board
3 5o'tmeter
4 6ires
T(EORYA
# ,ro,er'& do,ed cr&sta' diode, -hich has a shar, 4rea<do-n )o'ta(e, is <no-n
as zener diode.
FOR1ARD BIAS*
0n for-ard 4iasin(, initia''& no current f'o-s due to 4arrier ,otentia'. #s the
a,,'ied ,otentia' increases, it e9ceeds the 4arrier ,otentia' at one )a'ue and the
char(e carriers (ain sufficient ener(& to cross the ,otentia' 4arrier and enter the
other re(ion. the ho'es ,-hich are ma2orit& carriers in ,:re(ion, 4ecome minorit&
carriers on enterin( the 1:re(ions and e'ectrons, -hich are the ma2orit& carriers
in the 1:re(ions 4ecome minorit& carriers on enterin( the %:re(ion. This in2ection
of minorit& carriers resu'ts current, o,,osite to the direction of e'ectron
mo)ement.
REVERSE BIAS*
6hen the re)erse 4ias is a,,'ied due to ma2orit& carriers sma'' amount of
current 7ie8 re)erse saturation current f'o-s across the 2unction. #s the re)erse
Department of electrical and electronics engineering ,
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
4ias is increased to 4rea<do-n )o'ta(e, sudden rise in current ta<es ,'ace due to
zener effect.
>ENER EFFECT*
1orma''&, %1 2unction of Hener !iode is hea)i'& do,ed. !ue to hea)&
do,in( the de,'etion 'a&er -i'' 4e narro-. 6hen the re)erse 4ias is increased the
,otentia' across the de,'etion 'a&er is more. This e9erts a force on the e'ectrons
in the outermost she''. Because of this force the e'ectrons are ,u''ed a-a& from
the ,arent nuc'ei and 4ecome free e'ectrons. This ionization, -hich occurs due to
e'ectrostatic force of attraction, is <no-n as Hener effect. "t resu'ts in 'ar(e
num4er of free carriers, -hich in turn increases the re)erse saturation current
PROCEDURE*
FOR1ARD BIAS*
1. Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
2. 5ar& the ,o-er su,,'& in such a -a& that the readin(s are ta<en in ste,s
of /.15 in the )o'tmeter ti'' the need'e of ,o-er su,,'& sho-s 3/5.
3. 1ote do-n the corres,ondin( ammeter readin(s.
4. %'ot the (ra,h A5 7)s8 ".
5. Find the d&namic resistance 2 3 V 4 I.
REVERSE BIAS*
1. Connect the circuit as ,er the dia(ram.
!. 5ar& the ,o-er su,,'& in such a -a& that the readin(s are ta<en in ste,s
of /.15 in the )o'tmeter ti'' the need'e of ,o-er su,,'& sho-s 3/5.
3. 1ote do-n the corres,ondin( #mmeter readin(s ".
5. %'ot a (ra,h 4et-een 5 3 "
5. Find the d&namic resistance 2 3 V 4 I.
?. Find the re)erse )o'ta(e 5r at "z=2/ m#.
CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering -
7/:158 5
# -
#
-
#
-
7/:1/8 5
7/:1/8 5, ;C
# -
#
-
#
-
7/:3/8 5
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
FOR1ARD BIAS*

REVERSE BIAS*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 10
1
.

a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
4)0
aaaaa
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
(0-10)mA
1
.

a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
1.
aaaaa
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
(0-500)/A !"
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
>ENER DIODE*
"f 7 m#8
"
2
5B "
1
5
r
5
1
5
2
5
f
758 758
"r 7I#8
TABULAR COLUMN*
FOR1ARD BIAS* REVERSE BIAS*
RESULT*
For-ard and e)erse 4ias characteristics of the zener diode -as studied
and
For-ard 4ias d&namic resistance = :::::::::::::::::::::
e)erse 4ias d&namic resistance = ::::::::::::::::::::::
The re)erse )o'ta(e at "z =2/ m# determined from the re)erse
characteristics of the Hener diode is ::::::::::::::::::::::::::.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering
S..N'. VOLTA9E
(In V'<0%)
CURRENT
(In ,A)
S.N'. VOLTA9E
(In V'<0%)
CURRENT
(In A)
11
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
E&. N'. !a
C(ARACTERISTICS OF CE CONFI9URATION USIN9 B)T
AIM*
To ,'ot the transistor characteristics of CE confi(uration.
APPARATUS RE+UIRED* COMPONENTS RE+UIRED*
S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0. S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
1 .%.S 1 Transistor
2 #mmeter
2 esistor
3
Bread
Board
3 5o'tmeter
4 6ires
T(EORY*
# BJT is a three termina' t-o J 2unction semiconductor de)ice in -hich the
conduction is due to 4oth the char(e carrier. @ence it is a 4i,o'ar de)ice and it
am,'ifier the sine -a)eform as the& are transferred from in,ut to out,ut. BJT is
c'assified into t-o t&,es J 1%1 or %1%. # 1%1 transistor consists of t-o 1 t&,es
in 4et-een -hich a 'a&er of % is sand-iched. The transistor consists of three
termina' emitter, co''ector and 4ase. The emitter 'a&er is the source of the char(e
carriers and it is hearti'& do,ed -ith a moderate cross sectiona' area. The
co''ector co''ects the char(e carries and hence moderate do,in( and 'ar(e cross
sectiona' area. The 4ase re(ion acts a ,ath for the mo)ement of the char(e
carriers. "n order to reduce the recom4ination of ho'es and e'ectrons the 4ase
re(ion is 'i(ht'& do,ed and is of ho''o- cross sectiona' area. 1orma''& the
transistor o,erates -ith the EB 2unction for-ard 4iased.
"n transistor, the current is same in 4oth 2unctions, -hich indicates that
there is a transfer of resistance 4et-een the t-o 2unctions. 0ne to this fact the
transistor is <no-n as transfer resistance of transistor.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 12
Bottom 5ie- BC1/*
S,ecificationA BC1/*>5/5>/.1#,/.36,3//;@z
7/ J 3/8m#
- #
1 F
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
PROCEDURE*
INPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
1. Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
2. Set 5
CE
, )ar& 5
BE
in re(u'ar inter)a' of ste,s and note do-n the
corres,ondin( "
B
readin(. e,eat the a4o)e ,rocedure for different )a'ues of
5
CE
.
3. %'ot the (ra,hA 5
BE
5s "
B
for a constant 5
CE
.
OUTPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
1. Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
2. Set "
B,
5ar& 5
CE
in re(u'ar inter)a' of ste,s and note do-n the
corres,ondin( "
C
readin(. e,eat the a4o)e ,rocedure for different )a'ues
of "
B
.
3. %'ot the (ra,hA 5
CE
5s "
C
for a constant "
B
.
PIN DIA9RAM*
B
E C
CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*

Department of electrical and electronics engineering 13
A
A
$
$
(0 0 250) A
10 .
1"10)10
.2
#
-#
#
-#
(0-30)$
#
-#
#
-#
# -#
(0-30)$
(0-30)$
(0-1)$
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab




MODEL 9RAP(*
INPUT C(ARACTERISTICS* OUTPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*







TABULAR COLUMN*
INPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 14
"
E"
1"
5
CE
= /5
5
CE
= 55
"
B
(A
mA
5
BE
758
5
CE
758
0
0
"
B
=$/#
"
B
=4/#
"
B
=2/#
*
"
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
V
CE
31V V
CE
3!V
V
BE
(V) I
B
(@A) V
BE
(V) I
B
(@A)
OUTPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
I
B
3!A I
B
35A
V
CE
(V) I
C
(,A) V
CE
(V) I
C
(,A)
RESULT*
The transistor characteristics of a Common Emitter 7CE8
confi(uration -ere ,'otted
E&.N'.!=
C(ARACTERISTICS OF CB CONFI9URATION USIN9 B)T
AIM*
To ,'ot the transistor characteristics of CB confi(uration.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 15
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
APPARATUS RE+UIRED* COMPONENTS RE+UIRED*
S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0. S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
1 .%.S 7/:3/85 2 1 Transistor BC 1/* 1
2 #mmeter
7/J1/8m# 1 2 esistor
1/<
1F
1
7/J18# 1 3
Bread
Board
1
3 5o'tmeter
7/J3/85 1 4 6ires
7/J285 1
T(EORY*
"n this confi(uration the 4ase is made common to 4oth the in,ut and out.
The emitter is (i)en the in,ut and the out,ut is ta<en across the co''ector. The
current (ain of this confi(uration is 'ess than unit&. The )o'ta(e (ain of CB
confi(uration is hi(h. !ue to the hi(h )o'ta(e (ain, the ,o-er (ain is a'so hi(h. "n
CB confi(uration, Base is common to 4oth in,ut and out,ut. "n CB confi(uration
the in,ut characteristics re'ate "
E
and 5
EB
for a constant 5
CB
. "nitia''& 'et 5
CB
= /
then the in,ut 2unction is eBui)a'ent to a for-ard 4iased diode and the
characteristics resem4'es that of a diode. 6here 5
CB
= K5
"
7)o'ts8 due to ear'&
effect "
E
increases and so the characteristics shifts to the 'eft. The out,ut
characteristics re'ate "
C
and 5
CB
for a constant "
E
. "nitia''& "
C
increases and then it
'e)e's for a )a'ue "
C
= "
E
. 6hen "
E
is increased "
C
a'so increases ,ro,ortiona'it&.
Thou(h increase in 5
CB
causes an increase in , since is a fraction, it is
ne('i(i4'e and so "
C
remains a constant for a'' )a'ues of 5
CB
once it 'e)e's off.
PIN DIA9RAM*
B
B'00', V$"A BC1B S,ecificationA BC1/*>5/5>/.1#,/.36,3//;@z
E C
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 1+
(0-30)$
(0-1)mA
#
-#
(0-30)mA
#
-#
#
-#
#
-#
#
-#
(0-2)$ (0-30)$ (0-30)$
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*

:

PROCEDURE*
INPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
"t is the cur)e 4et-een emitter current "
E
and emitter:4ase )o'ta(e 5
BE
at
constant co''ector:4ase )o'ta(e 5
CB.
1. Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
2. Set 5
CE
=55, )ar& 5
BE
in ste,s of /.15 and note do-n the corres,ondin( "
B
.
e,eat the a4o)e ,rocedure for 1/5, 155.
3. %'ot the (ra,h 5
BE
5s "
B
for a constant 5
CE
.
4. Find the h ,arameters.
OUTPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
"t is the cur)e 4et-een co''ector current "
C
and co''ector:4ase )o'ta(e 5
CB
at
constant emitter current "
E.
1. Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
2. Set "
B
=2/#, )ar& 5
CE
in ste,s of 15 and note do-n the corres,ondin( "
C
.
e,eat the a4o)e ,rocedure for 4/#, +/#, etc.
3. %'ot the (ra,h 5
CE
5s "
C
for a constant "
B
.
4. Find the h ,arameters
TABULAR COLUMN*
INPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
S.N'. V
CB
3 V V
CB
3 V V
CB
3 V
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 1)
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
10 .
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
1.
5
EB
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
V
EB
(V)
I
E
(A)
V
EB
(V)
I
E
(A)
V
EB
(V)
I
E
(A)
OUTPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
S.N'. I
E
3
,A
I
E
3
,A
I
E
3 ,A
V
CB
(V)
I:
(,A)
V
CB
(V)
I:
(,A)
V
CB
(V)
I:
(,A)
MODEL 9RAP(*
INPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
"
C
7m#8
5
CB1
"
E2
5
CB2
"
E1
5
EB1
5
EB2
5
EB
758
OUTPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
"
C
7m#8 "
E3
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 1,
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
"
C2
"
E2
"
C1
"
E1
5
CB1
5
CB2
5
CB
758
RESULT*
The transistor characteristics of a Common Base 7CB8 confi(uration -ere
,'otted and uses studied.
E&.N'.!:
C(ARACTERISTICS OF CC CONFI9URATION USIN9 B)T
AIM*
To ,'ot the transistor characteristics of CE confi(uration.
APPARATUS RE+UIRED* COMPONENTS RE+UIRED*
S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0. S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
1 .%.S 7/:3/85 2 1 Transistor BC 1/* 1
2 #mmeter
7/J3/8m# 1 2 esistor 1< 2
7/J25/8L# 1 3
Bread
Board
1
3 5o'tmeter
7/J3/85 1 4 6ires
7/J585 1
T(EORY*
# BJT is a three termina' t-o J 2unction semiconductor de)ice in -hich the
conduction is due to 4oth the char(e carrier. @ence it is a 4i,o'ar de)ice and it
am,'ifier the sine -a)eform as the& are transferred from in,ut to out,ut. BJT is
c'assified into t-o t&,es J 1%1 or %1%. # 1%1 transistor consists of t-o 1 t&,es
in 4et-een -hich a 'a&er of % is sand-iched. The transistor consists of three
termina' emitter, co''ector and 4ase. The emitter 'a&er is the source of the char(e
carriers and it is hearti'& do,ed -ith a moderate cross sectiona' area. The
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 1-
Bottom 5ie- BC1/*
S,ecificationA BC1/*>5/5>/.1#,/.36,3//;@z
#
-#
-#
#
-#
#
#
-#
#
# -#
(0-30)mA
(0-250)(A
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
co''ector co''ects the char(e carries and hence moderate do,in( and 'ar(e cross
sectiona' area. The 4ase re(ion acts a ,ath for the mo)ement of the char(e
carriers. "n order to reduce the recom4ination of ho'es and e'ectrons the 4ase
re(ion is 'i(ht'& do,ed and is of ho''o- cross sectiona' area. 1orma''& the
transistor o,erates -ith the EB 2unction for-ard 4iased.
"n transistor, the current is same in 4oth 2unctions, -hich indicates that
there is a transfer of resistance 4et-een the t-o 2unctions. 0ne to this fact the
transistor is <no-n as transfer resistance of transistor.
PIN DIA9RAM*
B
E C
CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*

PROCEDURE*
INPUT C(ARECTERISTICS*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 20
A
A
$
$
1 .
#
-#
(0-30)$
(0-30)$
(0-30)$
(0-30)$
1 .
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
1. Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
2. Set 5
CE
, )ar& 5
BE
in re(u'ar inter)a' of ste,s and note do-n the
corres,ondin( "
B
readin(. e,eat the a4o)e ,rocedure for different )a'ues
of 5
CE
.
3. %'ot the (ra,hA 5
BC
5s "
B
for a constant 5
CE
.
OUTPUT C(ARECTERISTICS*
1. Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
2. Set "
B,
5ar& 5
CE
in re(u'ar inter)a' of ste,s and note do-n the
corres,ondin( "
C
readin(. e,eat the a4o)e ,rocedure for different )a'ues
of "
B
.
3. %'ot the (ra,hA 5
CE
5s "
C
for a constant "
B
.
MODEL 9RAP(*
INPUT C(ARACTERISTICS* OUTPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
(A) (,A)
I
B
I
"
V
CE
3 V
CE
35V I
B
3?A
I
B
35A

I
B
3!A
V
BC
(V) V
CE
(V)
TABULAR COLUMN*
INPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 21
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
V
CE
31V V
CE
3!V
V
BC
(V) I
B
(@A) V
BC
(V) I
B
(@A)
OUTPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
I
B
3!A I
B
35A
V
CE
(V) I
E
(,A) V
CE
(V) I
E
(,A)
RESULT*
The transistor characteristics of a Common Emitter 7CC8 confi(uration
-ere ,'otted.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 22
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
E&.N'.3
C(ARACTERISTICS OF )UNCTION FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR
AIM*
To %'ot the characteristics of (i)en FET 3 determine r
d,
(
m,
, "
!SS
,5
%
.
APPARATUS RE+UIRED* COMPONENTS RE+UIRED*
S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0. S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
1 .%.S 7/:3/85 2 1
FET BF61/
1
2 #mmeter 7/J3/8m# 1 2 esistor
1<
$+F
1
1
3 5o'tmeter
7/J3/85 1 3
Bread
Board
1
7/:1/85 1 4 6ires
T(EORY*
FET is a )o'ta(e o,erated de)ice. "t has (ot 3 termina's. The& are Source,
!rain 3 Cate. 6hen the (ate is 4iased ne(ati)e -ith res,ect to the source, the
,n 2unctions are re)erse 4iased 3 de,'etion re(ions are formed. The channe' is
more 'i(ht'& do,ed than the , t&,e (ate, so the de,'etion re(ions ,enetrate
dee,'& in to the channe'. The resu't is that the channe' is narro-ed, its resistance
is increased, 3 "
!
is reduced. 6hen the ne(ati)e 4ias )o'ta(e is further increased,
the de,'etion re(ions meet at the center 3 "
!
is cutoff com,'ete'&.
PROCEDURE*
DRAIN C(ARACTERISTICS*
1.
Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
2.
Set the (ate )o'ta(e 5
CS
= /5.
3.
5ar& 5
!S
in ste,s of 1 5 3 note do-n the corres,ondin( "
!.
4.
e,eat the same ,rocedure for 5
CS
= :15.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 23

+
(0-30)V
68K
$
+
(0-30)V
(0-30)V
1k
(0-30mA)
D
G
S
BFW10
-
+
(0-10)V
$
A
$
-
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
5.
%'ot the (ra,h 5
!S
5s "
!
for constant 5
CS
.
OBSERVATIONS
1. d.c 7static8 drain resistance, r
! =
5
!S
>"
!
.
!. a.c 7d&namic8 drain resistance, r
d
= V
DS
4I
D
.
3. 0,en source im,edance, M
0S
= 1> r
d
.
TRANSFER C(ARACTERISTICS*
1.
Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
2.
Set the drain )o'ta(e 5
!S
= 5 5.
3.
5ar& the (ate )o'ta(e 5
CS
in ste,s of 15 3 note do-n the corres,ondin( "
!.
4.
e,eat the same ,rocedure for 5
!S
= 1/5.
5.
%'ot the (ra,h 5
CS
5s "
!
for constant 5
!S.
FET PARAMETER CALCULATION*
!rain esistancd rd = GS
D
DS
V
I
V


Transconductance (
m
= DS
GS
D
V
V
I

#m,'ification factor I=rd . (m


CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*

Department of electrical and electronics engineering 24
*
D

(
m
A
)
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
PIN DIA9RAM*
BOTTOM VIE1 OF BF11*
SPECIFICATION*
5o'ta(e A 3/5, "
!SS
N +m#.
MODEL 9RAP(*
DRAIN C(ARACTERISTICS*

TRANSFER C(ARACTERISTICS*
"
!
7m#8


5
!S
=Const
5
CS
758
TABULAR COLUMN*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 25
0
V
GS
= 0V
V
GS
= -1V
V
GS
= -2V
$3' 4 -3$
$D' (volts)
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
DRAIN C(ARACTERISTICS*
V
9S
3 V V
9S
3 81V
V
DS
(V) I
D
(,A) V
DS
(V) I
D
(,A)
TRANSFER C(ARACTERISTICS*
RESULT*
Thus the !rain 3
Transfer characteristics of
(i)en FET is %'otted.

d =
(
m =


=
"
!SS
=
%inch off )o'ta(e 5
%
=
E&.N'.5
C(ARACTERISTICS OF UNI)UNCTION TRANSISTOR
AIM*
To %'ot the characteristics of UJT 3 determine itEs intrinsic standoff
atio.
APPARATUS RE+UIRED* COMPONENTS RE+UIRED*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering
V
DS
35#'<0% V
DS
3 1#'<0%
V
9S
(V) I
D
(,A) V
9S
(V) I
D
(,A)
2+
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
S.
N'.
Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
S.
N'.
Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
1 .%.S 7/:3/85 2 1
UJT 212$4$
1
2 #mmeter 7/J3/8m# 1
2 esistor 1F 2
3
Bread
Board
1
3 5o'tmeter
7/J3/85 1
7/J1/85 1
T(EORY*
UJT7!ou4'e 4ase diode8 consists of a 4ar of 'i(ht'& do,ed n:t&,e si'icon
-ith a sma'' ,iece of hea)i'& do,ed % t&,e materia' 2oined to one side. "t has (ot
three termina's. The& are Emitter7E8, Base17B18,Base27B28.Since the si'icon 4ar
is 'i(ht'& do,ed, it has a hi(h resistance 3 can 4e re,resented as t-o resistors,
r
B1
3 r
B2
. 6hen 5
B1B2
= /, a sma'' increase in 5
E
for-ard 4iases the emitter
2unction. The resu'tant ,'ot of 5
E
3 "
E
is sim,'& the characteristics of for-ard
4iased diode -ith resistance. "ncreasin( 5
EB1
reduces the emitter 2unction
re)erse 4ias. 6hen 5
EB1
= 5r
B1
there is no for-ard or re)erse 4ias. 3 "
E
= /.
"ncreasin( 5
EB1
4e&ond this ,oint 4e(ins to for-ard 4ias the emitter 2unction. #t
the ,ea< ,oint, a sma'' for-ard emitter current is f'o-in(. This current is termed
as ,ea< current7 "
%
8. Unti' this ,oint UJT is said to 4e o,eratin( in cutoff re(ion.
6hen "
E
increases 4e&ond ,ea< current the de)ice enters the ne(ati)e
resistance re(ion. "n -hich the resistance r
B1
fa''s ra,id'& 3 5
E
fa''s to the )a''e&
)o'ta(e.5). #t this ,oint "
E
= "). # further increase of "
E
causes the de)ice to enter
the saturation re(ion.

PROCEDURE*
1.
Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
2.
Set 5
B1B2
= /5, )ar& 5
EB1
, 3 note do-n the readin(s of "
E
3 5
EB1
3.
Set 5
B1B2
= 1/5 , )ar& 5
EB1
, 3 note do-n the readin(s of "
E
3 5
EB1
4.
%'ot the (ra,h A "
E
5ersus 5
EB1
for constant 5
B1B2
.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 2)
12
E
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
5.
Find the intrinsic standoff ratio.
CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*









PIN DIA9RAMA
BOTTOM VIE1 OF !N!?5?*


SPECIFICATION FOR !N!?5?*
O "nter 4ase resistance
BB
= 4.* to ..1 F
O ;inimum 5a''e& current = 4 m#
O ;a9imun %ea< ,oint emitter current 5 #
O;a9imum emitter re)erse current 12 #.
FORMULA FOR INTRINSIC STANDOFF RATIO*
= 5
%
: 5
!
> 5
B1B2
., -here 5
!
= /.*5.
MODEL 9RAP(*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 2,
12
(0-30)$
(0-30)$
(0-30)$
1.2
1.2
(0-30)$
(0-30)mA
$
$
A
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
%ea< ,oint
5
%
"
%
1e(ati)e resistance re(ion
5
EB1
758
5a''e& ,oint 5
B1B2
= 5
5
B1B2
= /5
"
5
"
E
7m#8
TABULAR COLUMN*
V
B1B!
3 V V
B1B!
3 1V
V
EB1
(V) I
E
(,A) V
EB1
(V) I
E
(,A)

PROCEDURE*
1. Ci)e the circuit connections as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
2. The dc in,ut )o'ta(e is set to 2/ 5 in %S.
3. The out,ut s-ee, -a)eform is measured usin( C0.
4. The (ra,h of out,ut s-ee, -a)eform is ,'otted
RESULT*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 2-
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
1. Thus the characteristics of (i)en UJT -as %'otted 3 its intrinsic standoff
atio = ::::.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 30
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
E&.N'.5
C(ARACTERISTICS OF P(OTO8DIODE AND
P(OTOTRANSISTOR
AIM*
1. To stud& the characteristics of a ,hoto:diode.
2. To stud& the characteristics of ,hototransistor.
APPARATUS RE+UIRED* COMPONENTS RE+UIRED*
S.
N'.
Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
S.
N'.
Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
1 .%.S 7/:3/85 1 1
%hoto
diode
1
2 #mmeter 7/J3/8m# 1
2 esistor 1F 2
3
Bread
Board
1
3 5o'tmeter 7/J3/85 1 4
%hoto
transistor
1
T(EORY*
P(OTODIODE*
# ,hoto diode is a t-o termina' ,n 2unction de)ice, -hich o,erates on
re)erse 4ias. 0n re)erse 4iasin( a ,n 2unction diode, there resu'ts a constant
current due to minorit& char(e carriers <no-n as re)erse saturation current.
"ncreasin( the therma''& (enerated minorit& carriers 4& a,,'&in( e9terna' ener(&,
i.e., either heat or 'i(ht ener(& at the 2unction can increase this current. 6hen -e
a,,'& 'i(ht ener(& as an e9terna' source, it resu'ts in a ,hoto diode that is usua''&
,'aced in a ('ass ,ac<a(e so that 'i(ht can reach the 2unction. "nitia''& -hen no
'i(ht is incident, the current is on'& the re)erse saturation current that f'o-s
throu(h the re)erse 4iased diode. This current is termed as the dar< current of
the ,hoto diode. 1o- -hen 'i(ht is incident on the ,hoto diode then the therma''&
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 31
(0-30)mA
(0-30)$
(0-30)$
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
(enerated carriers increase resu'tin( in an increased re)erse current -hich is
,ro,ortiona' to the intensit& of incident 'i(ht. # ,hoto diode can turn on and off at
a faster rate and so it is used as a fast actin( s-itch.
CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*
TABULAR COLUMN*
MODEL 9RAP(*
T(EORY*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering
S.N'. VOLTA9E
(In V'<0%)
CURRENT
(In ,A)
%
(.)
*llumination lm5m
2
32
1.
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
*"
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
P(OTOTRANSISTOR*
"t is a transistor -ith an o,en 4aseP there e9ists a sma'' co''ector current
consistin( of therma''& ,roduced minorit& carriers and surface 'ea<a(e. B&
e9,osin( the co''ector 2unction to 'i(ht, a manufacturer can ,roduce a
,hototransistor, a transistor that has more sensiti)it& to 'i(ht than a ,hoto diode.
Because the 4ase 'ead is o,en, a'' the re)erse current is forced into the 4ase of
the transistor. The resu'tin( co''ector current is "
Ceo
=
dc
"
r
. The main difference
4et-een a ,hototransistor and a ,hotodiode is the current (ain,
dc
. The same
amount of 'i(ht stri<in( 4oth de)ices ,roduces
dc
times more current in a
,hototransistor than in a ,hotodiode.
CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*
TABULAR COLUMN* SYMBOL*
E
MODEL 9RAP(*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering
S. N'. V
CE
($n V'<0%)
I
C
($n ,A)
33
6 & 6
1F
7/:3/58
C
400 7u8
200 7u8
0 7u8
$"E($)
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab






PROCEDURE*
P(OTO DIODE*
1. i( u, the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
2. ;aintain a <no-n distance 7sa& 5 cm8 4et-een the !C 4u'4 and
the ,hoto diode.
3. Set the )o'ta(e of the 4u'4 7sa&, 258, )ar& the )o'ta(e of the diode
inste,s of 15 and note do-n the corres,ondin( diode current, "
r
.
4. e,eat the a4o)e ,rocedure for the )arious )o'ta(es of !C 4u'4.
5. %'ot the (ra,hA 5
!
vs. "
r
for a constant !C 4u'4 )o'ta(e.
P(OTOTRANSISTOR*
1. i( u, the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
2. ;aintain a <no-n distance 7sa& 5 cm8 4et-een the !C 4u'4 and the
,hototransistor.
3. Set the )o'ta(e of the 4u'4 7sa&, 258, )ar& the )o'ta(e of the diode
in ste,s of 15 and note do-n the corres,ondin( diode current, "
r
.
4. e,eat the a4o)e ,rocedure for the )arious )a'ues of !C 4u'4.
5. %'ot the (ra,hA 5
!
vs. "
r
for a constant 4u'4 )o'ta(e.
RESULT*
Thus the characteristics of ,hoto diode and ,hototransistor are studied.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 34
(mA)
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
E&.N'.?
C(ARACTERISTICS OF T(ERMISTOR
AIM*
To stud& the characteristics of Thermistor.
T(EORY*
Thermistor or Therma' resistor is t-o J termina' semiconductor de)ice
-hose resistance is tem,erature sensiti)e. The )a'ue of such resistors decreases
-ith increase in tem,erature. ;ateria's em,'o&ed in the manufacture of the
thermistors inc'ude o9ides of co4a't, nic<e', co,,er, iron uranium and
man(anese.
The thermistors has )er& hi(h tem,erature coefficient of resistance, of the
order of 3 to 5Q ,er C, ma<in( it an idea' tem,erature transducer. The
tem,erature coefficient of resistance is norma''& ne(ati)e. The reistance at an&
tem,erature T, is (i)en a,,ro9imate'& 4&

T
=
o
e9, R 71>T J 1>T
o
8
6here
T
= thermistor resistance at tem,erature T 7F8,
0
= thersmistor
resistance at tem,erature T
o
7F8, and = a constant determined 4& ca'i4ration.
#t hi(h tem,eratures, this eBuation reduces to

T
=
o
e9, 7 R>T8
The resistance J tem,erature characteristics is sho-n in Fi( 21.1/. The
cur)e is non J 'inear and the dro, in resistance from 5/// to 1/ occurs for an
increase in tem,erature from 2/ to 1// C. The tem,erature of the de)ice can
4e chan(ed interna''& or e9terna''&. #n increase in current throu(h the de)ice -i''
raise its tem,erature carr&in( a dro, in its termina' resistance. #n& e9terna''&
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 35
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
heat source -i'' resu't in an increase in its 4od& tem,erature and dro, in
resistance this t&,e action 7interna' or e9terna'8 'ends itse'f -e'' to contro'
mechanism.
Three usefu' ,arameters for characterizin( the thermistor are the time
constant, dissi,ation constant , and resistance ratio. The time constant is the
time for a thermistor to chan(e its resistance 4& $3Q of its initia' )a'ue, for zero J
,o-er dissi,ation. T&,ica' )a'ues of time constant ran(e from 1 to 5/ s.
SYMBOL*
MODEL 9RAP(*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering
%
(-cm)
9 (deg)
3+
9
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
The dissi,ation factor is the ,o-er necessar& to increase the tem,erature
of a thermistor 4& 1SC. T&,ica' )a'ues of dissi,ation factor ran(e from 1 to 1/
m6>SC.
esistance ratio is the ratio of the resistance at 25 SC. "ts ran(e is
a,,ro9imate'&
3 J $/.
Thermistors are used measure tem,erature, f'o- ,ressure, 'iBuid 'e)e',
)o'ta(e or ,o-er 'e)e', )acuum, com,osition of (ases and therma' conducti)it&
and a'so in com,ensation net-or<.
RESULT*
Thus the Characteristics of thermistor -as studied.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 3)
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
E&.N'.Ba
SIN9LE P(ASE (ALF 1AVE RECTIFIER
AIM*
To construct a @a'f -a)e rectifier usin( diode and to dra- its ,erformance
characteristics.
APPARATUS RE+UIRED* COMPONENTS
RE+UIRED*
S.
N'.
Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
S.
N'.
Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
1 Transformer 23/>7$:/:$85 1
1
!iode "14//1
1
2 .%.S 7/:3/85 2
3 #mmeter
7/J3/8m# 1 2 esistor 1F 1
7/J25/8L# 1 3
Bread
Board
1
4 5o'tmeter
7/J3/85 1 4 Ca,acitor 1//Lf 1
7/J285 1 5 C0 1
FORMULAE*
1IT(OUT FILTER*
7i8 5
rms
= 5
m
> 2
7ii8 5
dc
= 5
m
>
7iii8 i,,'e Factor= 75
rms
> 5
dc
8
2
J 1
7i)8 Efficienc& = 75
dc
> 5
rms
8
2
9 1//
1IT( FILTER*
7i8 5
rms
= 75
rms
E2
K 5
dc
2
8
7ii8 5
rmsE
= 5
r,,
> 73 9 28
7iii8 5
dc
= 5
m J
5
r,,
> 2
7i)8 i,,'e Factor= 5
rmsE>
5
dc
PROCEDURE*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 3,
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
1IT(OUT FILTER*
1. Ci)e the connections as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
2. Ci)e 23/), 5/@H ">% to the ste, do-n TF -here secondar& connected to
the ectifier ">%.
3. Ta<e the rectifier out,ut across the Toad.
4. %'ot its ,erformance (ra,h.
1IT( FILTER*
1. Ci)e the connections as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
2. Ci)e 23/), 5/@H ">% to the ste, do-n TF -here secondar& connected to
the ectifier ">%.
3. Connect the Ca,acitor across the Toad.
4. Ta<e the rectifier out,ut across the Toad.
5. %'ot its ,erformance (ra,h.
CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 3-
1 9ransformer
230 $ 5 +$
16 400)
1.
100: 1 230$
50;<
A" suppl=
C0
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
TABULAR COLUMN*
1IT(OUT FILTER*
5
m
5
rms
5
dc
i,,'e factor Efficienc&
1IT( FILTER*
5
rms
5
r,,
5
dc
i,,'e factor Efficienc&
MODEL 9RAP(*
RESULT*
Thus the ,erformance characteristics of 1 @a'f -a)e rectifier -as o4tained.
E&.N'.B=
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 40
V
in

($olts)
t !s"
V
o
($olts)
t !s"
t !s"
V
o
($olts)
1$0C'D0
F$<0"2
1$0C
F$<0"2
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
SIN9LE P(ASE FULL 1AVE RECTIFIER
AIM*
To construct a Fu'' -a)e rectifier usin( diode and to dra- its ,erformance
characteristics.
APPARATUS RE+UIRED* COMPONENTS
RE+UIRED*
S.
N'.
Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
S.
N'.
Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
1 Transformer 23/>7$:/:$85 1
1
!iode "14//1
2
2 .%.S 7/:3/85 2
3 #mmeter
7/J3/8m# 1 2 esistor 1F 1
7/J25/8L# 1 3
Bread
Board
1
4 5o'tmeter
7/J3/85 1 4 Ca,acitor 1//Lf 1
7/J285 1 5 C0 1
FORMULAE*
1IT(OUT FILTER*
7i8 5
rms
= 5
m
> 2
7ii8 5
dc
= 25
m
>
7iii8 i,,'e Factor= 75
rms
> 5
dc
8
2
J 1
7i)8 Efficienc& = 75
dc
> 5
rms
8
2
9 1//
1IT( FILTER*
7i8 5
rms
= 5
r,,
>72O 38
7ii8 5
dc
= 5
m J
5
r,,

7i)8 i,,'e Factor= 5
rmsE>
5
dc
PROCEDURE*
1IT(OUT FILTER*
1. Ci)e the connections as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 41
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
2. Ci)e 23/), 5/@H ">% to the ste, do-n TF -here secondar& connected
to the ectifier ">%.
3. Ta<e the rectifier out,ut across the Toad.
4. %'ot its ,erformance (ra,h.
1IT( FILTER*
1. Ci)e the connections as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
2. Ci)e 23/), 5/@H ">% to the ste, do-n TF -here secondar& connected to
the ectifier ">%.
3. Connect the Ca,acitor across the Toad.
4. Ta<e the rectifier out,ut across the Toad.
5. %'ot its ,erformance (ra,h.

CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 42
16 400)
1.
100:
1 230$
50;<
A" suppl=
C0
16 400)
1 9ransformer
230 $ 5 +$
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
TABULAR COLUMN*
1IT(OUT FILTER*
5
m
5
rms
5
dc
i,,'e factor Efficienc&
1IT( FILTER*
5
rms
5
r,,
5
dc
i,,'e factor Efficienc&
MODEL 9RAP( *
RESULT* Thus the ,erformance characteristics of 1 Fu'' -a)e rectifier -ere
o4tained.
E&.N'.E
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 43
V
in

($olts)
t !s"
V
o
($olts)
t !s"
t !s"
V
o
($olts)
1$0C'D0 F$<0"2
1$0C F$<0"2
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER
AIM*
To construct a !ifferentia' am,'ifier in Common mode 3 !ifferentia' mode
confi(uration and to find common mode re2ection ratio.
APPARATUS RE+UIRED* COMPONENTS RE+UIRED*
A//a2a0D% Ran-" +0.
1 %S 7/:3/85 1
2 C0 1
3
Si(na'
Cenerator
1
4 !CB 2
5 !B 2
T(EORY*

The !ifferentia' am,'ifier circuit is an e9treme'& ,o,u'ar connection used in
"C units. The circuit has se,arate in,uts , t-o se,arate out,uts and emitters are
connected to(ether. "f the same in,ut is a,,'ied to 4oth in,uts, the o,eration is
ca''ed common mode. "n dou4'e ended o,eration t-o in,ut si(na's are a,,'ied ,
the difference of the in,uts resu'tin( in out,uts from 4oth co''ectors due to the
difference of the si(na's a,,'ied to 4oth the in,uts. The main feature of the
differentia' am,'ifier is the )er& 'ar(e (ain -hen o,,osite si(na's are a,,'ied to
in,uts as com,ared to sma'' si(na' resu'tin( from common in,ut. The ratio of this
difference (ain to the common (ain is ca''ed common mode re2ection ratio.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering
S.N' I0", T./" Ran-" +0.
1 Transistor BC1/* 1
2 Ca,acitor 4*/F 1
3 esistor
3..FU
3.3FU
1
1
4 Bread 4oard 1
44
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*
DIFFERENTIAL MODE*
COMMON MODE*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 45
3>3 .
3>-.
$
o
1 $
o
2
$1
12$
$2
13$
3>-.
--$
-$
3>3 .
3>-.
$
o
1 $
o
2
$
2
13$
3>-.
--$
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
PROCEDURE*
DIFFERENTIAL MODE*
1. Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
2. Set 5
1
= 5/m) and 5
2
=55m) usin( the si(na' (enerator.
3. Find the corres,ondin( out,ut )o'ta(es across 5
/1
3 5
/2
usin( C0
4. Ca'cu'ate common mode re2ection ratio usin( the (i)en formu'a.
COMMON MODE*
1. Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
2. Set 5
1
= 5/m) usin( the si(na' (enerator.
3. Find the out,ut )o'ta(e across 5
o
usin( mu'timeter.
4. Ca'cu'te common mode re2ection ratio usin( the (i)en formu'a.
CALCULATION*
Common mode re2ection ratio7C;8 = #
d
> #
c
#
d
= !ifferentia' mode (ain
#
c
= Common mode (ain
6here #
d
= 5
o
>5
d

5
o
= 0ut,ut )o'ta(e measured across C0
5
d
= 5
1
J 5
2
, 5
1
, 5
2
J in,ut )o'ta(e a,,'ied.
#
c
= 5
o
>5c
5
c
= 75
1
K 5
2
8>2
DIFFERENTIAL MODE*
5
1
=
5
2
=
0ut,ut )o'ta(e =
5
d
= 5
1
:5
2
=
#
d
=5
o
>5
d
=
RESULT* Thus the differentia' am,'ifier -as constructed in common mode
and !ifferentia' mode confi(uration. Further common mode re2ection ratio -as
found
E#$. N%: 1&
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 4+
COMMON MODE*
"n,ut )o'ta(e =
0ut,ut )o'ta(e =
5
1
=5
2
=
5
c
=75
1
K5
2
8>2 =
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
PASSIVE FILTERS
A'!:
9o attenuate un?anted fre@uenc= components from input signal b= using resistor
and capacitor>
A$$()(t*s )+,*')+-:
S.N'
N(!+ %. t/+ ($$()(t*s R(01+ T2$+ 3*(0t't2
1> 'ignal 3enerator 01
2> %esistor 01
3> "apacitor "eramic 01
4> "%A 01
5> 1readboard 01
T/+%)2:
A filter is an A" circuit tBat separates some fre@uencies from otBer in
?itBin mi8ed 0 fre@uenc= signals> Audio equalizers and crossover networks are
t?o ?ell-Cno?n applications of filter circuits> A Bode plot is a grapB plotting
?aveform amplitude or pBase on one a8is and fre@uenc= on tBe otBer>
A lo?-pass filter allo?s for eas= passage of lo?-fre@uenc= signals from
source to load and difficult passage of BigB-fre@uenc= signals> "apacitor lo?-pass
filters insert a resistor in series and a capacitor in parallel ?itB tBe load as sBo?n
in tBe circuit diagram> 9Be former filter design tries to DblocCE tBe un?anted
fre@uenc= signal ?Bile tBe latter tries to sBort it out>
9Be cutoff frequency for a lo?-pass filter is tBat fre@uenc= at ?BicB tBe
output (load) voltage e@uals )0>)F of tBe input ('ource) voltage> Above tBe cutoff
fre@uenc= tBe output voltage is lo?er tBan )0>)F of tBe input and vice-versa> 'ee
tBe circuit diagram
1
:
cutoff
4 ----------
2%"
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 4)
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
A BigB-pass filter allo?s for eas= passage of BigB-fre@uenc= signals from source to
load and difficult passage of lo?-fre@uenc= signals> "apacitor BigB-pass filters
insert a capacitor in series ?itB tBe load as sBo?n in tBe circuit diagram> 9Be
former filter design tries to DbricCE tBe un?anted fre@uenc= signal ?Bile tBe latter
tries to sBort it out>
9Be cutoff fre@uenc= for a BigB-pass filter is tBat fre@uenc= at ?BicB tBe
output (load) voltage e@uals )0>)F of tBe input (source) voltage> Above tBe cutoff
fre@uenc= tBe output voltage is greater tBan )0>)F of tBe input and vice-versa>
1
:
cutoff
4 ----------
2%"
A band 0 pass filter ?orCs to screen out fre@uencies tBat are too lo? or too
BigB giving eas= passage onl= to fre@uencies ?itBin a certain range> 'tacCing a
lo?-pass filter on tBe end of a BigB-pass filter or vice-versa can maCe band-pass
filters> %efer tBe circuit diagrams
:ig> )>+
DAttenuateE means to reduce or diminisB in amplitude> GBen =ou
turn do?n tBe volume control on =our stereo =ou are DattenuatingE tBe signal
being sent to tBe speaCers>
A band-stop filter ?orCs to screen out fre@uencies tBat are ?itBin a certain
range giving eas= passage onl= to fre@uencies outside of tBat range> Also Cno?n
as band-elimination band-reHect or notcB filters>
&lacing a lo?-pass filter in parallel ?itB a BigB-pass filter can maCe band-
stop filters> "ommonl= botB tBe lo?-pass and BigB-pass filter sections are of tBe
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 4,
'ignal
input
7o?-pass filter ;igB-pass filter 'ignal
output
1locCs fre@uencies
tBat are too BigB
1locCs fre@uencies
tBat are too lo?
'ignal
*nput
7o?-pass filter
;igB-pass filter
'ignal
Autput
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
D9E configuration giving tBe name D9?in-9E to tBe band-stop combination> %efer
tBe fig>)>) )>,a and )>,b>
&asses lo? fre@uencies
&asses BigB fre@uencies
:ig> )>,a
9Be fre@uenc= of ma8imum attenuation is called tBe notcB
fre@uenc=>
4)%5+-*)+:
1> 3ive tBe connections as per circuit diagrams>
2> '?itcB on tBe main>
3> "Bange tBe fre@uenc= from minimum and find tBe output
voltage b= using "%A>
4> Dra? tBe grapB>
5> $erif= tBe cut off fre@uenc=>
+> '?itcB off tBe main>
R+s*6t:
9Bus ?e anal=<e passive filter and various ?aveforms are noted
E#$. N% : 17
STUDY OF CRO AND
4O8ER FACTOR MEASUREMENT USING CRO
A'!:
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 4-
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
9o stud= catBode %a= Ascilloscope ("%A) and measurement of po?er factor using
"%A>
A$$()(t*s )+,*')+-:
S.N'
N(!+ %. t/+ ($$()(t*s R(01+ T2$+ 3*(0t't2
1> %esistance 1o8 1
2> "apacitance 1o8 1
3> *nductance 1o8 1
4> :unction 3enerator 1
5> 1read board 1
T/+%)2:
9Be catBode ra= oscilloscope is tBe most versatile measuring instrument
available> Ge can measure follo?ing parameters using tBe "%AI
1> A" or D" voltage>
2> 9ime (t415f)>
3> &Base relationsBip
4> Gaveform calculationI %ise timeJ fall timeJ on timeJ off-time
Distortion etc>
Ge can also measure non-electrical pB=sical @uantities liCe pressure strain
temperature acceleration etc> b= converting into electrical @uantities using
a transducer>
M(9%) :6%5;s:
1> "atBode ra= tube ("%9)
2> $ertical amplifier
3> ;ori<ontal amplifier
4> '?eep generator
5> 9rigger circuit
+> Associated po?er suppl=>
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 50
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
1. T/+ 5(t/%-+ )(2 t*:+ is tBe Beart of "%A> 9Be "%9 is enclosed in an
evacuated glass envelope to permit tBe electron beam to traverse in tBe
tube easil=> 9Be main functional units of "%A are as follo?s>
Electron gun assembl=
Deflection plate unit
'creen>
&. V+)t'5(6 A!$6'.'+) is tBe main factor in determining tBe band?idtB and
sensitivit= of an oscilloscope> $ertical sensitivit= is a measure of Bo?
mucB tBe electron beam ?ill be deflected for a specified input signal>
An tBe front panel of tBe oscilloscope one can see a Cnob attacBed to a
rotar= s?itcB labeled volts5division> 9Be rotar= s?itcB is electricall=
connected to tBe input attenuation net?orC> 9Be setting of tBe rotar=
s?itcB indicates ?Bat amplitude signal is re@uired to deflect tBe beam
verticall= b= one division>
3. H%)'<%0t(6 (!$6'.'+) Knder normal mode of operation tBe Bori<ontal
amplifier ?ill amplif= tBe s?eep generator input> GBen tBe "%A is
being used in tBe L-M mode tBe Bori<ontal amplifier ?ill amplif= tBe
signal applied to tBe Bori<ontal input terminal> AltBougB tBe vertical
amplifier musB be able to faitBfull= reproduce lo?-amplitude and BigB
fre@uenc= signal ?itB fast rise-time tBe Bori<ontal amplifier is onl=
re@uired to provide a faitBful reproduction of tBe s?eep signal ?BicB
Bas a relativel= BigB amplitude and slo? rise time>
=. S>++$ 1+0+)(t%) (0- T)'11+) 5')5*'t 9Bese t?o units form tBe S'10(6
S205/)%0'<(t'%0 *0't %. t/+ CRO.
5. Ass%5'(t+- 4%>+) S*$$62: 9Be input signal ma= come from an e8ternal
source ?Ben tBe trigger selector s?itcB is set to EL9 or from lo?
amplitude A" voltage at line fre@uenc= ?Ben tBe s?itcB is set to 7*6E
or from tBe vertical amplifier ?Ben tBe s?itcB is set to *69> GBen set
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 51
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
for *69 (internal triggering) tBe trigger circuit receives its inputs from
tBe vertical amplifier>
M(9%) B6%5;s '0 ( 4)(5t'5(6 CRO
A "%A consists of a catBode ra= tube ("%9) and additional control Cnobs>
9Be main parts of a "%9 areI
1> Electron gun assembl=>
2> Deflection plate assembl=>
3> :luorescent screen>
E6+5t)%0 G*0 Ass+!:62: 9Be electron gun assembl= produces a sBarp beam of
electrons ?BicB are accelerated to BigB velocit=> 9Bis focused beam of electrons
striCe tBe fluorescent screen ?itB sufficient energ= to cause a luminous spot on tBe
screen>
D+.6+5t'%0 $6(t+ (ss+!:62: 9Bis part consists of t?o plates in ?BicB one pair of
plates is placed Bori<ontall= and otBer of plates is placed verticall=> 9Be signal
under test is applied to vertical deflecting plates> 9Be Bori<ontal deflection plates
are connected to a built-in ramp generator ?BicB moves tBe luminous spot
periodicall= in a Bori<ontal direction from left to rigBt over tBe screen> 9Bese t?o
deflection plates give stationar= appearance to tBe ?aveform on tBe screen> "%A
operates on voltage> 'ince tBe deflection of tBe electron beam is directl=
proportional to tBe deflecting voltage tBe "%9 ma= be used as a linear measuring
device> 9Be voltage being measured is applied to tBe vertical plates tBrougB an
iterative net?orC ?Bose propagation time corresponds to tBe velocit= of electrons
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 52
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
tBereb= s=ncBroni<ing tBe voltage applied to tBe vertical plate ?itB tBe velocit= of
tBe beam>
S205/)%0'<(t'%0 %. '0$*t s'10(6: 9Be s?eep generator produces a sa? tootB
?aveform ?BicB is used to s=ncBroni<e tBe applied voltage to obtain a stationar=-
applied signal> 9Bis re@uires tBat tBe time base be operated at a submultiples
fre@uenc= of tBe signal under measurement> *f s=ncBroni<ation is not done tBe
pattern is not stationar= but appears to drift across tBe screen in a random fasBion>
I0t+)0(6 s205/)%0'<(t'%0 9Bis trigger is obtained from tBe time base generator to
s=ncBroni<e tBe signal>
E#t+)0(6 s205/)%0'<(t'%0 An e8ternal trigger source can also be used to
s=ncBroni<e tBe signal being measured>
A*t% T)'11+)'01 M%-+ 9Be time base used in tBis case in a self-oscillating
condition i>e> it gives an output even in tBe absence of an= M-input> 9Be
advantage of tBis mode is tBat tBe beam is visible on tBe screen under all
conditions including tBe <ero input> GBen tBe input e8ceeds a certain magnitude
tBen tBe internal free running oscillator locCs on to tBe fre@uenc=>
4)+5(*t'%0s:
1> 9Be ammeter is connected using tBicC ?ires>
2> GBile reversing ammeter polarit= see to it tBat tBe capacitor is not
discBarged>
O:s+)?(t'%0:
S6.N% T'!+ V%6t(1+ C*))+0t
Knit ('ec) ($olts) (Amps)
R+s*6t: 9Bus ?e stud= about "%A N to measure p>f
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 53
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 54
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
CLASS : II YEAR/ III SEMSESTER
SUBJECT CODE : 131351
SUBJECT : ELECTRON DEVICES AND CIRCUITS LAB
BATCH : A&
STAFF IN-CHARGE: M)s. V. GEETHA 4RIYA
DESIGNATION : ASSISTANT 4ROFESSOR
STAFF CODE : EE5&
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
131351 ELECTRON DEVICES AND CIRCUITS LABORATORY L T P C
(B.E. (EEE), B.E. (E&I) and B.E. (I & C) 3 !
(R"#$%"d)
13. Characteristics of semiconductor diode and zener diode .
14. Characteristics of transistor under CE, CB and CC .
15. Characteristics of FET .
1$. Characteristics of UJT .
1*. Characteristics of SC, !"#C and T"#C.
1+. %hotodiode, %hototransistor characteristics and stud& of 'i(ht acti)ated
re'a& circuit.
1.. Static characteristics of Thermistors.
2/. Sin('e ,hase ha'f -a)e and fu'' -a)e rectifiers -ith inducti)e and
ca,aciti)e fi'ters.
21. !ifferentia' am,'ifiers usin( FET.
22. Stud& of C0.
23. Series and ,ara''e' resonance circuits.
24. ea'ization of ,assi)e fi'ters.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 55
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
E&.N'.1a
C(ARACTERISTICS OF PN )UNCTION DIODE
AIM*
To stud& the %1 2unction diode characteristics under For-ard 3 e)erse
4ias conditions.
APPARATUS RE+UIRED* COMPONENTS RE+UIRED*
S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0. S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
1 .%.S 1
!iode
2 #mmeter
2 esistor
3
Bread
Board
3 5o'tmeter
4 6ires
T(EORY*
# %1 2unction diode is a t-o termina' 2unction de)ice. "t conducts on'& in
one direction 7on'& on for-ard 4iasin(8.
FOR1ARD BIAS*
0n for-ard 4iasin(, initia''& no current f'o-s due to 4arrier ,otentia'. #s the
a,,'ied ,otentia' e9ceeds the 4arrier ,otentia' the char(e carriers (ain sufficient
ener(& to cross the ,otentia' 4arrier and hence enter the other re(ion. The ho'es,
-hich are ma2orit& carriers in the %:re(ion, 4ecome minorit& carriers on enterin(
the 1:re(ions, and e'ectrons, -hich are the ma2orit& carriers in the 1:re(ion,
4ecome minorit& carriers on enterin( the %:re(ion. This in2ection of ;inorit&
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 5+
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
carriers resu'ts in the current f'o-, o,,osite to the direction of e'ectron
mo)ement.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 5)
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
REVERSE BIAS*
0n re)erse 4iasin(, the ma2orit& char(e carriers are attracted to-ards the
termina's due to the a,,'ied ,otentia' resu'tin( in the -idenin( of the de,'etion
re(ion. Since the char(e carriers are ,ushed to-ards the termina's no current
f'o-s in the de)ice due to ma2orit& char(e carriers. There -i'' 4e some current in
the de)ice due to the therma''& (enerated minorit& carriers. The (eneration of
such carriers is inde,endent of the a,,'ied ,otentia' and hence the current is
constant for a'' increasin( re)erse ,otentia'. This current is referred to as
e)erse Saturation Current 7"
0
8 and it increases -ith tem,erature. 6hen the
a,,'ied re)erse )o'ta(e is increased 4e&ond the certain 'imit, it resu'ts in
4rea<do-n. !urin( 4rea<do-n, the diode current increases tremendous'&.
PROCEDURE*
FOR1ARD BIAS*
5. Connect the circuit as ,er the dia(ram.
$. 5ar& the a,,'ied )o'ta(e 5 in ste,s of /.15.
*. 1ote do-n the corres,ondin( #mmeter readin(s ".
+. %'ot a (ra,h 4et-een 5 3 "
OBSERVATIONS
4. Find the d.c 7static8 resistance = 5>".
5. Find the a.c 7d&namic8 resistance r = 5 > " 72 3 V4I) 3
1 2
1 2
I I
V V

.
$. Find the for-ard )o'ta(e dro, = ?@intA it is eBua' to /.* for Si and /.3 for
CeD
REVERSE BIAS*
?. Connect the circuit as ,er the dia(ram.
B. 5ar& the a,,'ied )o'ta(e 5 in ste,s of 1./5.
E. 1ote do-n the corres,ondin( #mmeter readin(s ".
F. %'ot a (ra,h 4et-een 5 3 "
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 5,
(0-100)mA !"
#
-#
#
-#
(0-15)$ !"
#
-#
(0-10)$
%&'
(0-500)(A!"
#
-#
#
-#
(0-30)$ !"
#
-#
(0-30)$
%&'
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
1. Find the d&namic resistance 2 3 V 4 I.
FORMULA FOR REVERSE SATURATION CURRENT (I
O
)*
I
'
3 I46"&/(V4V
T
)781
6here 5
T
is the )o'ta(e eBui)a'ent of Tem,erature = <T>B
:< is Bo'tzmannEs constant, B is the char(e of the e'ectron and T is the
tem,erature in de(rees Fe')in.
=1 for Si'icon and 2 for Cermanium

CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*
FOR1ARD BIAS*
REVERSE BIAS*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 5-
4)0
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
4)0
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
S/":$;$:a0$'n ;'2 1N51* S$<$:'n D$'d"
%ea< "n)erse 5o'ta(eA 5/5
"
dc
= 1#.
;a9imum for-ard )o'ta(e dro, at 1 #m, is 1.1 )o'ts
;a9imum re)erse current G5/ )o'ts is 5#
TABULAR COLUMN*
FOR1ARD BIAS* REVERSE BIAS*
MODEL 9RAP(
*f (mA)
"
2
5
4
"
1
7 5o'ts8 5
1
5
2
5
f
75o'ts8

"
r
7#8
Department of electrical and electronics engineering
S.N'. VOLTA9E
(In V'<0%)
CURRENT
(In ,A)
S..N'. VOLTA9E
(In V'<0%)
CURRENT
(In A)
+0
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
RESULT*
For-ard and e)erse 4ias characteristics of the %1 2unction diode and the
d&namic resistance under
i8 For-ard 4ias = :::::::::::::::::::::
ii8 e)erse 4ias = ::::::::::::::::::::::.
iii8 e)erse Saturation Current = ::::::::::::::::.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering +1
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
E&.N'.1=
C(ARACTERISTICS OF >ENER DIODE
AIM*
To determine the 4rea<do-n )o'ta(e of a (i)en zener diode.
APPARATUS RE+UIRED* COMPONENTS RE+UIRED*
S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0. S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
1 .%.S 1
zener
diode
2 #mmeter
2 esistor
3
Bread
Board
3 5o'tmeter
4 6ires
T(EORYA
# ,ro,er'& do,ed cr&sta' diode, -hich has a shar, 4rea<do-n )o'ta(e, is <no-n
as zener diode.
FOR1ARD BIAS*
0n for-ard 4iasin(, initia''& no current f'o-s due to 4arrier ,otentia'. #s the
a,,'ied ,otentia' increases, it e9ceeds the 4arrier ,otentia' at one )a'ue and the
char(e carriers (ain sufficient ener(& to cross the ,otentia' 4arrier and enter the
other re(ion. the ho'es ,-hich are ma2orit& carriers in ,:re(ion, 4ecome minorit&
carriers on enterin( the 1:re(ions and e'ectrons, -hich are the ma2orit& carriers
in the 1:re(ions 4ecome minorit& carriers on enterin( the %:re(ion. This in2ection
of minorit& carriers resu'ts current, o,,osite to the direction of e'ectron
mo)ement.
REVERSE BIAS*
6hen the re)erse 4ias is a,,'ied due to ma2orit& carriers sma'' amount of
current 7ie8 re)erse saturation current f'o-s across the 2unction. #s the re)erse
Department of electrical and electronics engineering +2
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
4ias is increased to 4rea<do-n )o'ta(e, sudden rise in current ta<es ,'ace due to
zener effect.
>ENER EFFECT*
1orma''&, %1 2unction of Hener !iode is hea)i'& do,ed. !ue to hea)&
do,in( the de,'etion 'a&er -i'' 4e narro-. 6hen the re)erse 4ias is increased the
,otentia' across the de,'etion 'a&er is more. This e9erts a force on the e'ectrons
in the outermost she''. Because of this force the e'ectrons are ,u''ed a-a& from
the ,arent nuc'ei and 4ecome free e'ectrons. This ionization, -hich occurs due to
e'ectrostatic force of attraction, is <no-n as Hener effect. "t resu'ts in 'ar(e
num4er of free carriers, -hich in turn increases the re)erse saturation current
PROCEDURE*
FOR1ARD BIAS*
1. Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
2. 5ar& the ,o-er su,,'& in such a -a& that the readin(s are ta<en in ste,s
of /.15 in the )o'tmeter ti'' the need'e of ,o-er su,,'& sho-s 3/5.
3. 1ote do-n the corres,ondin( ammeter readin(s.
4. %'ot the (ra,h A5 7)s8 ".
5. Find the d&namic resistance 2 3 V 4 I.
REVERSE BIAS*
B. Connect the circuit as ,er the dia(ram.
E. 5ar& the ,o-er su,,'& in such a -a& that the readin(s are ta<en in ste,s
of /.15 in the )o'tmeter ti'' the need'e of ,o-er su,,'& sho-s 3/5.
F. 1ote do-n the corres,ondin( #mmeter readin(s ".
1. %'ot a (ra,h 4et-een 5 3 "
11. Find the d&namic resistance 2 3 V 4 I.
1!. Find the re)erse )o'ta(e 5r at "z=2/ m#.
CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering +3
7/:158 5
# -
#
-
#
-
7/:1/8 5
7/:1/8 5, ;C
# -
#
-
#
-
7/:3/8 5
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
FOR1ARD BIAS*

REVERSE BIAS*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering +4
1
.

a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
4)0
aaaaa
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
(0-10)mA
1
.

a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
1.
aaaaa
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
(0-500)/A !"
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
>ENER DIODE*
"f 7 m#8
"
2
5B "
1
5
r
5
1
5
2
5
f
758 758
"r 7I#8
TABULAR COLUMN*
FOR1ARD BIAS* REVERSE BIAS*
RESULT*
For-ard and e)erse 4ias characteristics of the zener diode -as studied
and
For-ard 4ias d&namic resistance = :::::::::::::::::::::
e)erse 4ias d&namic resistance = ::::::::::::::::::::::
The re)erse )o'ta(e at "z =2/ m# determined from the re)erse
characteristics of the Hener diode is ::::::::::::::::::::::::::.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering
S..N'. VOLTA9E
(In V'<0%)
CURRENT
(In ,A)
S.N'. VOLTA9E
(In V'<0%)
CURRENT
(In A)
+5
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
E&. N'. !a
C(ARACTERISTICS OF CE CONFI9URATION USIN9 B)T
AIM*
To ,'ot the transistor characteristics of CE confi(uration.
APPARATUS RE+UIRED* COMPONENTS RE+UIRED*
S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0. S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
1 .%.S 1 Transistor
2 #mmeter
2 esistor
3
Bread
Board
3 5o'tmeter
4 6ires
T(EORY*
# BJT is a three termina' t-o J 2unction semiconductor de)ice in -hich the
conduction is due to 4oth the char(e carrier. @ence it is a 4i,o'ar de)ice and it
am,'ifier the sine -a)eform as the& are transferred from in,ut to out,ut. BJT is
c'assified into t-o t&,es J 1%1 or %1%. # 1%1 transistor consists of t-o 1 t&,es
in 4et-een -hich a 'a&er of % is sand-iched. The transistor consists of three
termina' emitter, co''ector and 4ase. The emitter 'a&er is the source of the char(e
carriers and it is hearti'& do,ed -ith a moderate cross sectiona' area. The
co''ector co''ects the char(e carries and hence moderate do,in( and 'ar(e cross
sectiona' area. The 4ase re(ion acts a ,ath for the mo)ement of the char(e
carriers. "n order to reduce the recom4ination of ho'es and e'ectrons the 4ase
re(ion is 'i(ht'& do,ed and is of ho''o- cross sectiona' area. 1orma''& the
transistor o,erates -ith the EB 2unction for-ard 4iased.
"n transistor, the current is same in 4oth 2unctions, -hich indicates that
there is a transfer of resistance 4et-een the t-o 2unctions. 0ne to this fact the
transistor is <no-n as transfer resistance of transistor.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering ++
Bottom 5ie- BC1/*
S,ecificationA BC1/*>5/5>/.1#,/.36,3//;@z
7/ J 3/8m#
- #
1 F
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
PROCEDURE*
INPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
4. Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
5. Set 5
CE
, )ar& 5
BE
in re(u'ar inter)a' of ste,s and note do-n the
corres,ondin( "
B
readin(. e,eat the a4o)e ,rocedure for different )a'ues of
5
CE
.
$. %'ot the (ra,hA 5
BE
5s "
B
for a constant 5
CE
.
OUTPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
4. Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
5. Set "
B,
5ar& 5
CE
in re(u'ar inter)a' of ste,s and note do-n the
corres,ondin( "
C
readin(. e,eat the a4o)e ,rocedure for different )a'ues
of "
B
.
$. %'ot the (ra,hA 5
CE
5s "
C
for a constant "
B
.
PIN DIA9RAM*
B
E C
CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*

Department of electrical and electronics engineering +)
A
A
$
$
(0 0 250) A
10 .
1"10)10
.2
#
-#
#
-#
(0-30)$
#
-#
#
-#
# -#
(0-30)$
(0-30)$
(0-1)$
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab




MODEL 9RAP(*
INPUT C(ARACTERISTICS* OUTPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*







TABULAR COLUMN*
INPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering +,
"
E"
1"
5
CE
= /5
5
CE
= 55
"
B
(A
mA
5
BE
758
5
CE
758
0
0
"
B
=$/#
"
B
=4/#
"
B
=2/#
*
"
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
V
CE
31V V
CE
3!V
V
BE
(V) I
B
(@A) V
BE
(V) I
B
(@A)
OUTPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
I
B
3!A I
B
35A
V
CE
(V) I
C
(,A) V
CE
(V) I
C
(,A)
RESULT*
The transistor characteristics of a Common Emitter 7CE8
confi(uration -ere ,'otted
E&.N'.!=
C(ARACTERISTICS OF CB CONFI9URATION USIN9 B)T
AIM*
To ,'ot the transistor characteristics of CB confi(uration.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering +-
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
APPARATUS RE+UIRED* COMPONENTS RE+UIRED*
S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0. S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
1 .%.S 7/:3/85 2 1 Transistor BC 1/* 1
2 #mmeter
7/J1/8m# 1 2 esistor
1/<
1F
1
7/J18# 1 3
Bread
Board
1
3 5o'tmeter
7/J3/85 1 4 6ires
7/J285 1
T(EORY*
"n this confi(uration the 4ase is made common to 4oth the in,ut and out.
The emitter is (i)en the in,ut and the out,ut is ta<en across the co''ector. The
current (ain of this confi(uration is 'ess than unit&. The )o'ta(e (ain of CB
confi(uration is hi(h. !ue to the hi(h )o'ta(e (ain, the ,o-er (ain is a'so hi(h. "n
CB confi(uration, Base is common to 4oth in,ut and out,ut. "n CB confi(uration
the in,ut characteristics re'ate "
E
and 5
EB
for a constant 5
CB
. "nitia''& 'et 5
CB
= /
then the in,ut 2unction is eBui)a'ent to a for-ard 4iased diode and the
characteristics resem4'es that of a diode. 6here 5
CB
= K5
"
7)o'ts8 due to ear'&
effect "
E
increases and so the characteristics shifts to the 'eft. The out,ut
characteristics re'ate "
C
and 5
CB
for a constant "
E
. "nitia''& "
C
increases and then it
'e)e's for a )a'ue "
C
= "
E
. 6hen "
E
is increased "
C
a'so increases ,ro,ortiona'it&.
Thou(h increase in 5
CB
causes an increase in , since is a fraction, it is
ne('i(i4'e and so "
C
remains a constant for a'' )a'ues of 5
CB
once it 'e)e's off.
PIN DIA9RAM*
B
B'00', V$"A BC1B S,ecificationA BC1/*>5/5>/.1#,/.36,3//;@z
E C
Department of electrical and electronics engineering )0
(0-30)$
(0-1)mA
#
-#
(0-30)mA
#
-#
#
-#
#
-#
#
-#
(0-2)$ (0-30)$ (0-30)$
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*

:

PROCEDURE*
INPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
"t is the cur)e 4et-een emitter current "
E
and emitter:4ase )o'ta(e 5
BE
at
constant co''ector:4ase )o'ta(e 5
CB.
5. Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
$. Set 5
CE
=55, )ar& 5
BE
in ste,s of /.15 and note do-n the corres,ondin( "
B
.
e,eat the a4o)e ,rocedure for 1/5, 155.
*. %'ot the (ra,h 5
BE
5s "
B
for a constant 5
CE
.
+. Find the h ,arameters.
OUTPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
"t is the cur)e 4et-een co''ector current "
C
and co''ector:4ase )o'ta(e 5
CB
at
constant emitter current "
E.
5. Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
$. Set "
B
=2/#, )ar& 5
CE
in ste,s of 15 and note do-n the corres,ondin( "
C
.
e,eat the a4o)e ,rocedure for 4/#, +/#, etc.
*. %'ot the (ra,h 5
CE
5s "
C
for a constant "
B
.
+. Find the h ,arameters
TABULAR COLUMN*
INPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering )1
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
10 .
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
1.
5
EB
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
S.N'. V
CB
3 V V
CB
3 V V
CB
3 V
V
EB
(V)
I
E
(A)
V
EB
(V)
I
E
(A)
V
EB
(V)
I
E
(A)
OUTPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
S.N'. I
E
3 ,A I
E
3 ,A I
E
3 ,A
V
CB
(V)
I:
(,A)
V
CB
(V)
I:
(,A)
V
CB
(V)
I:
(,A)
MODEL 9RAP(*
INPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
"
C
7m#8
5
CB1
"
E2
5
CB2
Department of electrical and electronics engineering )2
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
"
E1
5
EB1
5
EB2
5
EB
758
OUTPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
"
C
7m#8 "
E3
"
C2
"
E2
"
C1
"
E1
5
CB1
5
CB2
5
CB
758
RESULT*
The transistor characteristics of a Common Base 7CB8 confi(uration -ere
,'otted and uses studied.
E&.N'.!:
C(ARACTERISTICS OF CC CONFI9URATION USIN9 B)T
AIM*
To ,'ot the transistor characteristics of CE confi(uration.
APPARATUS RE+UIRED* COMPONENTS RE+UIRED*
S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0. S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
1 .%.S 7/:3/85 2 1 Transistor BC 1/* 1
2 #mmeter
7/J3/8m# 1 2 esistor 1< 2
7/J25/8L# 1 3
Bread
Board
1
3 5o'tmeter
7/J3/85 1 4 6ires
7/J585 1
Department of electrical and electronics engineering )3
Bottom 5ie- BC1/*
S,ecificationA BC1/*>5/5>/.1#,/.36,3//;@z
#
-#
#
#
-#
#
# -#
(0-30)mA
(0-250)(A
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
T(EORY*
# BJT is a three termina' t-o J 2unction semiconductor de)ice in -hich the
conduction is due to 4oth the char(e carrier. @ence it is a 4i,o'ar de)ice and it
am,'ifier the sine -a)eform as the& are transferred from in,ut to out,ut. BJT is
c'assified into t-o t&,es J 1%1 or %1%. # 1%1 transistor consists of t-o 1 t&,es
in 4et-een -hich a 'a&er of % is sand-iched. The transistor consists of three
termina' emitter, co''ector and 4ase. The emitter 'a&er is the source of the char(e
carriers and it is hearti'& do,ed -ith a moderate cross sectiona' area. The
co''ector co''ects the char(e carries and hence moderate do,in( and 'ar(e cross
sectiona' area. The 4ase re(ion acts a ,ath for the mo)ement of the char(e
carriers. "n order to reduce the recom4ination of ho'es and e'ectrons the 4ase
re(ion is 'i(ht'& do,ed and is of ho''o- cross sectiona' area. 1orma''& the
transistor o,erates -ith the EB 2unction for-ard 4iased.
"n transistor, the current is same in 4oth 2unctions, -hich indicates that
there is a transfer of resistance 4et-een the t-o 2unctions. 0ne to this fact the
transistor is <no-n as transfer resistance of transistor.
PIN DIA9RAM*
B
E C
CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*

Department of electrical and electronics engineering )4
A
A
$
1 .
(0-30)$
(0-30)$
1 .
#
-#
-#
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
PROCEDURE*
INPUT C(ARECTERISTICS*
4. Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
5. Set 5
CE
, )ar& 5
BE
in re(u'ar inter)a' of ste,s and note do-n the
corres,ondin( "
B
readin(. e,eat the a4o)e ,rocedure for different )a'ues
of 5
CE
.
$. %'ot the (ra,hA 5
BC
5s "
B
for a constant 5
CE
.
OUTPUT C(ARECTERISTICS*
4. Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
5. Set "
B,
5ar& 5
CE
in re(u'ar inter)a' of ste,s and note do-n the
corres,ondin( "
C
readin(. e,eat the a4o)e ,rocedure for different )a'ues
of "
B
.
$. %'ot the (ra,hA 5
CE
5s "
C
for a constant "
B
.
MODEL 9RAP(*
INPUT C(ARACTERISTICS* OUTPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
(A) (,A)
I
B
I
"
V
CE
3 V
CE
35V I
B
3?A
I
B
35A

I
B
3!A
Department of electrical and electronics engineering )5
$
#
-#
(0-30)$
(0-30)$
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
V
BC
(V) V
CE
(V)
TABULAR COLUMN*
INPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
V
CE
31V V
CE
3!V
V
BC
(V) I
B
(@A) V
BC
(V) I
B
(@A)
OUTPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
I
B
3!A I
B
35A
V
CE
(V) I
E
(,A) V
CE
(V) I
E
(,A)
RESULT*
The transistor characteristics of a Common Emitter 7CC8 confi(uration
-ere ,'otted.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering )+
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
E&.N'.3
C(ARACTERISTICS OF )UNCTION FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR
AIM*
To %'ot the characteristics of (i)en FET 3 determine r
d,
(
m,
, "
!SS
,5
%
.
APPARATUS RE+UIRED* COMPONENTS RE+UIRED*
S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0. S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
1 .%.S 7/:3/85 2 1
FET BF61/
1
2 #mmeter 7/J3/8m# 1 2 esistor
1<
$+F
1
1
3 5o'tmeter
7/J3/85 1 3
Bread
Board
1
7/:1/85 1 4 6ires
T(EORY*
FET is a )o'ta(e o,erated de)ice. "t has (ot 3 termina's. The& are Source,
!rain 3 Cate. 6hen the (ate is 4iased ne(ati)e -ith res,ect to the source, the
,n 2unctions are re)erse 4iased 3 de,'etion re(ions are formed. The channe' is
more 'i(ht'& do,ed than the , t&,e (ate, so the de,'etion re(ions ,enetrate
dee,'& in to the channe'. The resu't is that the channe' is narro-ed, its resistance
is increased, 3 "
!
is reduced. 6hen the ne(ati)e 4ias )o'ta(e is further increased,
the de,'etion re(ions meet at the center 3 "
!
is cutoff com,'ete'&.
PROCEDURE*
DRAIN C(ARACTERISTICS*
$.
Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
*.
Set the (ate )o'ta(e 5
CS
= /5.
+.
5ar& 5
!S
in ste,s of 1 5 3 note do-n the corres,ondin( "
!.
..
e,eat the same ,rocedure for 5
CS
= :15.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering ))

+
(0-30)V
68K
$
+
(0-30)V
(0-30)V
1k
(0-30mA)
D
G
S
BFW10
-
+
(0-10)V
$
A
$
-
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
1/.
%'ot the (ra,h 5
!S
5s "
!
for constant 5
CS
.
OBSERVATIONS
5. d.c 7static8 drain resistance, r
! =
5
!S
>"
!
.
5. a.c 7d&namic8 drain resistance, r
d
= V
DS
4I
D
.
?. 0,en source im,edance, M
0S
= 1> r
d
.
TRANSFER C(ARACTERISTICS*
$.
Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
*.
Set the drain )o'ta(e 5
!S
= 5 5.
+.
5ar& the (ate )o'ta(e 5
CS
in ste,s of 15 3 note do-n the corres,ondin( "
!.
..
e,eat the same ,rocedure for 5
!S
= 1/5.
1/.
%'ot the (ra,h 5
CS
5s "
!
for constant 5
!S.
FET PARAMETER CALCULATION*
!rain esistancd rd = GS
D
DS
V
I
V


Transconductance (
m
= DS
GS
D
V
V
I

#m,'ification factor I=rd . (m


CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*

Department of electrical and electronics engineering ),
*
D

(
m
A
)
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
PIN DIA9RAM*
BOTTOM VIE1 OF BF11*
SPECIFICATION*
5o'ta(e A 3/5, "
!SS
N +m#.
MODEL 9RAP(*
DRAIN C(ARACTERISTICS*

TRANSFER C(ARACTERISTICS*
"
!
7m#8


5
!S
=Const
5
CS
758
TABULAR COLUMN*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering )-
0
V
GS
= 0V
V
GS
= -1V
V
GS
= -2V
$3' 4 -3$
$D' (volts)
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
DRAIN C(ARACTERISTICS*
V
9S
3 V V
9S
3 81V
V
DS
(V) I
D
(,A) V
DS
(V) I
D
(,A)
TRANSFER C(ARACTERISTICS*
RESULT*
Thus the !rain 3
Transfer characteristics of
(i)en FET is %'otted.

d =
(
m =


=
"
!SS
=
%inch off )o'ta(e 5
%
=
E&.N'.5
C(ARACTERISTICS OF UNI)UNCTION TRANSISTOR
AIM*
To %'ot the characteristics of UJT 3 determine itEs intrinsic standoff
atio.
APPARATUS RE+UIRED* COMPONENTS RE+UIRED*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering
V
DS
35#'<0% V
DS
3 1#'<0%
V
9S
(V) I
D
(,A) V
9S
(V) I
D
(,A)
,0
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
S.
N'.
Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
S.
N'.
Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
1 .%.S 7/:3/85 2 1
UJT 212$4$
1
2 #mmeter 7/J3/8m# 1
2 esistor 1F 2
3
Bread
Board
1
3 5o'tmeter
7/J3/85 1
7/J1/85 1
T(EORY*
UJT7!ou4'e 4ase diode8 consists of a 4ar of 'i(ht'& do,ed n:t&,e si'icon
-ith a sma'' ,iece of hea)i'& do,ed % t&,e materia' 2oined to one side. "t has (ot
three termina's. The& are Emitter7E8, Base17B18,Base27B28.Since the si'icon 4ar
is 'i(ht'& do,ed, it has a hi(h resistance 3 can 4e re,resented as t-o resistors,
r
B1
3 r
B2
. 6hen 5
B1B2
= /, a sma'' increase in 5
E
for-ard 4iases the emitter
2unction. The resu'tant ,'ot of 5
E
3 "
E
is sim,'& the characteristics of for-ard
4iased diode -ith resistance. "ncreasin( 5
EB1
reduces the emitter 2unction
re)erse 4ias. 6hen 5
EB1
= 5r
B1
there is no for-ard or re)erse 4ias. 3 "
E
= /.
"ncreasin( 5
EB1
4e&ond this ,oint 4e(ins to for-ard 4ias the emitter 2unction. #t
the ,ea< ,oint, a sma'' for-ard emitter current is f'o-in(. This current is termed
as ,ea< current7 "
%
8. Unti' this ,oint UJT is said to 4e o,eratin( in cutoff re(ion.
6hen "
E
increases 4e&ond ,ea< current the de)ice enters the ne(ati)e
resistance re(ion. "n -hich the resistance r
B1
fa''s ra,id'& 3 5
E
fa''s to the )a''e&
)o'ta(e.5). #t this ,oint "
E
= "). # further increase of "
E
causes the de)ice to enter
the saturation re(ion.

PROCEDURE*
$.
Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
*.
Set 5
B1B2
= /5, )ar& 5
EB1
, 3 note do-n the readin(s of "
E
3 5
EB1
+.
Set 5
B1B2
= 1/5 , )ar& 5
EB1
, 3 note do-n the readin(s of "
E
3 5
EB1
..
%'ot the (ra,h A "
E
5ersus 5
EB1
for constant 5
B1B2
.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering ,1
12
E
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
1/.
Find the intrinsic standoff ratio.
CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*









PIN DIA9RAMA
BOTTOM VIE1 OF !N!?5?*


SPECIFICATION FOR !N!?5?*
O "nter 4ase resistance
BB
= 4.* to ..1 F
O ;inimum 5a''e& current = 4 m#
O ;a9imun %ea< ,oint emitter current 5 #
O;a9imum emitter re)erse current 12 #.
FORMULA FOR INTRINSIC STANDOFF RATIO*
= 5
%
: 5
!
> 5
B1B2
., -here 5
!
= /.*5.
MODEL 9RAP(*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering ,2
12
(0-30)$
(0-30)$
(0-30)$
1.2
1.2
(0-30)$
(0-30)mA
$
$
A
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
%ea< ,oint
5
%
"
%
1e(ati)e resistance re(ion
5
EB1
758
5a''e& ,oint 5
B1B2
= 5
5
B1B2
= /5
"
5
"
E
7m#8
TABULAR COLUMN*
V
B1B!
3 V V
B1B!
3 1V
V
EB1
(V) I
E
(,A) V
EB1
(V) I
E
(,A)

PROCEDURE*
5. Ci)e the circuit connections as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
$. The dc in,ut )o'ta(e is set to 2/ 5 in %S.
*. The out,ut s-ee, -a)eform is measured usin( C0.
+. The (ra,h of out,ut s-ee, -a)eform is ,'otted
RESULT*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering ,3
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
1. Thus the characteristics of (i)en UJT -as %'otted 3 its intrinsic standoff
atio = ::::.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering ,4
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
E&.N'.5
C(ARACTERISTICS OF P(OTO8DIODE AND
P(OTOTRANSISTOR
AIM*
1. To stud& the characteristics of a ,hoto:diode.
2. To stud& the characteristics of ,hototransistor.
APPARATUS RE+UIRED* COMPONENTS RE+UIRED*
S.
N'.
Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
S.
N'.
Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
1 .%.S 7/:3/85 1 1
%hoto
diode
1
2 #mmeter 7/J3/8m# 1
2 esistor 1F 2
3
Bread
Board
1
3 5o'tmeter 7/J3/85 1 4
%hoto
transistor
1
T(EORY*
P(OTODIODE*
# ,hoto diode is a t-o termina' ,n 2unction de)ice, -hich o,erates on
re)erse 4ias. 0n re)erse 4iasin( a ,n 2unction diode, there resu'ts a constant
current due to minorit& char(e carriers <no-n as re)erse saturation current.
"ncreasin( the therma''& (enerated minorit& carriers 4& a,,'&in( e9terna' ener(&,
i.e., either heat or 'i(ht ener(& at the 2unction can increase this current. 6hen -e
a,,'& 'i(ht ener(& as an e9terna' source, it resu'ts in a ,hoto diode that is usua''&
,'aced in a ('ass ,ac<a(e so that 'i(ht can reach the 2unction. "nitia''& -hen no
'i(ht is incident, the current is on'& the re)erse saturation current that f'o-s
throu(h the re)erse 4iased diode. This current is termed as the dar< current of
the ,hoto diode. 1o- -hen 'i(ht is incident on the ,hoto diode then the therma''&
Department of electrical and electronics engineering ,5
(0-30)mA
(0-30)$
(0-30)$
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
(enerated carriers increase resu'tin( in an increased re)erse current -hich is
,ro,ortiona' to the intensit& of incident 'i(ht. # ,hoto diode can turn on and off at
a faster rate and so it is used as a fast actin( s-itch.
CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*
TABULAR COLUMN*
MODEL 9RAP(*
T(EORY*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering
S.N'. VOLTA9E
(In V'<0%)
CURRENT
(In ,A)
%
(.)
*llumination lm5m
2
,+
1.
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
*"
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
P(OTOTRANSISTOR*
"t is a transistor -ith an o,en 4aseP there e9ists a sma'' co''ector current
consistin( of therma''& ,roduced minorit& carriers and surface 'ea<a(e. B&
e9,osin( the co''ector 2unction to 'i(ht, a manufacturer can ,roduce a
,hototransistor, a transistor that has more sensiti)it& to 'i(ht than a ,hoto diode.
Because the 4ase 'ead is o,en, a'' the re)erse current is forced into the 4ase of
the transistor. The resu'tin( co''ector current is "
Ceo
=
dc
"
r
. The main difference
4et-een a ,hototransistor and a ,hotodiode is the current (ain,
dc
. The same
amount of 'i(ht stri<in( 4oth de)ices ,roduces
dc
times more current in a
,hototransistor than in a ,hotodiode.
CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*
TABULAR COLUMN* SYMBOL*
E
MODEL 9RAP(*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering
S. N'. V
CE
($n V'<0%)
I
C
($n ,A)
,)
6 & 6
1F
7/:3/58
C
400 7u8
200 7u8
0 7u8
$"E($)
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab






PROCEDURE*
P(OTO DIODE*
$. i( u, the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
*. ;aintain a <no-n distance 7sa& 5 cm8 4et-een the !C 4u'4 and
the ,hoto diode.
+. Set the )o'ta(e of the 4u'4 7sa&, 258, )ar& the )o'ta(e of the diode
inste,s of 15 and note do-n the corres,ondin( diode current, "
r
.
.. e,eat the a4o)e ,rocedure for the )arious )o'ta(es of !C 4u'4.
1/. %'ot the (ra,hA 5
!
vs. "
r
for a constant !C 4u'4 )o'ta(e.
P(OTOTRANSISTOR*
$. i( u, the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
*. ;aintain a <no-n distance 7sa& 5 cm8 4et-een the !C 4u'4 and the
,hototransistor.
+. Set the )o'ta(e of the 4u'4 7sa&, 258, )ar& the )o'ta(e of the diode
in ste,s of 15 and note do-n the corres,ondin( diode current, "
r
.
.. e,eat the a4o)e ,rocedure for the )arious )a'ues of !C 4u'4.
1/. %'ot the (ra,hA 5
!
vs. "
r
for a constant 4u'4 )o'ta(e.
RESULT*
Thus the characteristics of ,hoto diode and ,hototransistor are studied.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering ,,
(mA)
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
E&.N'.?
C(ARACTERISTICS OF T(ERMISTOR
AIM*
To stud& the characteristics of Thermistor.
T(EORY*
Thermistor or Therma' resistor is t-o J termina' semiconductor de)ice
-hose resistance is tem,erature sensiti)e. The )a'ue of such resistors decreases
-ith increase in tem,erature. ;ateria's em,'o&ed in the manufacture of the
thermistors inc'ude o9ides of co4a't, nic<e', co,,er, iron uranium and
man(anese.
The thermistors has )er& hi(h tem,erature coefficient of resistance, of the
order of 3 to 5Q ,er C, ma<in( it an idea' tem,erature transducer. The
tem,erature coefficient of resistance is norma''& ne(ati)e. The reistance at an&
tem,erature T, is (i)en a,,ro9imate'& 4&

T
=
o
e9, R 71>T J 1>T
o
8
6here
T
= thermistor resistance at tem,erature T 7F8,
0
= thersmistor
resistance at tem,erature T
o
7F8, and = a constant determined 4& ca'i4ration.
#t hi(h tem,eratures, this eBuation reduces to

T
=
o
e9, 7 R>T8
The resistance J tem,erature characteristics is sho-n in Fi( 21.1/. The
cur)e is non J 'inear and the dro, in resistance from 5/// to 1/ occurs for an
increase in tem,erature from 2/ to 1// C. The tem,erature of the de)ice can
4e chan(ed interna''& or e9terna''&. #n increase in current throu(h the de)ice -i''
raise its tem,erature carr&in( a dro, in its termina' resistance. #n& e9terna''&
Department of electrical and electronics engineering ,-
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
heat source -i'' resu't in an increase in its 4od& tem,erature and dro, in
resistance this t&,e action 7interna' or e9terna'8 'ends itse'f -e'' to contro'
mechanism.
Three usefu' ,arameters for characterizin( the thermistor are the time
constant, dissi,ation constant , and resistance ratio. The time constant is the
time for a thermistor to chan(e its resistance 4& $3Q of its initia' )a'ue, for zero J
,o-er dissi,ation. T&,ica' )a'ues of time constant ran(e from 1 to 5/ s.
SYMBOL*
MODEL 9RAP(*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering
%
(-cm)
9 (deg)
-0
9
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
The dissi,ation factor is the ,o-er necessar& to increase the tem,erature
of a thermistor 4& 1SC. T&,ica' )a'ues of dissi,ation factor ran(e from 1 to 1/
m6>SC.
esistance ratio is the ratio of the resistance at 25 SC. "ts ran(e is
a,,ro9imate'&
3 J $/.
Thermistors are used measure tem,erature, f'o- ,ressure, 'iBuid 'e)e',
)o'ta(e or ,o-er 'e)e', )acuum, com,osition of (ases and therma' conducti)it&
and a'so in com,ensation net-or<.
RESULT*
Thus the Characteristics of thermistor -as studied.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering -1
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
E&.N'.Ba
SIN9LE P(ASE (ALF 1AVE RECTIFIER
AIM*
To construct a @a'f -a)e rectifier usin( diode and to dra- its ,erformance
characteristics.
APPARATUS RE+UIRED* COMPONENTS
RE+UIRED*
S.
N'.
Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
S.
N'.
Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
1 Transformer 23/>7$:/:$85 1
1
!iode "14//1
1
2 .%.S 7/:3/85 2
3 #mmeter
7/J3/8m# 1 2 esistor 1F 1
7/J25/8L# 1 3
Bread
Board
1
4 5o'tmeter
7/J3/85 1 4 Ca,acitor 1//Lf 1
7/J285 1 5 C0 1
FORMULAE*
1IT(OUT FILTER*
7i8 5
rms
= 5
m
> 2
7ii8 5
dc
= 5
m
>
7iii8 i,,'e Factor= 75
rms
> 5
dc
8
2
J 1
7i)8 Efficienc& = 75
dc
> 5
rms
8
2
9 1//
1IT( FILTER*
7i8 5
rms
= 75
rms
E2
K 5
dc
2
8
7ii8 5
rmsE
= 5
r,,
> 73 9 28
7iii8 5
dc
= 5
m J
5
r,,
> 2
7i)8 i,,'e Factor= 5
rmsE>
5
dc
PROCEDURE*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering -2
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
1IT(OUT FILTER*
5. Ci)e the connections as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
$. Ci)e 23/), 5/@H ">% to the ste, do-n TF -here secondar& connected to
the ectifier ">%.
*. Ta<e the rectifier out,ut across the Toad.
+. %'ot its ,erformance (ra,h.
1IT( FILTER*
1. Ci)e the connections as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
$. Ci)e 23/), 5/@H ">% to the ste, do-n TF -here secondar& connected to
the ectifier ">%.
*. Connect the Ca,acitor across the Toad.
+. Ta<e the rectifier out,ut across the Toad.
.. %'ot its ,erformance (ra,h.
CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering -3
1 9ransformer
230 $ 5 +$
16 400)
1.
100: 1 230$
50;<
A" suppl=
C0
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
TABULAR COLUMN*
1IT(OUT FILTER*
5
m
5
rms
5
dc
i,,'e factor Efficienc&
1IT( FILTER*
5
rms
5
r,,
5
dc
i,,'e factor Efficienc&
MODEL 9RAP(*
RESULT*
Thus the ,erformance characteristics of 1 @a'f -a)e rectifier -as o4tained.
E&.N'.B=
Department of electrical and electronics engineering -4
V
in

($olts)
t !s"
V
o
($olts)
t !s"
t !s"
V
o
($olts)
1$0C'D0
F$<0"2
1$0C
F$<0"2
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
SIN9LE P(ASE FULL 1AVE RECTIFIER
AIM*
To construct a Fu'' -a)e rectifier usin( diode and to dra- its ,erformance
characteristics.
APPARATUS RE+UIRED* COMPONENTS
RE+UIRED*
S.
N'.
Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
S.
N'.
Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
1 Transformer 23/>7$:/:$85 1
1
!iode "14//1
2
2 .%.S 7/:3/85 2
3 #mmeter
7/J3/8m# 1 2 esistor 1F 1
7/J25/8L# 1 3
Bread
Board
1
4 5o'tmeter
7/J3/85 1 4 Ca,acitor 1//Lf 1
7/J285 1 5 C0 1
FORMULAE*
1IT(OUT FILTER*
7i8 5
rms
= 5
m
> 2
7ii8 5
dc
= 25
m
>
7iii8 i,,'e Factor= 75
rms
> 5
dc
8
2
J 1
7i)8 Efficienc& = 75
dc
> 5
rms
8
2
9 1//
1IT( FILTER*
7i8 5
rms
= 5
r,,
>72O 38
7ii8 5
dc
= 5
m J
5
r,,

7i)8 i,,'e Factor= 5
rmsE>
5
dc
PROCEDURE*
1IT(OUT FILTER*
5. Ci)e the connections as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering -5
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
$. Ci)e 23/), 5/@H ">% to the ste, do-n TF -here secondar& connected
to the ectifier ">%.
*. Ta<e the rectifier out,ut across the Toad.
+. %'ot its ,erformance (ra,h.
1IT( FILTER*
1. Ci)e the connections as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
$. Ci)e 23/), 5/@H ">% to the ste, do-n TF -here secondar& connected to
the ectifier ">%.
*. Connect the Ca,acitor across the Toad.
+. Ta<e the rectifier out,ut across the Toad.
.. %'ot its ,erformance (ra,h.

CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering -+
16 400)
1.
100:
1 230$
50;<
A" suppl=
C0
16 400)
1 9ransformer
230 $ 5 +$
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
TABULAR COLUMN*
1IT(OUT FILTER*
5
m
5
rms
5
dc
i,,'e factor Efficienc&
1IT( FILTER*
5
rms
5
r,,
5
dc
i,,'e factor Efficienc&
MODEL 9RAP( *
RESULT* Thus the ,erformance characteristics of 1 Fu'' -a)e rectifier -ere
o4tained.
E&.N'.E
Department of electrical and electronics engineering -)
V
in

($olts)
t !s"
V
o
($olts)
t !s"
t !s"
V
o
($olts)
1$0C'D0 F$<0"2
1$0C F$<0"2
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER
AIM*
To construct a !ifferentia' am,'ifier in Common mode 3 !ifferentia' mode
confi(uration and to find common mode re2ection ratio.
APPARATUS RE+UIRED* COMPONENTS RE+UIRED*
A//a2a0D% Ran-" +0.
1 %S 7/:3/85 1
2 C0 1
3
Si(na'
Cenerator
1
4 !CB 2
5 !B 2
T(EORY*

The !ifferentia' am,'ifier circuit is an e9treme'& ,o,u'ar connection used in
"C units. The circuit has se,arate in,uts , t-o se,arate out,uts and emitters are
connected to(ether. "f the same in,ut is a,,'ied to 4oth in,uts, the o,eration is
ca''ed common mode. "n dou4'e ended o,eration t-o in,ut si(na's are a,,'ied ,
the difference of the in,uts resu'tin( in out,uts from 4oth co''ectors due to the
difference of the si(na's a,,'ied to 4oth the in,uts. The main feature of the
differentia' am,'ifier is the )er& 'ar(e (ain -hen o,,osite si(na's are a,,'ied to
in,uts as com,ared to sma'' si(na' resu'tin( from common in,ut. The ratio of this
difference (ain to the common (ain is ca''ed common mode re2ection ratio.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering
S.N' I0", T./" Ran-" +0.
1 Transistor BC1/* 1
2 Ca,acitor 4*/F 1
3 esistor
3..FU
3.3FU
1
1
4 Bread 4oard 1
-,
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*
DIFFERENTIAL MODE*
COMMON MODE*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering --
3>3 .
3>-.
$
o
1 $
o
2
$1
12$
$2
13$
3>-.
--$
-$
3>3 .
3>-.
$
o
1 $
o
2
$
2
13$
3>-.
--$
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
PROCEDURE*
DIFFERENTIAL MODE*
5. Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
$. Set 5
1
= 5/m) and 5
2
=55m) usin( the si(na' (enerator.
*. Find the corres,ondin( out,ut )o'ta(es across 5
/1
3 5
/2
usin( C0
+. Ca'cu'ate common mode re2ection ratio usin( the (i)en formu'a.
COMMON MODE*
5. Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
$. Set 5
1
= 5/m) usin( the si(na' (enerator.
*. Find the out,ut )o'ta(e across 5
o
usin( mu'timeter.
+. Ca'cu'te common mode re2ection ratio usin( the (i)en formu'a.
CALCULATION*
Common mode re2ection ratio7C;8 = #
d
> #
c
#
d
= !ifferentia' mode (ain
#
c
= Common mode (ain
6here #
d
= 5
o
>5
d

5
o
= 0ut,ut )o'ta(e measured across C0
5
d
= 5
1
J 5
2
, 5
1
, 5
2
J in,ut )o'ta(e a,,'ied.
#
c
= 5
o
>5c
5
c
= 75
1
K 5
2
8>2
DIFFERENTIAL MODE*
5
1
=
5
2
=
0ut,ut )o'ta(e =
5
d
= 5
1
:5
2
=
#
d
=5
o
>5
d
=
RESULT* Thus the differentia' am,'ifier -as constructed in common mode
and !ifferentia' mode confi(uration. Further common mode re2ection ratio -as
found
E#$. N%: 1&
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 100
COMMON MODE*
"n,ut )o'ta(e =
0ut,ut )o'ta(e =
5
1
=5
2
=
5
c
=75
1
K5
2
8>2 =
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
PASSIVE FILTERS
A'!:
9o attenuate un?anted fre@uenc= components from input signal b= using resistor
and capacitor>
A$$()(t*s )+,*')+-:
S.N'
N(!+ %. t/+ ($$()(t*s R(01+ T2$+ 3*(0t't2
1> 'ignal 3enerator 01
2> %esistor 01
3> "apacitor "eramic 01
4> "%A 01
5> 1readboard 01
T/+%)2:
A filter is an A" circuit tBat separates some fre@uencies from otBer in
?itBin mi8ed 0 fre@uenc= signals> Audio equalizers and crossover networks are
t?o ?ell-Cno?n applications of filter circuits> A Bode plot is a grapB plotting
?aveform amplitude or pBase on one a8is and fre@uenc= on tBe otBer>
A lo?-pass filter allo?s for eas= passage of lo?-fre@uenc= signals from
source to load and difficult passage of BigB-fre@uenc= signals> "apacitor lo?-pass
filters insert a resistor in series and a capacitor in parallel ?itB tBe load as sBo?n
in tBe circuit diagram> 9Be former filter design tries to DblocCE tBe un?anted
fre@uenc= signal ?Bile tBe latter tries to sBort it out>
9Be cutoff frequency for a lo?-pass filter is tBat fre@uenc= at ?BicB tBe
output (load) voltage e@uals )0>)F of tBe input ('ource) voltage> Above tBe cutoff
fre@uenc= tBe output voltage is lo?er tBan )0>)F of tBe input and vice-versa> 'ee
tBe circuit diagram
1
:
cutoff
4 ----------
2%"
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 101
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
A BigB-pass filter allo?s for eas= passage of BigB-fre@uenc= signals from source to
load and difficult passage of lo?-fre@uenc= signals> "apacitor BigB-pass filters
insert a capacitor in series ?itB tBe load as sBo?n in tBe circuit diagram> 9Be
former filter design tries to DbricCE tBe un?anted fre@uenc= signal ?Bile tBe latter
tries to sBort it out>
9Be cutoff fre@uenc= for a BigB-pass filter is tBat fre@uenc= at ?BicB tBe
output (load) voltage e@uals )0>)F of tBe input (source) voltage> Above tBe cutoff
fre@uenc= tBe output voltage is greater tBan )0>)F of tBe input and vice-versa>
1
:
cutoff
4 ----------
2%"
A band 0 pass filter ?orCs to screen out fre@uencies tBat are too lo? or too
BigB giving eas= passage onl= to fre@uencies ?itBin a certain range> 'tacCing a
lo?-pass filter on tBe end of a BigB-pass filter or vice-versa can maCe band-pass
filters> %efer tBe circuit diagrams
:ig> )>+
DAttenuateE means to reduce or diminisB in amplitude> GBen =ou
turn do?n tBe volume control on =our stereo =ou are DattenuatingE tBe signal
being sent to tBe speaCers>
A band-stop filter ?orCs to screen out fre@uencies tBat are ?itBin a certain
range giving eas= passage onl= to fre@uencies outside of tBat range> Also Cno?n
as band-elimination band-reHect or notcB filters>
&lacing a lo?-pass filter in parallel ?itB a BigB-pass filter can maCe band-
stop filters> "ommonl= botB tBe lo?-pass and BigB-pass filter sections are of tBe
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 102
'ignal
input
7o?-pass filter ;igB-pass filter 'ignal
output
1locCs fre@uencies
tBat are too BigB
1locCs fre@uencies
tBat are too lo?
'ignal
*nput
7o?-pass filter
;igB-pass filter
'ignal
Autput
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
D9E configuration giving tBe name D9?in-9E to tBe band-stop combination> %efer
tBe fig>)>) )>,a and )>,b>
&asses lo? fre@uencies
&asses BigB fre@uencies
:ig> )>,a
9Be fre@uenc= of ma8imum attenuation is called tBe notcB
fre@uenc=>
4)%5+-*)+:
)> 3ive tBe connections as per circuit diagrams>
,> '?itcB on tBe main>
-> "Bange tBe fre@uenc= from minimum and find tBe output
voltage b= using "%A>
10> Dra? tBe grapB>
11> $erif= tBe cut off fre@uenc=>
12> '?itcB off tBe main>
R+s*6t:
9Bus ?e anal=<e passive filter and various ?aveforms are noted
E#$. N% : 17
STUDY OF CRO AND
4O8ER FACTOR MEASUREMENT USING CRO
A'!:
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 103
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
9o stud= catBode %a= Ascilloscope ("%A) and measurement of po?er factor using
"%A>
A$$()(t*s )+,*')+-:
S.N'
N(!+ %. t/+ ($$()(t*s R(01+ T2$+ 3*(0t't2
1> %esistance 1o8 1
2> "apacitance 1o8 1
3> *nductance 1o8 1
4> :unction 3enerator 1
5> 1read board 1
T/+%)2:
9Be catBode ra= oscilloscope is tBe most versatile measuring instrument
available> Ge can measure follo?ing parameters using tBe "%AI
5> A" or D" voltage>
+> 9ime (t415f)>
)> &Base relationsBip
,> Gaveform calculationI %ise timeJ fall timeJ on timeJ off-time
Distortion etc>
Ge can also measure non-electrical pB=sical @uantities liCe pressure strain
temperature acceleration etc> b= converting into electrical @uantities using
a transducer>
M(9%) :6%5;s:
)> "atBode ra= tube ("%9)
,> $ertical amplifier
-> ;ori<ontal amplifier
10> '?eep generator
11> 9rigger circuit
12> Associated po?er suppl=>
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 104
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
@. T/+ 5(t/%-+ )(2 t*:+ is tBe Beart of "%A> 9Be "%9 is enclosed in an
evacuated glass envelope to permit tBe electron beam to traverse in tBe
tube easil=> 9Be main functional units of "%A are as follo?s>
Electron gun assembl=
Deflection plate unit
'creen>
A. V+)t'5(6 A!$6'.'+) is tBe main factor in determining tBe band?idtB and
sensitivit= of an oscilloscope> $ertical sensitivit= is a measure of Bo?
mucB tBe electron beam ?ill be deflected for a specified input signal>
An tBe front panel of tBe oscilloscope one can see a Cnob attacBed to a
rotar= s?itcB labeled volts5division> 9Be rotar= s?itcB is electricall=
connected to tBe input attenuation net?orC> 9Be setting of tBe rotar=
s?itcB indicates ?Bat amplitude signal is re@uired to deflect tBe beam
verticall= b= one division>
B. H%)'<%0t(6 (!$6'.'+) Knder normal mode of operation tBe Bori<ontal
amplifier ?ill amplif= tBe s?eep generator input> GBen tBe "%A is
being used in tBe L-M mode tBe Bori<ontal amplifier ?ill amplif= tBe
signal applied to tBe Bori<ontal input terminal> AltBougB tBe vertical
amplifier musB be able to faitBfull= reproduce lo?-amplitude and BigB
fre@uenc= signal ?itB fast rise-time tBe Bori<ontal amplifier is onl=
re@uired to provide a faitBful reproduction of tBe s?eep signal ?BicB
Bas a relativel= BigB amplitude and slo? rise time>
C. S>++$ 1+0+)(t%) (0- T)'11+) 5')5*'t 9Bese t?o units form tBe S'10(6
S205/)%0'<(t'%0 *0't %. t/+ CRO.
17. Ass%5'(t+- 4%>+) S*$$62: 9Be input signal ma= come from an e8ternal
source ?Ben tBe trigger selector s?itcB is set to EL9 or from lo?
amplitude A" voltage at line fre@uenc= ?Ben tBe s?itcB is set to 7*6E
or from tBe vertical amplifier ?Ben tBe s?itcB is set to *69> GBen set
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 105
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
for *69 (internal triggering) tBe trigger circuit receives its inputs from
tBe vertical amplifier>
M(9%) B6%5;s '0 ( 4)(5t'5(6 CRO
A "%A consists of a catBode ra= tube ("%9) and additional control Cnobs>
9Be main parts of a "%9 areI
4> Electron gun assembl=>
5> Deflection plate assembl=>
+> :luorescent screen>
E6+5t)%0 G*0 Ass+!:62: 9Be electron gun assembl= produces a sBarp beam of
electrons ?BicB are accelerated to BigB velocit=> 9Bis focused beam of electrons
striCe tBe fluorescent screen ?itB sufficient energ= to cause a luminous spot on tBe
screen>
D+.6+5t'%0 $6(t+ (ss+!:62: 9Bis part consists of t?o plates in ?BicB one pair of
plates is placed Bori<ontall= and otBer of plates is placed verticall=> 9Be signal
under test is applied to vertical deflecting plates> 9Be Bori<ontal deflection plates
are connected to a built-in ramp generator ?BicB moves tBe luminous spot
periodicall= in a Bori<ontal direction from left to rigBt over tBe screen> 9Bese t?o
deflection plates give stationar= appearance to tBe ?aveform on tBe screen> "%A
operates on voltage> 'ince tBe deflection of tBe electron beam is directl=
proportional to tBe deflecting voltage tBe "%9 ma= be used as a linear measuring
device> 9Be voltage being measured is applied to tBe vertical plates tBrougB an
iterative net?orC ?Bose propagation time corresponds to tBe velocit= of electrons
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 10+
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
tBereb= s=ncBroni<ing tBe voltage applied to tBe vertical plate ?itB tBe velocit= of
tBe beam>
S205/)%0'<(t'%0 %. '0$*t s'10(6: 9Be s?eep generator produces a sa? tootB
?aveform ?BicB is used to s=ncBroni<e tBe applied voltage to obtain a stationar=-
applied signal> 9Bis re@uires tBat tBe time base be operated at a submultiples
fre@uenc= of tBe signal under measurement> *f s=ncBroni<ation is not done tBe
pattern is not stationar= but appears to drift across tBe screen in a random fasBion>
I0t+)0(6 s205/)%0'<(t'%0 9Bis trigger is obtained from tBe time base generator to
s=ncBroni<e tBe signal>
E#t+)0(6 s205/)%0'<(t'%0 An e8ternal trigger source can also be used to
s=ncBroni<e tBe signal being measured>
A*t% T)'11+)'01 M%-+ 9Be time base used in tBis case in a self-oscillating
condition i>e> it gives an output even in tBe absence of an= M-input> 9Be
advantage of tBis mode is tBat tBe beam is visible on tBe screen under all
conditions including tBe <ero input> GBen tBe input e8ceeds a certain magnitude
tBen tBe internal free running oscillator locCs on to tBe fre@uenc=>
4)+5(*t'%0s:
3> 9Be ammeter is connected using tBicC ?ires>
4> GBile reversing ammeter polarit= see to it tBat tBe capacitor is not
discBarged>
O:s+)?(t'%0:
S6.N% T'!+ V%6t(1+ C*))+0t
Knit ('ec) ($olts) (Amps)
R+s*6t: 9Bus ?e stud= about "%A N to measure p>f
CLASS : II YEAR/ III SEMSESTER
SUBJECT CODE : 131351
SUBJECT : ELECTRON DEVICES AND CIRCUITS LAB
BATCH : B1
STAFF IN-CHARGE: M)s. A. ALICE HE4DIBAH
DESIGNATION : ASSISTANT 4ROFESSOR
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 10)
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
STAFF CODE : EE17
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
131351 ELECTRON DEVICES AND CIRCUITS LABORATORY L T P C
(B.E. (EEE), B.E. (E&I) and B.E. (I & C) 3 !
(R"#$%"d)
25. Characteristics of semiconductor diode and zener diode .
2$. Characteristics of transistor under CE, CB and CC .
2*. Characteristics of FET .
2+. Characteristics of UJT .
2.. Characteristics of SC, !"#C and T"#C.
3/. %hotodiode, %hototransistor characteristics and stud& of 'i(ht acti)ated
re'a& circuit.
31. Static characteristics of Thermistors.
32. Sin('e ,hase ha'f -a)e and fu'' -a)e rectifiers -ith inducti)e and
ca,aciti)e fi'ters.
33. !ifferentia' am,'ifiers usin( FET.
34. Stud& of C0.
35. Series and ,ara''e' resonance circuits.
3$. ea'ization of ,assi)e fi'ters.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 10,
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
E&.N'.1a
C(ARACTERISTICS OF PN )UNCTION DIODE
AIM*
To stud& the %1 2unction diode characteristics under For-ard 3 e)erse
4ias conditions.
APPARATUS RE+UIRED* COMPONENTS RE+UIRED*
S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0. S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
1 .%.S 1
!iode
2 #mmeter
2 esistor
3
Bread
Board
3 5o'tmeter
4 6ires
T(EORY*
# %1 2unction diode is a t-o termina' 2unction de)ice. "t conducts on'& in
one direction 7on'& on for-ard 4iasin(8.
FOR1ARD BIAS*
0n for-ard 4iasin(, initia''& no current f'o-s due to 4arrier ,otentia'. #s the
a,,'ied ,otentia' e9ceeds the 4arrier ,otentia' the char(e carriers (ain sufficient
ener(& to cross the ,otentia' 4arrier and hence enter the other re(ion. The ho'es,
-hich are ma2orit& carriers in the %:re(ion, 4ecome minorit& carriers on enterin(
the 1:re(ions, and e'ectrons, -hich are the ma2orit& carriers in the 1:re(ion,
4ecome minorit& carriers on enterin( the %:re(ion. This in2ection of ;inorit&
carriers resu'ts in the current f'o-, o,,osite to the direction of e'ectron
mo)ement.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 10-
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
REVERSE BIAS*
0n re)erse 4iasin(, the ma2orit& char(e carriers are attracted to-ards the
termina's due to the a,,'ied ,otentia' resu'tin( in the -idenin( of the de,'etion
re(ion. Since the char(e carriers are ,ushed to-ards the termina's no current
f'o-s in the de)ice due to ma2orit& char(e carriers. There -i'' 4e some current in
the de)ice due to the therma''& (enerated minorit& carriers. The (eneration of
such carriers is inde,endent of the a,,'ied ,otentia' and hence the current is
constant for a'' increasin( re)erse ,otentia'. This current is referred to as
e)erse Saturation Current 7"
0
8 and it increases -ith tem,erature. 6hen the
a,,'ied re)erse )o'ta(e is increased 4e&ond the certain 'imit, it resu'ts in
4rea<do-n. !urin( 4rea<do-n, the diode current increases tremendous'&.
PROCEDURE*
FOR1ARD BIAS*
.. Connect the circuit as ,er the dia(ram.
1/. 5ar& the a,,'ied )o'ta(e 5 in ste,s of /.15.
11. 1ote do-n the corres,ondin( #mmeter readin(s ".
12. %'ot a (ra,h 4et-een 5 3 "
OBSERVATIONS
*. Find the d.c 7static8 resistance = 5>".
+. Find the a.c 7d&namic8 resistance r = 5 > " 72 3 V4I) 3
1 2
1 2
I I
V V

.
.. Find the for-ard )o'ta(e dro, = ?@intA it is eBua' to /.* for Si and /.3 for
CeD
REVERSE BIAS*
11. Connect the circuit as ,er the dia(ram.
1!. 5ar& the a,,'ied )o'ta(e 5 in ste,s of 1./5.
13. 1ote do-n the corres,ondin( #mmeter readin(s ".
15. %'ot a (ra,h 4et-een 5 3 "
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 110
(0-100)mA !"
#
-#
#
-#
(0-15)$ !"
#
-#
(0-10)$
%&'
(0-500)(A!"
#
-#
#
-#
(0-30)$ !"
#
-#
(0-30)$
%&'
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
15. Find the d&namic resistance 2 3 V 4 I.
FORMULA FOR REVERSE SATURATION CURRENT (I
O
)*
I
'
3 I46"&/(V4V
T
)781
6here 5
T
is the )o'ta(e eBui)a'ent of Tem,erature = <T>B
:< is Bo'tzmannEs constant, B is the char(e of the e'ectron and T is the
tem,erature in de(rees Fe')in.
=1 for Si'icon and 2 for Cermanium

CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*
FOR1ARD BIAS*
REVERSE BIAS*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 111
4)0
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
4)0
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
S/":$;$:a0$'n ;'2 1N51* S$<$:'n D$'d"
%ea< "n)erse 5o'ta(eA 5/5
"
dc
= 1#.
;a9imum for-ard )o'ta(e dro, at 1 #m, is 1.1 )o'ts
;a9imum re)erse current G5/ )o'ts is 5#
TABULAR COLUMN*
FOR1ARD BIAS* REVERSE BIAS*
MODEL 9RAP(
*f (mA)
"
2
5
4
"
1
7 5o'ts8 5
1
5
2
5
f
75o'ts8

"
r
7#8
Department of electrical and electronics engineering
S.N'. VOLTA9E
(In V'<0%)
CURRENT
(In ,A)
S..N'. VOLTA9E
(In V'<0%)
CURRENT
(In A)
112
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
RESULT*
For-ard and e)erse 4ias characteristics of the %1 2unction diode and the
d&namic resistance under
i8 For-ard 4ias = :::::::::::::::::::::
ii8 e)erse 4ias = ::::::::::::::::::::::.
iii8 e)erse Saturation Current = ::::::::::::::::.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 113
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
E&.N'.1=
C(ARACTERISTICS OF >ENER DIODE
AIM*
To determine the 4rea<do-n )o'ta(e of a (i)en zener diode.
APPARATUS RE+UIRED* COMPONENTS RE+UIRED*
S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0. S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
1 .%.S 1
zener
diode
2 #mmeter
2 esistor
3
Bread
Board
3 5o'tmeter
4 6ires
T(EORYA
# ,ro,er'& do,ed cr&sta' diode, -hich has a shar, 4rea<do-n )o'ta(e, is <no-n
as zener diode.
FOR1ARD BIAS*
0n for-ard 4iasin(, initia''& no current f'o-s due to 4arrier ,otentia'. #s the
a,,'ied ,otentia' increases, it e9ceeds the 4arrier ,otentia' at one )a'ue and the
char(e carriers (ain sufficient ener(& to cross the ,otentia' 4arrier and enter the
other re(ion. the ho'es ,-hich are ma2orit& carriers in ,:re(ion, 4ecome minorit&
carriers on enterin( the 1:re(ions and e'ectrons, -hich are the ma2orit& carriers
in the 1:re(ions 4ecome minorit& carriers on enterin( the %:re(ion. This in2ection
of minorit& carriers resu'ts current, o,,osite to the direction of e'ectron
mo)ement.
REVERSE BIAS*
6hen the re)erse 4ias is a,,'ied due to ma2orit& carriers sma'' amount of
current 7ie8 re)erse saturation current f'o-s across the 2unction. #s the re)erse
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 114
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
4ias is increased to 4rea<do-n )o'ta(e, sudden rise in current ta<es ,'ace due to
zener effect.
>ENER EFFECT*
1orma''&, %1 2unction of Hener !iode is hea)i'& do,ed. !ue to hea)&
do,in( the de,'etion 'a&er -i'' 4e narro-. 6hen the re)erse 4ias is increased the
,otentia' across the de,'etion 'a&er is more. This e9erts a force on the e'ectrons
in the outermost she''. Because of this force the e'ectrons are ,u''ed a-a& from
the ,arent nuc'ei and 4ecome free e'ectrons. This ionization, -hich occurs due to
e'ectrostatic force of attraction, is <no-n as Hener effect. "t resu'ts in 'ar(e
num4er of free carriers, -hich in turn increases the re)erse saturation current
PROCEDURE*
FOR1ARD BIAS*
1. Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
2. 5ar& the ,o-er su,,'& in such a -a& that the readin(s are ta<en in ste,s
of /.15 in the )o'tmeter ti'' the need'e of ,o-er su,,'& sho-s 3/5.
3. 1ote do-n the corres,ondin( ammeter readin(s.
4. %'ot the (ra,h A5 7)s8 ".
5. Find the d&namic resistance 2 3 V 4 I.
REVERSE BIAS*
13. Connect the circuit as ,er the dia(ram.
15. 5ar& the ,o-er su,,'& in such a -a& that the readin(s are ta<en in ste,s
of /.15 in the )o'tmeter ti'' the need'e of ,o-er su,,'& sho-s 3/5.
15. 1ote do-n the corres,ondin( #mmeter readin(s ".
1?. %'ot a (ra,h 4et-een 5 3 "
1B. Find the d&namic resistance 2 3 V 4 I.
1E. Find the re)erse )o'ta(e 5r at "z=2/ m#.
CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 115
7/:158 5
# -
#
-
#
-
7/:1/8 5
7/:1/8 5, ;C
# -
#
-
#
-
7/:3/8 5
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
FOR1ARD BIAS*

REVERSE BIAS*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 11+
1
.

a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
4)0
aaaaa
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
(0-10)mA
1
.

a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
1.
aaaaa
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
(0-500)/A !"
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
>ENER DIODE*
"f 7 m#8
"
2
5B "
1
5
r
5
1
5
2
5
f
758 758
"r 7I#8
TABULAR COLUMN*
FOR1ARD BIAS* REVERSE BIAS*
RESULT*
For-ard and e)erse 4ias characteristics of the zener diode -as studied
and
For-ard 4ias d&namic resistance = :::::::::::::::::::::
e)erse 4ias d&namic resistance = ::::::::::::::::::::::
The re)erse )o'ta(e at "z =2/ m# determined from the re)erse
characteristics of the Hener diode is ::::::::::::::::::::::::::.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering
S..N'. VOLTA9E
(In V'<0%)
CURRENT
(In ,A)
S.N'. VOLTA9E
(In V'<0%)
CURRENT
(In A)
11)
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
E&. N'. !a
C(ARACTERISTICS OF CE CONFI9URATION USIN9 B)T
AIM*
To ,'ot the transistor characteristics of CE confi(uration.
APPARATUS RE+UIRED* COMPONENTS RE+UIRED*
S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0. S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
1 .%.S 1 Transistor
2 #mmeter
2 esistor
3
Bread
Board
3 5o'tmeter
4 6ires
T(EORY*
# BJT is a three termina' t-o J 2unction semiconductor de)ice in -hich the
conduction is due to 4oth the char(e carrier. @ence it is a 4i,o'ar de)ice and it
am,'ifier the sine -a)eform as the& are transferred from in,ut to out,ut. BJT is
c'assified into t-o t&,es J 1%1 or %1%. # 1%1 transistor consists of t-o 1 t&,es
in 4et-een -hich a 'a&er of % is sand-iched. The transistor consists of three
termina' emitter, co''ector and 4ase. The emitter 'a&er is the source of the char(e
carriers and it is hearti'& do,ed -ith a moderate cross sectiona' area. The
co''ector co''ects the char(e carries and hence moderate do,in( and 'ar(e cross
sectiona' area. The 4ase re(ion acts a ,ath for the mo)ement of the char(e
carriers. "n order to reduce the recom4ination of ho'es and e'ectrons the 4ase
re(ion is 'i(ht'& do,ed and is of ho''o- cross sectiona' area. 1orma''& the
transistor o,erates -ith the EB 2unction for-ard 4iased.
"n transistor, the current is same in 4oth 2unctions, -hich indicates that
there is a transfer of resistance 4et-een the t-o 2unctions. 0ne to this fact the
transistor is <no-n as transfer resistance of transistor.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 11,
Bottom 5ie- BC1/*
S,ecificationA BC1/*>5/5>/.1#,/.36,3//;@z
7/ J 3/8m#
- #
1 F
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
PROCEDURE*
INPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
*. Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
+. Set 5
CE
, )ar& 5
BE
in re(u'ar inter)a' of ste,s and note do-n the
corres,ondin( "
B
readin(. e,eat the a4o)e ,rocedure for different )a'ues of
5
CE
.
.. %'ot the (ra,hA 5
BE
5s "
B
for a constant 5
CE
.
OUTPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
*. Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
+. Set "
B,
5ar& 5
CE
in re(u'ar inter)a' of ste,s and note do-n the
corres,ondin( "
C
readin(. e,eat the a4o)e ,rocedure for different )a'ues
of "
B
.
.. %'ot the (ra,hA 5
CE
5s "
C
for a constant "
B
.
PIN DIA9RAM*
B
E C
CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*

Department of electrical and electronics engineering 11-
A
A
$
$
(0 0 250) A
10 .
1"10)10
.2
#
-#
#
-#
(0-30)$
#
-#
#
-#
# -#
(0-30)$
(0-30)$
(0-1)$
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab




MODEL 9RAP(*
INPUT C(ARACTERISTICS* OUTPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*







TABULAR COLUMN*
INPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 120
"
E"
1"
5
CE
= /5
5
CE
= 55
"
B
(A
mA
5
BE
758
5
CE
758
0
0
"
B
=$/#
"
B
=4/#
"
B
=2/#
*
"
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
V
CE
31V V
CE
3!V
V
BE
(V) I
B
(@A) V
BE
(V) I
B
(@A)
OUTPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
I
B
3!A I
B
35A
V
CE
(V) I
C
(,A) V
CE
(V) I
C
(,A)
RESULT*
The transistor characteristics of a Common Emitter 7CE8
confi(uration -ere ,'otted
E&.N'.!=
C(ARACTERISTICS OF CB CONFI9URATION USIN9 B)T
AIM*
To ,'ot the transistor characteristics of CB confi(uration.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 121
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
APPARATUS RE+UIRED* COMPONENTS RE+UIRED*
S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0. S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
1 .%.S 7/:3/85 2 1 Transistor BC 1/* 1
2 #mmeter
7/J1/8m# 1 2 esistor
1/<
1F
1
7/J18# 1 3
Bread
Board
1
3 5o'tmeter
7/J3/85 1 4 6ires
7/J285 1
T(EORY*
"n this confi(uration the 4ase is made common to 4oth the in,ut and out.
The emitter is (i)en the in,ut and the out,ut is ta<en across the co''ector. The
current (ain of this confi(uration is 'ess than unit&. The )o'ta(e (ain of CB
confi(uration is hi(h. !ue to the hi(h )o'ta(e (ain, the ,o-er (ain is a'so hi(h. "n
CB confi(uration, Base is common to 4oth in,ut and out,ut. "n CB confi(uration
the in,ut characteristics re'ate "
E
and 5
EB
for a constant 5
CB
. "nitia''& 'et 5
CB
= /
then the in,ut 2unction is eBui)a'ent to a for-ard 4iased diode and the
characteristics resem4'es that of a diode. 6here 5
CB
= K5
"
7)o'ts8 due to ear'&
effect "
E
increases and so the characteristics shifts to the 'eft. The out,ut
characteristics re'ate "
C
and 5
CB
for a constant "
E
. "nitia''& "
C
increases and then it
'e)e's for a )a'ue "
C
= "
E
. 6hen "
E
is increased "
C
a'so increases ,ro,ortiona'it&.
Thou(h increase in 5
CB
causes an increase in , since is a fraction, it is
ne('i(i4'e and so "
C
remains a constant for a'' )a'ues of 5
CB
once it 'e)e's off.
PIN DIA9RAM*
B
B'00', V$"A BC1B S,ecificationA BC1/*>5/5>/.1#,/.36,3//;@z
E C
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 122
(0-30)$
(0-1)mA
#
-#
(0-30)mA
#
-#
#
-#
#
-#
#
-#
(0-2)$ (0-30)$ (0-30)$
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*

:

PROCEDURE*
INPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
"t is the cur)e 4et-een emitter current "
E
and emitter:4ase )o'ta(e 5
BE
at
constant co''ector:4ase )o'ta(e 5
CB.
.. Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
1/. Set 5
CE
=55, )ar& 5
BE
in ste,s of /.15 and note do-n the corres,ondin( "
B
.
e,eat the a4o)e ,rocedure for 1/5, 155.
11. %'ot the (ra,h 5
BE
5s "
B
for a constant 5
CE
.
12. Find the h ,arameters.
OUTPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
"t is the cur)e 4et-een co''ector current "
C
and co''ector:4ase )o'ta(e 5
CB
at
constant emitter current "
E.
.. Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
1/. Set "
B
=2/#, )ar& 5
CE
in ste,s of 15 and note do-n the corres,ondin( "
C
.
e,eat the a4o)e ,rocedure for 4/#, +/#, etc.
11. %'ot the (ra,h 5
CE
5s "
C
for a constant "
B
.
12. Find the h ,arameters
TABULAR COLUMN*
INPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 123
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
10 .
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
1.
5
EB
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
S.N'. V
CB
3 V V
CB
3 V V
CB
3 V
V
EB
(V)
I
E
(A)
V
EB
(V)
I
E
(A)
V
EB
(V)
I
E
(A)
OUTPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
S.N'. I
E
3 ,A I
E
3 ,A I
E
3 ,A
V
CB
(V)
I:
(,A)
V
CB
(V)
I:
(,A)
V
CB
(V)
I:
(,A)
MODEL 9RAP(*
INPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
"
C
7m#8
5
CB1
"
E2
5
CB2
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 124
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
"
E1
5
EB1
5
EB2
5
EB
758
OUTPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
"
C
7m#8 "
E3
"
C2
"
E2
"
C1
"
E1
5
CB1
5
CB2
5
CB
758
RESULT*
The transistor characteristics of a Common Base 7CB8 confi(uration -ere
,'otted and uses studied.
E&.N'.!:
C(ARACTERISTICS OF CC CONFI9URATION USIN9 B)T
AIM*
To ,'ot the transistor characteristics of CE confi(uration.
APPARATUS RE+UIRED* COMPONENTS RE+UIRED*
S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0. S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
1 .%.S 7/:3/85 2 1 Transistor BC 1/* 1
2 #mmeter
7/J3/8m# 1 2 esistor 1< 2
7/J25/8L# 1 3
Bread
Board
1
3 5o'tmeter
7/J3/85 1 4 6ires
7/J585 1
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 125
Bottom 5ie- BC1/*
S,ecificationA BC1/*>5/5>/.1#,/.36,3//;@z
#
-#
#
#
-#
#
# -#
(0-30)mA
(0-250)(A
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
T(EORY*
# BJT is a three termina' t-o J 2unction semiconductor de)ice in -hich the
conduction is due to 4oth the char(e carrier. @ence it is a 4i,o'ar de)ice and it
am,'ifier the sine -a)eform as the& are transferred from in,ut to out,ut. BJT is
c'assified into t-o t&,es J 1%1 or %1%. # 1%1 transistor consists of t-o 1 t&,es
in 4et-een -hich a 'a&er of % is sand-iched. The transistor consists of three
termina' emitter, co''ector and 4ase. The emitter 'a&er is the source of the char(e
carriers and it is hearti'& do,ed -ith a moderate cross sectiona' area. The
co''ector co''ects the char(e carries and hence moderate do,in( and 'ar(e cross
sectiona' area. The 4ase re(ion acts a ,ath for the mo)ement of the char(e
carriers. "n order to reduce the recom4ination of ho'es and e'ectrons the 4ase
re(ion is 'i(ht'& do,ed and is of ho''o- cross sectiona' area. 1orma''& the
transistor o,erates -ith the EB 2unction for-ard 4iased.
"n transistor, the current is same in 4oth 2unctions, -hich indicates that
there is a transfer of resistance 4et-een the t-o 2unctions. 0ne to this fact the
transistor is <no-n as transfer resistance of transistor.
PIN DIA9RAM*
B
E C
CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*

Department of electrical and electronics engineering 12+
A
A
$
1 .
(0-30)$
(0-30)$
1 .
#
-#
-#
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
PROCEDURE*
INPUT C(ARECTERISTICS*
*. Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
+. Set 5
CE
, )ar& 5
BE
in re(u'ar inter)a' of ste,s and note do-n the
corres,ondin( "
B
readin(. e,eat the a4o)e ,rocedure for different )a'ues
of 5
CE
.
.. %'ot the (ra,hA 5
BC
5s "
B
for a constant 5
CE
.
OUTPUT C(ARECTERISTICS*
*. Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
+. Set "
B,
5ar& 5
CE
in re(u'ar inter)a' of ste,s and note do-n the
corres,ondin( "
C
readin(. e,eat the a4o)e ,rocedure for different )a'ues
of "
B
.
.. %'ot the (ra,hA 5
CE
5s "
C
for a constant "
B
.
MODEL 9RAP(*
INPUT C(ARACTERISTICS* OUTPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
(A) (,A)
I
B
I
"
V
CE
3 V
CE
35V I
B
3?A
I
B
35A

I
B
3!A
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 12)
$
#
-#
(0-30)$
(0-30)$
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
V
BC
(V) V
CE
(V)
TABULAR COLUMN*
INPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
V
CE
31V V
CE
3!V
V
BC
(V) I
B
(@A) V
BC
(V) I
B
(@A)
OUTPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
I
B
3!A I
B
35A
V
CE
(V) I
E
(,A) V
CE
(V) I
E
(,A)
RESULT*
The transistor characteristics of a Common Emitter 7CC8 confi(uration
-ere ,'otted.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 12,
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
E&.N'.3
C(ARACTERISTICS OF )UNCTION FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR
AIM*
To %'ot the characteristics of (i)en FET 3 determine r
d,
(
m,
, "
!SS
,5
%
.
APPARATUS RE+UIRED* COMPONENTS RE+UIRED*
S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0. S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
1 .%.S 7/:3/85 2 1
FET BF61/
1
2 #mmeter 7/J3/8m# 1 2 esistor
1<
$+F
1
1
3 5o'tmeter
7/J3/85 1 3
Bread
Board
1
7/:1/85 1 4 6ires
T(EORY*
FET is a )o'ta(e o,erated de)ice. "t has (ot 3 termina's. The& are Source,
!rain 3 Cate. 6hen the (ate is 4iased ne(ati)e -ith res,ect to the source, the
,n 2unctions are re)erse 4iased 3 de,'etion re(ions are formed. The channe' is
more 'i(ht'& do,ed than the , t&,e (ate, so the de,'etion re(ions ,enetrate
dee,'& in to the channe'. The resu't is that the channe' is narro-ed, its resistance
is increased, 3 "
!
is reduced. 6hen the ne(ati)e 4ias )o'ta(e is further increased,
the de,'etion re(ions meet at the center 3 "
!
is cutoff com,'ete'&.
PROCEDURE*
DRAIN C(ARACTERISTICS*
11.
Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
12.
Set the (ate )o'ta(e 5
CS
= /5.
13.
5ar& 5
!S
in ste,s of 1 5 3 note do-n the corres,ondin( "
!.
14.
e,eat the same ,rocedure for 5
CS
= :15.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 12-

+
(0-30)V
68K
$
+
(0-30)V
(0-30)V
1k
(0-30mA)
D
G
S
BFW10
-
+
(0-10)V
$
A
$
-
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
15.
%'ot the (ra,h 5
!S
5s "
!
for constant 5
CS
.
OBSERVATIONS
B. d.c 7static8 drain resistance, r
! =
5
!S
>"
!
.
E. a.c 7d&namic8 drain resistance, r
d
= V
DS
4I
D
.
F. 0,en source im,edance, M
0S
= 1> r
d
.
TRANSFER C(ARACTERISTICS*
11.
Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
12.
Set the drain )o'ta(e 5
!S
= 5 5.
13.
5ar& the (ate )o'ta(e 5
CS
in ste,s of 15 3 note do-n the corres,ondin( "
!.
14.
e,eat the same ,rocedure for 5
!S
= 1/5.
15.
%'ot the (ra,h 5
CS
5s "
!
for constant 5
!S.
FET PARAMETER CALCULATION*
!rain esistancd rd = GS
D
DS
V
I
V


Transconductance (
m
= DS
GS
D
V
V
I

#m,'ification factor I=rd . (m


CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*

Department of electrical and electronics engineering 130
*
D

(
m
A
)
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
PIN DIA9RAM*
BOTTOM VIE1 OF BF11*
SPECIFICATION*
5o'ta(e A 3/5, "
!SS
N +m#.
MODEL 9RAP(*
DRAIN C(ARACTERISTICS*

TRANSFER C(ARACTERISTICS*
"
!
7m#8


5
!S
=Const
5
CS
758
TABULAR COLUMN*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 131
0
V
GS
= 0V
V
GS
= -1V
V
GS
= -2V
$3' 4 -3$
$D' (volts)
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
DRAIN C(ARACTERISTICS*
V
9S
3 V V
9S
3 81V
V
DS
(V) I
D
(,A) V
DS
(V) I
D
(,A)
TRANSFER C(ARACTERISTICS*
RESULT*
Thus the !rain 3
Transfer characteristics of
(i)en FET is %'otted.

d =
(
m =


=
"
!SS
=
%inch off )o'ta(e 5
%
=
E&.N'.5
C(ARACTERISTICS OF UNI)UNCTION TRANSISTOR
AIM*
To %'ot the characteristics of UJT 3 determine itEs intrinsic standoff
atio.
APPARATUS RE+UIRED* COMPONENTS RE+UIRED*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering
V
DS
35#'<0% V
DS
3 1#'<0%
V
9S
(V) I
D
(,A) V
9S
(V) I
D
(,A)
132
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
S.
N'.
Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
S.
N'.
Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
1 .%.S 7/:3/85 2 1
UJT 212$4$
1
2 #mmeter 7/J3/8m# 1
2 esistor 1F 2
3
Bread
Board
1
3 5o'tmeter
7/J3/85 1
7/J1/85 1
T(EORY*
UJT7!ou4'e 4ase diode8 consists of a 4ar of 'i(ht'& do,ed n:t&,e si'icon
-ith a sma'' ,iece of hea)i'& do,ed % t&,e materia' 2oined to one side. "t has (ot
three termina's. The& are Emitter7E8, Base17B18,Base27B28.Since the si'icon 4ar
is 'i(ht'& do,ed, it has a hi(h resistance 3 can 4e re,resented as t-o resistors,
r
B1
3 r
B2
. 6hen 5
B1B2
= /, a sma'' increase in 5
E
for-ard 4iases the emitter
2unction. The resu'tant ,'ot of 5
E
3 "
E
is sim,'& the characteristics of for-ard
4iased diode -ith resistance. "ncreasin( 5
EB1
reduces the emitter 2unction
re)erse 4ias. 6hen 5
EB1
= 5r
B1
there is no for-ard or re)erse 4ias. 3 "
E
= /.
"ncreasin( 5
EB1
4e&ond this ,oint 4e(ins to for-ard 4ias the emitter 2unction. #t
the ,ea< ,oint, a sma'' for-ard emitter current is f'o-in(. This current is termed
as ,ea< current7 "
%
8. Unti' this ,oint UJT is said to 4e o,eratin( in cutoff re(ion.
6hen "
E
increases 4e&ond ,ea< current the de)ice enters the ne(ati)e
resistance re(ion. "n -hich the resistance r
B1
fa''s ra,id'& 3 5
E
fa''s to the )a''e&
)o'ta(e.5). #t this ,oint "
E
= "). # further increase of "
E
causes the de)ice to enter
the saturation re(ion.

PROCEDURE*
11.
Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
12.
Set 5
B1B2
= /5, )ar& 5
EB1
, 3 note do-n the readin(s of "
E
3 5
EB1
13.
Set 5
B1B2
= 1/5 , )ar& 5
EB1
, 3 note do-n the readin(s of "
E
3 5
EB1
14.
%'ot the (ra,h A "
E
5ersus 5
EB1
for constant 5
B1B2
.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 133
12
E
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
15.
Find the intrinsic standoff ratio.
CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*









PIN DIA9RAMA
BOTTOM VIE1 OF !N!?5?*


SPECIFICATION FOR !N!?5?*
O "nter 4ase resistance
BB
= 4.* to ..1 F
O ;inimum 5a''e& current = 4 m#
O ;a9imun %ea< ,oint emitter current 5 #
O;a9imum emitter re)erse current 12 #.
FORMULA FOR INTRINSIC STANDOFF RATIO*
= 5
%
: 5
!
> 5
B1B2
., -here 5
!
= /.*5.
MODEL 9RAP(*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 134
12
(0-30)$
(0-30)$
(0-30)$
1.2
1.2
(0-30)$
(0-30)mA
$
$
A
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
%ea< ,oint
5
%
"
%
1e(ati)e resistance re(ion
5
EB1
758
5a''e& ,oint 5
B1B2
= 5
5
B1B2
= /5
"
5
"
E
7m#8
TABULAR COLUMN*
V
B1B!
3 V V
B1B!
3 1V
V
EB1
(V) I
E
(,A) V
EB1
(V) I
E
(,A)

PROCEDURE*
.. Ci)e the circuit connections as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
1/. The dc in,ut )o'ta(e is set to 2/ 5 in %S.
11. The out,ut s-ee, -a)eform is measured usin( C0.
12. The (ra,h of out,ut s-ee, -a)eform is ,'otted
RESULT*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 135
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
1. Thus the characteristics of (i)en UJT -as %'otted 3 its intrinsic standoff
atio = ::::.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 13+
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
E&.N'.5
C(ARACTERISTICS OF P(OTO8DIODE AND
P(OTOTRANSISTOR
AIM*
1. To stud& the characteristics of a ,hoto:diode.
2. To stud& the characteristics of ,hototransistor.
APPARATUS RE+UIRED* COMPONENTS RE+UIRED*
S.
N'.
Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
S.
N'.
Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
1 .%.S 7/:3/85 1 1
%hoto
diode
1
2 #mmeter 7/J3/8m# 1
2 esistor 1F 2
3
Bread
Board
1
3 5o'tmeter 7/J3/85 1 4
%hoto
transistor
1
T(EORY*
P(OTODIODE*
# ,hoto diode is a t-o termina' ,n 2unction de)ice, -hich o,erates on
re)erse 4ias. 0n re)erse 4iasin( a ,n 2unction diode, there resu'ts a constant
current due to minorit& char(e carriers <no-n as re)erse saturation current.
"ncreasin( the therma''& (enerated minorit& carriers 4& a,,'&in( e9terna' ener(&,
i.e., either heat or 'i(ht ener(& at the 2unction can increase this current. 6hen -e
a,,'& 'i(ht ener(& as an e9terna' source, it resu'ts in a ,hoto diode that is usua''&
,'aced in a ('ass ,ac<a(e so that 'i(ht can reach the 2unction. "nitia''& -hen no
'i(ht is incident, the current is on'& the re)erse saturation current that f'o-s
throu(h the re)erse 4iased diode. This current is termed as the dar< current of
the ,hoto diode. 1o- -hen 'i(ht is incident on the ,hoto diode then the therma''&
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 13)
(0-30)mA
(0-30)$
(0-30)$
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
(enerated carriers increase resu'tin( in an increased re)erse current -hich is
,ro,ortiona' to the intensit& of incident 'i(ht. # ,hoto diode can turn on and off at
a faster rate and so it is used as a fast actin( s-itch.
CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*
TABULAR COLUMN*
MODEL 9RAP(*
T(EORY*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering
S.N'. VOLTA9E
(In V'<0%)
CURRENT
(In ,A)
%
(.)
*llumination lm5m
2
13,
1.
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
*"
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
P(OTOTRANSISTOR*
"t is a transistor -ith an o,en 4aseP there e9ists a sma'' co''ector current
consistin( of therma''& ,roduced minorit& carriers and surface 'ea<a(e. B&
e9,osin( the co''ector 2unction to 'i(ht, a manufacturer can ,roduce a
,hototransistor, a transistor that has more sensiti)it& to 'i(ht than a ,hoto diode.
Because the 4ase 'ead is o,en, a'' the re)erse current is forced into the 4ase of
the transistor. The resu'tin( co''ector current is "
Ceo
=
dc
"
r
. The main difference
4et-een a ,hototransistor and a ,hotodiode is the current (ain,
dc
. The same
amount of 'i(ht stri<in( 4oth de)ices ,roduces
dc
times more current in a
,hototransistor than in a ,hotodiode.
CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*
TABULAR COLUMN* SYMBOL*
E
MODEL 9RAP(*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering
S. N'. V
CE
($n V'<0%)
I
C
($n ,A)
13-
6 & 6
1F
7/:3/58
C
400 7u8
200 7u8
0 7u8
$"E($)
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab






PROCEDURE*
P(OTO DIODE*
11. i( u, the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
12. ;aintain a <no-n distance 7sa& 5 cm8 4et-een the !C 4u'4 and
the ,hoto diode.
13. Set the )o'ta(e of the 4u'4 7sa&, 258, )ar& the )o'ta(e of the diode
inste,s of 15 and note do-n the corres,ondin( diode current, "
r
.
14. e,eat the a4o)e ,rocedure for the )arious )o'ta(es of !C 4u'4.
15. %'ot the (ra,hA 5
!
vs. "
r
for a constant !C 4u'4 )o'ta(e.
P(OTOTRANSISTOR*
11. i( u, the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
12. ;aintain a <no-n distance 7sa& 5 cm8 4et-een the !C 4u'4 and the
,hototransistor.
13. Set the )o'ta(e of the 4u'4 7sa&, 258, )ar& the )o'ta(e of the diode
in ste,s of 15 and note do-n the corres,ondin( diode current, "
r
.
14. e,eat the a4o)e ,rocedure for the )arious )a'ues of !C 4u'4.
15. %'ot the (ra,hA 5
!
vs. "
r
for a constant 4u'4 )o'ta(e.
RESULT*
Thus the characteristics of ,hoto diode and ,hototransistor are studied.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 140
(mA)
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
E&.N'.?
C(ARACTERISTICS OF T(ERMISTOR
AIM*
To stud& the characteristics of Thermistor.
T(EORY*
Thermistor or Therma' resistor is t-o J termina' semiconductor de)ice
-hose resistance is tem,erature sensiti)e. The )a'ue of such resistors decreases
-ith increase in tem,erature. ;ateria's em,'o&ed in the manufacture of the
thermistors inc'ude o9ides of co4a't, nic<e', co,,er, iron uranium and
man(anese.
The thermistors has )er& hi(h tem,erature coefficient of resistance, of the
order of 3 to 5Q ,er C, ma<in( it an idea' tem,erature transducer. The
tem,erature coefficient of resistance is norma''& ne(ati)e. The reistance at an&
tem,erature T, is (i)en a,,ro9imate'& 4&

T
=
o
e9, R 71>T J 1>T
o
8
6here
T
= thermistor resistance at tem,erature T 7F8,
0
= thersmistor
resistance at tem,erature T
o
7F8, and = a constant determined 4& ca'i4ration.
#t hi(h tem,eratures, this eBuation reduces to

T
=
o
e9, 7 R>T8
The resistance J tem,erature characteristics is sho-n in Fi( 21.1/. The
cur)e is non J 'inear and the dro, in resistance from 5/// to 1/ occurs for an
increase in tem,erature from 2/ to 1// C. The tem,erature of the de)ice can
4e chan(ed interna''& or e9terna''&. #n increase in current throu(h the de)ice -i''
raise its tem,erature carr&in( a dro, in its termina' resistance. #n& e9terna''&
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 141
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
heat source -i'' resu't in an increase in its 4od& tem,erature and dro, in
resistance this t&,e action 7interna' or e9terna'8 'ends itse'f -e'' to contro'
mechanism.
Three usefu' ,arameters for characterizin( the thermistor are the time
constant, dissi,ation constant , and resistance ratio. The time constant is the
time for a thermistor to chan(e its resistance 4& $3Q of its initia' )a'ue, for zero J
,o-er dissi,ation. T&,ica' )a'ues of time constant ran(e from 1 to 5/ s.
SYMBOL*
MODEL 9RAP(*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering
%
(-cm)
9 (deg)
142
9
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
The dissi,ation factor is the ,o-er necessar& to increase the tem,erature
of a thermistor 4& 1SC. T&,ica' )a'ues of dissi,ation factor ran(e from 1 to 1/
m6>SC.
esistance ratio is the ratio of the resistance at 25 SC. "ts ran(e is
a,,ro9imate'&
3 J $/.
Thermistors are used measure tem,erature, f'o- ,ressure, 'iBuid 'e)e',
)o'ta(e or ,o-er 'e)e', )acuum, com,osition of (ases and therma' conducti)it&
and a'so in com,ensation net-or<.
RESULT*
Thus the Characteristics of thermistor -as studied.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 143
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
E&.N'.Ba
SIN9LE P(ASE (ALF 1AVE RECTIFIER
AIM*
To construct a @a'f -a)e rectifier usin( diode and to dra- its ,erformance
characteristics.
APPARATUS RE+UIRED* COMPONENTS
RE+UIRED*
S.
N'.
Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
S.
N'.
Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
1 Transformer 23/>7$:/:$85 1
1
!iode "14//1
1
2 .%.S 7/:3/85 2
3 #mmeter
7/J3/8m# 1 2 esistor 1F 1
7/J25/8L# 1 3
Bread
Board
1
4 5o'tmeter
7/J3/85 1 4 Ca,acitor 1//Lf 1
7/J285 1 5 C0 1
FORMULAE*
1IT(OUT FILTER*
7i8 5
rms
= 5
m
> 2
7ii8 5
dc
= 5
m
>
7iii8 i,,'e Factor= 75
rms
> 5
dc
8
2
J 1
7i)8 Efficienc& = 75
dc
> 5
rms
8
2
9 1//
1IT( FILTER*
7i8 5
rms
= 75
rms
E2
K 5
dc
2
8
7ii8 5
rmsE
= 5
r,,
> 73 9 28
7iii8 5
dc
= 5
m J
5
r,,
> 2
7i)8 i,,'e Factor= 5
rmsE>
5
dc
PROCEDURE*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 144
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
1IT(OUT FILTER*
.. Ci)e the connections as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
1/. Ci)e 23/), 5/@H ">% to the ste, do-n TF -here secondar& connected to
the ectifier ">%.
11. Ta<e the rectifier out,ut across the Toad.
12. %'ot its ,erformance (ra,h.
1IT( FILTER*
1. Ci)e the connections as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
1/. Ci)e 23/), 5/@H ">% to the ste, do-n TF -here secondar& connected to
the ectifier ">%.
11. Connect the Ca,acitor across the Toad.
12. Ta<e the rectifier out,ut across the Toad.
13. %'ot its ,erformance (ra,h.
CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 145
1 9ransformer
230 $ 5 +$
16 400)
1.
100: 1 230$
50;<
A" suppl=
C0
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
TABULAR COLUMN*
1IT(OUT FILTER*
5
m
5
rms
5
dc
i,,'e factor Efficienc&
1IT( FILTER*
5
rms
5
r,,
5
dc
i,,'e factor Efficienc&
MODEL 9RAP(*
RESULT*
Thus the ,erformance characteristics of 1 @a'f -a)e rectifier -as o4tained.
E&.N'.B=
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 14+
V
in

($olts)
t !s"
V
o
($olts)
t !s"
t !s"
V
o
($olts)
1$0C'D0
F$<0"2
1$0C
F$<0"2
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
SIN9LE P(ASE FULL 1AVE RECTIFIER
AIM*
To construct a Fu'' -a)e rectifier usin( diode and to dra- its ,erformance
characteristics.
APPARATUS RE+UIRED* COMPONENTS
RE+UIRED*
S.
N'.
Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
S.
N'.
Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
1 Transformer 23/>7$:/:$85 1
1
!iode "14//1
2
2 .%.S 7/:3/85 2
3 #mmeter
7/J3/8m# 1 2 esistor 1F 1
7/J25/8L# 1 3
Bread
Board
1
4 5o'tmeter
7/J3/85 1 4 Ca,acitor 1//Lf 1
7/J285 1 5 C0 1
FORMULAE*
1IT(OUT FILTER*
7i8 5
rms
= 5
m
> 2
7ii8 5
dc
= 25
m
>
7iii8 i,,'e Factor= 75
rms
> 5
dc
8
2
J 1
7i)8 Efficienc& = 75
dc
> 5
rms
8
2
9 1//
1IT( FILTER*
7i8 5
rms
= 5
r,,
>72O 38
7ii8 5
dc
= 5
m J
5
r,,

7i)8 i,,'e Factor= 5
rmsE>
5
dc
PROCEDURE*
1IT(OUT FILTER*
.. Ci)e the connections as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 14)
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
1/. Ci)e 23/), 5/@H ">% to the ste, do-n TF -here secondar& connected
to the ectifier ">%.
11. Ta<e the rectifier out,ut across the Toad.
12. %'ot its ,erformance (ra,h.
1IT( FILTER*
1. Ci)e the connections as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
1/. Ci)e 23/), 5/@H ">% to the ste, do-n TF -here secondar& connected to
the ectifier ">%.
11. Connect the Ca,acitor across the Toad.
12. Ta<e the rectifier out,ut across the Toad.
13. %'ot its ,erformance (ra,h.

CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 14,
16 400)
1.
100:
1 230$
50;<
A" suppl=
C0
16 400)
1 9ransformer
230 $ 5 +$
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
TABULAR COLUMN*
1IT(OUT FILTER*
5
m
5
rms
5
dc
i,,'e factor Efficienc&
1IT( FILTER*
5
rms
5
r,,
5
dc
i,,'e factor Efficienc&
MODEL 9RAP( *
RESULT* Thus the ,erformance characteristics of 1 Fu'' -a)e rectifier -ere
o4tained.
E&.N'.E
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 14-
V
in

($olts)
t !s"
V
o
($olts)
t !s"
t !s"
V
o
($olts)
1$0C'D0 F$<0"2
1$0C F$<0"2
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER
AIM*
To construct a !ifferentia' am,'ifier in Common mode 3 !ifferentia' mode
confi(uration and to find common mode re2ection ratio.
APPARATUS RE+UIRED* COMPONENTS RE+UIRED*
A//a2a0D% Ran-" +0.
1 %S 7/:3/85 1
2 C0 1
3
Si(na'
Cenerator
1
4 !CB 2
5 !B 2
T(EORY*

The !ifferentia' am,'ifier circuit is an e9treme'& ,o,u'ar connection used in
"C units. The circuit has se,arate in,uts , t-o se,arate out,uts and emitters are
connected to(ether. "f the same in,ut is a,,'ied to 4oth in,uts, the o,eration is
ca''ed common mode. "n dou4'e ended o,eration t-o in,ut si(na's are a,,'ied ,
the difference of the in,uts resu'tin( in out,uts from 4oth co''ectors due to the
difference of the si(na's a,,'ied to 4oth the in,uts. The main feature of the
differentia' am,'ifier is the )er& 'ar(e (ain -hen o,,osite si(na's are a,,'ied to
in,uts as com,ared to sma'' si(na' resu'tin( from common in,ut. The ratio of this
difference (ain to the common (ain is ca''ed common mode re2ection ratio.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering
S.N' I0", T./" Ran-" +0.
1 Transistor BC1/* 1
2 Ca,acitor 4*/F 1
3 esistor
3..FU
3.3FU
1
1
4 Bread 4oard 1
150
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*
DIFFERENTIAL MODE*
COMMON MODE*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 151
3>3 .
3>-.
$
o
1 $
o
2
$1
12$
$2
13$
3>-.
--$
-$
3>3 .
3>-.
$
o
1 $
o
2
$
2
13$
3>-.
--$
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
PROCEDURE*
DIFFERENTIAL MODE*
.. Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
1/. Set 5
1
= 5/m) and 5
2
=55m) usin( the si(na' (enerator.
11. Find the corres,ondin( out,ut )o'ta(es across 5
/1
3 5
/2
usin( C0
12. Ca'cu'ate common mode re2ection ratio usin( the (i)en formu'a.
COMMON MODE*
.. Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
1/. Set 5
1
= 5/m) usin( the si(na' (enerator.
11. Find the out,ut )o'ta(e across 5
o
usin( mu'timeter.
12. Ca'cu'te common mode re2ection ratio usin( the (i)en formu'a.
CALCULATION*
Common mode re2ection ratio7C;8 = #
d
> #
c
#
d
= !ifferentia' mode (ain
#
c
= Common mode (ain
6here #
d
= 5
o
>5
d

5
o
= 0ut,ut )o'ta(e measured across C0
5
d
= 5
1
J 5
2
, 5
1
, 5
2
J in,ut )o'ta(e a,,'ied.
#
c
= 5
o
>5c
5
c
= 75
1
K 5
2
8>2
DIFFERENTIAL MODE*
5
1
=
5
2
=
0ut,ut )o'ta(e =
5
d
= 5
1
:5
2
=
#
d
=5
o
>5
d
=
RESULT* Thus the differentia' am,'ifier -as constructed in common mode
and !ifferentia' mode confi(uration. Further common mode re2ection ratio -as
found
E#$. N%: 1&
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 152
COMMON MODE*
"n,ut )o'ta(e =
0ut,ut )o'ta(e =
5
1
=5
2
=
5
c
=75
1
K5
2
8>2 =
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
PASSIVE FILTERS
A'!:
9o attenuate un?anted fre@uenc= components from input signal b= using resistor
and capacitor>
A$$()(t*s )+,*')+-:
S.N'
N(!+ %. t/+ ($$()(t*s R(01+ T2$+ 3*(0t't2
1> 'ignal 3enerator 01
2> %esistor 01
3> "apacitor "eramic 01
4> "%A 01
5> 1readboard 01
T/+%)2:
A filter is an A" circuit tBat separates some fre@uencies from otBer in
?itBin mi8ed 0 fre@uenc= signals> Audio equalizers and crossover networks are
t?o ?ell-Cno?n applications of filter circuits> A Bode plot is a grapB plotting
?aveform amplitude or pBase on one a8is and fre@uenc= on tBe otBer>
A lo?-pass filter allo?s for eas= passage of lo?-fre@uenc= signals from
source to load and difficult passage of BigB-fre@uenc= signals> "apacitor lo?-pass
filters insert a resistor in series and a capacitor in parallel ?itB tBe load as sBo?n
in tBe circuit diagram> 9Be former filter design tries to DblocCE tBe un?anted
fre@uenc= signal ?Bile tBe latter tries to sBort it out>
9Be cutoff frequency for a lo?-pass filter is tBat fre@uenc= at ?BicB tBe
output (load) voltage e@uals )0>)F of tBe input ('ource) voltage> Above tBe cutoff
fre@uenc= tBe output voltage is lo?er tBan )0>)F of tBe input and vice-versa> 'ee
tBe circuit diagram
1
:
cutoff
4 ----------
2%"
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 153
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
A BigB-pass filter allo?s for eas= passage of BigB-fre@uenc= signals from source to
load and difficult passage of lo?-fre@uenc= signals> "apacitor BigB-pass filters
insert a capacitor in series ?itB tBe load as sBo?n in tBe circuit diagram> 9Be
former filter design tries to DbricCE tBe un?anted fre@uenc= signal ?Bile tBe latter
tries to sBort it out>
9Be cutoff fre@uenc= for a BigB-pass filter is tBat fre@uenc= at ?BicB tBe
output (load) voltage e@uals )0>)F of tBe input (source) voltage> Above tBe cutoff
fre@uenc= tBe output voltage is greater tBan )0>)F of tBe input and vice-versa>
1
:
cutoff
4 ----------
2%"
A band 0 pass filter ?orCs to screen out fre@uencies tBat are too lo? or too
BigB giving eas= passage onl= to fre@uencies ?itBin a certain range> 'tacCing a
lo?-pass filter on tBe end of a BigB-pass filter or vice-versa can maCe band-pass
filters> %efer tBe circuit diagrams
:ig> )>+
DAttenuateE means to reduce or diminisB in amplitude> GBen =ou
turn do?n tBe volume control on =our stereo =ou are DattenuatingE tBe signal
being sent to tBe speaCers>
A band-stop filter ?orCs to screen out fre@uencies tBat are ?itBin a certain
range giving eas= passage onl= to fre@uencies outside of tBat range> Also Cno?n
as band-elimination band-reHect or notcB filters>
&lacing a lo?-pass filter in parallel ?itB a BigB-pass filter can maCe band-
stop filters> "ommonl= botB tBe lo?-pass and BigB-pass filter sections are of tBe
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 154
'ignal
input
7o?-pass filter ;igB-pass filter 'ignal
output
1locCs fre@uencies
tBat are too BigB
1locCs fre@uencies
tBat are too lo?
'ignal
*nput
7o?-pass filter
;igB-pass filter
'ignal
Autput
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
D9E configuration giving tBe name D9?in-9E to tBe band-stop combination> %efer
tBe fig>)>) )>,a and )>,b>
&asses lo? fre@uencies
&asses BigB fre@uencies
:ig> )>,a
9Be fre@uenc= of ma8imum attenuation is called tBe notcB
fre@uenc=>
4)%5+-*)+:
13> 3ive tBe connections as per circuit diagrams>
14> '?itcB on tBe main>
15> "Bange tBe fre@uenc= from minimum and find tBe output
voltage b= using "%A>
1+> Dra? tBe grapB>
1)> $erif= tBe cut off fre@uenc=>
1,> '?itcB off tBe main>
R+s*6t:
9Bus ?e anal=<e passive filter and various ?aveforms are noted
E#$. N% : 17
STUDY OF CRO AND
4O8ER FACTOR MEASUREMENT USING CRO
A'!:
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 155
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
9o stud= catBode %a= Ascilloscope ("%A) and measurement of po?er factor using
"%A>
A$$()(t*s )+,*')+-:
S.N'
N(!+ %. t/+ ($$()(t*s R(01+ T2$+ 3*(0t't2
1> %esistance 1o8 1
2> "apacitance 1o8 1
3> *nductance 1o8 1
4> :unction 3enerator 1
5> 1read board 1
T/+%)2:
9Be catBode ra= oscilloscope is tBe most versatile measuring instrument
available> Ge can measure follo?ing parameters using tBe "%AI
-> A" or D" voltage>
10> 9ime (t415f)>
11> &Base relationsBip
12> Gaveform calculationI %ise timeJ fall timeJ on timeJ off-time
Distortion etc>
Ge can also measure non-electrical pB=sical @uantities liCe pressure strain
temperature acceleration etc> b= converting into electrical @uantities using
a transducer>
M(9%) :6%5;s:
13> "atBode ra= tube ("%9)
14> $ertical amplifier
15> ;ori<ontal amplifier
1+> '?eep generator
1)> 9rigger circuit
1,> Associated po?er suppl=>
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 15+
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
11. T/+ 5(t/%-+ )(2 t*:+ is tBe Beart of "%A> 9Be "%9 is enclosed in an
evacuated glass envelope to permit tBe electron beam to traverse in tBe
tube easil=> 9Be main functional units of "%A are as follo?s>
Electron gun assembl=
Deflection plate unit
'creen>
1&. V+)t'5(6 A!$6'.'+) is tBe main factor in determining tBe band?idtB and
sensitivit= of an oscilloscope> $ertical sensitivit= is a measure of Bo?
mucB tBe electron beam ?ill be deflected for a specified input signal>
An tBe front panel of tBe oscilloscope one can see a Cnob attacBed to a
rotar= s?itcB labeled volts5division> 9Be rotar= s?itcB is electricall=
connected to tBe input attenuation net?orC> 9Be setting of tBe rotar=
s?itcB indicates ?Bat amplitude signal is re@uired to deflect tBe beam
verticall= b= one division>
13. H%)'<%0t(6 (!$6'.'+) Knder normal mode of operation tBe Bori<ontal
amplifier ?ill amplif= tBe s?eep generator input> GBen tBe "%A is
being used in tBe L-M mode tBe Bori<ontal amplifier ?ill amplif= tBe
signal applied to tBe Bori<ontal input terminal> AltBougB tBe vertical
amplifier musB be able to faitBfull= reproduce lo?-amplitude and BigB
fre@uenc= signal ?itB fast rise-time tBe Bori<ontal amplifier is onl=
re@uired to provide a faitBful reproduction of tBe s?eep signal ?BicB
Bas a relativel= BigB amplitude and slo? rise time>
1=. S>++$ 1+0+)(t%) (0- T)'11+) 5')5*'t 9Bese t?o units form tBe S'10(6
S205/)%0'<(t'%0 *0't %. t/+ CRO.
15. Ass%5'(t+- 4%>+) S*$$62: 9Be input signal ma= come from an e8ternal
source ?Ben tBe trigger selector s?itcB is set to EL9 or from lo?
amplitude A" voltage at line fre@uenc= ?Ben tBe s?itcB is set to 7*6E
or from tBe vertical amplifier ?Ben tBe s?itcB is set to *69> GBen set
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 15)
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
for *69 (internal triggering) tBe trigger circuit receives its inputs from
tBe vertical amplifier>
M(9%) B6%5;s '0 ( 4)(5t'5(6 CRO
A "%A consists of a catBode ra= tube ("%9) and additional control Cnobs>
9Be main parts of a "%9 areI
)> Electron gun assembl=>
,> Deflection plate assembl=>
-> :luorescent screen>
E6+5t)%0 G*0 Ass+!:62: 9Be electron gun assembl= produces a sBarp beam of
electrons ?BicB are accelerated to BigB velocit=> 9Bis focused beam of electrons
striCe tBe fluorescent screen ?itB sufficient energ= to cause a luminous spot on tBe
screen>
D+.6+5t'%0 $6(t+ (ss+!:62: 9Bis part consists of t?o plates in ?BicB one pair of
plates is placed Bori<ontall= and otBer of plates is placed verticall=> 9Be signal
under test is applied to vertical deflecting plates> 9Be Bori<ontal deflection plates
are connected to a built-in ramp generator ?BicB moves tBe luminous spot
periodicall= in a Bori<ontal direction from left to rigBt over tBe screen> 9Bese t?o
deflection plates give stationar= appearance to tBe ?aveform on tBe screen> "%A
operates on voltage> 'ince tBe deflection of tBe electron beam is directl=
proportional to tBe deflecting voltage tBe "%9 ma= be used as a linear measuring
device> 9Be voltage being measured is applied to tBe vertical plates tBrougB an
iterative net?orC ?Bose propagation time corresponds to tBe velocit= of electrons
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 15,
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
tBereb= s=ncBroni<ing tBe voltage applied to tBe vertical plate ?itB tBe velocit= of
tBe beam>
S205/)%0'<(t'%0 %. '0$*t s'10(6: 9Be s?eep generator produces a sa? tootB
?aveform ?BicB is used to s=ncBroni<e tBe applied voltage to obtain a stationar=-
applied signal> 9Bis re@uires tBat tBe time base be operated at a submultiples
fre@uenc= of tBe signal under measurement> *f s=ncBroni<ation is not done tBe
pattern is not stationar= but appears to drift across tBe screen in a random fasBion>
I0t+)0(6 s205/)%0'<(t'%0 9Bis trigger is obtained from tBe time base generator to
s=ncBroni<e tBe signal>
E#t+)0(6 s205/)%0'<(t'%0 An e8ternal trigger source can also be used to
s=ncBroni<e tBe signal being measured>
A*t% T)'11+)'01 M%-+ 9Be time base used in tBis case in a self-oscillating
condition i>e> it gives an output even in tBe absence of an= M-input> 9Be
advantage of tBis mode is tBat tBe beam is visible on tBe screen under all
conditions including tBe <ero input> GBen tBe input e8ceeds a certain magnitude
tBen tBe internal free running oscillator locCs on to tBe fre@uenc=>
4)+5(*t'%0s:
5> 9Be ammeter is connected using tBicC ?ires>
+> GBile reversing ammeter polarit= see to it tBat tBe capacitor is not
discBarged>
O:s+)?(t'%0:
S6.N% T'!+ V%6t(1+ C*))+0t
Knit ('ec) ($olts) (Amps)
R+s*6t: 9Bus ?e stud= about "%A N to measure p>f
CLASS : II YEAR/ III SEMSESTER
SUBJECT CODE : 131351
SUBJECT : ELECTRON DEVICES AND CIRCUITS LAB
BATCH : B&
STAFF IN-CHARGE: M)s. A. SANGARI
DESIGNATION : SENIOR LECTURER
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 15-
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
STAFF CODE : EE5&
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
131351 ELECTRON DEVICES AND CIRCUITS LABORATORY L T P C
(B.E. (EEE), B.E. (E&I) and B.E. (I & C) 3 !
(R"#$%"d)
3*. Characteristics of semiconductor diode and zener diode .
3+. Characteristics of transistor under CE, CB and CC .
3.. Characteristics of FET .
4/. Characteristics of UJT .
41. Characteristics of SC, !"#C and T"#C.
42. %hotodiode, %hototransistor characteristics and stud& of 'i(ht acti)ated
re'a& circuit.
43. Static characteristics of Thermistors.
44. Sin('e ,hase ha'f -a)e and fu'' -a)e rectifiers -ith inducti)e and
ca,aciti)e fi'ters.
45. !ifferentia' am,'ifiers usin( FET.
4$. Stud& of C0.
4*. Series and ,ara''e' resonance circuits.
4+. ea'ization of ,assi)e fi'ters.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 1+0
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
E&.N'.1a
C(ARACTERISTICS OF PN )UNCTION DIODE
AIM*
To stud& the %1 2unction diode characteristics under For-ard 3 e)erse
4ias conditions.
APPARATUS RE+UIRED* COMPONENTS RE+UIRED*
S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0. S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
1 .%.S 1
!iode
2 #mmeter
2 esistor
3
Bread
Board
3 5o'tmeter
4 6ires
T(EORY*
# %1 2unction diode is a t-o termina' 2unction de)ice. "t conducts on'& in
one direction 7on'& on for-ard 4iasin(8.
FOR1ARD BIAS*
0n for-ard 4iasin(, initia''& no current f'o-s due to 4arrier ,otentia'. #s the
a,,'ied ,otentia' e9ceeds the 4arrier ,otentia' the char(e carriers (ain sufficient
ener(& to cross the ,otentia' 4arrier and hence enter the other re(ion. The ho'es,
-hich are ma2orit& carriers in the %:re(ion, 4ecome minorit& carriers on enterin(
the 1:re(ions, and e'ectrons, -hich are the ma2orit& carriers in the 1:re(ion,
4ecome minorit& carriers on enterin( the %:re(ion. This in2ection of ;inorit&
carriers resu'ts in the current f'o-, o,,osite to the direction of e'ectron
mo)ement.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 1+1
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
REVERSE BIAS*
0n re)erse 4iasin(, the ma2orit& char(e carriers are attracted to-ards the
termina's due to the a,,'ied ,otentia' resu'tin( in the -idenin( of the de,'etion
re(ion. Since the char(e carriers are ,ushed to-ards the termina's no current
f'o-s in the de)ice due to ma2orit& char(e carriers. There -i'' 4e some current in
the de)ice due to the therma''& (enerated minorit& carriers. The (eneration of
such carriers is inde,endent of the a,,'ied ,otentia' and hence the current is
constant for a'' increasin( re)erse ,otentia'. This current is referred to as
e)erse Saturation Current 7"
0
8 and it increases -ith tem,erature. 6hen the
a,,'ied re)erse )o'ta(e is increased 4e&ond the certain 'imit, it resu'ts in
4rea<do-n. !urin( 4rea<do-n, the diode current increases tremendous'&.
PROCEDURE*
FOR1ARD BIAS*
13. Connect the circuit as ,er the dia(ram.
14. 5ar& the a,,'ied )o'ta(e 5 in ste,s of /.15.
15. 1ote do-n the corres,ondin( #mmeter readin(s ".
1$. %'ot a (ra,h 4et-een 5 3 "
OBSERVATIONS
1/. Find the d.c 7static8 resistance = 5>".
11. Find the a.c 7d&namic8 resistance r = 5 > " 72 3 V4I) 3
1 2
1 2
I I
V V

.
12. Find the for-ard )o'ta(e dro, = ?@intA it is eBua' to /.* for Si and /.3 for
CeD
REVERSE BIAS*
1?. Connect the circuit as ,er the dia(ram.
1B. 5ar& the a,,'ied )o'ta(e 5 in ste,s of 1./5.
1E. 1ote do-n the corres,ondin( #mmeter readin(s ".
1F. %'ot a (ra,h 4et-een 5 3 "
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 1+2
(0-100)mA !"
#
-#
#
-#
(0-15)$ !"
#
-#
(0-10)$
%&'
(0-500)(A!"
#
-#
#
-#
(0-30)$ !"
#
-#
(0-30)$
%&'
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
!. Find the d&namic resistance 2 3 V 4 I.
FORMULA FOR REVERSE SATURATION CURRENT (I
O
)*
I
'
3 I46"&/(V4V
T
)781
6here 5
T
is the )o'ta(e eBui)a'ent of Tem,erature = <T>B
:< is Bo'tzmannEs constant, B is the char(e of the e'ectron and T is the
tem,erature in de(rees Fe')in.
=1 for Si'icon and 2 for Cermanium

CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*
FOR1ARD BIAS*
REVERSE BIAS*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 1+3
4)0
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
4)0
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
S/":$;$:a0$'n ;'2 1N51* S$<$:'n D$'d"
%ea< "n)erse 5o'ta(eA 5/5
"
dc
= 1#.
;a9imum for-ard )o'ta(e dro, at 1 #m, is 1.1 )o'ts
;a9imum re)erse current G5/ )o'ts is 5#
TABULAR COLUMN*
FOR1ARD BIAS* REVERSE BIAS*
MODEL 9RAP(
*f (mA)
"
2
5
4
"
1
7 5o'ts8 5
1
5
2
5
f
75o'ts8

"
r
7#8
Department of electrical and electronics engineering
S.N'. VOLTA9E
(In V'<0%)
CURRENT
(In ,A)
S..N'. VOLTA9E
(In V'<0%)
CURRENT
(In A)
1+4
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
RESULT*
For-ard and e)erse 4ias characteristics of the %1 2unction diode and the
d&namic resistance under
i8 For-ard 4ias = :::::::::::::::::::::
ii8 e)erse 4ias = ::::::::::::::::::::::.
iii8 e)erse Saturation Current = ::::::::::::::::.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 1+5
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
E&.N'.1=
C(ARACTERISTICS OF >ENER DIODE
AIM*
To determine the 4rea<do-n )o'ta(e of a (i)en zener diode.
APPARATUS RE+UIRED* COMPONENTS RE+UIRED*
S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0. S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
1 .%.S 1
zener
diode
2 #mmeter
2 esistor
3
Bread
Board
3 5o'tmeter
4 6ires
T(EORYA
# ,ro,er'& do,ed cr&sta' diode, -hich has a shar, 4rea<do-n )o'ta(e, is <no-n
as zener diode.
FOR1ARD BIAS*
0n for-ard 4iasin(, initia''& no current f'o-s due to 4arrier ,otentia'. #s the
a,,'ied ,otentia' increases, it e9ceeds the 4arrier ,otentia' at one )a'ue and the
char(e carriers (ain sufficient ener(& to cross the ,otentia' 4arrier and enter the
other re(ion. the ho'es ,-hich are ma2orit& carriers in ,:re(ion, 4ecome minorit&
carriers on enterin( the 1:re(ions and e'ectrons, -hich are the ma2orit& carriers
in the 1:re(ions 4ecome minorit& carriers on enterin( the %:re(ion. This in2ection
of minorit& carriers resu'ts current, o,,osite to the direction of e'ectron
mo)ement.
REVERSE BIAS*
6hen the re)erse 4ias is a,,'ied due to ma2orit& carriers sma'' amount of
current 7ie8 re)erse saturation current f'o-s across the 2unction. #s the re)erse
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 1++
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
4ias is increased to 4rea<do-n )o'ta(e, sudden rise in current ta<es ,'ace due to
zener effect.
>ENER EFFECT*
1orma''&, %1 2unction of Hener !iode is hea)i'& do,ed. !ue to hea)&
do,in( the de,'etion 'a&er -i'' 4e narro-. 6hen the re)erse 4ias is increased the
,otentia' across the de,'etion 'a&er is more. This e9erts a force on the e'ectrons
in the outermost she''. Because of this force the e'ectrons are ,u''ed a-a& from
the ,arent nuc'ei and 4ecome free e'ectrons. This ionization, -hich occurs due to
e'ectrostatic force of attraction, is <no-n as Hener effect. "t resu'ts in 'ar(e
num4er of free carriers, -hich in turn increases the re)erse saturation current
PROCEDURE*
FOR1ARD BIAS*
1. Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
2. 5ar& the ,o-er su,,'& in such a -a& that the readin(s are ta<en in ste,s
of /.15 in the )o'tmeter ti'' the need'e of ,o-er su,,'& sho-s 3/5.
3. 1ote do-n the corres,ondin( ammeter readin(s.
4. %'ot the (ra,h A5 7)s8 ".
5. Find the d&namic resistance 2 3 V 4 I.
REVERSE BIAS*
1F. Connect the circuit as ,er the dia(ram.
!. 5ar& the ,o-er su,,'& in such a -a& that the readin(s are ta<en in ste,s
of /.15 in the )o'tmeter ti'' the need'e of ,o-er su,,'& sho-s 3/5.
!1. 1ote do-n the corres,ondin( #mmeter readin(s ".
!!. %'ot a (ra,h 4et-een 5 3 "
!3. Find the d&namic resistance 2 3 V 4 I.
!5. Find the re)erse )o'ta(e 5r at "z=2/ m#.
CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 1+)
7/:158 5
# -
#
-
#
-
7/:1/8 5
7/:1/8 5, ;C
# -
#
-
#
-
7/:3/8 5
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
FOR1ARD BIAS*

REVERSE BIAS*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 1+,
1
.

a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
4)0
aaaaa
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
(0-10)mA
1
.

a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
1.
aaaaa
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
(0-500)/A !"
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
>ENER DIODE*
"f 7 m#8
"
2
5B "
1
5
r
5
1
5
2
5
f
758 758
"r 7I#8
TABULAR COLUMN*
FOR1ARD BIAS* REVERSE BIAS*
RESULT*
For-ard and e)erse 4ias characteristics of the zener diode -as studied
and
For-ard 4ias d&namic resistance = :::::::::::::::::::::
e)erse 4ias d&namic resistance = ::::::::::::::::::::::
The re)erse )o'ta(e at "z =2/ m# determined from the re)erse
characteristics of the Hener diode is ::::::::::::::::::::::::::.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering
S..N'. VOLTA9E
(In V'<0%)
CURRENT
(In ,A)
S.N'. VOLTA9E
(In V'<0%)
CURRENT
(In A)
1+-
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
E&. N'. !a
C(ARACTERISTICS OF CE CONFI9URATION USIN9 B)T
AIM*
To ,'ot the transistor characteristics of CE confi(uration.
APPARATUS RE+UIRED* COMPONENTS RE+UIRED*
S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0. S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
1 .%.S 1 Transistor
2 #mmeter
2 esistor
3
Bread
Board
3 5o'tmeter
4 6ires
T(EORY*
# BJT is a three termina' t-o J 2unction semiconductor de)ice in -hich the
conduction is due to 4oth the char(e carrier. @ence it is a 4i,o'ar de)ice and it
am,'ifier the sine -a)eform as the& are transferred from in,ut to out,ut. BJT is
c'assified into t-o t&,es J 1%1 or %1%. # 1%1 transistor consists of t-o 1 t&,es
in 4et-een -hich a 'a&er of % is sand-iched. The transistor consists of three
termina' emitter, co''ector and 4ase. The emitter 'a&er is the source of the char(e
carriers and it is hearti'& do,ed -ith a moderate cross sectiona' area. The
co''ector co''ects the char(e carries and hence moderate do,in( and 'ar(e cross
sectiona' area. The 4ase re(ion acts a ,ath for the mo)ement of the char(e
carriers. "n order to reduce the recom4ination of ho'es and e'ectrons the 4ase
re(ion is 'i(ht'& do,ed and is of ho''o- cross sectiona' area. 1orma''& the
transistor o,erates -ith the EB 2unction for-ard 4iased.
"n transistor, the current is same in 4oth 2unctions, -hich indicates that
there is a transfer of resistance 4et-een the t-o 2unctions. 0ne to this fact the
transistor is <no-n as transfer resistance of transistor.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 1)0
Bottom 5ie- BC1/*
S,ecificationA BC1/*>5/5>/.1#,/.36,3//;@z
7/ J 3/8m#
- #
1 F
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
PROCEDURE*
INPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
1/. Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
11. Set 5
CE
, )ar& 5
BE
in re(u'ar inter)a' of ste,s and note do-n the
corres,ondin( "
B
readin(. e,eat the a4o)e ,rocedure for different )a'ues of
5
CE
.
12. %'ot the (ra,hA 5
BE
5s "
B
for a constant 5
CE
.
OUTPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
1/. Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
11. Set "
B,
5ar& 5
CE
in re(u'ar inter)a' of ste,s and note do-n the
corres,ondin( "
C
readin(. e,eat the a4o)e ,rocedure for different )a'ues
of "
B
.
12. %'ot the (ra,hA 5
CE
5s "
C
for a constant "
B
.
PIN DIA9RAM*
B
E C
CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*

Department of electrical and electronics engineering 1)1
A
A
$
$
(0 0 250) A
10 .
1"10)10
.2
#
-#
#
-#
(0-30)$
#
-#
#
-#
# -#
(0-30)$
(0-30)$
(0-1)$
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab




MODEL 9RAP(*
INPUT C(ARACTERISTICS* OUTPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*







TABULAR COLUMN*
INPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 1)2
"
E"
1"
5
CE
= /5
5
CE
= 55
"
B
(A
mA
5
BE
758
5
CE
758
0
0
"
B
=$/#
"
B
=4/#
"
B
=2/#
*
"
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
V
CE
31V V
CE
3!V
V
BE
(V) I
B
(@A) V
BE
(V) I
B
(@A)
OUTPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
I
B
3!A I
B
35A
V
CE
(V) I
C
(,A) V
CE
(V) I
C
(,A)
RESULT*
The transistor characteristics of a Common Emitter 7CE8
confi(uration -ere ,'otted
E&.N'.!=
C(ARACTERISTICS OF CB CONFI9URATION USIN9 B)T
AIM*
To ,'ot the transistor characteristics of CB confi(uration.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 1)3
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
APPARATUS RE+UIRED* COMPONENTS RE+UIRED*
S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0. S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
1 .%.S 7/:3/85 2 1 Transistor BC 1/* 1
2 #mmeter
7/J1/8m# 1 2 esistor
1/<
1F
1
7/J18# 1 3
Bread
Board
1
3 5o'tmeter
7/J3/85 1 4 6ires
7/J285 1
T(EORY*
"n this confi(uration the 4ase is made common to 4oth the in,ut and out.
The emitter is (i)en the in,ut and the out,ut is ta<en across the co''ector. The
current (ain of this confi(uration is 'ess than unit&. The )o'ta(e (ain of CB
confi(uration is hi(h. !ue to the hi(h )o'ta(e (ain, the ,o-er (ain is a'so hi(h. "n
CB confi(uration, Base is common to 4oth in,ut and out,ut. "n CB confi(uration
the in,ut characteristics re'ate "
E
and 5
EB
for a constant 5
CB
. "nitia''& 'et 5
CB
= /
then the in,ut 2unction is eBui)a'ent to a for-ard 4iased diode and the
characteristics resem4'es that of a diode. 6here 5
CB
= K5
"
7)o'ts8 due to ear'&
effect "
E
increases and so the characteristics shifts to the 'eft. The out,ut
characteristics re'ate "
C
and 5
CB
for a constant "
E
. "nitia''& "
C
increases and then it
'e)e's for a )a'ue "
C
= "
E
. 6hen "
E
is increased "
C
a'so increases ,ro,ortiona'it&.
Thou(h increase in 5
CB
causes an increase in , since is a fraction, it is
ne('i(i4'e and so "
C
remains a constant for a'' )a'ues of 5
CB
once it 'e)e's off.
PIN DIA9RAM*
B
B'00', V$"A BC1B S,ecificationA BC1/*>5/5>/.1#,/.36,3//;@z
E C
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 1)4
(0-30)$
(0-1)mA
#
-#
(0-30)mA
#
-#
#
-#
#
-#
#
-#
(0-2)$ (0-30)$ (0-30)$
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*

:

PROCEDURE*
INPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
"t is the cur)e 4et-een emitter current "
E
and emitter:4ase )o'ta(e 5
BE
at
constant co''ector:4ase )o'ta(e 5
CB.
13. Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
14. Set 5
CE
=55, )ar& 5
BE
in ste,s of /.15 and note do-n the corres,ondin( "
B
.
e,eat the a4o)e ,rocedure for 1/5, 155.
15. %'ot the (ra,h 5
BE
5s "
B
for a constant 5
CE
.
1$. Find the h ,arameters.
OUTPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
"t is the cur)e 4et-een co''ector current "
C
and co''ector:4ase )o'ta(e 5
CB
at
constant emitter current "
E.
13. Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
14. Set "
B
=2/#, )ar& 5
CE
in ste,s of 15 and note do-n the corres,ondin( "
C
.
e,eat the a4o)e ,rocedure for 4/#, +/#, etc.
15. %'ot the (ra,h 5
CE
5s "
C
for a constant "
B
.
1$. Find the h ,arameters
TABULAR COLUMN*
INPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 1)5
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
10 .
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
1.
5
EB
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
S.N'. V
CB
3 V V
CB
3 V V
CB
3 V
V
EB
(V)
I
E
(A)
V
EB
(V)
I
E
(A)
V
EB
(V)
I
E
(A)
OUTPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
S.N'. I
E
3 ,A I
E
3 ,A I
E
3 ,A
V
CB
(V)
I:
(,A)
V
CB
(V)
I:
(,A)
V
CB
(V)
I:
(,A)
MODEL 9RAP(*
INPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
"
C
7m#8
5
CB1
"
E2
5
CB2
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 1)+
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
"
E1
5
EB1
5
EB2
5
EB
758
OUTPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
"
C
7m#8 "
E3
"
C2
"
E2
"
C1
"
E1
5
CB1
5
CB2
5
CB
758
RESULT*
The transistor characteristics of a Common Base 7CB8 confi(uration -ere
,'otted and uses studied.
E&.N'.!:
C(ARACTERISTICS OF CC CONFI9URATION USIN9 B)T
AIM*
To ,'ot the transistor characteristics of CE confi(uration.
APPARATUS RE+UIRED* COMPONENTS RE+UIRED*
S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0. S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
1 .%.S 7/:3/85 2 1 Transistor BC 1/* 1
2 #mmeter
7/J3/8m# 1 2 esistor 1< 2
7/J25/8L# 1 3
Bread
Board
1
3 5o'tmeter
7/J3/85 1 4 6ires
7/J585 1
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 1))
Bottom 5ie- BC1/*
S,ecificationA BC1/*>5/5>/.1#,/.36,3//;@z
#
-#
#
#
-#
#
# -#
(0-30)mA
(0-250)(A
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
T(EORY*
# BJT is a three termina' t-o J 2unction semiconductor de)ice in -hich the
conduction is due to 4oth the char(e carrier. @ence it is a 4i,o'ar de)ice and it
am,'ifier the sine -a)eform as the& are transferred from in,ut to out,ut. BJT is
c'assified into t-o t&,es J 1%1 or %1%. # 1%1 transistor consists of t-o 1 t&,es
in 4et-een -hich a 'a&er of % is sand-iched. The transistor consists of three
termina' emitter, co''ector and 4ase. The emitter 'a&er is the source of the char(e
carriers and it is hearti'& do,ed -ith a moderate cross sectiona' area. The
co''ector co''ects the char(e carries and hence moderate do,in( and 'ar(e cross
sectiona' area. The 4ase re(ion acts a ,ath for the mo)ement of the char(e
carriers. "n order to reduce the recom4ination of ho'es and e'ectrons the 4ase
re(ion is 'i(ht'& do,ed and is of ho''o- cross sectiona' area. 1orma''& the
transistor o,erates -ith the EB 2unction for-ard 4iased.
"n transistor, the current is same in 4oth 2unctions, -hich indicates that
there is a transfer of resistance 4et-een the t-o 2unctions. 0ne to this fact the
transistor is <no-n as transfer resistance of transistor.
PIN DIA9RAM*
B
E C
CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*

Department of electrical and electronics engineering 1),
A
A
$
1 .
(0-30)$
(0-30)$
1 .
#
-#
-#
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
PROCEDURE*
INPUT C(ARECTERISTICS*
1/. Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
11. Set 5
CE
, )ar& 5
BE
in re(u'ar inter)a' of ste,s and note do-n the
corres,ondin( "
B
readin(. e,eat the a4o)e ,rocedure for different )a'ues
of 5
CE
.
12. %'ot the (ra,hA 5
BC
5s "
B
for a constant 5
CE
.
OUTPUT C(ARECTERISTICS*
1/. Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
11. Set "
B,
5ar& 5
CE
in re(u'ar inter)a' of ste,s and note do-n the
corres,ondin( "
C
readin(. e,eat the a4o)e ,rocedure for different )a'ues
of "
B
.
12. %'ot the (ra,hA 5
CE
5s "
C
for a constant "
B
.
MODEL 9RAP(*
INPUT C(ARACTERISTICS* OUTPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
(A) (,A)
I
B
I
"
V
CE
3 V
CE
35V I
B
3?A
I
B
35A

I
B
3!A
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 1)-
$
#
-#
(0-30)$
(0-30)$
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
V
BC
(V) V
CE
(V)
TABULAR COLUMN*
INPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
V
CE
31V V
CE
3!V
V
BC
(V) I
B
(@A) V
BC
(V) I
B
(@A)
OUTPUT C(ARACTERISTICS*
I
B
3!A I
B
35A
V
CE
(V) I
E
(,A) V
CE
(V) I
E
(,A)
RESULT*
The transistor characteristics of a Common Emitter 7CC8 confi(uration
-ere ,'otted.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 1,0
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
E&.N'.3
C(ARACTERISTICS OF )UNCTION FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR
AIM*
To %'ot the characteristics of (i)en FET 3 determine r
d,
(
m,
, "
!SS
,5
%
.
APPARATUS RE+UIRED* COMPONENTS RE+UIRED*
S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0. S.N'. Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
1 .%.S 7/:3/85 2 1
FET BF61/
1
2 #mmeter 7/J3/8m# 1 2 esistor
1<
$+F
1
1
3 5o'tmeter
7/J3/85 1 3
Bread
Board
1
7/:1/85 1 4 6ires
T(EORY*
FET is a )o'ta(e o,erated de)ice. "t has (ot 3 termina's. The& are Source,
!rain 3 Cate. 6hen the (ate is 4iased ne(ati)e -ith res,ect to the source, the
,n 2unctions are re)erse 4iased 3 de,'etion re(ions are formed. The channe' is
more 'i(ht'& do,ed than the , t&,e (ate, so the de,'etion re(ions ,enetrate
dee,'& in to the channe'. The resu't is that the channe' is narro-ed, its resistance
is increased, 3 "
!
is reduced. 6hen the ne(ati)e 4ias )o'ta(e is further increased,
the de,'etion re(ions meet at the center 3 "
!
is cutoff com,'ete'&.
PROCEDURE*
DRAIN C(ARACTERISTICS*
1$.
Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
1*.
Set the (ate )o'ta(e 5
CS
= /5.
1+.
5ar& 5
!S
in ste,s of 1 5 3 note do-n the corres,ondin( "
!.
1..
e,eat the same ,rocedure for 5
CS
= :15.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 1,1

+
(0-30)V
68K
$
+
(0-30)V
(0-30)V
1k
(0-30mA)
D
G
S
BFW10
-
+
(0-10)V
$
A
$
-
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
2/.
%'ot the (ra,h 5
!S
5s "
!
for constant 5
CS
.
OBSERVATIONS
1. d.c 7static8 drain resistance, r
! =
5
!S
>"
!
.
11. a.c 7d&namic8 drain resistance, r
d
= V
DS
4I
D
.
1!. 0,en source im,edance, M
0S
= 1> r
d
.
TRANSFER C(ARACTERISTICS*
1$.
Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
1*.
Set the drain )o'ta(e 5
!S
= 5 5.
1+.
5ar& the (ate )o'ta(e 5
CS
in ste,s of 15 3 note do-n the corres,ondin( "
!.
1..
e,eat the same ,rocedure for 5
!S
= 1/5.
2/.
%'ot the (ra,h 5
CS
5s "
!
for constant 5
!S.
FET PARAMETER CALCULATION*
!rain esistancd rd = GS
D
DS
V
I
V


Transconductance (
m
= DS
GS
D
V
V
I

#m,'ification factor I=rd . (m


CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*

Department of electrical and electronics engineering 1,2
*
D

(
m
A
)
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
PIN DIA9RAM*
BOTTOM VIE1 OF BF11*
SPECIFICATION*
5o'ta(e A 3/5, "
!SS
N +m#.
MODEL 9RAP(*
DRAIN C(ARACTERISTICS*

TRANSFER C(ARACTERISTICS*
"
!
7m#8


5
!S
=Const
5
CS
758
TABULAR COLUMN*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 1,3
0
V
GS
= 0V
V
GS
= -1V
V
GS
= -2V
$3' 4 -3$
$D' (volts)
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
DRAIN C(ARACTERISTICS*
V
9S
3 V V
9S
3 81V
V
DS
(V) I
D
(,A) V
DS
(V) I
D
(,A)
TRANSFER C(ARACTERISTICS*
RESULT*
Thus the !rain 3
Transfer characteristics of
(i)en FET is %'otted.

d =
(
m =


=
"
!SS
=
%inch off )o'ta(e 5
%
=
E&.N'.5
C(ARACTERISTICS OF UNI)UNCTION TRANSISTOR
AIM*
To %'ot the characteristics of UJT 3 determine itEs intrinsic standoff
atio.
APPARATUS RE+UIRED* COMPONENTS RE+UIRED*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering
V
DS
35#'<0% V
DS
3 1#'<0%
V
9S
(V) I
D
(,A) V
9S
(V) I
D
(,A)
1,4
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
S.
N'.
Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
S.
N'.
Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
1 .%.S 7/:3/85 2 1
UJT 212$4$
1
2 #mmeter 7/J3/8m# 1
2 esistor 1F 2
3
Bread
Board
1
3 5o'tmeter
7/J3/85 1
7/J1/85 1
T(EORY*
UJT7!ou4'e 4ase diode8 consists of a 4ar of 'i(ht'& do,ed n:t&,e si'icon
-ith a sma'' ,iece of hea)i'& do,ed % t&,e materia' 2oined to one side. "t has (ot
three termina's. The& are Emitter7E8, Base17B18,Base27B28.Since the si'icon 4ar
is 'i(ht'& do,ed, it has a hi(h resistance 3 can 4e re,resented as t-o resistors,
r
B1
3 r
B2
. 6hen 5
B1B2
= /, a sma'' increase in 5
E
for-ard 4iases the emitter
2unction. The resu'tant ,'ot of 5
E
3 "
E
is sim,'& the characteristics of for-ard
4iased diode -ith resistance. "ncreasin( 5
EB1
reduces the emitter 2unction
re)erse 4ias. 6hen 5
EB1
= 5r
B1
there is no for-ard or re)erse 4ias. 3 "
E
= /.
"ncreasin( 5
EB1
4e&ond this ,oint 4e(ins to for-ard 4ias the emitter 2unction. #t
the ,ea< ,oint, a sma'' for-ard emitter current is f'o-in(. This current is termed
as ,ea< current7 "
%
8. Unti' this ,oint UJT is said to 4e o,eratin( in cutoff re(ion.
6hen "
E
increases 4e&ond ,ea< current the de)ice enters the ne(ati)e
resistance re(ion. "n -hich the resistance r
B1
fa''s ra,id'& 3 5
E
fa''s to the )a''e&
)o'ta(e.5). #t this ,oint "
E
= "). # further increase of "
E
causes the de)ice to enter
the saturation re(ion.

PROCEDURE*
1$.
Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
1*.
Set 5
B1B2
= /5, )ar& 5
EB1
, 3 note do-n the readin(s of "
E
3 5
EB1
1+.
Set 5
B1B2
= 1/5 , )ar& 5
EB1
, 3 note do-n the readin(s of "
E
3 5
EB1
1..
%'ot the (ra,h A "
E
5ersus 5
EB1
for constant 5
B1B2
.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 1,5
12
E
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
2/.
Find the intrinsic standoff ratio.
CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*









PIN DIA9RAMA
BOTTOM VIE1 OF !N!?5?*


SPECIFICATION FOR !N!?5?*
O "nter 4ase resistance
BB
= 4.* to ..1 F
O ;inimum 5a''e& current = 4 m#
O ;a9imun %ea< ,oint emitter current 5 #
O;a9imum emitter re)erse current 12 #.
FORMULA FOR INTRINSIC STANDOFF RATIO*
= 5
%
: 5
!
> 5
B1B2
., -here 5
!
= /.*5.
MODEL 9RAP(*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 1,+
12
(0-30)$
(0-30)$
(0-30)$
1.2
1.2
(0-30)$
(0-30)mA
$
$
A
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
%ea< ,oint
5
%
"
%
1e(ati)e resistance re(ion
5
EB1
758
5a''e& ,oint 5
B1B2
= 5
5
B1B2
= /5
"
5
"
E
7m#8
TABULAR COLUMN*
V
B1B!
3 V V
B1B!
3 1V
V
EB1
(V) I
E
(,A) V
EB1
(V) I
E
(,A)

PROCEDURE*
13. Ci)e the circuit connections as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
14. The dc in,ut )o'ta(e is set to 2/ 5 in %S.
15. The out,ut s-ee, -a)eform is measured usin( C0.
1$. The (ra,h of out,ut s-ee, -a)eform is ,'otted
RESULT*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 1,)
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
1. Thus the characteristics of (i)en UJT -as %'otted 3 its intrinsic standoff
atio = ::::.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 1,,
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
E&.N'.5
C(ARACTERISTICS OF P(OTO8DIODE AND
P(OTOTRANSISTOR
AIM*
1. To stud& the characteristics of a ,hoto:diode.
2. To stud& the characteristics of ,hototransistor.
APPARATUS RE+UIRED* COMPONENTS RE+UIRED*
S.
N'.
Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
S.
N'.
Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
1 .%.S 7/:3/85 1 1
%hoto
diode
1
2 #mmeter 7/J3/8m# 1
2 esistor 1F 2
3
Bread
Board
1
3 5o'tmeter 7/J3/85 1 4
%hoto
transistor
1
T(EORY*
P(OTODIODE*
# ,hoto diode is a t-o termina' ,n 2unction de)ice, -hich o,erates on
re)erse 4ias. 0n re)erse 4iasin( a ,n 2unction diode, there resu'ts a constant
current due to minorit& char(e carriers <no-n as re)erse saturation current.
"ncreasin( the therma''& (enerated minorit& carriers 4& a,,'&in( e9terna' ener(&,
i.e., either heat or 'i(ht ener(& at the 2unction can increase this current. 6hen -e
a,,'& 'i(ht ener(& as an e9terna' source, it resu'ts in a ,hoto diode that is usua''&
,'aced in a ('ass ,ac<a(e so that 'i(ht can reach the 2unction. "nitia''& -hen no
'i(ht is incident, the current is on'& the re)erse saturation current that f'o-s
throu(h the re)erse 4iased diode. This current is termed as the dar< current of
the ,hoto diode. 1o- -hen 'i(ht is incident on the ,hoto diode then the therma''&
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 1,-
(0-30)mA
(0-30)$
(0-30)$
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
(enerated carriers increase resu'tin( in an increased re)erse current -hich is
,ro,ortiona' to the intensit& of incident 'i(ht. # ,hoto diode can turn on and off at
a faster rate and so it is used as a fast actin( s-itch.
CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*
TABULAR COLUMN*
MODEL 9RAP(*
T(EORY*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering
S.N'. VOLTA9E
(In V'<0%)
CURRENT
(In ,A)
%
(.)
*llumination lm5m
2
1-0
1.
a
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
*"
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
P(OTOTRANSISTOR*
"t is a transistor -ith an o,en 4aseP there e9ists a sma'' co''ector current
consistin( of therma''& ,roduced minorit& carriers and surface 'ea<a(e. B&
e9,osin( the co''ector 2unction to 'i(ht, a manufacturer can ,roduce a
,hototransistor, a transistor that has more sensiti)it& to 'i(ht than a ,hoto diode.
Because the 4ase 'ead is o,en, a'' the re)erse current is forced into the 4ase of
the transistor. The resu'tin( co''ector current is "
Ceo
=
dc
"
r
. The main difference
4et-een a ,hototransistor and a ,hotodiode is the current (ain,
dc
. The same
amount of 'i(ht stri<in( 4oth de)ices ,roduces
dc
times more current in a
,hototransistor than in a ,hotodiode.
CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*
TABULAR COLUMN* SYMBOL*
E
MODEL 9RAP(*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering
S. N'. V
CE
($n V'<0%)
I
C
($n ,A)
1-1
6 & 6
1F
7/:3/58
C
400 7u8
200 7u8
0 7u8
$"E($)
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab






PROCEDURE*
P(OTO DIODE*
1$. i( u, the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
1*. ;aintain a <no-n distance 7sa& 5 cm8 4et-een the !C 4u'4 and
the ,hoto diode.
1+. Set the )o'ta(e of the 4u'4 7sa&, 258, )ar& the )o'ta(e of the diode
inste,s of 15 and note do-n the corres,ondin( diode current, "
r
.
1.. e,eat the a4o)e ,rocedure for the )arious )o'ta(es of !C 4u'4.
2/. %'ot the (ra,hA 5
!
vs. "
r
for a constant !C 4u'4 )o'ta(e.
P(OTOTRANSISTOR*
1$. i( u, the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
1*. ;aintain a <no-n distance 7sa& 5 cm8 4et-een the !C 4u'4 and the
,hototransistor.
1+. Set the )o'ta(e of the 4u'4 7sa&, 258, )ar& the )o'ta(e of the diode
in ste,s of 15 and note do-n the corres,ondin( diode current, "
r
.
1.. e,eat the a4o)e ,rocedure for the )arious )a'ues of !C 4u'4.
2/. %'ot the (ra,hA 5
!
vs. "
r
for a constant 4u'4 )o'ta(e.
RESULT*
Thus the characteristics of ,hoto diode and ,hototransistor are studied.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 1-2
(mA)
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
E&.N'.?
C(ARACTERISTICS OF T(ERMISTOR
AIM*
To stud& the characteristics of Thermistor.
T(EORY*
Thermistor or Therma' resistor is t-o J termina' semiconductor de)ice
-hose resistance is tem,erature sensiti)e. The )a'ue of such resistors decreases
-ith increase in tem,erature. ;ateria's em,'o&ed in the manufacture of the
thermistors inc'ude o9ides of co4a't, nic<e', co,,er, iron uranium and
man(anese.
The thermistors has )er& hi(h tem,erature coefficient of resistance, of the
order of 3 to 5Q ,er C, ma<in( it an idea' tem,erature transducer. The
tem,erature coefficient of resistance is norma''& ne(ati)e. The reistance at an&
tem,erature T, is (i)en a,,ro9imate'& 4&

T
=
o
e9, R 71>T J 1>T
o
8
6here
T
= thermistor resistance at tem,erature T 7F8,
0
= thersmistor
resistance at tem,erature T
o
7F8, and = a constant determined 4& ca'i4ration.
#t hi(h tem,eratures, this eBuation reduces to

T
=
o
e9, 7 R>T8
The resistance J tem,erature characteristics is sho-n in Fi( 21.1/. The
cur)e is non J 'inear and the dro, in resistance from 5/// to 1/ occurs for an
increase in tem,erature from 2/ to 1// C. The tem,erature of the de)ice can
4e chan(ed interna''& or e9terna''&. #n increase in current throu(h the de)ice -i''
raise its tem,erature carr&in( a dro, in its termina' resistance. #n& e9terna''&
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 1-3
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
heat source -i'' resu't in an increase in its 4od& tem,erature and dro, in
resistance this t&,e action 7interna' or e9terna'8 'ends itse'f -e'' to contro'
mechanism.
Three usefu' ,arameters for characterizin( the thermistor are the time
constant, dissi,ation constant , and resistance ratio. The time constant is the
time for a thermistor to chan(e its resistance 4& $3Q of its initia' )a'ue, for zero J
,o-er dissi,ation. T&,ica' )a'ues of time constant ran(e from 1 to 5/ s.
SYMBOL*
MODEL 9RAP(*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering
%
(-cm)
9 (deg)
1-4
9
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
The dissi,ation factor is the ,o-er necessar& to increase the tem,erature
of a thermistor 4& 1SC. T&,ica' )a'ues of dissi,ation factor ran(e from 1 to 1/
m6>SC.
esistance ratio is the ratio of the resistance at 25 SC. "ts ran(e is
a,,ro9imate'&
3 J $/.
Thermistors are used measure tem,erature, f'o- ,ressure, 'iBuid 'e)e',
)o'ta(e or ,o-er 'e)e', )acuum, com,osition of (ases and therma' conducti)it&
and a'so in com,ensation net-or<.
RESULT*
Thus the Characteristics of thermistor -as studied.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 1-5
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
E&.N'.Ba
SIN9LE P(ASE (ALF 1AVE RECTIFIER
AIM*
To construct a @a'f -a)e rectifier usin( diode and to dra- its ,erformance
characteristics.
APPARATUS RE+UIRED* COMPONENTS
RE+UIRED*
S.
N'.
Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
S.
N'.
Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
1 Transformer 23/>7$:/:$85 1
1
!iode "14//1
1
2 .%.S 7/:3/85 2
3 #mmeter
7/J3/8m# 1 2 esistor 1F 1
7/J25/8L# 1 3
Bread
Board
1
4 5o'tmeter
7/J3/85 1 4 Ca,acitor 1//Lf 1
7/J285 1 5 C0 1
FORMULAE*
1IT(OUT FILTER*
7i8 5
rms
= 5
m
> 2
7ii8 5
dc
= 5
m
>
7iii8 i,,'e Factor= 75
rms
> 5
dc
8
2
J 1
7i)8 Efficienc& = 75
dc
> 5
rms
8
2
9 1//
1IT( FILTER*
7i8 5
rms
= 75
rms
E2
K 5
dc
2
8
7ii8 5
rmsE
= 5
r,,
> 73 9 28
7iii8 5
dc
= 5
m J
5
r,,
> 2
7i)8 i,,'e Factor= 5
rmsE>
5
dc
PROCEDURE*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 1-+
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
1IT(OUT FILTER*
13. Ci)e the connections as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
14. Ci)e 23/), 5/@H ">% to the ste, do-n TF -here secondar& connected to
the ectifier ">%.
15. Ta<e the rectifier out,ut across the Toad.
1$. %'ot its ,erformance (ra,h.
1IT( FILTER*
1. Ci)e the connections as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
14. Ci)e 23/), 5/@H ">% to the ste, do-n TF -here secondar& connected to
the ectifier ">%.
15. Connect the Ca,acitor across the Toad.
1$. Ta<e the rectifier out,ut across the Toad.
1*. %'ot its ,erformance (ra,h.
CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 1-)
1 9ransformer
230 $ 5 +$
16 400)
1.
100: 1 230$
50;<
A" suppl=
C0
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
TABULAR COLUMN*
1IT(OUT FILTER*
5
m
5
rms
5
dc
i,,'e factor Efficienc&
1IT( FILTER*
5
rms
5
r,,
5
dc
i,,'e factor Efficienc&
MODEL 9RAP(*
RESULT*
Thus the ,erformance characteristics of 1 @a'f -a)e rectifier -as o4tained.
E&.N'.B=
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 1-,
V
in

($olts)
t !s"
V
o
($olts)
t !s"
t !s"
V
o
($olts)
1$0C'D0
F$<0"2
1$0C
F$<0"2
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
SIN9LE P(ASE FULL 1AVE RECTIFIER
AIM*
To construct a Fu'' -a)e rectifier usin( diode and to dra- its ,erformance
characteristics.
APPARATUS RE+UIRED* COMPONENTS
RE+UIRED*
S.
N'.
Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
S.
N'.
Na," Ran-" T./" +0.
1 Transformer 23/>7$:/:$85 1
1
!iode "14//1
2
2 .%.S 7/:3/85 2
3 #mmeter
7/J3/8m# 1 2 esistor 1F 1
7/J25/8L# 1 3
Bread
Board
1
4 5o'tmeter
7/J3/85 1 4 Ca,acitor 1//Lf 1
7/J285 1 5 C0 1
FORMULAE*
1IT(OUT FILTER*
7i8 5
rms
= 5
m
> 2
7ii8 5
dc
= 25
m
>
7iii8 i,,'e Factor= 75
rms
> 5
dc
8
2
J 1
7i)8 Efficienc& = 75
dc
> 5
rms
8
2
9 1//
1IT( FILTER*
7i8 5
rms
= 5
r,,
>72O 38
7ii8 5
dc
= 5
m J
5
r,,

7i)8 i,,'e Factor= 5
rmsE>
5
dc
PROCEDURE*
1IT(OUT FILTER*
13. Ci)e the connections as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 1--
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
14. Ci)e 23/), 5/@H ">% to the ste, do-n TF -here secondar& connected
to the ectifier ">%.
15. Ta<e the rectifier out,ut across the Toad.
1$. %'ot its ,erformance (ra,h.
1IT( FILTER*
1. Ci)e the connections as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
14. Ci)e 23/), 5/@H ">% to the ste, do-n TF -here secondar& connected to
the ectifier ">%.
15. Connect the Ca,acitor across the Toad.
1$. Ta<e the rectifier out,ut across the Toad.
1*. %'ot its ,erformance (ra,h.

CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 200
16 400)
1.
100:
1 230$
50;<
A" suppl=
C0
16 400)
1 9ransformer
230 $ 5 +$
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
TABULAR COLUMN*
1IT(OUT FILTER*
5
m
5
rms
5
dc
i,,'e factor Efficienc&
1IT( FILTER*
5
rms
5
r,,
5
dc
i,,'e factor Efficienc&
MODEL 9RAP( *
RESULT* Thus the ,erformance characteristics of 1 Fu'' -a)e rectifier -ere
o4tained.
E&.N'.E
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 201
V
in

($olts)
t !s"
V
o
($olts)
t !s"
t !s"
V
o
($olts)
1$0C'D0 F$<0"2
1$0C F$<0"2
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER
AIM*
To construct a !ifferentia' am,'ifier in Common mode 3 !ifferentia' mode
confi(uration and to find common mode re2ection ratio.
APPARATUS RE+UIRED* COMPONENTS RE+UIRED*
A//a2a0D% Ran-" +0.
1 %S 7/:3/85 1
2 C0 1
3
Si(na'
Cenerator
1
4 !CB 2
5 !B 2
T(EORY*

The !ifferentia' am,'ifier circuit is an e9treme'& ,o,u'ar connection used in
"C units. The circuit has se,arate in,uts , t-o se,arate out,uts and emitters are
connected to(ether. "f the same in,ut is a,,'ied to 4oth in,uts, the o,eration is
ca''ed common mode. "n dou4'e ended o,eration t-o in,ut si(na's are a,,'ied ,
the difference of the in,uts resu'tin( in out,uts from 4oth co''ectors due to the
difference of the si(na's a,,'ied to 4oth the in,uts. The main feature of the
differentia' am,'ifier is the )er& 'ar(e (ain -hen o,,osite si(na's are a,,'ied to
in,uts as com,ared to sma'' si(na' resu'tin( from common in,ut. The ratio of this
difference (ain to the common (ain is ca''ed common mode re2ection ratio.
Department of electrical and electronics engineering
S.N' I0", T./" Ran-" +0.
1 Transistor BC1/* 1
2 Ca,acitor 4*/F 1
3 esistor
3..FU
3.3FU
1
1
4 Bread 4oard 1
202
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
CIRCUIT DIA9RAM*
DIFFERENTIAL MODE*
COMMON MODE*
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 203
3>3 .
3>-.
$
o
1 $
o
2
$1
12$
$2
13$
3>-.
--$
-$
3>3 .
3>-.
$
o
1 $
o
2
$
2
13$
3>-.
--$
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
PROCEDURE*
DIFFERENTIAL MODE*
13. Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
14. Set 5
1
= 5/m) and 5
2
=55m) usin( the si(na' (enerator.
15. Find the corres,ondin( out,ut )o'ta(es across 5
/1
3 5
/2
usin( C0
1$. Ca'cu'ate common mode re2ection ratio usin( the (i)en formu'a.
COMMON MODE*
13. Connect the circuit as ,er the circuit dia(ram.
14. Set 5
1
= 5/m) usin( the si(na' (enerator.
15. Find the out,ut )o'ta(e across 5
o
usin( mu'timeter.
1$. Ca'cu'te common mode re2ection ratio usin( the (i)en formu'a.
CALCULATION*
Common mode re2ection ratio7C;8 = #
d
> #
c
#
d
= !ifferentia' mode (ain
#
c
= Common mode (ain
6here #
d
= 5
o
>5
d

5
o
= 0ut,ut )o'ta(e measured across C0
5
d
= 5
1
J 5
2
, 5
1
, 5
2
J in,ut )o'ta(e a,,'ied.
#
c
= 5
o
>5c
5
c
= 75
1
K 5
2
8>2
DIFFERENTIAL MODE*
5
1
=
5
2
=
0ut,ut )o'ta(e =
5
d
= 5
1
:5
2
=
#
d
=5
o
>5
d
=
RESULT* Thus the differentia' am,'ifier -as constructed in common mode
and !ifferentia' mode confi(uration. Further common mode re2ection ratio -as
found
E#$. N%: 1&
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 204
COMMON MODE*
"n,ut )o'ta(e =
0ut,ut )o'ta(e =
5
1
=5
2
=
5
c
=75
1
K5
2
8>2 =
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
PASSIVE FILTERS
A'!:
9o attenuate un?anted fre@uenc= components from input signal b= using resistor
and capacitor>
A$$()(t*s )+,*')+-:
S.N'
N(!+ %. t/+ ($$()(t*s R(01+ T2$+ 3*(0t't2
1> 'ignal 3enerator 01
2> %esistor 01
3> "apacitor "eramic 01
4> "%A 01
5> 1readboard 01
T/+%)2:
A filter is an A" circuit tBat separates some fre@uencies from otBer in
?itBin mi8ed 0 fre@uenc= signals> Audio equalizers and crossover networks are
t?o ?ell-Cno?n applications of filter circuits> A Bode plot is a grapB plotting
?aveform amplitude or pBase on one a8is and fre@uenc= on tBe otBer>
A lo?-pass filter allo?s for eas= passage of lo?-fre@uenc= signals from
source to load and difficult passage of BigB-fre@uenc= signals> "apacitor lo?-pass
filters insert a resistor in series and a capacitor in parallel ?itB tBe load as sBo?n
in tBe circuit diagram> 9Be former filter design tries to DblocCE tBe un?anted
fre@uenc= signal ?Bile tBe latter tries to sBort it out>
9Be cutoff frequency for a lo?-pass filter is tBat fre@uenc= at ?BicB tBe
output (load) voltage e@uals )0>)F of tBe input ('ource) voltage> Above tBe cutoff
fre@uenc= tBe output voltage is lo?er tBan )0>)F of tBe input and vice-versa> 'ee
tBe circuit diagram
1
:
cutoff
4 ----------
2%"
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 205
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
A BigB-pass filter allo?s for eas= passage of BigB-fre@uenc= signals from source to
load and difficult passage of lo?-fre@uenc= signals> "apacitor BigB-pass filters
insert a capacitor in series ?itB tBe load as sBo?n in tBe circuit diagram> 9Be
former filter design tries to DbricCE tBe un?anted fre@uenc= signal ?Bile tBe latter
tries to sBort it out>
9Be cutoff fre@uenc= for a BigB-pass filter is tBat fre@uenc= at ?BicB tBe
output (load) voltage e@uals )0>)F of tBe input (source) voltage> Above tBe cutoff
fre@uenc= tBe output voltage is greater tBan )0>)F of tBe input and vice-versa>
1
:
cutoff
4 ----------
2%"
A band 0 pass filter ?orCs to screen out fre@uencies tBat are too lo? or too
BigB giving eas= passage onl= to fre@uencies ?itBin a certain range> 'tacCing a
lo?-pass filter on tBe end of a BigB-pass filter or vice-versa can maCe band-pass
filters> %efer tBe circuit diagrams
:ig> )>+
DAttenuateE means to reduce or diminisB in amplitude> GBen =ou
turn do?n tBe volume control on =our stereo =ou are DattenuatingE tBe signal
being sent to tBe speaCers>
A band-stop filter ?orCs to screen out fre@uencies tBat are ?itBin a certain
range giving eas= passage onl= to fre@uencies outside of tBat range> Also Cno?n
as band-elimination band-reHect or notcB filters>
&lacing a lo?-pass filter in parallel ?itB a BigB-pass filter can maCe band-
stop filters> "ommonl= botB tBe lo?-pass and BigB-pass filter sections are of tBe
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 20+
'ignal
input
7o?-pass filter ;igB-pass filter 'ignal
output
1locCs fre@uencies
tBat are too BigB
1locCs fre@uencies
tBat are too lo?
'ignal
*nput
7o?-pass filter
;igB-pass filter
'ignal
Autput
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
D9E configuration giving tBe name D9?in-9E to tBe band-stop combination> %efer
tBe fig>)>) )>,a and )>,b>
&asses lo? fre@uencies
&asses BigB fre@uencies
:ig> )>,a
9Be fre@uenc= of ma8imum attenuation is called tBe notcB
fre@uenc=>
4)%5+-*)+:
1-> 3ive tBe connections as per circuit diagrams>
20> '?itcB on tBe main>
21> "Bange tBe fre@uenc= from minimum and find tBe output
voltage b= using "%A>
22> Dra? tBe grapB>
23> $erif= tBe cut off fre@uenc=>
24> '?itcB off tBe main>
R+s*6t:
9Bus ?e anal=<e passive filter and various ?aveforms are noted
E#$. N% : 17
STUDY OF CRO AND
4O8ER FACTOR MEASUREMENT USING CRO
A'!:
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 20)
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
9o stud= catBode %a= Ascilloscope ("%A) and measurement of po?er factor using
"%A>
A$$()(t*s )+,*')+-:
S.N'
N(!+ %. t/+ ($$()(t*s R(01+ T2$+ 3*(0t't2
1> %esistance 1o8 1
2> "apacitance 1o8 1
3> *nductance 1o8 1
4> :unction 3enerator 1
5> 1read board 1
T/+%)2:
9Be catBode ra= oscilloscope is tBe most versatile measuring instrument
available> Ge can measure follo?ing parameters using tBe "%AI
13> A" or D" voltage>
14> 9ime (t415f)>
15> &Base relationsBip
1+> Gaveform calculationI %ise timeJ fall timeJ on timeJ off-time
Distortion etc>
Ge can also measure non-electrical pB=sical @uantities liCe pressure strain
temperature acceleration etc> b= converting into electrical @uantities using
a transducer>
M(9%) :6%5;s:
1-> "atBode ra= tube ("%9)
20> $ertical amplifier
21> ;ori<ontal amplifier
22> '?eep generator
23> 9rigger circuit
24> Associated po?er suppl=>
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 20,
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
1@. T/+ 5(t/%-+ )(2 t*:+ is tBe Beart of "%A> 9Be "%9 is enclosed in an
evacuated glass envelope to permit tBe electron beam to traverse in tBe
tube easil=> 9Be main functional units of "%A are as follo?s>
Electron gun assembl=
Deflection plate unit
'creen>
1A. V+)t'5(6 A!$6'.'+) is tBe main factor in determining tBe band?idtB and
sensitivit= of an oscilloscope> $ertical sensitivit= is a measure of Bo?
mucB tBe electron beam ?ill be deflected for a specified input signal>
An tBe front panel of tBe oscilloscope one can see a Cnob attacBed to a
rotar= s?itcB labeled volts5division> 9Be rotar= s?itcB is electricall=
connected to tBe input attenuation net?orC> 9Be setting of tBe rotar=
s?itcB indicates ?Bat amplitude signal is re@uired to deflect tBe beam
verticall= b= one division>
1B. H%)'<%0t(6 (!$6'.'+) Knder normal mode of operation tBe Bori<ontal
amplifier ?ill amplif= tBe s?eep generator input> GBen tBe "%A is
being used in tBe L-M mode tBe Bori<ontal amplifier ?ill amplif= tBe
signal applied to tBe Bori<ontal input terminal> AltBougB tBe vertical
amplifier musB be able to faitBfull= reproduce lo?-amplitude and BigB
fre@uenc= signal ?itB fast rise-time tBe Bori<ontal amplifier is onl=
re@uired to provide a faitBful reproduction of tBe s?eep signal ?BicB
Bas a relativel= BigB amplitude and slo? rise time>
1C. S>++$ 1+0+)(t%) (0- T)'11+) 5')5*'t 9Bese t?o units form tBe S'10(6
S205/)%0'<(t'%0 *0't %. t/+ CRO.
&7. Ass%5'(t+- 4%>+) S*$$62: 9Be input signal ma= come from an e8ternal
source ?Ben tBe trigger selector s?itcB is set to EL9 or from lo?
amplitude A" voltage at line fre@uenc= ?Ben tBe s?itcB is set to 7*6E
or from tBe vertical amplifier ?Ben tBe s?itcB is set to *69> GBen set
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 20-
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
for *69 (internal triggering) tBe trigger circuit receives its inputs from
tBe vertical amplifier>
M(9%) B6%5;s '0 ( 4)(5t'5(6 CRO
A "%A consists of a catBode ra= tube ("%9) and additional control Cnobs>
9Be main parts of a "%9 areI
10> Electron gun assembl=>
11> Deflection plate assembl=>
12> :luorescent screen>
E6+5t)%0 G*0 Ass+!:62: 9Be electron gun assembl= produces a sBarp beam of
electrons ?BicB are accelerated to BigB velocit=> 9Bis focused beam of electrons
striCe tBe fluorescent screen ?itB sufficient energ= to cause a luminous spot on tBe
screen>
D+.6+5t'%0 $6(t+ (ss+!:62: 9Bis part consists of t?o plates in ?BicB one pair of
plates is placed Bori<ontall= and otBer of plates is placed verticall=> 9Be signal
under test is applied to vertical deflecting plates> 9Be Bori<ontal deflection plates
are connected to a built-in ramp generator ?BicB moves tBe luminous spot
periodicall= in a Bori<ontal direction from left to rigBt over tBe screen> 9Bese t?o
deflection plates give stationar= appearance to tBe ?aveform on tBe screen> "%A
operates on voltage> 'ince tBe deflection of tBe electron beam is directl=
proportional to tBe deflecting voltage tBe "%9 ma= be used as a linear measuring
device> 9Be voltage being measured is applied to tBe vertical plates tBrougB an
iterative net?orC ?Bose propagation time corresponds to tBe velocit= of electrons
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 210
131351 - Electronic devices and circuits lab
tBereb= s=ncBroni<ing tBe voltage applied to tBe vertical plate ?itB tBe velocit= of
tBe beam>
S205/)%0'<(t'%0 %. '0$*t s'10(6: 9Be s?eep generator produces a sa? tootB
?aveform ?BicB is used to s=ncBroni<e tBe applied voltage to obtain a stationar=-
applied signal> 9Bis re@uires tBat tBe time base be operated at a submultiples
fre@uenc= of tBe signal under measurement> *f s=ncBroni<ation is not done tBe
pattern is not stationar= but appears to drift across tBe screen in a random fasBion>
I0t+)0(6 s205/)%0'<(t'%0 9Bis trigger is obtained from tBe time base generator to
s=ncBroni<e tBe signal>
E#t+)0(6 s205/)%0'<(t'%0 An e8ternal trigger source can also be used to
s=ncBroni<e tBe signal being measured>
A*t% T)'11+)'01 M%-+ 9Be time base used in tBis case in a self-oscillating
condition i>e> it gives an output even in tBe absence of an= M-input> 9Be
advantage of tBis mode is tBat tBe beam is visible on tBe screen under all
conditions including tBe <ero input> GBen tBe input e8ceeds a certain magnitude
tBen tBe internal free running oscillator locCs on to tBe fre@uenc=>
4)+5(*t'%0s:
)> 9Be ammeter is connected using tBicC ?ires>
,> GBile reversing ammeter polarit= see to it tBat tBe capacitor is not
discBarged>
O:s+)?(t'%0:
S6.N% T'!+ V%6t(1+ C*))+0t
Knit ('ec) ($olts) (Amps)
R+s*6t: 9Bus ?e stud= about "%A N to measure p>f
Department of electrical and electronics engineering 211