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Adam Lauture

The Arrival of the English

Ms. Handelman
Chapter 1 - The Meeting of Cultures
AP US History
September 5, 2014

John Cabot [Page 23] - A Genoa native akin to Christopher Columbus. He sailed to northeastern North
America in 1497 on an expedition sponsored by King Henry VII. He attempted searching for a passage
through the New World to the Orient. Other people tried to do this, but there was little progress or
colonization in over a century.
The Enclosure Movement [Pages 23 and 24] - A period in the 1600's in which England's society and
economic practices had a huge transformation. Landowning farmers converted areas of fields into sheep
pasture to capitalize on the booming market for wool. This change evicted serves and tenants in the
process, leading to revolts.
Mercantilism [Page 24] - "the belief in the benefits of profitable trading". This policy transformed
European economic policies in the 16th and 17th centuries. Markets were sought to distribute exports
while limiting imports.
Richard Hakluyt's Argument For Colonies [Page 24] - An Oxford clergyman and propagandist spoke the
word of promoting colonization for the sake of new markets for goods, and dropping off excess goods to
alleviate unemployment. This led to England acquiring trade objects previously only obtainable by
rivaling countries and traders.
The English Reformation [Page 25] - A political dispute between King Henry VII and the Pope. The pope
had refused to divorce him from his wife after she gave birth to a daughter, instead of the son and
potential heir to the throne he wanted. King Henry severed England's ties with the Catholic Church, and
appointed himself as head of Christian faith.
Puritans [Page 26] - People in an alliance that was actively against England's church and their new
policies. Their name comes from their aspirations to 'purify' the Church. They worked towards reforms in
society, religion, and morality. They wanted to simplify Anglican forms of worship, and evenly distribute
power in the Church (as opposed to the bishops having most power). In their perspective, The Church of
England didn't help anyone but the Queen. The new rules abandoned Roman policies, and were
drastically corrupt.
Separatists [Page 26] - A select minority of Puritans that took radical positions. Their mission was to have
religious independence, worshipping who they pleased as they pleased. English law noticed this, and
outlawed all unauthorized religious meetings, and demanding subjects attend official Angelican services,
in an attempt to deter their progress.
Quebec [Page 28] - The location where the French, England's most notorious North American rivals,
permanently settled in 1608. Despite their small population numbers, their relationship with the Native
Americans made them a lethal force. This was because their coureurs de bois (fur traders and trappers)
were skilled and devoted in traveling far to develop an intricate trade system, as well as all of their traders
working to make direct ties with the Native Americans.
Henry Hudson [Page 28] - An English explorer employed by the Dutch that sailed up the wide (but not
named as of yet) Hudson river to land that is now New York State. This river was originally thought to
have been the route through the continent to the Pacific Ocean. While not true, Henry Hudson gave way
to an everlasting Dutch presence in the New World.
New Amsterdam [Pages 28 and 29] - The principal town of the new Dutch colony, New Netherland, on
Manhattan Island. This was the end result of numerous trading posts on the Hudson, and prolonged
settlement from people all across Northern Europe, giving them feudal estates to landlords, as long as
they bought more immigrants.
Sir Humphrey Gilbert [Page 29] - One of the pioneers of English colonization, Sir Humphrey Gilbert was
friends with Queen Elizabeth. As such, he was granted a permit for six years to "inhabit and possess at his
choice all remote and heathen lands not in the actual possession of any Christian prince". Basically, he
was free to claim land as his own that wasn't already owned, This led to the 1583 expedition to
Newfoundland, in the Queen's honor. However a storm sank his ship before he had a chance to colonize
the land.
Sir Walter Raleigh [Page 29] - The second pioneer of English colonization, and half-brother of Sir
Humphrey Gilbert. After Sir Humphrey's death, he was granted the same six year license that
Humphrey recieved by the Queen. He was more successful, returning with two captive Indians and
information about more land.
Roanoke [Page 29] - After returning from an expedition, Sir Walter Raleigh captured two Indians who
told him about Roanoke, a new island. Raleigh got his cousin, Sir Richard Grenville and an army of men
to colonize Roanoke in 1585, with no success due to a run-in Grenville had with the natives.
Virginia [Page 29] - Virginia was to be the proposed name of Roanoke and its surrounding land, as
suggested by Sir Walter Raleigh. However, this flattery got him nowhere, leading him to get financial
assistance elsewhere from private investors. John White, commander of Raleigh's 1587 expedition, named
his daughter Virginia Dare. She was the first American-born child with two English parents.
Sir Richard Grenville [Page 29] - Sir Walter Raleigh's half-cousin, that was recruited by Raleigh to lead
the expedition to Roanoke in order to colonize it. He put the crew on the island, stayed there and got into
an altercation with the villagers, and went back to England.
John White [Page 29] - The commander of the 1587 expedition to Roanoke, and the English parent to
Virginia Dare, the first American-born child with English parents. John White was trapped in England
thanks to Spanish conflict, the island was a desolate wasteland by his return in 1590. The fate of the
people on the island was never discovered.
"Lost Colony" [Page 29] - The nickname to Roanoke after the conclusion of the 1587 expedition. There
was no background as to how or why everyone was gone and the island was deserted. The only clue was
the word "Croatoan" inscribed onto a post. The result of this ended Sir Walter Raleigh's attempts in
English colonization.