Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery Information Booklet

Contents
I. About this booklet ................................................................................................... 3 II. What is Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery a. Definitions........................................................................................................ 4 b. Planning .......................................................................................................... 4 c. FAQs ............................................................................................................... 5 d. Benefits ........................................................................................................... 7 e. Common Pitfalls .............................................................................................. 9 III. Links to Business Continuity/Disaster Recovery Sites and Information Sources... 10 IV. Links to Industry News .......................................................................................... 11 V. Wide Area Networks (WANs) a. Connectivity ................................................................................................... 12 b. Dataline Bandwidths...................................................................................... 14 VI. TCP/IP a. Application layer ............................................................................................ 18 b. Transport layer .............................................................................................. 19 c. Network layer................................................................................................. 20 d. Data link layer................................................................................................ 21 e. Physical layer ................................................................................................ 21

VII. Miscellaneous

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About this booklet
This booklet has been assembled with the intention of providing facts and information on a variety of topics that touch upon the rapidly evolving area of Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery. This booklet is not intended to be a comprehensive review of the latest in this arena; rather it is intended to give some quick facts and interesting information to a wide audience. While some may find the information contained herein very useful, experts in this domain would probably find this lacking due to their inherent knowledge about the subject. The information contained here is not original work but is a compilation of interesting facts and articles and often times is not comprehensive, rather just an overview. The source material is cited and readers are encouraged to further their understanding of topics by reviewing cited sources. This booklet also gives links to several websites that have extensive features and articles on various aspects of Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery. The authors of this book constantly try to update these links to ensure that this booklet can lead to the very latest on this topic. We hope you enjoy this booklet and look forward to any comments and feedback that will enable us to improve this booklet.

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What is Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery?
- Definitions Business Continuity Planning is used to create and validate a practiced plan for how an organization will recover and restore partially or completely interrupted critical function(s) within a predetermined time after a disaster or extended disruption. The logistical plan is called a Business Continuity Plan (BCP). In plain language, BCP is how an organization prepares for future incidents that could jeopardize the organization's core mission and its long term health. Incidents include local incidents like building fires, regional incidents like earthquakes, or national incidents like pandemic illnesses. Disaster recovery is the process of regaining access to the data, hardware and software necessary to resume critical business operations after a natural or a human caused disaster. A Disaster Recovery Plan (DRP) should also include plans for coping with the unexpected or sudden loss of key personnel. DRP is part of the larger BCP process.

- Planning The well planned survive with minimal impact when disaster strikes. Those who do not plan from it may find their business in jeopardy. Disasters can strike at any time and may take one of several forms individually or collectively – power outages, floods, storms, equipment failure, sabotage, terrorism and many other factors can contribute to a disruption of normal business operation. Most of us recognize these as possibilities but are you prepared to ride it out with minimal or no loss of data and loss of business revenue and customer goodwill? Planning makes the critical difference between successfully managing an incident within acceptable parameters and having a situation on hand that may take days, weeks or months to recover. Good planning can prevent a lot of headaches by being prepared not only from an equipment or network point of view but also when each person involved knows their tasks and thus a cohesive and coordinated effort ensures minimal disruption. It is of vital importance that a plan be carefully laid out and be constantly updated. This includes regularly training network engineers and managers, with special attention being paid to new employees who play a critical part in the disaster recovery plans. There are several options when creating a disaster recovery plan. Experienced 4

managers could draw on their knowledge and craft a plan to fit the need. For those that do not have the expertise there are a number of options from consulting to software. A common tool is the use of disaster recovery plan templates. This keeps the exercise simple. At the end of the day, you have to ask yourself the question, “Will my plan work?” To increase the reliability of your plan, review and practice dry runs of your DRP. Constant reviews as frequently as monthly will not only keep the plan up to date, but it will also help your staff to be ready to act instantaneously.

- Frequently Asked Questions What is the Business Continuity/ Disaster Recover Plan? A Business Continuity/Disaster Recovery Plan is the scheme -- agreed to in advance by key management and participating personnel -- that will be followed to recover from a disaster. The plan forms the heart of the effort and its execution is the keystone that determines if the organization will recover with minimal disruptions or not. The plan should be a live document, with periodic changes and reviews to reflect the latest conditions. Importance of a Disaster Recovery Plan Adequate planning ensures that a business minimizes its downtime and losses. It also allows for a coherent response to a disaster with critical players in the organization knowing the roles they will have to play. Therefore, it is imperative that the plan is up to date and complete with principals meeting regularly to review the plan. For example, if a new office is added which has personnel or activity that makes key contributions to revenue, does the plan reflect this? Has it been modified and all key players aware of the modifications? By considering the plan a living document, a business ensures that the latest situation is factored in. However, changes made to the plan have to be done in a systematic manner with responsibility of approving or making changes resting with a single person or a previously designated committee. Creating a Disaster Recovery Plan If adequate in-house expertise is lacking, several consultants offer multifarious services that develop robust DR plans. Even if the DR plan is developed in-house, it is a good idea to have it reviewed by outside experts to help identify any in-house biases in planning. Software and templates are also available to develop DR plans and may be a cheaper and easier alternative.

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• • •

Outside Business Continuity/Disaster Recovery consultants (give some links here) Software (links to software) Templates (links to templates)

Plan Dependability and Execution A dry run of the plan to expose weaknesses is very advisable. After the exercise, an honest review with all the principals should be conducted. Adjustments should be made as needed. Periodic dry runs not only fine-tune the plan to adjust to any changed circumstances, but also impart continuing education and awareness to participants. What is Business Risk/Business Impact Analysis? An important part of DR planning is to understand all variables that can and do affect the smooth operation of a business. Many methods, qualitative and quantitative in nature can be used to define these risks. Business Impact Analysis is used to assess the financial or other losses sustained when Information System or business function is impaired or unavailable due to a disaster.

What is BS25999? BS25999-1 is a code of practice. A standard approach to Business Continuity Management (BCM) has been mooted for decades. Prototype draft standards have been published, but never really quite had the momentum to succeed. The void has been obvious and glaring for a long time. However, this landscape finally changed late in 2006, with the publication of the first part of BS 25999, a code of practice for business continuity management. The concept of the BS 25999 standard itself has also been on the table for quite a long time. BSI published a draft standard known as PAS56 back in 2003. This was largely for public comment, which is the normal process of the BSI as part of the development of major standards. In 2006 a draft version of BS25999-1 was published, again for public comment. Eventually, in November of that year, the standard was finally born, with a fanfare or announcements, conferences and podcasts.

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What are the 7 Ps? The “7 Ps” is a guideline created by the Business Continuity Institute, who has identified seven important elements of an effective plan:
• • • • • • •

Program - proactively managing the process People - roles & responsibilities, awareness & education Processes - organizational processes, including IT Premises - buildings & facilities Providers - supply chain, including outsourcing Profile - brand, image & reputation Performance - benchmarking, evaluation & audit

- Business Continuity/DR Steps Business Continuity/Disaster Recovery Plans come in various forms, each reflecting the corporation’s particular set of circumstances. The following are some of the general step required to develop and implement a plan: • • • • • • • Policy Statement (Goal of plan, reasons and resources.) Business Impact Analysis (How does a shutdown impact the business financially and otherwise?) Identify Preventive Steps (Can disaster be avoided by taking prudent steps?) Recovery Strategies (How and what you will need to recover?) Plan Development (Write plan and implement plan elements.) Plan buy-in and testing (This is very important so that everyone knows the plan and knows what to do.) Maintenance (Continuous changes to reflect current situation)

- Common Pitfalls The pitfalls that await those developing a business continuity plan are numerous. This section serves to elucidate some mistakes that are made. This is by no means a comprehensive list. If you have experienced a problem that did not seem obvious when you developed your plan, please share it with us so that we may all learn! A. “One size does not fit all” – when it comes to developing a business continuity plan, this statement is a truism. Using someone else’s plan based on conditions or requirement you company does not have may result in a disaster of another type. The best way to avoid this pitfall is to think of the business continuity and disaster

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recovery plan as a sum of many parts that fit into the broader plan. When a disaster occurs, it should be mapped to the appropriate plan module, which then determines the appropriate response.

B. “Business continuity and disaster recovery only involve the IT personnel” – nothing could be further from the truth. While the concept of business continuity and disaster recovery originated from IT, conceptually planning only for IT infrastructure leaves a corporation open to possible catastrophe. For example, software for running critical operations are limited in the new environment and this was not pointed out to the IT department during the planning stages. The IT staff ensured successful log on and nothing more. Had the operations staff been involved, their input could have taken this a step further and ensured the correct data could be accessed! The continuity team, which must include business owners, must state business requirement. Three important objectives are: a. Recovery time objective (RTO) – the minimum time in which the business must recover. b. Recovery point objective (RPO) – the point of time when the data must be recovered – start of the day, the last back up or last transaction. c. Cost of downtime – potential losses as a result of the disaster and the recovery cost should be understood. C. “The further you are the better the DR center” – not necessarily so. While if a large-scale disaster were to strike, further the DR site is the better, distance can create its unique set of problems. Greater the distance the greater the risk of broken lines, higher the cost of transmitting data, greater the time of travel between sites and less the interaction between staff. There is no hard and fast rule for determining an optimal distance. To do this, one has to conduct a Business Impact Analysis. The best DR location is one that minimizes costs but meets over objectives of recovery. In addition, all systems at the recovery site have to be robust. D. “Disasters occur rarely therefore investing a lot of money in robust infrastructure is a waste” – nothing could be further from the truth. This is like insurance. Paying the premium always gives heartburn – but the day you have to make a substantial claim, you are glad you paid the premium! Sometimes a small investment can prevent a larger catastrophe. If your WAN/Internet connectivity is dependent on only a single connection, you are vulnerable to line failure – a relatively frequent occurrence. If you invest in a redundant connection from a different provider and use technology for router

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clustering and load balancing, you can correct the problem locally. You will have WAN uptime all the time (for more information visit www.fatpipeinc.com). E. “All I have to worry is to keep data losses to a minimum” – while keeping data losses to a minimum is good practice, ensuring consistency of data at the backup site is even more important. If not, you may have to resort to a time consuming back-up. Conflicting data can add to the delay. Consistency should be one of the primary drivers in disaster planning. F. “Only one copy of back-up data is sufficient” – if a copy is being made in synchronous mode and the link fails, the consistency of the remote data will be compromised temporarily until the resynchronization is complete. However, if disaster strikes during this period, data may be corrupted or incomplete, and will require an extensive re-working. Data may also be permanently lost, possibly becoming a detriment to your business. Link failure can be prevented by having link redundancy. See www.fatpipeinc.com for information on this type of technology).

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Links to Business Continuity/Disaster Recovery Sites and Information Sources
http://www.e-janco.com/DRP.htm http://www.disasterrecoveryworld.com/ http://www.disaster-recovery-guide.com/ http://www.drj.com/ http://www.drii.org/DRII/ http://www.disasterrecoveryforum.com/ http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/iseries/v5r2/ic2924/index.htm?info/rzaj1/rzaj1sampleplan.htm http://whitepapers.businessweek.com/data/document.do?res_id=1177424866_999

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Industry News
The following are links to information regarding latest industry trends and products. www.computerworld.com www.infotech.com www.fatpipeinc.com www.boxtelsolutions.com www.drj.com

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Wide Area Networks (WANs)
- Connectivity A wide variety of connectivity is available for the Internet. Depending on your bandwidth requirements, price and availability, one or several may fit your needs. Digital signal 1 (DS1, also known as T1, sometimes "DS-1") is a T-carrier signaling scheme devised by Bell Labs.[1] DS1 is a widely used standard in telecommunications in North America and Japan to transmit voice and data between devices. E1 is used in place of T1 outside of North America and Japan. Technically, DS1 is the transmission protocol used over a physical T1 line; however, the terms "DS1" and "T1" are often used interchangeably. A DS1 circuit is made up of twenty-four 8-bit channels (also known as timeslots and DS0's), each channel being a 64 kbit/s DS0 multiplexed pseudo-circuit. A DS1 is also a full-duplex circuit, meaning, in theory, the circuit can send 1.544 Mbit/s and receive 1.544 Mbit/s concurrently. A total of 1.536 Mbit/s of bandwidth is achieved by sampling each of the twenty-four 8-bit DS0's 8000 times per second. This sampling is referred to as 8-kHz samp. An additional 8 kbit/s is obtained from the placement of a framing bit, for a total of 1.544 Mbit/s, calculated as follows: Digital Signal 3 (DS3) is a digital signal level 3 T-carrier. It may also be referred to as a T3 line.
• • •

The data rate for this type of signal is 44.736 Mbit/s. This level of carrier can transport 28 DS1 level signals within its payload. This level of carrier can transport 672 DS0 level channels within its payload.

DSL or xDSL is a family of technologies that provide digital data transmission over the wires of a local telephone network. DSL originally stood for digital subscriber loop, although in recent years, many have adopted digital subscriber line as a more marketing-friendly term for the most popular version of consumer-ready DSL, ADSL. Typically, the download speed of consumer DSL services ranges from 256 kilobits per second (kbit/s) to 24,000 kbit/s, depending on DSL technology, line conditions and service level implemented. Typically, upload speed is lower than download speed for Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) and equal to download speed for Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line (SDSL).

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- DSL Operation The local loop of the Public Switched Telephone Network was initially designed to carry POTS voice communication and signaling, since the concept of data communications as we know it today did not exist. For reasons of economy, the phone system nominally passes audio between 300 and 3,400 Hz, which is regarded as the range required for human speech to be clearly intelligible. This is known as voiceband or commercial bandwidth. At the local telephone exchange (UK terminology) or central office (US terminology) the speech is generally digitized into a 64 kbit/s data stream in the form of an 8 bit signal using a sampling rate of 8,000 Hz, therefore – according to the Nyquist theorem – any signal above 4,000 Hz is not passed by the phone network (and has to be blocked by a filter to prevent aliasing effects). The laws of physics – specifically, the Shannon Limit – caps the speed of data transmission. For a long time, it was believed that a conventional phone line could not be pushed beyond the low speed limits (typically under 9600 bps). In the 1950s, 4 MHz television signals were often carried between studios on ordinary twisted pair telephone cable, suggesting that the Shannon Limit would allow transmitting many Megabits per second. However, these cables had other impairments besides Gaussian noise, preventing such rates from becoming practical in the field. In the 1980s techniques were developed for broadband communications that allowed the limit to be greatly extended. The local loop connecting the telephone exchange to most subscribers is capable of carrying frequencies well beyond the 3.4 upper limit of POTS. Depending on the length and quality of the loop, the upper limit can be tens of megahertz. DSL takes advantage of this unused bandwidth of the local loop by creating 4312.5 Hz wide channels starting between 10 and 100 kHz, depending on how the system is configured. Allocation of channels continues at higher and higher frequencies (up to 1.1 MHz for ADSL) until new channels are deemed unusable. Each channel is evaluated for usability in much the same way an analog modem would on a POTS connection. More usable channels equates to more available bandwidth, which is why distance and line quality are a factor. The pool of usable channels is then split into two different frequency bands for upstream and downstream traffic, based on a preconfigured ratio. This segregation reduces interference. Once the channel groups have been established, the individual channels are bonded into a pair of virtual circuits, one in each direction. Like analog modems, DSL transceivers constantly monitor the quality of each channel and will add or remove them from service depending on whether or not they are usable. One of Lechlider's greatest contributions to DSL was his insight that an asymmetric arrangement offered more than double the bandwidth capacity of synchronous DSL. This allowed Internet Service Providers to offer efficient service to consumers, who benefited greatly from the ability to download large amounts of data but rarely needed to

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upload comparable amounts. ADSL supports two modes of transport: fast channel and interleaved channel. Fast channel is preferred for streaming multimedia, where an occasional dropped bit is acceptable, but lags are less so. Interleaved channel works better for file transfers, where transmission errors are impermissible, even though resending packets may increase latency. Because DSL operates at above the 3.4 kHz voice limit, it cannot be passed through a load coil. Load coils are, in essence, filters that block out any non-voice frequency. They are commonly set at regular intervals in lines placed only for POTS service. A DSL signal cannot pass through a properly installed and working load coil, nor can voice service be maintained past a certain distance without such coils. Some areas that are within range for DSL service are disqualified from eligibility because of load coil placement. Because of this phone companies are affording to remove load coils on copper loops that can operate without them, and conditioning lines to not need them through the use of FTTN. The commercial success of DSL and similar technologies largely reflects the advances made in electronics that, over the past few decades, have been getting faster and cheaper even while digging trenches in the ground for new cables (copper or fiber optic) remains expensive. Several factors contributed to the popularization of DSL technology: Until the late 1990s, the cost of digital signal processors for DSL was prohibitive. Due to the advancements of VLSI technology, the cost of the equipment associated with a DSL deployment (a DSLAM at one end and a DSL "modem" at the other end) lowered significantly. A DSL line can be deployed over existing cable. Such deployment, even including equipment, is much cheaper than installing a new, high-bandwidth fiber-optic cable over the same route and distance. This is true both for ADSL and SDSL variations. In the case of ADSL, competition in Internet access caused subscription fees to drop significantly over the years, thus making ADSL more economical when compared to dial up access. Telephone companies were pressured into moving to ADSL largely due to competition from cable companies, which use DOCSIS cable modem technology to achieve similar speeds. Demand for high bandwidth applications, such as video and file sharing, also contributed to popularize ADSL technology. All types of DSL employ highly complex digital signal processing algorithms to overcome the inherent limitations of the existing twisted pair wires. Not long ago, the cost of such signal processing would have been prohibitive but because of VLSI technology, the cost of installing DSL on an existing local loop, with a DSLAM at one end and a DSL "modem" at the other end is orders of magnitude less than would be the cost of installing a new, high-bandwidth fiber-optic cable over the same route and distance. Most residential and small-office DSL implementations reserve low frequencies for POTS service, so that with suitable filters and/or splitters the existing voice service

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continues to operate independent of the DSL service. Thus POTS-based communications, including fax machines and analog modems, can share the wires with DSL. Only one DSL "modem" can use the subscriber line at a time. The standard way to let multiple computers share a DSL connection is to use a router that establishes a connection between the DSL modem and a local Ethernet, Powerline, or Wi-Fi network on the customer's premises. Once upstream and downstream channels are established, they are used to connect the subscriber to a service such as an Internet service provider. Dry-loop DSL or "naked DSL," which does not require the subscriber to have traditional land-line telephone service, started making a comeback in the US in 2004 when Qwest started offering it, closely followed by Speakeasy. As a result of AT&T's merger with SBC,[1] and Verizon's merger with MCI,[2] those telephone companies are required to offer naked DSL to consumers. Even without the regulatory mandate, however, many ILECs offer naked DSL to consumers. The number of telephone landlines in the US has dropped from 188 million in 2000 to 172 million in 2005, while the number of cellular subscribers has grown to 195 million. [2]. This lack of demand for landline service has resulted in the expansion of naked DSL availability.

- ISDN Elements Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a circuit-switched telephone network system, designed to allow digital transmission of voice and data over ordinary telephone copper wires, resulting in better quality and higher speeds than that is available with the PSTN system. More broadly, ISDN is a set of protocols for establishing and breaking circuit switched connections, and for advanced call features for the user in a videoconference, ISDN provides simultaneous voice, video, and text transmission between individual desktop videoconferencing systems and group (room) videoconferencing systems. The English term is an acronym that was thought to be better for English-language advertisements than the original, "Integriertes Sprach- und Datennetz" (German for "Integrated Speech and Data Net"). Integrated Services refers to ISDN's ability to deliver at minimum two simultaneous connections, in any combination of data, voice, video, and fax, over a single line. Multiple devices can be attached to the line, and used as needed. That means an ISDN line can take care of most people's complete communications needs at a much higher transmission rate, without forcing the purchase of multiple analog phone lines.

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Digital refers to its purely digital transmission, as opposed to the analog transmission of plain old telephone service (POTS). Use of an analog telephone modem for Internet access requires that the Internet service provider's (ISP) modem has converted the website's digital content to analog signals before sending it back and the modem then converts those signals back to digital when receiving. When connecting with ISDN there is no analog conversion. ISDN transmits data digitally, resulting in a very clear transmission quality. There is none of the static and noise of analog transmissions that can cause slow transmission speed. Network refers to the fact that ISDN is not simply a point-to-point solution like a leased line. ISDN networks extend from the local telephone exchange to the remote user and includes all of the telecommunications and switching equipment in between. The purpose of the ISDN is to provide fully integrated digital services to the users. These services fall under three categories: bearer services, supplementary services and teleservices.

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TCP/IP Model
The TCP/IP model or Internet reference model, sometimes called the DoD model (DoD, Department of Defense), ARPANET reference model, is a layered abstract description for communications and computer network protocol design. It was created in the 1970s by DARPA for use in developing the Internet's protocols, and the structure of the Internet is still closely reflected by the TCP/IP model. It has fewer, less rigidly defined layers than the commonly referenced OSI model, and thus provides an easier fit for real-world protocols. No document officially specifies the model; different names are given to the layers by different documents, and different numbers of layers are shown by different documents. There are versions of this model with four layers and with five layers. The original fourlayer version of the model has • • Layer 4 - Process Layer or Application Layer - This is where the "higher level" protocols such as SMTP, FTP, SSH, HTTP, etc. operate. Layer 3 - Host-To-Host (Transport) Layer - This is where flow-control and connection protocols exist, such as TCP. This layer deals with opening and maintaining connections, ensuring that packets are in fact received. Layer 2 - Internet or Internetworking Layer - This layer defines IP addresses, with many routing schemes for navigating packets from one IP address to another. Layer 1 - Network Access Layer - This layer describes the physical equipment necessary for communications, such as twisted pair cables, the signaling used on that equipment, and the low-level protocols using that signaling.

Figure 1: The Five Layer TCP/IP Model In modern text books, the model has evolved into a five-layer version that splits Layer 1 into a Physical layer and a Network Access layer, corresponding to the physical layer and data link layer of the OSI model. The Internet or Internetworking layer is named Network layer. Figure 2: Layers in the TCP/IP model

The layers near the top are logically closer to the user while those near the bottom are logically closer to the physical transmission of the data.

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Each layer has an upper layer protocol and a lower layer protocol (except the top/bottom protocols, of course) that either use said layer's service or provide a service, respectively. Viewing layers as providing or consuming a service is a method of abstraction to isolate upper layer protocols from the nitty gritty detail of transmitting bits over, say, Ethernet and collision detection while the lower layers avoid having to know the details of each and every application and its protocol. This abstraction also allows upper layers to provide services that the lower layers cannot, or choose not, to provide. For example, IP is not designed to be reliable and is a best effort delivery protocol. This means that all transport layers must choose whether or not to provide reliability and to what degree. UDP provides data integrity (via a checksum) but does not guarantee delivery; TCP provides both data integrity and delivery guarantee (by retransmitting until the receiver receives the packet). This model is in some ways lacking. 1. For multipoint links with their own addressing systems (e.g. Ethernet) an address mapping protocol is needed. Such protocols can be considered to be below IP but above the existing link system. 2. ICMP & IGMP operate on top of IP but do not transport data like UDP or TCP. 3. The SSL/TLS library operates above the transport layer (utilizes TCP) but below application protocols. 4. The link is treated like a black box here. This is fine for discussing IP (since the whole point of IP is it will run over virtually anything) but is less helpful when considering the network as a whole. The third and fourth examples are perhaps better explained using the OSI model while the first two are still problematic.

- Application Layer The Application layer is used by most programs for network communication. Data is passed from the program in an application-specific format, and then encapsulated into a transport layer protocol. Since the IP stack has no layers between the application and transport layers, the application layer must include any protocols that act like the OSI's presentation and session layer protocols. This is usually done through libraries.

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Data sent over the network is passed into the application layer where it is encapsulated into the application layer protocol. From there, the data is passed down into the lower layer protocol of the transport layer. The two most common lower layer protocols are TCP and UDP. Common services have specific ports assigned to them (HTTP has port 80; FTP has port 21; etc.) while clients use ephemeral ports. Routers and switches do not utilize this layer but bandwidth throttling applications do.

- Transport Layer The Transport layer's responsibilities include end-to-end message transfer capabilities independent of the underlying network, along with error control, fragmentation and flow control. End to end message transmission or connecting applications at the transport layer can be categorized as either: 1. Connection-oriented e.g. TCP 2. Connectionless e.g. UDP The transport layer can be thought of literally as a transport mechanism e.g. a vehicle whose responsibility is to make sure that its contents (passengers/goods) reach its destination safely and soundly. The transport layer provides this service of connecting applications together through the use of ports. Since IP provides only a best effort delivery, the transport layer is the first layer to address reliability. For example, TCP is a connection-oriented protocol that addresses numerous reliability issues to provide a reliable byte stream: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. data arrives in-order data has minimal error (i.e. correctness) duplicate data is discarded lost/discarded packets are resent includes traffic congestion control

The dynamic routing protocols which technically fit at this layer in the TCP/IP Protocol Suite (since they run over IP) are generally considered to be part of the Network layer; an example is OSPF (IP protocol number 89). The newer SCTP is also a "reliable", connection-oriented, transport mechanism. It is stream-oriented — not byte-oriented like TCP — and provides multiple streams multiplexed over a single connection. It also provides multi-homing support, in which a 19

connection end can be represented by multiple IP addresses (representing multiple physical interfaces), such that if one fails, the connection is not interrupted. It was developed initially for telephony applications (to transport SS7 over IP), but can also be used for other applications. UDP is a connectionless datagram protocol. Like IP, it is a best effort or "unreliable" protocol. Reliability is addressed through error detection using a weak checksum algorithm. UDP is typically used for applications such as streaming media (audio and video, etc) where on-time arrival is more important than reliability, or for simple query/response applications like DNS lookups, where the overhead of setting up a reliable connection is disproportionately large. DCCP is currently under development by IETF. It provides TCP's flow control semantics, while keeping UDP's datagram service model visible to the user. Both TCP and UDP are used to carry a number of higher-level applications. The applications at any given network address are distinguished by their TCP or UDP port. By convention certain well known ports are associated with specific applications. (See List of TCP and UDP port numbers.) RTP is a datagram protocol that is designed for real-time data such as streaming audio and video. RTP is a session layer that uses the UDP packet format as a basis yet is said to sit within the transport layer of the Internet protocol stack.

- Network Layer As originally defined, the Network layer solves the problem of getting packets across a single network. Examples of such protocols are X.25, and the ARPANET's Host/IMP Protocol. With the advent of the concept of internetworking, additional functionality was added to this layer, namely getting data from the source network to the destination network. This generally involves routing the packet across a network of networks, known as an internetwork or (lower-case) internet.[1] In the Internet protocol suite, IP performs the basic task of getting packets of data from source to destination. IP can carry data for a number of different upper layer protocols; these protocols are each identified by a unique protocol number: ICMP and IGMP are protocols 1 and 2, respectively. Some of the protocols carried by IP, such as ICMP (used to transmit diagnostic information about IP transmission) and IGMP (used to manage IP Multicast data) are layered on top of IP but perform internetwork layer functions, illustrating an incompatibility between the Internet and the IP stack and OSI model. All routing 20

protocols, such as OSPF, and RIP are also really part of the network layer, although they might seem to belong higher in the stack.

- Data Link Layer The link layer, which is the method used to move packets from the network layer on two different hosts, is not really part of the Internet protocol suite, because IP can run over a variety of different link layers. The processes of transmitting packets on a given link layer and receiving packets from a given link layer can be controlled both in the software device driver for the network card, as well as on firmware or specialist chipsets. These will perform data link functions such as adding a packet header to prepare it for transmission, and then actually transmit the frame over a physical medium. For Internet access over a dial-up modem, IP packets are usually transmitted using PPP. For broadband Internet access such as ADSL or cable modems, PPPoE is often used. On a local wired network, Ethernet is usually used, and on local wireless networks, IEEE 802.11 is usually used. For wide-area networks, either PPP over Tcarrier or E-carrier lines, Frame relay, ATM, or packet over SONET/SDH (POS) are often used. The link layer can also be the layer where packets are intercepted to be sent over a virtual private network. When this is done, the link layer data is considered the application data and proceeds back down the IP stack for actual transmission. On the receiving end, the data goes up the IP stack twice (once for routing and the second time for the VPN). The link layer can also be considered to include the physical layer, which is made up of the actual physical network components (hubs, repeaters, fiber optic cable, coaxial cable, network cards, Host Bus Adapter cards and the associated network connectors: RJ-45, BNC, etc), and the low level specifications for the signals (voltage levels, frequencies, etc).

- Physical Layer The Physical layer is responsible for encoding and transmission of data over network communications media. It operates with data in the form of bits that are sent from the Physical layer of the sending (source) device and received at the Physical layer of the destination device.

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Ethernet, Token Ring, SCSI, hubs, repeaters, cables and connectors are standard network devices that function at the Physical layer. The Physical layer is also considered the domain of many hardware-related network design issues, such as LAN and WAN topology and wireless technology too.

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References and sources
Andrew S. Tanenbaum. Computer Networks. ISBN 0-13-066102-3 Douglas E. Comer. Internetworking with TCP/IP - Principles, Protocols and Architecture. ISBN 86-7991-142-9 Joseph G. Davies and Thomas F. Lee. Microsoft Windows Server 2003 TCP/IP Protocols and Services. ISBN 0-7356-1291-9 Craig Hunt TCP/IP Network Administration. O'Reilly (1998) ISBN 1-56592-322-7 W. Richard Stevens. The Protocols (TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 1). Addison-Wesley Professional; 1st edition (December 31, 1993). ISBN 0-201-63346-9 Ian McLean. Windows(R) 2000 TCP/IP Black Book ISBN 1-57610-687-X Wikipedia Encyclopedia

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