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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Indus University, Karachi


Data Communications and Computer Networks, Fall 2014

Instructor: Sohail Sarang
Sohail.sarang@indus.edu.pk

Introduction:
Data communications is one of the most consistently fast-growing sectors in the communications
industry. This course takes an introductory and fundamental, yet technical, look at the basic principles,
transmission, switching and application of data within the networking environment. By attending you
will attain a basic understanding of the many concepts and components that make up a data network
and more.
Todays network transmission speeds continue to increase, the technology grows at ever-increasing
rates, applications are expanding, and, at the same time, end-to-end error rates are decreasing.
Networks are becoming more prevalent, more extensive, more necessary, and more reliable. Personnel
adequately trained in data communications are vital to the success of most organizations.

Course Objective:
To review the fundamental concept of data communications which are required in many other
advanced courses. The course is aimed to develop a solid conceptual understanding of the essentials
and design issues underlying a wide spectrum of modern computer network technologies with focus on
the Internet model. Provide students with an opportunity to gain practical insights and hands-on
experience on using networking hardware, software and tools.

Learning outcomes
The course will give students a good understanding of basic functions on which modern
communication systems are built. It will be a required basis for working in this area.

Teaching Methodology & Requirements: Please arrive and leave on time. Late arrivals and early
departures disrupt class and ruin the presentations of others. They are unprofessional.

Working together to solve homework problems is encouraged. You should learn from one another!
However, the work you hand in should be your own. The committee approach to homework problem
of dividing up the problem amongst your group and copying from your friends is cheating and will not
be tolerated. You learn by doing, so do your own work.

Class meetings will NOT cover everything in the text book. You have to solve number of examples
given in the text book which are not covered in the class and also you have to perform. All written
assignments must be handed in at the beginning of class on the due dates. They will not be accepted
after the class has begun. All assignments not completed on time (not handed in before class has
begun) will receive a zero. You are most welcome to ask questions in class dealing with any material
being presented, and to take an active role in class participation.

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


Main Topics to be covered: (subject to changes)

An overview of data communications and networking
Network categories and models
Signals : analog & digital
Analog versus digital
Data rate limits
Transmission impairment
Digital transmission: line coding and sampling
Analog transmission:
Multiplexing
Transmission media
Data communication interface
Data compression
High speed digital access digital subscriber line dsl
Cable modem
Error detection and correction
Data link control
Error control
Data link protocols
Internet protocol addresses
Lan systems
Internetworking
Internetworking devices

Testing and Grading: Learning will be accomplished through lectures, outside readings, students
participation in classroom discussion. Grading will tend to focus on your overall performance rather
than one or two aspects. Course grade will include the quizzes, assignment, midterms, and final
examination. Excessive absences because of any reason (more than 25%) will result in F Grade.
Students coming late to the class will also be marked absent.

Marks Distribution:
Class Performance (Quizzes/Assignments) 20%
Term Exams 30%
Final Exam 50%
Lab Exam 50%
Recommended Book:
Data and Computer Communications By William Stallings Latest Edition Prentice Hall IntI.
Reference Books:
Data Communications and Networking By Behrouz Forouzan Latest Edition Mc. Graw Hill IntI.
Data Communication, Computer Networks and Open Systems By Fred Halsall Latest Edition Addison
Wesley Publication

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


Course Breakdown
Week Lecture Topics


1
1 An Overview of Data Communications and Networking
History of communication, A Communication Model and Network
2 Basic Definitions, Basic concepts and terms of Data
Communications
3 Protocols and Standards, standards organizations, Internet
Standards


2
4 Network Categories and Models
Line Configuration, Topologies, Transmission modes, Simplex, Full
Duplex and Half Duplex
5 Categories of Networks, Layered Architecture
6 OSI and TCP/IP models




3
7 SIGNALS : Analog & Digital
Analog and Digital Data, Analog and Digital Signals, Periodic and
Aperiodic Signals, Concepts and Terminologies, Time and
Frequency Domains, Composite Signals
8 Bandwidth, Bit Interval and Bit Rate, Digital Signal as a
Composite Analog Signal, Digital Signal Through a Wide-
Bandwidth Medium, Digital Signal Through a Band limited
Medium, Digital versus, Analog Bandwidth
9 ANALOG VERSUS DIGITAL
Low-pass versus Band-pass, Analog & Digital Transmission




4
10 DATA RATE LIMITS
Noiseless Channel: Nyquist Bit Rate
Noisy Channel: Shannon Capacity
TRANSMISSION IMPAIRMENT
Attenuation, Distortion, Noise, Interference and Crosstalk
11 Throughput, Propagation Speed, Wavelength, Loss Calculation
Decibels, SNR
12 DIGITAL TRANSMISSION: LINE CODING and SAMPLING
Digital Data and Digital Signals: Line Coding Schemes and
Characteristics

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6
13 Analog Data and Digital Signals: PAM and PCM, Sampling Rate:
Nyquist Theorem
14 ANALOG TRANSMISSION:
Digital Data and Analog Signals: MODULATION OF DIGITAL DATA
ASK, FSK, PSK and QAM, Bit / Baud Comparison
15 Analog Data and Analog Signals: MODULATION OF ANALOG SIGNALS
AM, FM and PM
16 TELEPHONE MODEMS: Modem Standards
17 MULTIPLEXING
MULTIPLEXING and DEMULTIPLEXING Process
Frequency Division Multiplexing FDM
18 Time Division Multiplexing TDM, Inverse TDM, WDM
19 TRANSMISSION MEDIA

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


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GUIDED MEDIA : WIRED Twisted-Pair Cable, Coaxial Cable and
Fiber-Optic Cable
20 UNGUIDED MEDIA : WIRELESS
Radio waves, Microwaves and Infrared, Cellular Telephony
21
DATA COMMUNICATION INTERFACE
Parallel and Serial Transmission
Synchronous Transmission and Asynchronous Transmission


8
22 Interfacing, DTE-DCE Interface, EIA 232 Interface, Null Modem
23 DATA COMPRESSION Huffman Encoding
24 HIGH SPEED DIGITAL ACCESS DIGITAL SUBSCRIBER LINE DSL
ADSL, RADSL, HDSL, SDSL, VDSL
CABLE MODEM Traditional Cable Networks, llFC Network
MID EXAMINATION = TOTAL 30 MARKS

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10
25 ERROR DETECTION AND CORRECTION
TYPES OF ERRORS
DETECTION : LRC, VRC, CRC and Checksum
26 ERROR Correction : Single Bit Error Correction, Hamming codes
27 Multiple Bit Error Correction
28 DATA LINK CONTROL
Line Discipline, Flow Control : Stop and Wait, Sliding Window
29 ERROR CONTROL ARQ, Stop and Wait ARQ, Sliding Window
ARQ, GO-BACK-N ARQ, SELECTIVE REPEAT ARQ
30 DATA LINK PROTOCOLS
Asynchronous Protocols : X Modem, Y Modem, Z Modem




11
31 Synchronous Protocols : Character-0riented Protocols: Binary
Synchronous communication BSC and BSC Frames
32 Internet Protocol Addresses
Introduction, Addresses For The Virtual Internet, The IP
Addressing Scheme, The IP Address Hierarchy
33 Classes And Dotted Decimal Notation , Subnet Masking, Subnets
And IP Routing


12
34 Subnetting Class C
35 Subnetting Class B
36 Subnetting Class A
37 Continued.


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14
38 Supernetting
39 Classless Addressing : CIDR
40 Route aggregation with VLSM , VLSM Scenario
41 LAN SYSTEMS
LAN Architecture, Ethernet and Fast Ethernet (CSMA/CD)
42 Token Ring and FDDI
43 Wireless LANs IEEE 802.11


44 Internetworking Principles of Internetworking, Connectionless &
Connection-oriented Internetworking
45 Circuit Switching and Packet Switching

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

15 46 Internetworking Devices
Repeaters, Hubs, Bridges, Switches, Gateways and Routers


16
47 Routing and Routing Protocols DVR
48 LSR
FINAL EXAMINATION MAX MARKS = 50