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EGCE-435: Hydraulic Structures

Lecture 3
Phoolendra Mishra
September 9, 2014
Figures, tables and other contents in this material are freely borrowed from various sources solely for
classroom illustration purposes. Please do not redistribute or reproduce beyond class use.
Contents
3 Stability of bodies and pipe ow 2
3.1 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
3.2 Stability of bodies in uid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
3.3 Flow in pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.4 Minor losses in pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
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3 Stability of bodies and pipe ow
3.1 Review
Hydrostatic Forces on curved surface
Projected areas in two planes
Horizontal forces
Vertical forces due to weight of water
Metacenter and Stability of bodies
3.2 Stability of bodies in uid
Example 3.1. A solid brass sphere of 30 cm diameter is used to hold a cylindrical buoy in place ( Figure 1)
in seawater (s = 1.03). The buoy (S = 0.45) has a height of 2 m and is tied to the sphere at one end. What
rise in tide, h, will be required to lift the sphere o the bottom?
Figure 1: Buoy in seawater
Example 3.2. The pontoon (15 ft(L) 9 ft(W) 4 ft(H)) is built of uniform material = 45 lb/ft
2
.
(a) How much of it is submerged when oating in water ?
(b) If it is tilted by 12

as shown in gure2, what will be the moment of the righting couple?


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Figure 2: Rectangular Pontoon
GM = MB GB =
Io
V ol
GB
Righting Moment = WGM sin()
Example 3.3. Subway tunnel is being constructed across the bottom of a harbor. The process involves
tugboats that pull oating cylindrical sections (or tubes as they are often called) across the harbor and sink
them in place, where they are welded to the adjacent section already on the harbor bottom. The cylindrical
tubes are 50 ft long with a diameter of 36 ft. When in place for the tugboats, the tubes are submerged
vertically to a depth of 42 ft, and of the tube is 8 ft above the water s = 1.02. To accomplish this, the tubes
are ooded with 34 ft of water on the inside. Determine the metacentric height and estimate the righting
moment when the tubes are tipped through a heel (list) angle of 4

by the tugboats. ( Hint: Assume the


location of the center of gravity can be determined based on the water contained inside the tubes and the
container weight is not that signicant.)
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3.3 Flow in pipes
Continuity equation : Mass conservation
Energy equations : E =
p

+z +
V
2
2g
Momentum equation :

F
i
= M
out
M
in
E
1
= E
2
+h
L
In general h
f
= KQ
m
(Page 71, Table 3.4)
Darcy-Wiesbach: h
f
=
fLV
2
2gD
; f =
64
Re
(Laminar); Moodys chart or Colebrook equation (Turbulent)
For turbulent ow (Swami & Jain 1976) : f =
0.25

log

e/D
3.7
+
5.74
N
0.9
r

2
Minor loss : h
L
= K
V
2
2g
Figure 3: Moodys Chart
Example 3.4. The elevated water tank shown in Figure 5 is being drained to an underground storage location
through a 10 in diameter pipe. The ow rate is 4488 gallons per minutes (gpm), and the total head loss is
9.85 ft. Determine the water surface elevation in the tank.
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Figure 4: Roughness heights e for common pipe materials
Figure 5: Flow from tank
3.4 Minor losses in pipes
Entrance loss : K
e
V
2
2g
Sudden Contraction : K
c
V
2
2
2g
Pipe Confusors (gradual change) : K

c
V
2
2
2g
Sudden Expansion :
(V1V2)
2
2g
Pipe diusor : K

E
(V1V2)
2
2g
Exit loss : special case of pipe expansion K

E
= 1 and V
2
0
Pipe Bends : K
b
V
2
2g
; Pipe Valves :K
v
V
2
2g
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Figure 6: Coecients for pipe entrances
Figure 7: Sudden contraction coecients in pipes
Figure 8: Coecients for pipe Confusors
Figure 9: Sudden expansion coecients in pipes
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Figure 10: Coecients for pipe bends
Figure 11: Coecients for pipe valves
Figure 12: Coecients for pipe valves (continued)
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