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Thank you for being simply the best!

How you do it, well never know


A passionate teacher,
Never the boss, yet controlling the flow
!ind, free and caring groovy and wise"#
(Author Unknown)
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First of all, we would like to thank our module lecturer, Mrs A.R Mosaheb for her
support and contribution in the realisation of this work and for her patience and
kind heart.
Indeed, her inaluable !uidance and adice hae !ien a wider and richer
dimension to the stud".
#e would also e$press our sincere thanks to all members (students, collea!ues,
!roup members) who hae participated in the realisation of this stud".
No matter where you are, parents want their students to safe
and secure.....that might even precede a quality education.....
With drugs, gangs and guns on the rise in many communities the
threat of violence weighs heavily on most principals minds these
days.... Anyone who thins they are not vulnera!le is really
naive.
(Principal Michael Durso, spring brook
High school, as quoted in the Washington
Magazine, September 199!
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(1) Identify a researchable problem/issue in education in general or
in your own classroom practice and propose a tentative title for
this piece of research.
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Identification of research problem and formulation of research title:
If one were to set out to identify the issues of great concern in education today,
one would end up with the maintenance of discipline in classroom as the most
crucial one. Discipline problems or indiscipline at school is becoming a cause
for alarm. It has been, continues to be and hopefully will not continue to be the
number one problem and duty of the educator. It has become a high concern
among educators, policymakers as well as public opinion in general. In view of
the above, a suitable research title was to be outlined. Each member in our
group thought of a suitable title and after consulting each and every individual
proposal, we finally ended up with the following title:
A Comparative study of discipline problems/indiscipline in four
Private secondary schools.

(2) !plain the rationale of this problem/issue in its conte!t.
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"ationale
5
When discipline problems occur in a school, it is a sign that something is wrong
somewhere, not necessarily with students. Something might be wrong with the
school, the interpersonal climate and organizational patterns of the school. When
misbehaiours occur students might be reacting to the school as it a!ects them
and as they hae learned to perceie it and react to it. Something then might be
wrong with the school, the educators and the rector.
"n institution is meant for learning and the ob#ectie is not only to impart
education but also to build up the character of the students and transform them
into better human beings. $he students are e%pected to obsere absolute
discipline in their conduct during the entire period they spend with an institution
of any &ind, pre'primary, primary, secondary or tertiary education. (ost schools
and classrooms are plagued by serious learner misbehaiour that has an aderse
impact on teaching and learning.
)n schools where discipline is a problem, the culture of teaching and learning
tends to moe into a downward spiral *+orgat 2,,3-. Slee*1.//- supports +orgat
when he says classroom disruption is a ma#or impediment to learning. $he reality
of the situation is that many educators face daily struggles with issues of
discipline in their school enironment and in their classroom. )t is puzzling to
obsere that some educators are able to establish discipline in the contemporary
classroom while their colleagues and other educators who are in serice. We
discoered that classroom discipline is one of the most important challenges
facing educators today. )n the wa&e of new education legislation and regulations
that regulate discipline and punishment, many educators 0nd it increasingly
di1cult to maintain discipline in their classrooms. $here are a number of
discipline strategies and methods that can be employed by educators2 howeer
some of these methods are perceied to be ine!ectie by the ma#ority of the
educators.
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$he past decades hae witnessed a degeneration of student4s behaiours both
within and outside school premises, within or outside the class, between students
and educators and among students themseles. )ndiscipline is becoming a matter
of great concern in all our schools. 5ery change in technology, eery change in
the economic standard of a country will change the wants or needs of the people
in this country and as 6lasser *1..2- states that until the needs of the child are
met, the child is li&ely to disrupt the class, so schools and educators need a
constant source of information about the wants or needs of the children in the
educational process.
7p to this point, there is not one program that wor&s in all schools. $here hae
been successful school which become the e%ample, but nothing that wor&s
eerywhere. What wor&s in one school may not wor& in another one een though
they hae the same eco'social and student ma&e'up that leaes educational
leader *directors, rectors, principals- wondering what to do. $here only option is
to &eep trying programs until indiscipline is reduced and een though reducing
indiscipline, oertime the problem returns.
"s the outcomes of the e!orts deoted to infuse discipline are positie, educators
are happy, they feel rewarded and are thus encouraged to go beyond the call of
duty and further help students to improe. 8n the other hand, dealing with
indiscipline can bring stress, discourage educators in their tas& and een doubt
professional competence when they happen to fail in their attempts in trying
their best to educate students. 8ne of the scariest issues for educators is dealing
with confrontational students in the classroom. While confrontations do not occur
eeryday in eery classroom, most if not all secondary school teachers will hae
to deal with a student who is acting belligerent and spea&ing in out in their
classroom. )t does not ta&e a lot of research to tell us that discipline in school is
di!erent today than it was in the 1.5,s. 9ut it does ta&e some inestigation to
0nd out why. :arious studies hae shown that students who act up in school
e%press a ariety of reasons for doing so;
<
Some thin& that teachers do not care about them.
8thers do not want to be in school at all.
$hey do not consider goal setting and success in school important
anymore.
Students are unaware that their adolescent behaiours will result in
punishment they won4t li&e.
=iscipline enforcers hae to go through long procedures of due process;
hearings, speci0c charges, witnesses, and appeals.
We hae therefore deemed it signi0cant to probe deeper into a comparatie
research about the di!erent forms and causes of discipline problems in four
priate secondary schools. $he 0ndings will obiously help to improe the
smooth'running of actiities in the school by ensuring the least possible
disruptie behaiour, better academic performance, less properly more money to
be spent or bettering the school enironment such as library, sport e>uipment
and other physical re>uirements, necessary for the students deelopment. $hus,
proiding a ?safe and secure4 learning enironment has always been the hallmar&
of a successful educator and a successful school.
/
(3) #tate your main research $uestion and sub%$uestions and state the
ob&ectives of this proposed research'
.
$he research problem is e%pressed as a research >uestion;
What are the main types and causes of in indiscipline in four private
secondary schools"
$he purpose of our research is to understand the meaning attached to the term
@disciplineA in classrooms and schools, the di!erent types of discipline problems
and its possible causes with a iew of 0nding best discipline strategies to be
practiced. 8ur approach to school discipline is pedagogical because its study is
centred in the dynamics round teaching and education and its impact in student
learning.
)n order to conduct the research and achiee its purpose, the following research
>uestions will be e%plored;
*i- What meaning is attached to the word @disciplineA in the four priate
secondary schoolsB
*ii- What causes students to misbehaeB
*iii- What are the di!erent types of indiscipline commonly encountered in the
four priate secondary schoolsB
*i- What are the possible solutions to remedy the situationsB
$he speci0c ob#ecties of the study are;
*i- $o identify the main forms and main causes of indiscipline
preailing in the four priate secondary schools listed aboe.
*ii- $o compare and contrast the di!erent speci0c forms and causes
of indiscipline preailing in the four priate secondary schoolsB
*iii- $o propose ways to remedy the situation in order to enhance
students4 positie behaiour.
1,
(4) Write a short literature review on the research
problem/issue?
Introduction
School is basically &nown as a place where teaching and learning ta&es place.
8er the past decades, the place called ?school4 has changed drastically from
the point of iew due to changes in di!erent issues such as social, cultural,
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economic and technology. School indiscipline in all facets is on the rise
nowadays and is becoming the ?tal& of the town4 fre>uently. 5ducators, rectors,
parents and other sta&eholders can testify this eer growing problem amongst
our students at the national as well as the international leel. )t would be wise
to describe indiscipline as those students iolating the basic rules and
regulations of an educational institution. (ild indiscipline li&e not wearing
school uniforms, lateness and not behaing well inside the classroom and
college compound are dealt with almost eerybody. 9ut we can note that
seere indiscipline li&e andalism, truancy, alcohol consumption and smo&ing
are ta&ing oer great pace as a result of which the management and educators
need to double their e!ort to tac&le this problems.
$eaching being a noble profession entails a great deal of responsibility and is
meant to be e%ercised with e%treme care and dedication. 5ducators are the
principal actors who steer a nation4s children to become educated and
responsible citizens in future since children are our greatest assets.
Coweer, nowadays the status and professionalism of the teaching profession is
at ris&. $he role of teachers as educators has considerably changed whereby it
is not limited to the classroom but e%tended to the institution at large.
$eaching has become stressful, hectic, een gruesome at times for some
educators, because more bric&bats are showered on them than bou>uets. )t is
becoming more and more di1cult to cope with youngsters in most schools. $he
alarming growth of indiscipline, in school,, the deteriorating relationship
between educators and pupils and the troubles faced by teachers to deal with
students of the present era e%plain the reason for choosing indiscipline as a
research.
What is discipline?
$he term @disciplineA is deried from +atin word @disciplinaA which means to
teach *http"##$$$%ans$ers%com!. Dosen con0rms that the term discipline is
deried from the word @disciplinaA. Coweer, she indicates that the term could
mean2
1. " branch of &nowledge
2. $raining that deelops self control, character, orderliness or e1ciency
3. Strict control to enforce obedience
4. $reatment that controls and punishes
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5. " system of rules
$hus, the term discipline may be thought of as any training intended to deelop
moral character or produce a pattern of behaiour. $he term may also be
thought of to be a coercie mechanism or a collaboratie process of building
institutions and society. Erom a 9iblical perspectie, the root word of discipline is
discipline *Doussow, 2,,3;42,-. =isciple means follower of the doctrines of an
educator *Follins, 2,,2;24.-. =isciple in this conte%t is e>uialent to a learner.
)t is enisaged that learners become disciples.
Doussow, *2,,3;42,- maintains that a disciple is a disciplined person and thus to
discipline is an act of proiding the learner with the s&ills re>uired to help him to
be prepared to act as a responsible and e!ectie disciple. $his means that when
educator4s disciple learners, they are ma&ing disciples *disciplined persons-. )n
this way, discipline is de0ned as training that deelops self'control and it is in the
true sense of the word positie.
"ccording to Gohnson *1..,-, discipline is the process by which educators foster
wor& write learners in an e!ort to cause them to become responsible for their
own actions, while Gones *1./<-, responsible for their own actions, while Gones
*1./<-, de0nes it as the business of enforcing classroom standards and building
patterns of cooperation in order to ma%imise learning and minimise disruption.
"ccording to Fharles *2,,2- the word @disciplineA has seeral di!erent
de0nitions but two predominant in education. $he 0rst refers to learner
behaiour and the second refers to what educators do to help learners behae
acceptably. Fharle4s *2,,2- de0nition concurs with Doussow4s. 5ducators
discipline *what educators do-, the learners so that the learners become
disciplined persons *learner behaiour-. 9oth meaning i.e., what educators do
and learners behaiour will be used in this study. School discipline thus can be
de0ned as a set of rules that inform learners what is right and what is wrong in
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order to aoid negatie conse>uences. )t is a way of nurturing, deeloping and
empowering people to act in a certain manner, and empowering people to act in
a certain manner, not because they are coerced in doing so, but because they
freely choose this as being in their own interests and those of the school.
Foncerning the displays, we beliee that ma#or situations are framed in what
"mado and Ereire *2,,.- points out as the @0rst leel of indiscipline; @those
incidents of @disruptieA nature whose @disturbanceA a!ects the @good
classroom functioningA. $he incidents that might be framed in the second and
third leels are @conHict among peersA and @conHicts within teacher'student
relationshipA, which might be ta&en on proportions of iolence and een
delin>uency than the former *"mado 2,,5-.
Methods of discipline
#chool discipline
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School discipline refers to regulation of children and the maintenance of order
*IrulesI- in schools. $hese rules may, for e%ample, de0ne the e%pected
standards of clothing, time&eeping, social behaiour, homewor& assignments,
tests, and wor& ethic. $he term may also refer to the punishment that is the
conse>uence of iolating the behaiour code, or to the administration of such
punishment, rather than to behaing within the school rules.
School discipline has three main goals;
5nsure safety of sta! and students.
Freate an enironment conducie to learning.
Fontribute to the social deelopment of the student.
$he "merican academy of paediatrics suggests that an e!ectie discipline
system must contain three elements;
1. " learning enironment characterised by positie, supportie parent'child
relationships.
2. " proactie strategy for systematic and strengthening of desired
behaiours.
3. " reactie strategy for decreasing or eliminating undesired behaiours.
$hurch discipline
&hurch discipline is a response of an ecclesiastical body to some perceied
wrong, whether in action or in doctrine. )ts most e%treme form in modern
churches is e%communication. &hurch discipline can also refer to the rules
goerning some ecclesiastical order, such as priests or mon&s, such as clerical
celibacy.
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%mployment discipline
)n unionised companies, discipline may be a regulated part of a collectie
bargaining agreement and sub#ect to grieance procedures.
)n 7J employment matters, a discipline hearing Kotherwise &nown as a
disciplinary hearingL is conducted by an employer when it is alleged that an
employee has fallen below the re>uired standard in an aspect relating to their
employment. " discipline hearing can be instigated regarding an issue of
misconduct or poor performance. $he employee should be allowed to respond to
the allegations during the discipline hearing.
&ilitary 'iscipline
Militar' Discipline is a state of order and obedience e%isting within a command.
)t inoles the ready subordination of the will of the indiidual for the good of the
group. (ilitary discipline is an e%tension and specialized application of the
discipline demands habitual but reasoned obedience that preseres initiatie
and functions unfalteringly een in the absence of the commander. =iscipline is
created within a command by instilling a sense of con0dence and responsibility
in each indiidual.
=iscipline demands correct performance of duty. $he need for discipline is best
inculcated in indiidual by appealing to his sense of reason. )n the few instances
where appeal to reason fails, the use of punishment is e!ectie in causing a
recalcitrant indiidual to conform and perhaps appreciate the need for discipline.
Fondemnation and earned praise from senior to his subordinate, either
indiidually or collectiely, for tas&s well done sere to strengthen the
disciplinary bonds which bind together the smooth functioning team.
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#elf discipline
Sel()discipline refers to the training that one gies oneself to accomplish a
certain tas& or to adopt a particular pattern of behaiour, een though one
would rather be doing something else. Eor e%ample, denying oneself of an
e%traagant pleasure in order to accomplish a more demanding charitable deed.
$hus, self'discipline is the assertion of willpower oer more base desires, and is
usually understood to be a synonym of Mself controlM.
Self'discipline is to some e%tent a substitute for motiation, when one uses
reason to determine a best course of action that opposes oneMs desires. :irtuous
behaiour is when oneMs motiations are aligned with oneMs reasoned aims; to do
what one &nows is best and to do it gladly. Fontinent behaiour, on the other
hand, is when one does what one &nows is best, but must do it by opposing
oneMs motiation. (oing from continent to irtuous behaiour re>uires training
and some self discipline.
Misbehaviour/ Indiscipline.
)t is eident that discipline is interconnected with misbehaiour. )n order to
indicate this interconnectedness of discipline and misbehaiour, there is a need
to clarify the concepts misbehaiour and behaiour. 9ehaiour refers to
eerything people do, good or bad, right or wrong, helpful or useless, productie
or waste less *Fharles, 2,,2-. (isbehaiour is a &ind of behaiour which is
inappropriate for the setting or situation in which it occurs, and it occurs on
purpose, or else out of ignorance of what is e%pected.
)ndiscipline in the classroom refers to all the small as well as the big acts of misconduct
on the part of a student *Fohen, 1./<- which has a direct impact on the teaching
process, that is, which hinder teaching directly, hence learning indirectly. )ndiscipline
inside the classroom refers to misconduct in class, non'respect towards the educator
and damage to class properties.
1<
When is behaviour unacceptable?
We all display behaiours at times that can be considered disordered or
unacceptable, depending on location, fre>uency, intensity, duration,
socioeconomic and cultural inHuences, and age appropriateness of the
behaiour.
*ocation is important. " drama or N5 teacher, for e%ample, might see
actie behaiour being appropriate whereas another teacher *e.g. of
mathematics- might see the same actiity as inappropriate.
+he (requenc' of the behaiour is also important because a behaiour that
occurs once is unli&ely to be a problem whereas if it continues it can be a
behaiour problem.
+he socioeconomic status of the family is another consideration because
many students with speci0c behaiour come from socially disadantaged
bac&grounds. Students from low socioeconomic situations and single'
parent family bac&grounds are usually categorised with misbehaiour.
&ultural (actors are reHected in the di!erent emphases that cultural groups
place on behaiour. While some teachers might hae certain e%pectations
of students, families from di!erent cultural bac&grounds might not share
these e%pectations, or e%pect their children to share them either. Eor
e%ample, some parents may actiely discourage this child from
participating in group or team actiities, preferring them to wor& and study
alone a way of increasing their academic results.
1/
Indiscipline in the Mauritian context
$he issue of indiscipline at school is becoming a sub#ect of educational
debate in (auritius. 5ducators, head of schools, parents, politicians,
students as well as education authorities continue to iew matters of
indiscipline and how to sole them as the number one priority.
9ehaioural problems especially indiscipline are on increase both in our
state secondary schools and priate secondary schools in (auritius. 8ur
school reHects the changes in society and nowadays many children we
teach in (auritius hae increasingly comple% lies in which they often
communicate their personal di1culties through challenging behaiour.
$he problem has become so serious that newspaper publish issues on
discipline problems or indiscipline on a fre>uent basis.
5.g. cin> plus dimanche *3, (arch 2,,.-
, -%%coll.giens et prostitu.es " un mo'en pour se (aire du (ric-%% /
+e (auricien *13 Gune 2,,/-
, -%selon un enseignant" *e pro( pr.(0re se taire craignant pour sa
s.curit.%%%%1
+e dO0'plus *14 Gune 2,,/-
, -%deu2 coll.giens arr3t.s pour un d.lit de drogues-%% /
+4e%press 8utloo& *1< "ugust 2,,/-
, %%%%%+he need (or tighter discipline in state colleges%%%%%/
+e (auricien *1< (ars 2,,.-
@....un OlPe de 14 ans malmPne une enseignante en classe...A
Wee&'end *1, "ril 2,,.-
1.
Q R.elees indisciplines'#eu de nerfsR. S *$his list of e%amples is not
e%haustie--
)n this conte%t, we will hae to admit that maintaining discipline at school
is progressiely becoming di1cult. "ll sta&eholders are a!ected directly or
indirectly by unacceptable pupil4s behaiour. 5!ectie teaching and
learning are tempered by indiscipline.
)n (ay 1..4, the (inistry of 5ducation and Science published the
Jasenally report based on sureys conducted in secondary schools on
discipline. $he report is a summary of problems of discipline that
secondary school in (auritius face. )t is mainly about truancy and
absenteeism.
)n (auritius, other issues of indiscipline were raised in the white paper on
pre'primary, primary and secondary education *1..< pg 3/ T 3.-;
4Discipline or lack o( discipline o(ten 5nds its source o( (rustration,
alienation or sense o( impotence in the (ace o( remote authorit'%1
Eurther issues on education was raised by the (inister of 5ducation and
Cuman Desources on 3, Uoember 2,,3 on @)ndiscipline and iolence in
secondary schoolsA by Con =. 6oo&hool.
)n the (auritian conte%t, there were no e%tensie studies aailable on the
issue of indiscipline and iolence until (ay 2,,3 where =r. : Damharai and
his colleagues published a report founded by the (auritius Desearch
Founcil. @=iscipline, indiscipline and iolence in secondary schools in
2,
(auritius.A (DF Desearch po#ect by =r. : Damhai, " Furpen, C (ariaye,
".Damful.
Tpes of indiscipline
)ndiscipline e%ist at two particular leels in a school2 0rstly inside the
classroom and secondly outsides this limited space.
$he ma#or and recurring forms of indiscipline inside the classroom are2
)ndiscipline in regards to behaiour in class.
Uo respect to teachers.
=irtying the classrooms *throwing litter all around-
Eilling the walls with gra1ti.
9ullying
Stealing
Uot bringing te%tboo&s.
Fard playing
7se of mobile phone during teaching time.
(a&ing obscene gestures.
Flassroom disruption.
(a&ing infernal noise.
Fonstant wandering around classroom.
+eaing the classroom or school without permission.
$hreatening students and teachers.
Nersistent compulsie lying.
Self'mutilation.
Uo respect for school properties.
Uo respect for school uniform and their own appearance.
5%cessie use of foul language.
5%cessie absenteeism.
+ateness to school and class.
Eailure to attend classes on a regular basis.
$ruancy.
Eighting in class.
Uo respect for teaching and non teaching sta!.
Eailure to comply with the instructions of the teaching and non
teaching sta!.
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+aziness and carelessness.
Fraze for cigarettes and mobile phones.
Comewor& not done.
8n the other hand, indiscipline outside the classroom refers to the
iolation of the school rules and regulations.
)ndiscipline outside classrooms usually manifests itself in the following
ways2
:iolence
Smo&ing
$ruancy
$ransgression of school rules and regulations
9ullying
:andalism and theft
Writing of gra1ti on walls
!auses of indiscipline
=iscipline problems occur in all schools though they ary in degree and
nature. )n fact the comple%ities of the problems due to a multiplicity of
causes which are ariegated in nature are the main preoccupations of
Cead of schools, educators, parents, politicians and education authorities.
)t is wrong, howeer to assume that students alone are the cause of poor
behaiour. Foncerning the causes, we can distinguish among others,
these related to students4 idiosyncrasies, hisVher social and family conte%t,
e%ternal inHuences and of social, economic, cultural, generational nature,
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etc..., those related to the personality and professionalism of the teacher
and those associated with school as an organisation on the educational
system as a whole. )ndiscipline in schools is all about negligent of the
students, educators and parents.
$here are other factors which are uniersally recognised as the ma#or
causes of discipline problems. $here are many reasons why there might be
indiscipline in a school. $he causes can be diided into 2 groups; causes
within school and causes outside school.
Within school
(he #chool
(ost researchers and educational administrators emphasize the importance of
school factors in leading to indiscipline, although we cannot aoid the reality that
occurs across settings.
Jau!man *2,,5- suggested seen ways in which school can contribute to
behaiour disorders in children;
1. insensitiity to students4 indiiduality2
2. inappropriate e%pectations of students2
3. inconsistent management of behaiour2
4. instruction in non'functional and irreleant s&ills2
5. ine!ectie instruction in critical s&ills2
3. destructie contingencies of reinforcement2 and
<. 7ndesirable models of school conduct Vwea& school administration.
(eacher attitude and tolerance
$eacher attitude and tolerance are important contributing school factors and are
critical in the cause for indiscipline. $his is seen most clearly in secondary schools
where some teachers can hae considerable di1culty with a particular student
while others hae no di1culty at all. $he teachers e%periencing di1culties are
more li&ely to see the misbehaiour lying within the student, and more li&ely to
ignore the reality that it is the outcome of interactions between teachers and
students, and that this behaiour cannot be dismissed as the responsibility of the
student alone. Where teachers deliberately use the same management
techni>ues for students with discipline problems and regular students, they are
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setting up themseles and the students to fail. "s teachers, we need to e%amine
our approaches to teaching and our responses to indiidual students as well as to
the students as a class group.
(he classroom
$he classroom has four main factors that will determine the cause of
discipline problems as well as the solution to replacing negatie
behaiours with more positie behaiours. $hese factors are *see Eigure
5.2-;
students
teachers
curriculum and teaching strategies
physical setting
#tudents
Students are commonly identi0ed as haing behaiour problems when they
disrupt classroom teaching. :inson *2,,2- found that the behaiours of
students of most concern to teachers were;
clowning2
swearing2
disobedience2
refusal to cooperate2 and
=isruption of the teaching and learning process.
Curriculum and resource
Furriculum and resource factors are a ma#or stumbling bloc& in addressing
discipline problems in classrooms. Where a teacher see&s to implement
the curriculum content without regard to student learning needs, the
potential for discipline problems increases.
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Students will not engage in the learning process when their frustration
leel is e%ceeded by the presentation of curriculum content that is beyond
their comprehension, and when teaching material and the teaching
methods are incompatible with their learning style.
(eaching and learning
$eaching and learning in the classroom is a constantly changing
combination of all four factors at all times. "ll four factors are critically
important in determining what may e%acerbate the behaiour
problem*s- and how they may be addressed. $he model of focusing on
the student as the cause of the behaiour problem aoids the reality
that the other three factors may contribute more to the problem through
poor teacher preparation, and using inappropriate teaching and learning
strategies to implement a curriculum that isn4t related to the student
interests in an unstimulating classroom. )n that case, the teacher'
de0ned inappropriate behaiours of the students may simply be their
way of 0lling in the academically unengaged time. Where students also
hae a special need, the issues of combining academic and social s&ills
becomes more important and often re>uires addressing of the four
factors oer e%tended periods of time, and in the case of students with
"utism Spectrum =isorder or "sperger4s Syndrome, perhaps een years
*see e.g., 9ullard, 2,,4-.
Poor teaching
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$eachers also contribute to discipline problems in the classroom when they
are not thoroughly prepared, &now their wor&, and can put it across in an
interesting and motiating way. 7sually a teacher who ma&es more of an
e!ort to connect with the pupils is more li&ely to gain their attention. 9ut
reading in a monotone from a te%t boo& before telling the pupils to get on
with some tas& in their boo&s is #ust as&ing for the paper planes to ta&e
Hight and showing across the classroom.
)igher ability students
"mongst higher ability groups, certain pupils may come to the conclusion
that they are intellectually superior to the teacher and so taunt himVher
without feeling any incentie to do the wor&. )nstead, they tal& to friends,
chuc& stu! about, &nowing they4re able to conduct themseles in a
reasonable manner should the teacher come round and answer correctly
any >uestions the teacher may as& them to chec& they are doing the wor&.
*egative relationship between pupils
$here may also be unwelcome incidents that could occur between pupils
at any time, causing tempers to occasionally ta&e such emotions are li&ely
to somewhat dim the awareness of school discipline for the pupil in
>uestion.
23
"eond the school
9eyond the school are four factors that inHuence school behaiour issues. $hese
are family factors, socio'economic factors, cultural, religious, and racial factors,
and socio'political factors.
+amily factors
$he foundation of discipline is laid at home that is by the parents and all
other people who are the primary members in a child4s life. We beliee
the basic reason of this @HeauA is being disrespectful to the child4s needs'
physical, emotional and social needs. Narents do not ta&e time to nurture
his child and the school should shoulder their responsibility.
Narticularly in the case of students with misbehaiour, there is a clear lin&
between their mental health needs and the home situation and if focused
or a number of &ey family ariables.
unstable relationships with parents or carers2
death of a parent2
inade>uate parenting s&ills2
family discord, iolence, separation or family brea&down2 and
Narents with serious mental health problems, alcoholVdrug problems
that a!ect parenting.
Narents may hae no interest in education and so this encourages their
children to assume a similar attitude, proiding rebellious behaiour
Nupils may be abused at home. )t4s not going to be as easy for a pupil
from an unstable bac&ground to focus on school wor& as one from a
more secure one. "fter all, what is a pupil who is mistreated more li&ely
to be thin&ing about; @what4s the formula for the circumference of a
circle or, will my dad get drun& again tonight and threaten me with that
&nifeBA
2<
"gain in the domestic conte%t, pupils may not eer hae been set
boundaries at home and so it4s only natural that they are going to 0nd
abiding by a whole set of new rules at school a su!ocating prospect
which limits their usual freedom immeasurably.
Weatherburn *2,,3- identi0ed a clear relationship between data on
household poerty and #ueniles conicted of iolent crimes. Ce found that
@economic and social stress inHuence crime by e%erting corrosie e!ects
on the parenting processA. $he combination of high rates of family
dissolution, inade>uate parenting, and delin>uent peers results in a much
greater li&elihood of a young person becoming inoled in delin>uent
behaiour.
"lthough schools cannot be responsible for eents that occur within the
home, teachers and other personnel need to be sensitie to the di1culties
that some students face within dysfunctional families. 5ducators and
educational administrators need to be aware that any solution to
behaiour problems in schools depends on addressing the whole problem,
not #ust one aspect of it. )n the case of suspected abuse of students,
teachers must report abuse to the releant authority.
Peer pressure
Neer group pressure is one factor contributing to indiscipline as during this
phase, teens tend to separate themseles from their parents and identify
closely with their peers. $hey resist to antisocial behaiours #ust for peer
approal. $hose who 0nd di1culties in inculcating antisocial group forms
are considered as fools.
,a-iness
" student who is lazy by nature will resist discipline. $he e!ort that
learning re>uires is not apparently worth the table. "rriing to class on
time, completing homewor& assignments and doing pro#ects goes against
the laid bac& nature of the lazy student.
2/
Influence of media
+earned iolent behaiour also comes from repeated e%posure to iolence
in the media such as music lyrics, Collywood moies, teleision programs,
ideo games, iolent clips on mobile phones and 24'hour news stations
broadcasting iolent or graphic scenes. )f teens see iolence at home, in
moies, ideo games or on the street, they are more inclined to copy such
modelling behaiours. )t is a pity to say that parents do not hae a proper
selection of moies to be iewed by their children.
Private tuition
Nriate tuition has also been mentioned by our researchers as being one
important cause of indiscipline. Students and parents beliee that lesson
in schools are not important as eerything is being done in tuition. "s a
matter of fact, they do not create a peaceful learning enironment in the
school. Students often do not respond positiely to classwor& and
homewor& and spend much of their time on tal&ing on other issues.
Students do not gie due respect to college teachers and it is amazing to
0nd that the same students behae di!erently in priate tuition without
classroom management on behalf of the priate tutor.
#ocio%economic factors
"reas of high unemployment and low socio'economic areas hae a higher
proportion of students with indiscipline problems. 8ften this can arise from
a lac& of community resources and a lac& of opportunities for positie
social interactions such as sporting groups and clubs that are part of
resilience building in children and youth. " higher police presence in low
socio'economic areas also builds negatie, rather than positie
relationships with authority 0gures.
2.
$he society in general must ta&e blame for the recent decline in moral and
spiritual alues which helped to shape the characters of young people into
becoming disciplined citizens. $he remoal of corporal punishment in
schools hae caused een more indiscipline among students, not because
it was necessarily the wrong thing to do but because it was not thoroughly
discussed among all the sta&eholders with a iew to replacing it with
measures of discipline that are #ust as or more e!ectie. "s a result
educators feel more ulnerable and are increasingly attac&ed by students
and parents.
nvironmental factors
5nironment directly inHuences the way students behae in schools. )n
(auritius, the educational system is based on regionalisation. )n this
conte%t, the behaiour of students is inHuenced mainly by their social
enironmental bac&ground. Uot all schools face the same problems. Eor
instance, students residing in rural areas may manifest particular
behaiours which are completely di!erent from those liing in urban areas.
Political factors
5ducation has always been a political issue. +aw and order issues impact
on school systems because educators and parents ali&e are concerned
about the impact of students with behaiour problems a!ecting the
education of students without indiscipline problem.
3,
Conse$uences of Indiscipline at school
)ndiscipline has always been a hindrance to the educational deelopment
of our students. We hae reached a point where the issue is really
becoming a matter of concern for the di!erent sta&eholders gien the
number of cases relating to seere indiscipline. (any students are not
aware that indiscipline directly a!ects their academic performance and
reputation when leaing school for #obs. "part from the negatie impacts
on the students, we beliee that it does a!ect the educators, management
and also the society at large;
)t a!ects the academic performance and self image of students and
peers.
)t a!ects e1ciency and motiation of educators and management.
$he name and status of the school is put into >uestion.
$he image of iolence pro#ected on our society at large.
Theories of school discipline
8er the years, much has been written about school discipline and any to
attempt to coer theories and ideas about how educators should deal with
school discipline. Eor the purpose of this research, three dierging and
competing iews will be seen these are2
9.E. S&inner4s *1..2- behaioural modi0cation model2
31
+. "nd (. Fanter4s *1..<- assertie behaioural model2
G.S. Jounin4s *1.<1- behaiourist, stimulus'response model.
5ach of these theories sheds light on a particular aspect of discipline and
attempts to proide step'by'step procedures in managing school discipline.
Nsychologists from a behaiourist orientation study human behaiour in an
attempt to understand the process that will induce change in behaiour
*$uc&man, 1..2-.
#$innerian model
$he S&innerian model is behaioural in nature. )t ta&es its starting point
from the fact that behaiour that is rewarded tends to be repeated, while
behaiour that receies no rewards tends to be eliminated.
S&inner beliees that conse>uences shape an indiidual4s behaiour. Ce
focused his approach on reinforcement and reward. )t assumes that
behaiour is learnt and that reinforcements contribute towards achieing
good behaiour when reinforcement procedures are used to shape a
learner4s behaiour in a desired direction. 5ducators reward desired
behaiour with praise and en#oyable prizes2 they punish undesirable
behaiour by withholding all rewards.
!anter%s assertive behavioural model
Fanter and Fanter *1..2- deeloped an approach which he terms
?assertie discipline4 that cannot be described as purely behaiourist in
nature, but does contain certain elements of a behaiourist approach.
"ssertie discipline is di!erent from many other models in that it proides
a system of dealing with behaiour at the time it occurs, through a plan
that ma&es the learners responsible for his or her behaiour and resulting
conse>uences *Steere 1.</,43-. "ssertie educators &now when and how
to instil good behaiour. $he goal of assertie discipline is to foster on
educators a feeling that they are in control of the classroom. "n educator
32
ta&ing calm but 0rm control shows assertieness by calmly enforcing
agreed'upon rules of conduct.
&ounin%s model
Jounin *1.<1- is also a pioneer of a behaioural approach based on the
typical behaiourist stimulus'response theory. Jounin, li&e S&inner, argues
that learners will deelop good behaiour and erase bad behaiour in
attempt to gain the reward and aoid punishment where as S&inner focus
on how the behaiour of the learner could be controlled and behaiour
modi0cation could be achieed, Jounin *1.<3- focuses more on the
behaiour of the educator and what the educator should be doing to
achiee the desirable behaiour in learners. Jounin recommends two
techni>ues that can be used. Ce terms these ?wittiness4 and ?oerlapping4.
Ce describes wittiness as the educators4 attribute of haing @eyes at the
bac& of their headsA *Jounin 1.<3-, implying that an educator must be
able to &now and see what is happening in hisVher class. 8erlapping is
the ability to attend to two things at the same time. Eor e%ample, an
educator may be helping a small group of learners and simultaneously also
obsered that two other learners are playing instead of doing their class
wor&.
"part from the behaioural models, two other areas hae also been
studied, the cognitie aspect and the construction approach. Fognitiists
consider the learner4s actie participation not #ust as responding to
circumstances, but as organising and reorganising incoming information in
processes of thin&ing and problem soling. Fogntiists put themseles in
the mind of the learner and try to 0gure out how information is
transformed, stored and retrieed in problem soling.
Fonstructiism is an approach to &nowledge that assumes that people
&now and understand in uni>ue ways and create their own and ?new4
&nowledge. $he basic onto logical assumption of constructiitism is
relatiism that is, it assumes that human sense ma&ing is a process that
systematise e%perience so as to render it understandable places greater
emphasis on the child4s deelopment and understanding of more general
social processes and relationships.
33
'. Identif our data collection tools and (ustif our
research problem/issue. ()* m$s)
34
" research design is a plan for selecting sub#ects, research sites and data
collection procedures to answer the research >uestions*(c (illan W
Schumacher, 2,,1-. $his design describes the sample from an identi0ed
population, the site where the sample is located, circumstances under which
the sub#ects will be studied as well as the data collection techni>ues that will
be utilised. "ccording to (c (illan W Schumacher*2,,1-, sub#ects are
indiiduals who participate in the study2 a sample refers to a group of sub#ects
from which data are collected and a population is a group of cases that
conform to speci0c criteria and to which the researcher intend to generalise the
results of the research.
+esearch method
$he focus of the study is to obtain information on the problems of indiscipline
encountered in four priate secondary schools and to analyse the di!erent
form and causes of the problem. 6ien that the problem of discipline is a
phenomenon common to all educational institution, this research going into a
detailed inestigation is based on a case study.
(erriam *2,,2- de0nes a case study as an intensie description and analysis of
a phenomenon or social unit such as an indiidual group, institution or
35
community. " case study inoles loo&ing at a case or a phenomenon in its
real life conte%t *Fohen et al. 2,,<-. $hus, how educators lied e%periences,
their thoughts and feelings about classroom discipline are portrayed in the four
priate secondary schools.
@" case study is a particular method of >ualitatie research. Dather than using
large samples and following rigid protocol to e%amine a limited number of
ariables, a case study method inole an in'depth, longitudinal e%amination of
a single instance or eent; a case. $hey proide a systematic way of loo&ing at
eents, collection data, analysing information and reporting the results. "s a
result, the researcher may gain a sharpened understanding of why the instance
happened as it did and what might become important to loo& at more
e%tensiely in future research. Fase studies lend themseles to both
generating and testing hypotheses.A
" case study is an ideal methodology when a holistic, in depth inestigation is
needed *Eeagin 1..1- and it was ery appropriate in this 0eld of research on
discipline. Sometimes, much can be learned from studying #ust one indiidual,
one classroom or one school or one district. )n this case, four priate
secondary schools hae been selected as case study for the deelopment of
our wor& and these schools will be e%plored oer a period of two wee&s. We
chose case study as the basis of our research because of the following
important features;
1- )t was by liing in this speci0c enironment among the persons
directly inoled that appropriate data could be collected.
33
2- )t is easy for the researcher to go into a detailed study of the problem
by focusing on speci0c institutions.
3- " series of information can be obtained from a single sub#ect.
4- )nsights must be gained which will suggest ways to help other schools
in dealing with the problem.
(oreoer, most case study research is interpretatie and see&s to bring life
to a case. )t often but not e%clusiely occurs in a natural setting and it may
employ >ualitatie and >uantitatie methods and measures. 9y
concentrating on one case, data can be collected in seeral ways;
documents, records, interiews and >uestionnaires being typical. $hus
triangulation occurs, increasing alidity. "lso, proponents claimed that the
strength of the case study approach is the depth analysis and the
understanding gained. *9assey, 1..,-.
The research approach
=i!erent perspecties e%ist about the social world and the scienti0c
&nowledge. $hey are all important because they inHuence the types of
studies the researchers conduct and the manner in which they analyse the
information gathered and reported. $wo aspects of research are identi0ed in
that line of thought. 8ne is the >ualitatie research and the other one the
>uantitatie research. 5ducators as researchers use both approaches to
proide aluable insights into the world of teaching and classroom practice.
Eor this study, the approach chosen is both the >ualitatie and >uantitatie
research.
,uantitative method
$he >uantitatie method of research is research which inoles the use of
structured >uestions where the response options hae been
predetermined and a large number of respondents are inoled *9ogdas W
3<
$aylor, 1.<5-. 9y de0nition, measurement must be ob#ectie, >uantitatie
and statistically alid. $he functional or positiist paradigm that guides
the >uantitatie mode of en>uiry is based on the assumption that social
reality has an ob#ectie ontological structure and that indiiduals are
responding agents to this ob#ectie enironment. *(organ, 1./,-.
Xuantitatie research inoles counting and measuring of eents and
performing the >uantitatie paradigm are that measurement is reliable,
alid and generalisable in its clear prediction of cause and e!ect *Fassell W
Symon, 1..4-. We chose >uantitatie method because of the following
reasons;
$he results are statistically reliable *9alsley, 1.<,- 2 that is
>uantitatie research can reliably determine if one idea, concept,
product or pac&age is better than the alternaties. $he research
problem is stated in a ery speci0c and set terms *Eran&fort'
Uachmias-.
)t places great premium on ob#ectiity of the 0ndings and it
encourages replication. *Jealey, 1..3-
)t allows for longitudinal measures of subse>uent performance of
research sub#ects.
$he results are representatie to the population that is the
proportion of respondents answering in a certain way is similar to
the proportion that would hae answered that way if they all had
been as&ed.
Coweer, the >uantitatie method consists of the following
wea&nesses;
)t fails to proide the researcher with information on the
conte%t of the situation where the studied phenomenon
occurs.
3/
)t lac&s consistency and reliability.
$he researcher is unable to control the enironment where the
respondents proide the answers to the >uestion in the surey.
$he outcomes are limited to only those outlined in the original
research proposal due to closed type >uestions and structured
format. $he researcher in other words cannot probe to get
detailed information.
)t does not encourage the eoling and continuous
inestigation of a research phenomenon
=ue to the limitations of the >uantitatie approach, we decided to use the
>ualitatie approach collaboratiely with the >uantitatie approach.
,ualitative method
$here are a ariety of terms used to describe >ualitatie methods such as
ethnography, 0eld methods, >ualitatie in>uiry, and participant
obseration. *(iles W Cuberman, 1..4-. =enzin and +incoln *2,,5- as
cited in Freswell de0ned >ualitatie research as a study in which
researchers study things in their natural setting, attempting to ma&e sense
of or interpret phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them.
"ccording to (erriam *2,,2- in conducting a >ualitatie study, the
researcher see&s to discoer and understand the phenomenon, the
3.
perspecties and world iews of the people inoled. (erriam *2,,2-
states that interiews, obserations and documents *>uestionnaires- are
the three traditional sources of data in a >ualitatie research study. $he
data collected are then analysed to identify recurring patterns or common
themes that cut across the data. $his is followed by presenting a rich
descriptie account of the 0nding by using reference to literature that
frames the study in the 0rst places.
We choose to use the >ualitatie approach also because of the following
reasons;
" more realistic feel of the world is obtained that cannot be
e%perienced in the numerical data and statistical analysis used in
>uantitatie research.
)t proides a holistic iew of the phenomena under inestigation and
it is more He%ible *$aylor, 1.<5-
$he researcher has the ability to interact with the research sub#ects
in their own language and on their own terms *(iller, 1./3- and this
may lead to better outcomes2 this allows for in depth probing of
issues.
)t has a descriptie capability which is based on primary and
unstructured data.
)t allows for interaction between group members. $his interaction
often stimulates discussion and uncoers unanticipated by the team.
)nformation regarding classroom discipline was collected from educators through
>uestionnaires, obseration and the narraties on their e%perience. We then
analysed the data collected to ma&e them meaningful so that we could address
the research >uestions for the study and certain 0ndings were e%pressed in
terms of statistical tools.
4,
.. In the conte!t of your proposed research/ chose two research
tools 0whichever is more appropriate to your research1below
and implement these tools in the field2
41
0i1 Plan an interview schedule and carry out one interview by
each member of the team.
0ii1 Prepare a $uestionnaire and each member of the team
will administer the $uestionnaire in his/her school.
*iii- Prepare an observation grid and each member of the
team will carry out one classroom observation. 034 m5s1
Instrumentation 0data collection1
Eor a researcher to achiee its ob#ectie, the data collection method used should
be appropriate. $hey refer to the means through which data are gathered from
respondents. )t should be noted that the entire research planning, design and
literature processes conerge on the data collection stage *Saunders et al.,
2,,5-. Yin *1..4- has listed si% sources of eidence for data collection in the
42
case study protocol; documentation, interiews, direct obseration, participant
obseration, archial records and physical artefacts.
)n this particular study about indiscipline, for obtaining the releant data and
information in this research, the following research instruments hae been used;
)nformal interiew
5ducator4s surey >uestionnaire
)ndirect obseration.
Informal interview
9eing inoled in the teaching and learning process with the respondents daily,
it was possible to go for some informal interiews from time to time. (uch
information was obtained about possible types of indiscipline that educators
encounter and its possible causes during the process. $he informal interiew
which was mainly in the form of casual conersation during the brea& and the
recess with colleagues gae more insight on open'ended >uestions not included
in the >uestionnaire. :ery often their opinions concerning disciplinary issues at
school were noted.
=uring replacement periods, it was possible for us to tal& with students in order
to see& their iews on disciplinary issues. )t was in an informal tal& in which we
were in a better position to as& them >uestions which in a formal interiew was
not possible.
,uestionnaires
Xuestionnaires are most widely used in sureys with e%ploratory and descriptie
purposes. We choose >uestionnaire because of the following reasons;
43
)t is possible to gather large amount of data relatiely >uic&ly due to cost
and time constraints.
)t is the cheapest method of data collection and can be gien to a larger
number of respondents simultaneously.
)t is not time'consuming and demanding li&e interiews and on site' isits.
=istribution of >uestionnaires can be made easily.
Xuestionnaires proide uniformity among respondents and the results can
therefore be compared.
$he data can be e%pressed statistically. )t is thus possible to ma&e
comparisons amongst the four schools.
$he research may enable oerall statements concerning the population to
be made.
)t is easy to administer. Despondents will get the opportunity to reiew the
options seeral times before giing any answer.
)t permits anonymity of the respondents and this may lead to gie honest
responses.
$here will be little confrontation with the researcher which may preent
them from giing negatie feedbac& in fear of being identi0ed.
We opted for a teacher4s surey >uestionnaire.
Xuestionnaire as the primary source of data collection was supported by
obserations to enhance the alidity and for the purpose of triangulation.
44
(erriam *2,,2;12- adises researchers to use more than one method of
data collection as multiple methods enhance the alidity of 0ndings.
-bservation
Cenning et al2 describe obseration as a data collection techni>ue
which allows the researcher to see for himself 0rsthand how people
act in a speci0c setting and what that setting comprises.
8bseration as a secondary source of data collection was conducted
in this study. $he researcher beliees that the use of obseration as
the second means of data collection techni>ue ensures 0rst hand
encounter with the phenomenon of interest *classroom discipline-
rather than relying on second hand accounts obtain in the informal
interiew. $ogether with the >uestionnaire and the informal
interiew, a Eorm 3 leel in each school was obsered concerning
the di!erent types of disciplinary measures and implementation of
these disciplinary measures. We choose obseration because of the
following reasons;
)t gies more detailed and conte%t related information. )t is usually
He%ible, enabling the researcher to gather a wide range of data for a
ariety of research ob#ecties.
)t permits collection of information on facts not mentioned in the
interiew that is, in depth information about a particular
phenomenon can be obtained.
$he participants act naturally.
)t allows the researcher to test the reliability of responses to
>uestionnaires.
$herefore obseration *Uon'participant obseration- in the di!erent
educational conte%t was also performed for that purpose, an obseration
schedule was prepared and administered during the obseration process.
See below our obseration schedule;
45
Implementation of these tools in the "esearch
). #amplin.
Sampling is de0ned by Zi&mund *2,,,- as a process of using a number of
items or parts of a larger population to ma&e conclusions about the whole
population. Sampling is another ery important process that should be
performed with care and accordingly because if the sample is not releant,
the research 0ndings will be distorted. )f the sampling in >uestion is
e%tremely large, it would be impractical to measure the desired attributes.
$his study had to ensure that there was ade>uate representation of
schools from di!erent cultural and socio'economic bac&grounds. $his was
done to ensure that the e!ects of cultural and socio'economic
bac&grounds on classroom discipline are reHected in this study. $hus,
purposeful sampling was used. )n this conte%t, we selected four speci0c
priate secondary schools for which we chose not to reeal their identity.
We preferred to label them as ", 9, F and =.
)n the present study, the target population consisted of 0e educators in
each school who are to be selected to answer >uestionnaires. (oreoer,
according to the >uestionnaire, since these educators target the Eorm )))
leel to be the most a!ected by indiscipline, a Eorm ))) in each school was
ta&en as a basis for obseration. )n both cases, pure random sampling was
underta&en as it is the best theoretical sampling method, since eery item
in the population has an e>ual chance of being chosen these schools will
be e%plored, oer a period of 2 wee&s.
$ogether with the informal interiew and the >uestionnaire, the students
were obsered about their behaioural attitude in class. Eollowing the
outcomes of our educator4s surey *)nteriew >uestionnaire-, the response
showed that indiscipline occurs mostly at E ))) leel, thus we decided to
obsere student4s behaiour in one E ))) class in each school. We too&
eery single precaution not to let the pupils &now that they were obsered.
43
/ote0 the educators also remained anonymous in order to adhere to
rthical re>uirements.
$he sample was selected as follows;
Xuestionnaire 8bseration
School " 5 5ducators Eorm 3 class
*1-
School 9 5 5ducators Eorm 3
class *1-
School F 5 5ducators Eorm 3
class *1-
School = 5 5ducators Eorm 3
class *1-
#chool pro1le0
school 2
School " is for boys only and located in an urban area.Students from
this school come from poor communities which su!er from social and economic
depriation.
$heir parents are mostly from the wor&ing class and cannot proide
basic and academic support to them.
4<
(ost of these students receie no assistance from their parents.Narents are
diorced, separated, physically handicapped,ictims of social ills such as drugs,
prostitution ,gambling etc.(any of the students lie with their grand'parents or
step'parents and are often ictims of assault.
What is more alarming is that many students come to school without food and
are poorly dressed .Eortunately, the school management assist these students in
proiding them with a lunch bo% eeryday.
school "
School 9 was founded in 1.<,. (ost of the pupils come from the outs&irts of the
school coming from the bro&en family or single parent family. 9eing gien that
they come from a lot socio economic bac&ground, they are ery indiscipline and
ery slow learners. Wor&ing with them is not an easy tas& for the teachers who
try their utmost to cater for their needs and gie them the appropriate education.
@(oral ScienceA classes are being carried on a regular basis at all school leel to
try to deal with the indiscipline problems ta&ing place inside and outside the
school.
#chool !0
School F is situated in catchment4s areas which englobes bac&ground with
problems such as poerty, single parents, laziness use of rude language and
behaioural problems, resulting in an increase in discipline problems.
$he educators hae always wor& with mi%ed ability students but now the gap
between the high achieers and the low achieers are widening and some
students may feel that their needs are not wholly catered for.
#chool 3
4/
School = isis a priate secondary school situated in a rural ares. $he ma#ority of
student there come from a poorer family bac&ground compared to other colleges
situated in towns. +in&ed to the problem of alcoholism and bro&en families, the
students there hae to face harsh realities of the daily life along with their life of
studentship. )nHuenced by such familial, social incidents, numerous are those
who 0rst try to escape from daily educational classes, rising to regular
absenteeism, indulging to truancy amongst other disciplinary problems.
"dditionally, inta&e leel are really poor.
4.+esearch procedure
)nitially, the informal interiews were conducted at the four schools referred
to as school ", 9, F and =. )t was ethical on our part to as& for permission to
conduct the research in each school. Subse>uent to receiing approal from
the school rector, we communicated an open initiation to all educators of our
school and re>uest olunteers from the sta! who could participate in this
study. $o establish rapport, our approach as researchers was professional
and friendly. $he participant had been informed of all aspects of the
research, its purposes and how it could bene0t our schools.
Coweer, there was a positie response from ery few while the ma#ority
refused categorically ta&e the >uestionnaires. $herefore, we decided to limit
our surey to only 5 educators per school.
5. 6alidit and reliabilit
"n e%periment is alid when the results actually measure what it is
supposed to measure *$imm and Earr, 2,,4-. :alidity will be ensured in
the following ways;'
- 7ace validit T a small brie0ng of the topic will be gien to all
respondents before handing oer the >uestionnaires.
4.
- !riterian validit T Despondents will be motiated to 0ll in the
>uestionnaires when they are free.
- !oncurrent validit T Despondents will be assured that they will
not be a!ected by the surey results.
Deliability is the probability that the researcher would get the same results
if the e%periments were repeated in the same way. $his will be
concentrated by administering the same >uestionnaire twice to the same
respondents at di!erent interals. )nformal discussions will also be ta&en
place to ensure reliability.
4. 8thical issues
" researcher faces many ethical issues that surface during data collection
in the 0eld and in analysis. "ccording to (c millan and Schumacher
*2,,1- ethics are considered to deal with beliefs about what is right or
wrong, proper or improper good or bad. $he intention of ta&ing ethics for
this study is to protect the rights and welfare of the sub#ects.
9efore and during implementation of the case study, the following ethical
considerations were ta&en care of;
Uames of school were not mentioned in the study. We ma&e use of
pseudonyms.
Strict con0dentiality of all the information obtained from educators
will be ensured.
Nrior consent through approal letter will be sought from the
manager of each institution.
Narticipants will be ensured that there will be no potential harm in
participating in the study
Narticipants will be informed about the ob#ecties of the surey
5,
Narticipants will be gien access to the 0ndings of the research if
they wish.
Uobody will be coerced or harassed to participate in the surey.
<. !plain how you would organise your data for
analysis. 064 mar5s1
51
7ata analysis
Once data from uestionnaires and observations have been collected, the ne!t stage involves
analysis the data collected. Data analysis implies the integration of operations of organising,
analysing and interpreting data "#c millan $ %chumacher &''()
*ikmund "&''') defines data analysis as the application of reasoning behind to understand
and interpret the data that has been collected about the phenomenon. +he analysis involved
determining consistent patterns and summarising the appropriate details revealed in the
research. ,ccording to #c millan and %chumacher "&''(), data analysis is a relatively
systematic process of selecting, categorising, comparing, synthesi-ing and interpreting to
provide e!planations of the single phenomenon of interest. +he process of data analysis
includes the following steps:
Step 1
Data collection
Step 2
52
%electing the data
Step 3
.ategorising the data
Step 4
Integrating: /ooking for connection, contrast and comparison between categories
Step 5
0epresenting the data
#tep ) 0 #electin. the data
+his step involves scanning and cleaning the data. +his is done by reading the data, checking
for incomplete inaccurate, inconsistent or irrelevant data, identifying preliminary trends in the
scanned data to facilitate the organisation of the data into meaningful information "1ansen
(223). #c millan and %chumacher "&''&) recommend scanning of all data also for the
purpose of determining possible topics contained in the data.
#tep 4 0 !ate.orisin. the data
#c millan and %chumacher "&''&) believe that it is impossible to interpret data unless one
organises it. +his step allows the researcher to make sense of the information by arranging it
in a manageable form. 4ere, we will describes and compares responses from different
educators and categori-e similar patterns of responses on a uestion either in a narrative way
or through statistical tools. .oding is used to categori-e the data. .ohen et al5 "&''3) define
coding as the ascription of category label to a piece of data. +he category label is determined
by the uestions in the uestionnaire and the indicated items of focus in the observation
schedule.
#tep 5 0 !omparin. and snthesisin. the data
53
+his stage reuires identification of similarities and differences in the data supplied by the
respondents. One begin with a unit of data "any meaning for word, phrase, narrative etc.) and
compares it to another unit of data while looking for common patterns a cross the data
"#erriam &''&). +he ideas obtained from the data are then synthesi-ed by combining them
into a comple! whole.
#tep 4 0 +epresentin. the data
+his involves interpreting the data, identifying its meaning and implications and writing up
the report. #icrosoft e!cel and statistical program will be used to analyse the data collected.
%imple and multiple levels tables, bar charts and pie charts to indicate trends will be
generated. 6ercentages and correlation wherever applicable will be calculated to be able to
unfold the problems more effectively. +his also involves relating our finding to be a
conceptual framework, making conclusions and recommendations. +hus, all these steps will
guide the process of data analysis in this study.
/. Identify the main issues which would emerge from
the analysis of data and elaborate briefly on each
issue 068 9ar5s1
54
7ata Analysis and Interpretation of 7ata
Eollowing our data collection, we decided to select and categorise data
obtained in accordance with our research >uestions. $o start with, we
wanted to 0nd out the di!erent meanings attached to the word discipline
in schools form the educators4 point of iew. We then proceeded by
analysing the di!erent forms and causes of discipline inside the classroom.
We hope that from our 0nding we would be able to suggest a few
correctie measures in order to remedy the situation.
Data Analysis- Informal interview and questionnaire
6. (eaching e!perience
%chool , %chool 7 %chool . %chool D
Educator ( 8 mths 8 mths 3 yrs 9 mths
Educator & : mths 3 yrs 2 yrs ( yr
Educator 9 (' yrs (( yrs (( yrs (: yrs
Educator ; &( yrs (8 yrs (: yrs && yrs
55
Educator 8 &; yrs &' yrs && yrs 9( yrs
3eductions
$he general 0nding is that the ages of educators in the four schools range
from young to older. 5ight of the educators hae less than 1, years of
teaching e%perience, seen had teaching e%perience ranging from 1, to 2,
years and 0e had teaching e%perience ranging from 2, to 31 years.
$hrough the informal interiew, we got the feedbac& that new educators
hae to face more discipline problems inside the classroom than
e%perienced ones. $hus, it is leading to the reality the fact that may
beginning educators leae teaching after a ery short time.
Meaning of disipline
2. What do you understand by the word discipline
S!ool A
Some educators in this school see discipline as control, others as rules and
order, good interaction between teacher and students, students following
school rules imposed on them and safe enironment for teaching and
learning to ta&e place. 8ne educator said that the >uestion is challenging
and went to say @) regard discipline as when learners gie me a chance to
teach. $o be able to teach, ) need to be gien attention. "ttention from
learner is ery important to me. $hey will fully &now when it is time to
interact *tal&-. ) am their teacher, not their friend. ) need to &eep a
distance. @$his utterance indicates that some of the educators are
autocratic and thus neglect the deelopment of a good educator'learner
relationship.A
S!ool "
53
Some educators see discipline as @abiding by rules and regulations while
others as a set of control.A @=iscipline means &eeping learners under
control because learners are still 0nding themseles.A @$hey do not &now
what is right and what is wrong.A one educator wrote. 8thers beliee that
discipline is a strategy to facilitate teaching and learning, proper and
ade>uate rules with students to behae in an orderly way.
Some educators also see discipline as corporal punishment and criticize
the goernment for eliminating corporal punishment as a disciplinary
strategy.
S!ool #
)n this school, educators see discipline as @a state of well being, physical,
emotional and mental where eeryone bene0ts from the presence of the
person, of understanding, caring, growing, searching for &nowledge,
responsible attitude in conduct and studies, respect, a code of conduct,
respect rules and regulations that enables an organisation to function
smoothly, principles based on alues that enable an indiidualVsociety to
function properly.
Some educators see discipline as a concept that is di1cult to understand
one educator wrote that it is di1cult because some learners are punished
for e%pressing themseles. @You cannot suppress learners who as&
>uestions.A 8ne of the older educators maintained that he sees discipline
as punishment. Ce indicated that in the older days when learner was
gien a hiding, he would change his behaiour immediately but today, for
e%ample, with detention the learner repeat the same misbehaiours
fre>uently.
S!ool D
8ne educator in this school, said that she understands discipline as not to
be punished but to behae well oluntarily. She perceies learners who
are disciplined as those who are punctual and who do the wor& gien. She
5<
also indicated that most of the learners are eager to learn but there are a
few who are not eager to learn.A "nother educator indicated that learners
behae di!erently in di!erently in di!erent situations. )n other words,
when they are treated with respect they respect others but when they are
treated with disrespect they show disrespect to others in return. $he
educators therefore emphasized that discipline depends on the educator'
learner relationship deeloped. Some educators understand discipline as
the learner doing what is re>uired.
8ne educator wrote that he does not e%pect interruptions when he teaches
and that if a learner interrupts the educator while he teaches then there is
no discipline in such a classroom. $he other educator beliees in being
proactie and that discipline is also the learner4s responsibility. $he
educator wrote @when ) meet learners for the 0rst time, tell them what )
e%pect from them and that discipline is their responsibility as well.
7eductions
Some educators see discipline as control oer learners and they beliee
that learners are not able to decide between what is right and what is
wrong and thus need constant superision. Some iew discipline as
punishment while others see discipline as inner'control and thus ascribe
discipline to the ability to act responsibility.
" responsible behaiour, respect for educators, respect for other learners
and the school property are seen by some educators as characteristics of
discipline. $o some educators, it was not an easy >uestion to answer.
5/
3$ %!e pro&lem of disipline !as inreased in t!e ollege during t!ese years$
, 7 . D
%trongly disagree ' ' ' '
Disagree ' ' ' '
,gree ' ' ' '
%trongly agree (''< (''< (''< (''<
3eductions0 "ll educators in the four priate secondary schools strongly
agree that the problem of discipline has increased at an alarming rate at
the secondary leel recently.
4$ In w!i! lass is t!e pro&lem of disipline more serious at t!e ollege$
, < 7 < . < D <
=orm I (' (' (' ('
=orm II (8 (8 (8 (8
=orm III :8 :8 :8 :8
=orm I> ' ' 8 '
=orm > ' ' ' 8
5.
3,
3eductions0 1,[ of the sample of educators thin& that Eorm ) class face
serious discipline problems whereas 15[ beliee that it is at Eorm )) leel
that discipline problems are more often encountered. Coweer, it should
be noted that 35[ of the educators beliee that the
Eorm ))) leel is the most seriously a!ected by disciplinary problems
compared to Eorm ): leel which is only 5[ and Eorm : leel which e>ually
5[.
31
5$ 'ow do you rate t!e pro&lem of disipline at t!e ollege$
Inside t!e lassroom

P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e
100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

A B C D Schools
32
A 20%
B 70%
C 50%
D 60%
(utside t!e lassroom
N
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e

d
e
g
r
e
e

o
f

d
i
s
c
i
p
l
i
n
e
100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

A B C D Schools
(utside t!e #ollege
33
A 40%
B 80%
C 55%
D 80%
=
e
g
r
e
e

i
n

d
i
s
c
i
p
l
i
n
e

p
r
o
b
l
e
m
s
100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

A B C D Schools
3eductions0 $he 0ndings indicate that discipline problems inside the
classroom are more punishment in School 9 because they are inHuenced
by their poor socio'economic bac&ground and are inHuenced by peer
pressures. (oreoer, the lac& of disciplinary strategies and proper support
from management and parents add to enhance the problem.
8ther schools do face the same problem of indiscipline but to a lesser
e%tent. "s for school =, it has been found that students misbehae
34
A 75%
B 60%
C 60%
D 70%
outside the classroom especially during brea& and lunch time due to a lac&
of open recreational space.
School " is goerned by strict rules and regulations and as results students
are forced to respect the rules in toto for fear that they will be e%pelled.
$his e%plains why they tend to e%press themseles outside the school
premises.
)t is absolutely normal for students from school F to misbehae in class as
rules are not well established and de0ned.
)$ #auses of Indisipline
, < 7 < . < D <
(. Inadeuate school management ;' 3' ('' ?'
&. 6oor teacher-student relationship &' ;' ?' :'
9. 6oor family background :' ('' ('' (''
;. Overloaded school curriculum ('' ;' &' ;'
8. @egative 6eer pressure :' ('' ('' (''
:. 6oor parent-children relationship ?' ;' ?' ?'
3. %trict rules and regulations ('' :' ;' ?'
?. /ack of e!tra curricular activities :' ?' &' ?'
2. +oo much homework ;' ;' &' ;'
('. AnBustified punishment :' &' &' &'
Eirst and foremost, indiscipline among secondary school adolescents is
always associated with the state of psychological deelopment of
students. $he opine that when students notice certain biological changes
signalling maturity in the course of their growth and deelopment, they
tend to misbehae by faulting school rules and regulations. Desearches
hae proen that during early and middle adolescence, changes in
behaiour of students are
35
>uite often and can be either positie or negatie. .,[ of educators
>uestioned during the informal interiew agree that biological changes is
one of the causes of indiscipline.
Defer to the aboe data, we can see that 3,[ of 5ducators in school "
agree that indiscipline is associated with family problems whereas 1,,[ of
5ducators in school 9,F and = that Eamily Nroblems and Eamily
9ac&grounds hae a direct impact on students4 behaiour. (oreoer,
indiscipline among the youths and adults all oer the world has a direct
correlation with home training and personal interest in life. "s already
mentioned in school pro0les, many of our students are from unstable
families and some are of them are characterized by conHicts, iolent
behaiours, parents, delin>uent acts, alcoholism, bro&en families, poerty
and others. Students sometimes misbehae because they are abused
orally by their parents and are faced with psychological trauma at home.
+anguages e%posed by children at home are de0nitely repeated in classes.
)n these cases, how far can these students be accused for their poor
behaiour at schoolB
+aw enforcement in faour of students4 rights and protection has gien rise
to increasing indiscipline at school. 9efore, students used to fear and
respect their teachers who hae authority to enforce discipline in many
forms when they misbehae in classes. 1,,[ of educators interiewed
admit that (auritian +aw is in faour of students. Forporal punishment,
being preiously the biggest weapon held by teachers to maintain
discipline has now become an o!ence if used in class een to a minimum
e%tent *SN5( 2,,3-.
(oreoer, again through the informal interiew with educators of the four
priate secondary schools, we could gather information that Fultism has
suddenly become the giant monster, that is, swallowing adolescents4
ethics and morals. Students try to imitate western culture. Students4
behaiour are shaped according to what they are e%posed to such as
iolence, se% urge depicted by less censored media such as pornographic
magazines, 0lms international channels, free porn site and iolence on net
and more disparaging is mobile phones in the hands and bags of each
students.
33
3,[ of educators in school ", 1,, [ in School 9, F, = beliee that the
inHuence of peer group pressure lead to indiscipline as during this phase,
teen tend to separate themseles from
their parents and identify closely with their peers. )n (ost of the 4 schools,
the aspect of tight solidarity among friends can be clearly seen as
dominating.
)t is usually found that students who indulge themseles in acts if
indiscipline is poor performers and it is a fact in the four schools. $hese
students waste their time roaming about at school, bun&ing classes and
harassing teachers. "s a matter of fact, when students do not follow
classes, they miss the lesson e%planation and if they are again not
monitored by parents at home, then they are potential failures.
3. 4ow do you rate the work done by the management to suppress
and rate the support from the management concerning disciplinary.
5ducator4s perception of the wor& done by management is negligible as for
e%ample in school " W 9 it is ascribed management. "s for school c the
management is reluctant to ta&e seere actions as she thin&s that
adopting a positie approach will sole the problem. Foncerning school =
there is lac& of consistency in imposing rules and regulations and this
e%plains why educators are dissatis0ed by the strategies adopted by the
management.
, 7 . D
@ot satisfactory ?' ?' ?' ?'
=airly satisfactory &' &' &' &'
%atisfactory - - - &'
>ery satisfactory - - - -
3<
*$ +orms of indisipline at s!ools
, < 7 < . < D <
(. Disruption ;' ?' :' :'
&. >erbal intimidation ?' ?' :' ?'
9. ,ggressive (' 8' (' (''
;. 6assive behaviour &' ?' 3' ;'
8. %tealing or damaging personal property ' 8' &' ('
:. 6ushing, grabbing, hitting and kicking ?' 2' ;' 9'
3. +hreatening ' ' (' &'
. %e!ual harassments ' ' ' ('
3/
=ata "nalysis' 8bseration grid
, < 7 < . < D <
(. @o serious problem ' ' ' '
&. Inattentiveness 38 88 8' &8
9. Impulsiveness 38 :' 38 38
;. Ancooperative behaviour ?' 9' &8 &'
8. ,n!iousness (' (8 8 &'
:. Cithdrawal 8 : & 8'
3. ,ggressiveness &8 &' : (8
?. @on-aggressive, classroom- inappropriate behaviours &' &' &8 &'
Erom our obserations list, it is clear that most of the schools face serious
problem of discipline recurring at regular interals and from the abuse list
the most prominent ones are inattentieness, impulsieness and
uncooperatie behaiour.
3.
8ur research study is a comparatie study of forms and causes
in four priate secondary schools in (auritius .8ur aim in selecting this
topic is to proide suggestions to educators on how to proide a safer and
create a conducie learning enironment bene0cial to both the learner
and the educator.
8ur ob#ectie was to in>uire about how each of the four selected
schools is faced with discipline problems. We began by inestigating on the
causes of discipline problems met in the schools and then we established
its e!ect on the performance of their respectie students.
Erom our 0ndings we noted that indiscipline problems mostly
occur at form 3 leel. 8ur team also established that each institution had
its own way of administering discipline. School " was obsered to show
less discipline problems. "n in>uiry reeals that rules are clearly
established, deliered and signed by parents before the resumption of
studies. )n this school, rules are consistently maintained and sustained by
management and sta! and this is what ma&es this school di!erent from
the three other institutions we researched upon. Coweer, we noted that
students from school " manifest signs of frustration as they are forced to
abide to school rules which are ery strict and applied in $oto.
<,
Foncerning the three other schools, our in>uiry found that
discipline problems were met as management, parents and educators
were in conHict when it came to establishing discipline in classes.
)ndiscipline problems were the result of curriculum being not only too bul&y
but not meeting the interest of the students. )n fact this is where the
students indulge in all sorts of indiscipline actions as reealed in our
educators4 surey and class obseration.

"nother ma#or indiscipline problem in almost all priate
secondary schools today is about students coming to school without doing
their homewor&. 8ur study reeals that the students do not 0nd the
importance of doing homewor& and do not show any signs of worry when
being >uestioned for same. $he fact remains that these students come
from poor socio'economic bac&ground and their parents show no concern
about their studies either for not being literate they or they cannot 0nd
time to loo& after their child.
" recent surey on attendance of students in secondary schools
indicated that there was a high rate of absenteeism especially among
boys. "bsenteeism no doubt leads to failures and this is why the
percentage failures among boys is higher in (auritius.
"n oerall analysis of our 0ndings indicates that the commonest
discipline problems in most secondary schools inole non'criminal
behaiour among students. Such problem may not a!ect safety but
threaten the learning enironment.
8ur team came up with the following suggestions in order to
improe the classroom enironment and students behaiour to achiee
better performance.
6ien the arious conse>uences and negatie impact of the
problem, the di!erent sta&eholders should deelop ways and means with a
iew to 0nd solutions to reduce school indiscipline in the 0rst stage and
create a healthy atmosphere where teaching and learning can ta&e place.
<1
#u..estion to remed the problems of
indiscipline0
" school should be able to ma&e a positie and constructie di!erence
in a pupil, the school has lost its ocation andA raison Td\etre.A $he
children are natured at home, at school and are e%posed to the street. )f
the behaiour in the 0rst two spheres fosters discipline, the street will
hae little impact.
Founselling and other therapeutic or correctie measures must be
ta&en. "t this leel, a psychologist could be employed to proide
guidance to students as ery often educators are not e>uipped to help
these children.
)t is suggested that management can help to improe indiscipline by
ta&ing the proper decision at the right time and by being consistent in
handling indiscipline cases.
<2
Nastoral care and inculcating ales seems to be a good practice to
enable learners to di!erentiate between right and wrong. Coweer, this
step will seem to wor& best if all sta&e holders collaborate .What is done
at school should be continued in the family and in the community at
large.
)n our society, parents get defensie if their child is @signalledA out,
many will argue with the school administration @to freeA their child from
punishment. $his sets a bad e%ample on children. )t would be better to
hold parents accountable for their child4s behaiour and to encourage
them to pay more attention to their child when left on their own.
5ducators are recommended
$o be models of discipline when e%erting discipline on children.
)t would be suitable for schools located in a particular region to organise
a forum in which all sta&eholders of the educational sector could share
the challenges awaiting them on managing school discipline.
$o sum up, we suggest that if we want our students to be disciplined and
successful, we must bear in mind that 5ery Fhild (atters and that Uo
Single Fhild Should be +eft 9ehind
<3
,$ -rite down your personal refletions on t!e resear! proess
./a! mem&er of t!e team s!ould write !is0!er own refletion1$
.12 Mar3s1
<4
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nd
Edition. .alifornia: %age 6ublications, Inc.
<5
- Drekurs, 0, Grunwals, 7.7 $ 6epper, f.c "(2?&) Maintaining sanity in the
classroom: classroom management techniques, 2
nd
Edition @ew Eork 4arper $
0ow
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th
Edition. A.%.,: ,ddison Cesley /ongman, Inc.
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Dr >.0amharai, ,H.urpen,4.#ariaye, ,. 0amful"#,E &'':) #IE
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<3