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Introduction to MESH

MESH module of SALOME is destined for:


import and export of meshes in MED format;
meshing geometrical models previously created or imported by the eometry component;
vie!ing created meshes in the "#$ vie!er;
creating groups of mesh elements;
applying to meshes %uality &ontrols ' allo!ing to highlight important elements:
filtering sub(sets of mesh entities )nodes elements* using +ilters functionality,
modifying meshes !ith a vast array of dedicated operations,
easily setting parameters via the variables predefined in Salome noteboo-,
Almost all mesh module functionalities are accessible via Mesh module .ython interface,
Also it can be useful to have a loo- at the documentation on SMES/ python pac-age,

Example of MESH module usage for engineering tasks
About meshes
MESH represents a discreti0ation of a geometrical &AD model into a set of entities !ith a simple
topology,
Meshes are stored in DA#' MED and 12" formats and can be imported from and exported to the file
in these formats,
/o!ever' it is possible to construct meshes on the basis of geometrical shapes produced in the EOM
module, 3t is also possible to create mesh on a part of the geometrical ob4ect' for example' a face,
Several created meshes can be combined into mesh compounds,
All created meshes and submeshes can be edited,
Meshes can be also edited using the MES/ functions destined for modification of generated meshes,
#he topology of a mesh is described by the relationships bet!een its entities including:
Node 5 6D ob4ect of a mesh presented by a point !ith coordinates )x' y' 0*,
0D element 5 element of a mesh defined by one node,
Edge 5 7D element of a mesh defined by t!o nodes,
ace 5 8D element of a mesh defined by three or four edges )closed contour*,
!olume 5 9D element of a mesh defined by several faces,
#hese entities are considered as topological entities and they don:t imply any geometric representation,
Only Nodes reference geometric representations of points !ith definite coordinates, #he node entity
!ill contain additional information about its position in the space and its relations !ith the meshed
&AD model, 3ts position could be described in the follo!ing !ay:
"D position, 3t is a free position defined by only t!o coordinates x'y,
#D position, 3t is a free position defined by three coordinates x'y and 0,
Surface position, 3t characteri0es the position of a node on a geometric surface and is defined
by the u'v position in the parametric space of the corresponding surface,
$ine position, 3t characteri0es the position of a node on a geometric curve and is defined by the
u parameter and the corresponding curve,
!ertex position, 3t characteri0es the position of a node on a geometric point of the meshed
&AD model and is defined by the x'y'0 coordinates of the corresponding vertex,
%onnections
Each mesh entity bounds 6 or more mesh entities of higher dimension, 3n the same !ay each mesh
entity is bounded by 6 or more mesh entities of lo!er dimension:
A node bounds edges' faces and volumes
An edge bounds faces' and volumes
A face bounds volumes
A volume is bounded by faces' edges and nodes
A face is bounded by edges' and nodes
An edge is bounded by nodes
;ou can notice that there are t!o types of connections: in&erse and direct connections,
In&erse connections
#his relationship has a particularity that the order of bounded entities has not a direct meaning, Also the
number of bounded entities is not fixed,
Example' #he edges surrounding a node, #he 9rd edge has no more sense that the <th one,
Direct connections
#his relationship has a particularity that the order of bounding entities is meaningful, #he number of
bounding entities is fixed and depends on the type of the entity )hexahedron' tetrahedron'=*,
Example' An edge is composed of t!o nodes, A face is composed of 9 or > edges depending if !e are
dealing !ith triangles or ?uadrangles,
#he connections are not only restricted to entities of one dimension higher or lo!er, +or example some
algorithms may be interested to retrieve all the faces surrounding a node,
Importing and exporting meshes
3n MES/ there is a functionality allo!ing importation@exportation of meshes from MED' (N!
)3(DEAS 76*' DA) )2astran* and S#L format files,
To import a mesh:
7, +rom the ile menu choose the Import item' from its sub(menu select the corresponding format
)MED' 12" and DA#* of the file containing your mesh,
8, 3n the standard Search ile dialog box find the file for importation, 3t is possible to select
multiple files to be imported all at once,
9, &lic- the *+ button,

To export a mesh:
7, Select the ob4ect you !ish to export,
8, +rom the ile menu choose the Export item' from its sub(menu select the format )MED' 12"'
DA# and S#L* of the file !hich !ill contain your exported mesh,
9, 3n the standard Search ile select a location for the exported file and enter its name,
>, &lic- the *+ button,

See Also a sample #13 Script of an Export Mesh operation,
%onstructing meshes
&onstruction of a mesh consists of:
Selecting a geometrical ob4ect for meshing
Applying meshing algorithms and hypotheses !hich !ill be used at computation of this mesh,
To construct a mesh:
7, 3n the Mesh menu select %reate Mesh or clic- "Create Mesh" button in the toolbar,

"Create Mesh" button
#he follo!ing dialog box !ill appear:

8, +or example' you need to mesh a 9d ob4ect,
+irst' type the name for your mesh in the A2ameA box' by default' it is AMeshB7A, #hen select
the ob4ect you !ish to mesh in the Ob4ect Cro!ser and clic- the AAddA button,

"Add" button
2o! you can define 7d Algorithm and 7d /ypotheses' !hich !ill be applied to the edges of
your ob4ect, )2ote that any ob4ect has edges' even if their existence is not apparent' for example'
a sphere has > edges*, &lic- the "Add Hypothesis" button to add a hypothesis,

"Add Hypothesis" button
&lic- the "Edit Hypothesis" button to define values for the current hypothesis,

"Edit Hypothesis" button
#he use of additional hypotheses is optional )i,e, you may leave A2oneA in this box*,
.roceed in the same !ay !ith 8d and 9d Algorithms and /ypotheses' note that the choice of
hypotheses depends on the algorithm, #here must be one Algorithm and one or several
/ypotheses for each dimension of your ob4ect' other!ise you !ill not get any mesh at all, Of
course' if you !ish to mesh a face' !hich is a 8d ob4ect' you don:t need to define 9d Algorithm
and /ypotheses,
3n the *b,ect -ro.ser the structure of the ne! mesh !ill be displayed as follo!s:

3t contains:
a reference to the geometrical ob4ect on the basis of !hich the mesh has been
constructed;
Applied hypotheses folder containing the references to the hypotheses applied to the
construction of the mesh;
Applied algorithms folder containing the references to the algorithms applied to the
construction of the mesh,
#here is an alternative !ay to create a mesh on an ob4ect simply by clic-ing Assign a set of
hypotheses button and selecting bet!een Automatic #etrahedrali0ation or /exahedrali0ation,
#he program !ill automatically generate a 9D mesh !ith the most appropriate settings, 3n the
same !ay you can apply this functionality for meshing 8D ob4ects' in !hich case 9D algorithms
are not applied,
9, After the mesh ob4ect is created and all hypotheses are assigned and before the mesh
computation' it is possible to see the mesh previe!,
+or this' select the mesh in the Ob4ect Cro!ser, +rom the Mesh menu select /re&ie. or clic-
A.revie!A button in the toolbar or activate A.revie!A item from the pop(up menu,

"Preview" button
Select 0D mesh or "D mesh previe! mode in the .revie! dialog,

0D mesh pre&ie. sho.s nodes computed on geometry edges

"D mesh pre&ie. sho.s edge mesh elements1 computed on geometry faces
%ompute button computes the !hole mesh,
Dhen the .revie! dialog is closed' the ?uestion about the storage of temporarily created mesh
elements appers:

#hese elenents can be reused in the next mesh computation,
>, 3t is e?ually possible to s-ip the .revie! and %ompute the mesh after the hypotheses are
assigned, +or this' select your mesh in the *b,ect -ro.ser, +rom the Mesh menu select
%ompute or clic- A&omputeA button of the toolbar,

"Compute" button
#he Mesh &omputation information box appears,

3f the mesh computation failed' the information about the cause of the failure is provided,

After you select the error' Sho. Subshape button allo!s visuali0ing the geometrical entity that
causes it,

Example of the in&alid input mesh
Note'
Mesh &omputation 3nformation box does not appear if you set AMesh computation@Sho!
a computation result notificationA preference to the A2everA value, #his option gives the
possibility to control mesh computation reporting, #here are the follo!ing possibilities:
al!ays sho! information box' only if an error occurs or never, Cy default' the information
box is al!ays sho!n after mesh computation operation,
/ublish Subshape button publishes the subshape' !hose meshing failed' in EOM component
as a child of the mesh geometry' !hich allo!s analy0ing the problem geometry and creating a
submesh on it in order to locally tune hypotheses,
N*)E 3t is possible to define a 7D or a 8D mesh in a python script and then use such
submeshes in the construction of a 9D mesh, +or this' there exist t!o algorithms: (se existing
edges and (se existing faces, #hey are not entirely usable from the 13' so a mesh created
using these algorithms should be exported into a python script' edited and then imported into the
1i,
<, 3t is possible to calculate the eventual mesh si0e before %ompute operation, +or this' select the
mesh in the *b,ect -ro.ser and from the Mesh menu select E&aluate, #he result of evaluation
!ill be displayed in the follo!ing information box:

E, 3f the mesh contains concurrent submeshes' it is possible to change the priority of their
computation' i,e, to change the priority of applying algorithms to the shared subshapes of the
Mesh shape,
To change submesh priority:
F, &hoose A&hange submesh priorityA from the Mesh menu or a popup menu, #he opened dialogue
sho!s a list of submeshes in the order of their priority,
#here is an example of submesh order modifications of the Mesh created on a Cox shape, #he
main Mesh ob4ect:
3 )etrahedron 2Netgen3 !ith /ypothesisMax Element !olume
! )riangle 2Mefisto3 !ith /ypothesisMax Element Area
" 4ire discretisation !ith Number of SegmentsG86
#he first submesh ob4ect Submesh50 created on ace50 is:
! 2etgen 7D(8D !ith /ypothesis Netgen Simple parameters )2umber of Segments G
>*
#he second submesh ob4ect Submesh5" created on ace5" is:
! 2etgen 7D(8D !ith /ypothesis Netgen Simple parameters )2umber of Segments G
H*
And the last submesh ob4ect Submesh5# created on ace5# is:
! 2etgen 7D(8D !ith /ypothesis Netgen Simple parameters )2umber of Segments G
78*
#he submeshes become concurrent if they share subshapes that can be meshed !ith different
algorithms )or different hypothesises*, 3n the example' !e have three submeshes !ith
concurrent algorithms' because they have different hypotheses,
#he first mesh computation is made !ith:

"Mesh order #ubMesh$"% #ubMesh$!% #ubMesh$3"
"&esu't mesh with order #ubMesh$"% #ubMesh$!% #ubMesh$3 "
#he next mesh computation is made !ith:

"Mesh order #ubMesh$!% #ubMesh$"% #ubMesh$3"
"&esu't mesh with order #ubMesh$!% #ubMesh$"% #ubMesh$3 "
And the last mesh computation is made !ith:

"Mesh order #ubMesh$3% #ubMesh$!% #ubMesh$""
"&esu't mesh with order #ubMesh$3% #ubMesh$!% #ubMesh$" "
As !e can see' each mesh computation has a different number of result elements and a different
mesh discretisation on the shared edges )the edges that are shared bet!een ace50' ace5" and
ace5#*
Additionally' submesh priority )the order of applied algorithms* can be modified not only in a
separate dialog box' but also in the /re&ie., #his helps to previe! different mesh results'
modifying the order of submeshes,

"Preview with submesh priority 'ist box"
3f there are no concurrent submeshes under the Mesh ob4ect' the user !ill see the follo!ing
information,

"(o concurrent submeshes detected"
&onsider trying a sample script for construction of a mesh from our #13 Scripts section,
-asic meshing algorithms
#he MES/ module contains a set of meshing algorithms' !hich are used for meshing entities )7D' 8D'
9D* composing geometrical ob4ects,
+or meshing of 7D entities )edges*:
Dire Discretisation meshing algorithm ( splits a !ire into a number of mesh segments
follo!ing any 7D hypothesis,
&omposite Side Discretisation algorithm ( allo!s to apply any 7D hypothesis to a !hole
side of a geometrical face even if it is composed of several edges provided that they
form &7 curve' have the same hypotheses assigned and form one side in all faces of the
main shape of a mesh,
+or meshing of 8D entities )faces*:
#riangle meshing algorithms )Mefisto' 2etgen 7D(8D and CLS1+I * ( +aces are split
into triangular elements,
%uadrangle meshing algorithm )Mapping* ( +aces are split into ?uadrangular elements,
Iadial ?uadrangle 7D8D algorithm ( +aces )circles or part of circles* are split into
triangular and ?uadrangle elements,

Example of a triangular "D mesh

Example of a 6uadrangular "D mesh
+or meshing of 9D entities )&olume ob,ects*:
/exahedron meshing algorithm )i'4'-* ( "olumes are split into hexahedral )cubic*
elements,
#etrahedron )2etgen and /S9D* meshing algorithms ( "olumes are split into
tetrahedral )pyramidal* elements,

Example of a tetrahedral #D mesh

Example of a hexahedral #D mesh
Some of 9D meshing algorithms also can generate 9D meshes from 8D meshes' !or-ing !ithout
geometrical ob4ects, Such algorithms are
/exahedron meshing algorithm )i'4'-*'
#etrahedron )2etgen and /S9D* meshing algorithms'
/exotic,
Note'
CLS1I+ and /S9D are commercial meshers and re?uire a license to be used !ithin the Mesh
module,
#here is also a number of more specific algorithms:
for meshing by pro4ection of another mesh
for meshing geometrical ob4ects !ith cavities
for defining the local si0e of elements around a certain node
for meshing prismatic shapes
for meshing special 8d faces )circles and part of circles*
&onstructing meshes page describes in detail ho! to apply meshing algorithms,
See Also a sample #13 Script of a Define Meshing Algorithm operation,
/ro,ection Algorithms
.ro4ection algorithms allo! to define the mesh of a geometrical ob4ect by the pro4ection of another
already meshed geometrical ob4ect,
/ro,ection 0D algorithm allo!s to define the mesh of an edge )or group of edges* by the pro4ection of
another already meshed edge )or group of edges*,
#o apply this algorithm select the edge to be meshed )indicated in the field 7eometry of %reate mesh
dialog box*' /ro,ection0D in the list of 7D algorithms and clic- the "Add Hypothesis" button, #he
follo!ing dialog box !ill appear:

3n this menu you can define the Name of the algorithm' the already meshed source Edge and the Mesh
)optional' use it if there are several different meshes on the same edge*, 3t could also be necessary to
define the orientation of edges' !hich is done by indicating the Source !ertex being the first point of
the Source Edge and the )arget !ertex being the first point of the created Edge, +or a group of edges'
Source and )arget vertices should be shared by only one edge of the group, 3f Source and )arget
vertices are specified' the elements of the group must be a4acent,
/ro,ection "D algorithm allo!s to define the mesh of a face )or group of faces* by the pro4ection of
another already meshed face )or group of faces*, #his algorithm !or-s only if all edges of the target
face have been meshed as 7D .ro4ections of the edges of the source face,
#o apply this algorithm select the face to be meshed )indicated in the field 7eometry of %reate mesh
dialog box*' /ro,ection "D in the list of 8D algorithms and clic- the "Add Hypothesis" button, #he
follo!ing dialog box !ill appear:

3n this menu you can define the Name of the algorithm' the already meshed source ace and the Mesh
)optional' use it if there are several different meshes on the same face*, 3t could also be necessary to
define the orientation of mesh on the face' !hich is done by indicating t!o Source !ertices' !hich
belong to the same edge of the source face' and t!o )arget !ertices' !hich belong to the same edge of
the created ace,
/ro,ection #D algorithm allo!s to define the mesh of a shape by the pro4ection of another already
meshed shape, #his algorithm !or-s only if all faces and edges of the target face have been meshed as
7D .ro4ections of the faces and edges of the source face, Another limitation is that this algorithm
currently !or-s only on boxes,
#o apply this algorithm select the solid to be meshed )indicated in the field 7eometry of %reate mesh
dialog box*' /ro,ection #D in the list of 9D algorithms and clic- the button, #he follo!ing dialog box
!ill appear:

3n this menu you can define the Name of the algorithm' the already meshed source #D shape and the
Mesh )optional' use it if there are several different meshes on the same shape*, 3t could also be
necessary to define the orientation of mesh on the shape' !hich is done by indicating t!o Source
!ertices' !hich belong to the same edge of the source #D Shape' and t!o )arget !ertices' !hich
belong to the same edge of the source #D Shape,
See Also a sample #13 Script of a .ro4ection Algorithms,
8adial /rism
#his algorithm applies to the meshing of a hollo! 9D shape' i,e, such shape should be composed of t!o
meshed shells: an outer shell and an internal shell !ithout intersection !ith the outer shell, One of the
shells should be a 8D .ro4ection of the other shell, #he meshes of the shells can consist both of
triangles and ?uadrangles,
#he Iadial .rism algorithm !ould fill the space bet!een the t!o shells !ith meshes,
#his algorithm also needs the information concerning the number and distribution of mesh layers
bet!een the inner and the outer shapes,

Distribution of layers can be set !ith any of 7D /ypotheses,

Segments around !ertex
Segments around !ertex algorithm is considered to be a 6D meshing algorithm' but' of course' it
doesn:t mesh nodes, 3t allo!s to define the local si0e of the elements in the neighborhood of a certain
node, 3f !e choose an ob4ect of higher dimension' it applies to all its tops' i,e, corners of a box, #he 6D
algorithm combines !ith the algorithms of higher dimensions' but it is not necessarily re?uired for their
successful implementation,
#his algorithm allo!s only one hypothesis,

#D extrusion meshing algorithm
9D extrusion algorithm can be used for meshing prisms' i,e, #D Shapes defined by t!o opposing faces
having the same number of vertices and edges and meshed using' for example' the 8D .ro4ection
algorithm, #hese t!o faces should be connected by ?uadrangle AsideA faces,
#he opposing faces can be meshed !ith either ?uadrangles or triangles' !hile the side faces should be
meshed !ith ?uadrangles only,

/rism .ith #D extrusion meshing
,
As you can see' the #D extrusion algorithm permits to build and to have in the same 9D mesh such
elements as hexahedrons' prisms and polyhedrons,
Note'
#his algorithm !or-s correctly only if the opposing faces have the same )or similar* meshing
topography, Other!ise' 9D extrusion algorithm can fail to build mesh volumes,
8adial 9uadrangle 0D"D
#his algorithm applies to the meshing of 8D shapes under the follo!ing conditions: the face must be a
full circle or a part of circle )i,e, the number of edges is less or e?ual to 9 and one of them is a circle
curve*, #he resulting mesh consists of triangles )near the center point* and ?uadrangles,
#his algorithm is optionally parametri0ed by the hypothesis indicating the number of mesh layers along
the radius, #he distribution of layers can be set !ith any 7D /ypothesis,
3f no o!n hypothesis of the algorithm is assigned' any local or global hypothesis is used by the
algorithm to discreti0e edges, 2ote that if the geometrical face has t!o radial edges' they must be
meshed !ith e?ual number of segments,
3f no 7D hypothesis is assigned to an edge' ADefault 2umber of SegmentsA preferences parameter is
used to discreti0e the edge,


8adial 9uadrangle "D mesh on the top and the bottom faces of a cylinder

8adial 9uadrangle "D mesh on a part of circle
0D Meshing Hypotheses
Arithmetic 7D
Local Length
Max Si0e
Deflection 7D
2umber of segments
Start and end length
Automatic Length
+ixed points 7D
Arithmetic 0D hypothesis
Arithmetic 0D hypothesis allo!s to split edges into segments !ith a length that changes in arithmetic
progression )L- G L-(7 J d* beginning from a given starting length and up to a given end length,
#he direction of the splitting is defined by the orientation of the underlying geometrical edge,
:8e&erse Edges: list box allo!s to specify the edges for !hich the splitting should be made in the
direction opposing to their orientation, #his list box is enabled only if the geometry ob4ect is selected
for the meshing, 3n this case the user can select edges to be reversed either directly pic-ing them in the
9D vie!er or by selecting the edges or groups of edges in the Ob4ect bro!ser,


Arithmetic 0D hypothesis ; the si<e of mesh elements gradually increases
See Also a sample #13 Script of a Defining Arithmetic 7D hypothesis operation,
Deflection 0D hypothesis
Deflection 0D hypothesis can be applied for meshing curvilinear edges composing your geometrical
ob4ect, 3t uses only one parameter: the value of deflection,
A geometrical edge is divided into e?ual segments, #he maximum distance bet!een a point on the edge
!ithin a segment and the line connecting the ends of the segment should not exceed the specified value
of deflection , #hen mesh nodes are constructed at end segment locations and 7D mesh elements are
constructed on segments,


Deflection 0D hypothesis ; useful for meshing cur&ilinear edges
See Also a sample #13 Script of a Defining Deflection 7D hypothesis operation,
$ocal $ength hypothesis
$ocal $ength hypothesis can be applied for meshing of edges composing your geometrical ob4ect,
Definition of this hypothesis consists of setting the length of segments' !hich !ill split these edges'
and the precision of rounding, #he points on the edges generated by these segments !ill represent
nodes of your mesh, Later these nodes !ill be used for meshing of the faces abutting to these edges,
#he precision parameter is used to allo! rounding a number of segments' calculated from the edge
length and average length of segment' to the lo!er integer' if this value outstands from it in bounds of
the precision, Other!ise' the number of segments is rounded to the higher integer, 1se value 6,< to
provide rounding to the nearest integer' 7,6 for the lo!er integer' 6,6 for the higher integer, Default
value is 7e(6F,



$ocal $ength hypothesis ; all 0D mesh elements are roughly e6ual
See Also a sample #13 Script of a Defining Local Length hypothesis operation,
Max Si<e
Max Si<e hypothesis allo!s splitting geometrical edges into segments not longer than the given length,
Definition of this hypothesis consists of setting the maximal allo!ed length of segments, (se
preestimated length chec- box lets you specify length automatically calculated basing on si0e of your
geometrical ob4ect' namely as diagonal of bounding box divided by ten, #he divider can be changed via
AIatio Counding Cox Diagonal @ Max Si0eA preference parameter, (se preestimated length chec- box
is enabled only if the geometrical ob4ect has been selected before hypothesis definition,

Number of segments hypothesis
Number of segments hypothesis can be applied for meshing of edges composing your geometrical
ob4ect, Definition of this hypothesis consists of setting the number of segments' !hich !ill split these
edges, 3n other !ords your edges !ill be split into a definite number of segments !ith approximately
the same length, #he points on the edges generated by these segments !ill represent nodes of your
mesh, Later these nodes !ill be used for meshing of the faces abutting to these edges,
#he direction of the splitting is defined by the orientation of the underlying geometrical edge,
:8e&erse Edges: list box allo!s to specify the edges for !hich the splitting should be made in the
direction opposing to their orientation, #his list box is enabled only if the geometry ob4ect is selected
for the meshing, 3n this case the user can select edges to be reversed either directly pic-ing them in the
9D vie!er or by selecting the edges or groups of edges in the Ob4ect bro!ser,

;ou can set the type of distribution for this hypothesis in the Hypothesis %onstruction dialog bog :

E6uidistant Distribution ( all segments !ill have the same length' you define only the Number of
Segments,
Scale Distribution ( length of segments gradually changes depending on the Scale actor' !hich is a
ratio of the first segment length to the last segment length,

Distribution .ith )able Density ( you input a number of pairs t ; 2t3' !here t ranges from 6 to 7' and
the module computes the formula' !hich !ill rule the change of length of segments and sho!s the
curve in the plot, ;ou can select the %on&ersion mode from Exponent and %ut negati&e,

Distribution .ith Analytic Density ( you input the formula' !hich !ill rule the change of length of
segments and the module sho!s the curve in the plot,

See Also a sample #13 Script of a Defining 2umber of Segments hypothesis operation,
Start and End $ength hypothesis
Start and End $ength hypothesis allo!s to divide a geometrical edge into segments so that the first
and the last segments have a specified length, #he length of medium segments changes !ith
automatically chosen geometric progression, #hen mesh nodes are constructed at segment ends location
and 7D mesh elements are constructed on them,
#he direction of the splitting is defined by the orientation of the underlying geometrical edge,
:8e&erse Edges: list box allo!s to specify the edges for !hich the splitting should be made in the
direction opposing to their orientation, #his list box is enabled only if the geometry ob4ect is selected
for the meshing, 3n this case the user can select edges to be reversed either directly pic-ing them in the
9D vie!er or by selecting the edges or groups of edges in the Ob4ect bro!ser,


)he lengths of the first and the last segment are strictly defined
See Also a sample #13 Script of a Defining Start and End Length hypothesis operation,
Automatic $ength
#his hypothesis is automatically applied !hen you select Assign a set of hypotheses option in &reate
Mesh menu,

#he dialog box prompts you to define the ?uality of the future mesh by only one parameter' !hich is
ineness' ranging from 6 )coarse mesh' lo! number of elements* to 7 )extremely fine mesh' great
number of elements*, &ompare one and the same ob4ect )sphere* meshed !ith minimum and maximum
value of this parameter,

Example of a &ery rough mesh= Automatic $ength .orks for 0=

Example of a &ery fine mesh= Automatic $ength .orks for 0=
ixed points 0D hypothesis
ixed points 0D hypothesis allo!s splitting edges through a set of points parameteri0ed on the edge
)from 7 to 6* and a number of segments for each interval limited by the points,

3t is possible to chec- in Same Nb= Segments for all inter&als option and to define one value for all
intervals,#he splitting direction is defined by the orientation of the underlying geometrical edge,
:8e&erse Edges: list box allo!s to specify the edges for !hich the splitting should be made in the
direction opposite to their orientation, #his list box is enabled only if the geometrical ob4ect is selected
for meshing, 3n this case it is possible to select the edges to be reversed either directly pic-ing them in
the 9D vie!er or selecting the edges or groups of edges in the Ob4ect bro!ser,

Example of a submesh on the edge built using ixed points 0D hypothesis
"D Meshing Hypotheses
Max Element Area
Length from Edges
%uadrangle parameters
Max Element Area
Max Element Area hypothesis is applied for meshing of 8D faces composing your geometrical ob4ect,
Definition of this hypothesis consists of setting the maximum area of meshing elements )depending on
the chosen meshing algorithm it can be triangles or 6uadrangles*' !hich !ill compose the mesh of
these 8D faces,


In this example1 Max= element area is &ery small compared to the 0D hypothesis
$ength from Edges
$ength from edges hypothesis builds 8D mesh segments having a length calculated as an average edge
length for a given !ire,
See Also a sample #13 Script of a Length from Edges hypothesis operation,
9uadrangle parameters

9uadrangle parameters creation>edition dialog
9uadrangle parameters is a hypothesis for %uadrangle )Mapping*,
-ase &ertex parameter allo!s using %uadrangle )Mapping* algorithm for meshing of triangular faces,
3n this case it is necessary to select the vertex' !hich !ill be used as the fourth edge )degenerated*,

A face built from # edges

)he resulting mesh
#his parameter can be also used to mesh a segment of a circular face, .lease' consider that there is a
limitation on the selection of the vertex for the faces built !ith the angle K 7H6 degrees )see the
picture*,

#>? of a circular face
3n this case' selection of a !rong vertex for the -ase &ertex parameter !ill generate a !rong mesh, #he
picture belo! sho!s the good )left* and the bad )right* results of meshing,

)he resulting meshes
)ype parameter is used on faces !ith a different number of segments on opposite sides to define the
algorithm of transition bet!een them, #he follo!ing types are available:
Standard is the default case' !hen both triangles and ?uadrangles are possible in the transition
area along the finer meshed sides,
)riangle preference forces building only triangles in the transition area along the finer meshed
sides, This type corresponds to Triangle Preference additiona' hypothesis% which is obso'ete
now)
9uadrangle preference forces building only ?uadrangles in the transition area along the finer
meshed sides, #his hypothesis has a restriction: the total ?uantity of segments on all four sides
of the face must be even )divisible by 8*, This type corresponds to Quadrangle Preference
additiona' hypothesis% which is obso'ete now)
9uadrangle preference 2re&ersed3 !or-s in the same !ay and !ith the same restriction as
9uadrangle preference' but the transition area is located along the coarser meshed sides,
8educed type forces building only ?uadrangles and the transition bet!een the sides is made
gradually' layer by layer, #his type has a limitation on the number of segments: one pair of
opposite sides must have the same number of segments' the other pair must have an even
difference bet!een the numbers of segments on the sides,
Max Element !olume hypothesis
Max Element !olume hypothesis is applied for meshing of 9D ob4ects composing your geometrical
ob4ect, Definition of this hypothesis consists of setting the maximum &olume of 9D meshing elements
)depending on the chosen meshing algorithm it can be hexahedrons or tetrahedrons*' !hich !ill
compose the mesh of these 9D ob4ects,

Netgen "D and #D hypotheses
Netgen "D and Netgen #D hypotheses !or- only !ith Netgen 0D;"D and Netgen 0D;"D;#D
algorithms, #hese algorithms do not re?uire definition of lo!er(level hypotheses and algorithms )8D
and 7D for meshing 9D ob4ects and 7D for meshing 8D ob4ects*,

Name ( allo!s to define the name for the algorithm )2etgen 8D )or 9D* .arameters by default*,
Max Si<e ( maximum linear dimensions for mesh cells,
Second *rder ( if this box is chec-ed in' the algorithm !ill create second order nodes on the
mesh' !hich actually !ill become %uadratic,
ineness ( ranging from "ery &oarse to "ery +ine allo!s to set the level of meshing
detali0ation using the three parameters belo!, ;ou can select &ustom to define them manually,
7ro.th rate ( allo!s to define ho! much the linear dimensions of t!o ad4acent cells can differ
)i,e, 6,9 means 96L*,
Nb= Segs per Edge and Nb Segs per 8adius ( allo!s to define the minimum number of mesh
segments in !hich edges and radiuses !ill be split,
Allo. 9uadrangles ( allo!s to use ?uadrangle elements in a triangle 8D mesh, #his chec-box
is not present in 2etgen 9D parameters because currently building a tetrahedral mesh !ith
?uadrangle faces is not possible,
*ptimi<e ( if this box is chec-ed in' the algorithm !ill try to create regular )possessing even
sides* elements,

$ocal si<es ( allo!s to define si0e of elements on and around specified geometrical edges and
vertices, #o define the local si0e it is necessary to select a geometrical edge or vertex in the
ob4ect bro!ser or in the vie!er' and to clic- *n Edge or *n !ertex correspondingly, Name of
the geometrical ob4ect and a default !alue !ill be added in the table !here the !alue can be
changed,
8emo&e ( deletes a selected ro! from the table,

Netgen "D simple parameters and Netgen #D simple parameters allo! defining the si0e of elements
for each dimension,
0D group allo!s defining the si0e of 7D elements in either of t!o !ays:
Number of Segments has the same sense as 2umber of segments hypothesis !ith e?uidistant
distribution,
$ocal $ength has the same sense as Local Length hypothesis,
"D group allo!s defining the si0e of 8D elements
$ength from edges if chec-ed in' acts li-e Length from Edges hypothesis' else
Max= Element Area defines the maximum element area li-e Max Element Area hypothesis,
#D groups allo!s defining the si0e of 9D elements,
$ength from faces if chec-ed in' the area of sides of volumic elements !ill be e?ual to an
average area of 8D elements' else
Max= Element !olume defines the maximum element volume li-e Max Element "olume
hypothesis,
Note'
2etgen algorithm does not strictly follo! the input parameters, #he actual mesh can be more or
less dense than re?uired, #here are several factors in it:
2E#E2 does not actually use A2bOfSegmentsA parameter for discreti0ation of edge,
#his parameter is used only to define the local element si0e )si0e at the given point*' so
local si0es of ad4acent edges influence each other,
2E#E2 additionally restricts the element si0e according to edge curvature,
#he local si0e of edges influences the si0e of close triangles,
#he order of elements and their si0e in the 7D mesh generated by 2E#E2 differ from
those in the 7D mesh generated by IegularB7D algorithm' resulting in different 8D and
9D meshes,
7HS#D /arameters hypothesis
/S9D .arameters hypothesis !or-s only !ith )etrahedron 27HS#D3 algorithm, #his algorithm is a
commercial soft!are,
7eneral parameters

Name ( allo!s to define the name of the hypothesis )/S9D .arameters by default*,
)o mesh holes ( if chec-ed' the algorithm !ill create mesh in the holes inside a solid shape' else
only the outermost shape !ill be meshed, "olumic elements created !ithin holes are bound to
the solid,
*ptimi<ation le&el ( allo!s choosing the re?uired optimi0ation level: none' light' medium or
strong, /igher level of optimisation provides better mesh' but can be time(consuming,
Ad&anced parameters

Maximum memory si<e ( launches ghs9d soft!are !ith !or- space limited to the specified
amount of IAM' in Mbytes, 3f this option is chec-ed off' the soft!are !ill be launched !ith FO
L of the total IAM space,
Initial memory si<e ( starts ghs9d soft!are !ith the specified amount of !or- space' in
Mbytes, 3f this option is chec-ed off' the soft!are !ill be started !ith 766 Megabytes of
!or-ing space,
4orking directory ( allo!s defining the folder for input and output files of ghs9d soft!are'
!hich are the files starting !ith A/S9DBA prefix,
+eep .orking files ( allo!s chec-ing input and output files of ghs9d soft!are' !hile usually
these files are removed after the launch of the mesher,
!erbose le&el ( to choose verbosity level in the range from 6 to 76,
6' no standard output'
8' prints the data' ?uality statistics of the s-in and final meshes and indicates !hen the
final mesh is being saved, 3n addition the soft!are gives indication regarding the &.1
time,
76' same as 8 plus the main steps in the computation' ?uality statistics histogram of the
s-in mesh' ?uality statistics histogram together !ith the characteristics of the final mesh,
)o create ne. nodes ( if this option is chec-ed off' ghs9d tries to create tetrahedrons using only
the nodes of the 8D mesh,
)o remo&e the initial central point #etMesh(/S9D adds an internal point at the gravity
centre of the bounding box to speed up and to simplify the meshing process, /o!ever' it is
possible to refrain from creating this point by using the command line option (no initial central
point, #his can be particularly useful to generate a volume mesh !ithout internal points at all
and in some rare cases at the boundary regeneration phase !hen it is impossible to proceed !ith
the standard options )for example' !hen one dimension of the domain is more than 86 times
greater than the other t!o*, 1se this option if the boundary regeneration has failed !ith the
standard parameters and before using the recovery version )command line option (&*, 2ote:
!hen using this option' the speed of the meshing process may decrease' and the ?uality may
change, 2ote: the boundary regeneration may fail !ith this option' in some rare cases,
)o use boundary reco&ery &ersion ( enables using a boundary recovery module !hich tries to
create volume meshes starting from very poor ?uality surface meshes )almost flat triangles on
the surface' high density propagation' extreme aspect ratios' etc,* !hich fails !ith the standard
version, #he resulting volume mesh !ill ho!ever most li-ely have a very poor ?uality )poor
aspect ratio of elements' tetrahedra !ith a very small positive volume*,
)o use EM correction ( Applies finite(element correction by replacing overconstrained
elements !here it is possible, At first the process slices the overconstrained edges and at second
the overconstrained facets, #his ensures that there are no edges !ith t!o boundary vertices and
that there are no facets !ith three boundary vertices, #etMesh(/S9D gives the initial and final
overconstrained edges and facets, 3t also gives the facets !hich have three edges on the
boundary, 2ote: !hen using this option' the speed of the meshing process may decrease' ?uality
may change' and the smallest volume may be smaller, Cy default' the +EM correction is not
used,
*ption as text ( allo!s to input in the command line any text for ghs9d' for example' advanced
options,
Enforced &ertices

/S9D algorithm can locally ma-e the mesh finer, 3t is possible to define enforced vertices in the
volume !here the mesh !ill be detailed,
A node !ill be created at the enforced vertex coordinates, #here is no need to create a vertex in &AD,
An enforced vertex is defined by:
#he )x'y'0* cartesian coordinates
A constant physical si0e
7HS#D/8$ /arameters hypothesis
/S9D.IL .arameters hypothesis !or-s only !ith )etrahedron 2)epal .ith )etMesh;7HS#D3
algorithm, #his algorithm is a commercial soft!are' its use re?uires a licence
)http:@@!!!,distene,com@fr@build@offer,html*,
#epalB"7,> gives the possibility to generate a partitioned mesh !ith 866 million tetrahedrons on a
computer !ith average memory si0e )8o IAM* in about <6 hours on one &.1 )Meon' 866H*,
2e! #epalB"8,6 gives the possibility to generate a partitioned mesh !ith )for the moment* no more
than 766 million tetrahedrons on computers using M.3' )#otal 7E o IAM* in about N66 seconds )O
yesO : OsecondsO* on 8 octo processors )Meon' 866N*, #he launch of this beta(version is described belo!,
#his is a serious alternative to /S9D' !hich re?uires a much less common configuration !ith E>o
IAM to only try to ma-e a partition of a mesh !ith 866 million tetrahedrons' no result guaranteed,
Note'
#he .lugin doesn:t load in the Memory the supposedly large resulting meshes, #he meshes are
saved in MED files and can be imported in the user(defined location via menu +ile(3mport(MED
+iles,
.ay attention' that Salome 13 needs 8o IAM to load a MED file !ith < million tetrahedrons,

Name ( allo!s to define the name of the hypothesis )/S9D.IL .arameters by default*,
MED5Name ( allo!s to define the path and the prefix of the resulting MED files )ADOMA32A
by default*, 3f the path is not defined' the environment variable PSALOMEB#M.BD3I is used,
3f PSALOMEB#M.BD3I is not defined as !ell' the environment variable P#M. is used,
Nb5/art ( allo!s to define the number of generated MED files, #he initial s-in )triangles* !ill
be meshed )tetrahedrons* and partitioned in 2bB.art by the elementary algorithm implemented
in #epal,
+eep5iles ( if this box is chec-ed' input files of #epal )/S9D.IL,points and
/S9D.IL,faces* are not deleted after use ),,,if the bac-ground mode !as not used*,
)epal5in5-ackground ( if this box is chec-ed' #epal execution and MED file generation are
launched in bac-ground mode and the user can even exit Salome, .ay attention that in this case
#epal algorithm !or-s independently of A-illSalome,pyA' and sometimes on another host,
)o5Mesh5Holes ( if this box is chec-ed' the parameter component of tetmesh(ghs9d !ill mesh
holes,
Modifying 7HS#D/8$ Ad&anced
/arameters
/S9D.IL .lugin launches a standalone binary executable tepal8med,
tepal8med launches tepal' !aits for the end of computation' and converts the resulting output
tepal files into MED files,
Some advanced optional parameters are accessible as arguments,
3f -eepBfiles option is chec-ed' it is possible to re(launch tepal8med or tepal in the #erminal as
a command !ith custom parameters,
Ad&anced tepal"med /arameters ( type Atepal8med ((helpA in the #erminal,
myname@myhost >
/export/home/myname/salome_5/GHS3DPRLPLUGIN_5/bn/salome/tepal!me" ##help
$%alable optons&
##help & pro"'(es ths help messa)e
##(asename & path an" name o* np't tepal!me" *les +h(h are
# o'tp't *les o* tepal ,ms) ,nobote ,*a(es
,ponts ,)lo
# o'tp't *le o* GHS3DPRL_Pl')n (asename_s-n,me"
.optonal/
+th ntal s-n an" ts ntal )ro'ps
##n'mber & n'mber o* parttons
##me"name & path an" name o* o'tp't 01D *les
##lmts+ap & max s2e o* +or-n) (p' memory .0o/ .be*ore s+appn)
on ,temp *les/
##%erbose & tra(e o* exe('ton .3#>4/
##test & more tests abo't 5onts6 be*ore )eneraton o* o'tp't
*les
##men' & a GUI men' *or opton n'mber
##la'n(htepal & also la'n(h tepal on *les (asename,*a(es an"
(asename,ponts an" opton n'mber
##meshholes & *or(e parameter (omponent o* tetmesh#)hs3" to mesh holes
##ba(-)ro'n" & *or(e ba(-)ro'n" mo"e *rom la'n(h tepal an" )eneraton o*
*nal 01D *les .b) meshes/
##"elete)ro'ps & re)'lar expresson .see 7Re)1xp/ +h(h mat(hes 'n+ante"
)ro'ps n *nal 01D *les
.try ##"elete)ro'ps89.:b$ll_No"es;:b$ll_<a(es/9
.try ##"elete)ro'ps89..:b$ll_;:bNe+_/.N;<;=//9
example&
tepal!me" ##(asename8/tmp/GHS3DPRL ##n'mber8! ##me"name8D>0$IN
##lmts+ap8?333
##%erbose83 ##test8yes ##men'8no ##la'n(htepal8no
Ad&anced )epal5!0=? /arameters
US$G1 & tepal optons
@th optons &
##*lename name .#* name/ &
Pre*x o* the np't (ase .0$ND$=>RA/
##n"om n .#n n/ &
N'mber o* s'b"omans to ma-e .0$ND$=>RA/
##)hs3" )hs3" optons .#) )hs3" optons/ &
R'ns temesh )hs3" on a pre%o'sly )enerate" s'b"oman, .)hs3"
optons m'st be 9B'ote"9/
##memory m .#m m/ &
0ax amo'nt o* memory .me)abytes/ allo+e" *or )hs n the ('ttn)
pro(ess, ."e*a'lt s 3 & 'nlmte"/
##mesh_only .#C / &
>nly .re/meshes all s'b"omans an" 'p"ates (omm'n(atons messa)es
##mesh_(all (omman" .#( (omman"/ &
Dalls the 'ser spe(*e" (omman" *or meshn) all the
s'bomans a*ter ther s-n has been )enerate"
##stats_only .#S / &
>nly (omp'tes an" sho+s some statst(s on s'b"omans
##reb'l" .#r / &
0er)es *nal s'b"omans s-ns
##reb'l"_tetra .#R / &
0er)es *nal s'b"omans s-ns an" tetrae"ra
##reb'l"_*a(e .# / &
In(l'"es nter*a(es n *nal s'b"omans mer)e
##reb'l"_reta) .#t / &
=a)s %ert(es6 *a(es .an" tetra * sele(te"/ +th ther
s'b"oman n'mber n the *nal mer)e o* s'b"omans .-eeps the lo+est
ta) *or share" elements/
##reb'l"_ens)ht_parts .#e / &
E'l"s ens)ht )eom *le +th parts
##tetmesh_ar)s str .#G str/ &
$r)'ments to pass to =etmesh "'rn) ('ttn) pro(ess
Ad&anced ghs#d /arameters 2through )epal5!0=?@s ;;tetmesh5args3 ( type Aghs9d (hA in a
#erminal,
myname@myhost > )hs3" #h
US1

/export/home/myname/)hs3"#F,3/DIS=1N1/=ools/=et0esh#GHS3DF,3/bn/Ln'x/)hs3"G
F,3
H#'I H#m memory>I H#0 010>RAI H#* pre*xI H#% %erboseI
H#( (omponentI H#p3I H#DI H#1 (o'ntI H#tI H#o le%elI
H#I *letypeI H#a/#bI H#> n mI
D1SDRIP=I>N
#' .#h/ & prnts ths messa)e,
#m memory & la'n(hes the so*t+are +th memory n 0e)abytes,
=he "e*a'lt %al'e o* ths parameter s 4F 0e)abytes an" ts
mnm'm %al'e s ?3 0e)abytes,
It s also possble to set ths parameter +th the
en%ronment %arable GHS3D_010>RA by means o* an operaton
eB'%alent to&
seten% GHS3D_010>RA memory6
the %al'e spe(*e" n the (omman" lne has the prorty on
the en%ronment %arable,
#0 010>RA & pro%"es the a'tomat( memory a"5'stment *eat're,
I* 010>RA .n 0e)abytes/ s eB'al to 2ero6 the s2e o* the
+or- spa(e s
(al('late" *rom the np't, I* 010>RA s not eB'al to
2ero6 the so*t+are starts +th 010>RA amo'nt o* +or- spa(e,
=he so*t+are reallo(ates memory as ne(essary,
=he start %al'e o* 010>RA (an ran)e *rom 3 to 4F
0e)abytes6
the maxm'm "epen"s on #m opton an" the a(t'al memory
a%alable,
#* pre*x & "e*nes the )ener( pre*x o* the *les,
#% %erbose & sets the o'tp't le%el parameter .the %erbose parameter
m'st be n the ran)e 3 to ?3/,
#( (omponent & (hooses the meshe" (omponent, I* the parameter s
36 all (omponents +ll be meshe"6 *
?6 only the man .o'termost/ (omponent +ll be meshe"
#p3 & "sables (reaton o* nternal ponts,
#D & 'ses an alternat%e bo'n"ary re(o%ery me(hansm, It sho'l"
be 'se" only
+hen the stan"ar" bo'n"ary re(o%ery *als,
#1 (o'nt & sets the exten"e" o'tp't *or error messa)es, I* #1 s 'se"6
the error messa)es +ll be prnte"6 t s possble
to n"(ate the maxm'm n'mber o* prnte" messa)es bet+een
? an" ?33,
#t & )enerates an error *le pre*x,Lo)
#o le%el & sets the reB're" optmsaton le%el,
Gal" optmsaton le%els are&
none6 l)ht6 stan"ar" or stron)6
+th n(rease o* 9B'alty %s spee"9 rato,
#I *letype & "e*nes the np't mesh *ormat as *ollo+s&
#IP np't *les are as( *les6 name" pre*x,ponts
an" pre*x,*a(es # ths s the "e*a'lt type o* *les
#IPb np't *les are bnary *les6 name" pre*x,pontsb
an" pre*x,*a(esb
#I0 np't *le s as( *le6 name" pre*x,mesh
+here pre*x s "e*ne" +th #* opton
#a/#b & sele(ts the o'tp't *le type&
#a *or as( .the "e*a'lt/ an"
#b *or bnary,
#>n & sa%es a N>P> *le n a""ton, N>P> s the mesh "ata
str'(t're o* the Smal an" 0o"'le* so*t+are pa(-a)es,
#>m & sa%es a mesh *le n a""ton,
#>mn & sa%es both N>P> an" mesh *les,

88888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888
8
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1ND >< S1SSI>N
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8
. Dstene S$S
Phone& L33.3/?#4J#!4#4!#?3 <ax& L33.3/?#4J#!4#J3#33
10al& s'pport@"stene,(om /
Sa&ing user@s preferred 7HS#D/8$
Ad&anced /arameters
/S9D.IL .lugin launches standalone binary executable tepal8med,
;ou may rename file tepal8med as tepal8med,exe for example' and replace tepal8med by a shell
script at your convenience to overriding parameters,
,,, or else P.A#/ modification,,, ,
3dem for file tepal,
Ad&anced tepal"med /arameters ( overriding parameter deletegroups
;ou may rename tepal8med as tepal8med,exe for example,
MN/bn/bash
Ms(rpt tepal!me" o%err"n) parameter "elete)ro'ps
M+e ha%e rename" bnary exe('table tepal!me" as tepal!me",exe
Me(ho tepal!me" ntal parameters are O? O! O3 OF ,,, or OP
MO3 s )nore"
tepal!me",exe OP ##"elete)ro'ps89.:b$ll_No"es;:b$ll_<a(es/9
Ad&anced )epal5!0=? /arameters ( overriding parameter component of ghs9d )to mesh
holes*,
;ou may rename tepal as tepal,exe for example,
MN/bn/bash
Ms(rpt tepal o%err"n) parameter (omponent o* tetmesh#)hs3"
M+e ha%e rename" bnary exe('table tepal as tepal,exe
Moptonnaly +e (o'l" set l(en(e only *or 's
DIS=1N1_LID1NS1_<IL189Use )lobal en%%ar& DLI0KG$R9
DLI0KG$R89"lmK ?&?&!J333@s?F!354/33?4?Q5e*3K(&&a?ba?,,,et(,,,e?J9
SI0UL>GD_LID1NS1_<IL18!J3!J@s?F!354
tepal,exe OP ##tetmesh_ar)s 9#( 39
Ad&anced tepal /arameters ( overriding launching tepal on other host,
;ou may rename tepal as tepal,exe for example,
MN/bn/bash
Ms(rpt tepal o%err"n) la'n(hn) tepal on other host .tepal r'n 4F bts
only/
M+e ha%e rename" bnary exe('table tepal as tepal,exe
M(ommon *le system .same path/ other+se s(p,,, on np't or res'lt *les
Mssh #-ey)en #t rsa "one an" *les "_rsa et "#rsa,p'b mo%e n R/,ssh
Mexample o* typ(al (omman"
Mtepal #* /home/myname/tmp/GHS3DPRL #n F > /home/myname/tmp/tepal,lo)
Me(ho parameters O? O! O3 OF ,,, or OP
Mtepal l(en(e o')ht to be -no+n on otherhost
ssh otherhost 9tepal,exe OP > /home/myname/tmp/tepal,lo)9
Mor more an" more
Mssh otherhost 9tepal,exe OP ##tetmesh_ar)s :9#( 3:99 >
/home/myname/tmp/tepal,lo)
)epal5!"=0 and M/I use=
#his all ne! beta(version needs M.3' )openmpi(7,9,7 !as used*, #o use it you have to proceed
as done in Aoverriding parameter component of ghs9dA, Advanced ghs9d .arameters )through
#epalB"7,>:s ((tetmeshBargs* are not assumed yet, 3t meshes holes,
;ou may rename tepal as tepalE>Bv8,exe for example' and replace tepal by a shell script li-e
belo!,
example tepal5&"5mpirun=
MN/bn/bash
Ms(rpt tepal o%err"n) la'n(hn) =epal_G!,3 +th 0PI .tepal r'n 4F bts
only/,
M+e ha%e rename" bnary exe('table tepal as tepal4F_%!,exe,
Mtyp(al (omman" to la'n(h tepal %? &
Mtepal #* /tmp/myname/GHS3DPRL #n ?4 > /tmp/myname/tepal,lo)
Mths *le s an exemple to trans*orm ths (all *or tepal %!,36
M .beta %erson 'sn) ,mesh np't *le/
Myo' ha%e to a"apt *or yo'r (on%enen(e,
M*rst problem s (on%ert %? np't *les GHS3DPRL,*a(es an" GHS3DPRL,ponts
M to %! np't *le GHS3DPRL,mesh,
Mse(on" problem s to la'n(h on hetero)eneo's system ln'x (l'ster o*
M ! hosts .4F bts/ o* K no"es .by example/
M +th "**erent ! exe('tables (o"es ln-e" on ! "**erent
M openmp share" lbrary (o"es,
Mthr" problem s (on%ert tepal %! o'tp't *les GHS3DPRLP,mesh
M to %? np't *les GHS3DPRLP,*a(es an GHS3DPRLP,ponts,
Myo' ha%e to +or- on the same phys(al "s- an" same path np't an" o'p't
*les & OS$01_DIR
Myo' ha%e to +or- on "**erent phys(al "s- b't same path an" name *or
exe('table *les
M .an" share" lbrares/ & ODI<<_DIR
e(ho 9parameter 389O3
e(ho 9parameter ?89O?
e(ho 9parameter !89O!
e(ho 9parameter 389O3
e(ho 9parameter F89OF
export S$01_DIR8/same_phys(al_"s-_an"_same path/tmp
export DI<<_DIR8/"**erent_phys(al_"s-_b't_same path/myname
M(opy np't lo(al *les *rom lo(al ('rrent "re(tory .somethn) l-e
/tmp/myname/
Mn ths (ase +e nee" /tmp/myname an" OS$01_DIR "**erent
(" OS$01_DIR
rm P
(p O!P ,
export IN_<IL1S8Sbasename O!S
export IN_DIR8S"rname O!S
M(reate" ,mesh *rom ,*a(es et ,ponts
/thro')h_salome_path/*a(esponts!mesh,py OIN_<IL1S
Mthere are ! exe('table openmp an" lbrary thro')h ! phys(al DI<<_DIR
export P$=H8ODI<<_DIR/openmp#?,3,?_nstall/bn&OTP$=HU
export LD_LIER$RA_P$=H8ODI<<_DIR/openmp#?,3,?_nstall/lb&OTLD_LIER$RA_P$=HU
Mthere are ! exe('tables tepal_%! thro')h ! phys(al DI<<_DIR
export LD_LIER$RA_P$=H8ODI<<_DIR/tepal#!,3,3/bn/Ln'x_4F&OTLD_LIER$RA_P$=HU
export P$=H8ODI<<_DIR/tepal#!,3,3/bn/Ln'x_4F&OP$=H
Msmall test bet+eeen *ren"s
Mrm hostnames,lo)
Mmpr'n #n OF hostname >> hostnames,lo)
Mthere ne(essary set en% l(en(e *le *or tepal %!
export DIS=1N1_LID1NS1_<IL189Use )lobal en%%ar& DLI0KG$R9
export DLI0KG$R89"lmK ?&?&!J333@s?F!354/33?4?Q5e*3K(&&a?ba,,,Je?J9
export SI0UL>GD_LID1NS1_<IL18!J3!J@s?F!354
export LID1NS1_<IL18/pro"'(t/"stene/"lmK,%ar,sh
Mmpr'n +th ne(essary set en%en%ronment
export =0P_1NG89#x P$=H #x LD_LIER$RA_P$=H #x DIS=1N1_LID1NS1_<IL1 #x
DLI0KG$R :
#x SI0UL>GD_LID1NS1_<IL1 #x LID1NS1_<IL19
Mmpr'n O=0P1NG #n OF +h(h tepal4F_%!,exe >> hostnames,lo)
Mreal mpr'n 'n(omment a*ter %er*y small test
mpr'n O=0P1NG #n OF tepal4F_%!,exe ##n OIN_<IL1S,mesh ##o't OIN_<IL1S,mesh
##%erbose ?33
M(on%ert o'tp't *les tepal%? *ormat
/thro')h_salome_path/mesh!*a(esponts,py OIN_<IL1S
M(opy o'p'ts *les *rom OS$01_DIR to lo(al ('rrent "re(tory .somethn)
l-e /tmp/myname/
(p #* hostnames,lo) OIN_DIR
(p #* OIN_<IL1SP OIN_DIR
Mls #al OS$01_DIR
M(at OS$01_DIR/hostnames,lo)
M(at /tmp/myname/tepal,lo)
)(I use=
example ex#05tepal=py=
MN/bn/python
mport os
mport )eompy
mport smesh
M Parameters
M ##########
res'lts 8 9/tmp/CC9
ra"'s 8 53
he)ht 8 !33
M E'l" a (yln"er
M ################
base 8 )eompy,0a-eGertex.36 36 3/
"re(ton 8 )eompy,0a-eGe(torDVDADC.36 36 ?/
(yln"er 8 )eompy,0a-eDyln"er.base6 "re(ton6 ra"'s6 he)ht/
)eompy,a""=oSt'"y.(yln"er6 9Dyln"er9/
M De*ne a mesh on a )eometry
M ###########################
m 8 smesh,0esh.(yln"er/
M !D mesh +th ELSUR<
M ###################
al)o!" 8 m,=ran)le.smesh,ELSUR</
al)o!",SetPhys(al0esh.?/
al)o!",SetPhyS2e.5/
al)o!",SetGeometr(0esh.3/
M 3D mesh +th tepal
M ##################
al)o3" 8 m,=etrahe"ron.smesh,GHS3DPRL/
al)o3",Set01DName.res'lts/
al)o3",SetNbPart.F/
al)o3",SetEa(-)ro'n".<alse/
al)o3",SetWeep<les.<alse/
al)o3",Set=o0eshHoles.=r'e/
M La'n(h meshers
M ##############
stat's 8 m,Domp'te./
M =est * o-
M ##########
* os,a((ess.res'ltsL9,xml96 os,<_>W/&
prnt 9>-& tepal9
else&
prnt 9W>& tepal9
-$S(8 /arameters hypothesis
CLS1I+ .arameters hypothesis !or-s only !ith -$S(8 8d algorithm, #his algorithm is a
commercial soft!are,
7eneral parameters

Name ( allo!s defining the name of the hypothesis )CLS1I+ .arametersBn by default*,
/hysical Mesh ( can be set to 2one' &ustom or Si0e Map
if set to A&ustomA' allo!s user input in the in (ser si<e' Max /hysical Si<e and Min
/hysical Si<e fields,
if set to ASi0e MapA' behaves li-e A&ustomA mode and ta-es into account the custom
elements si0es given in the Si0e Map tab,
(ser si<e ( defines the si0e of the generated mesh elements,
Max /hysical Si<e ( defines the upper limit of mesh element si0e,
Min /hysical Si<e ( defines the lo!er limit of mesh element si0e,
7eometrical mesh ( if set to A&ustomA' allo!s user input in Angle Mesh S' Angle Mesh % and
7radation fields, #hese fields control computation of the element si0e' so called geometrica'
si*e' conform to the surface geometry considering local curvatures,
3f both the (ser si<e and the geometrica' si*e are defined' the eventual element si0e correspond
to the least of the t!o,
Angle Mesh S ( maximum angle bet!een the mesh face and the tangent to the geometrical
surface at each mesh node' in degrees,
Angle Mesh % ( maximum angle bet!een the mesh edge and the tangent to the geometrical
curve at each mesh node' in degrees,
Max 7eometrical Si<e ( defines the upper limit of the geometrica' si*e,
Min 7eometrical Si<e ( defines the lo!er limit of the geometrica' si*e,
7radation ( maximum ratio bet!een the lengths of t!o ad4acent edges,
Allo. 9uadrangles ( if chec-ed' allo!s the creation of ?uadrilateral elements,
/atch independent ( if chec-ed' geometrical edges are not respected and all geometrical faces
are meshed as one hyper(face,
Ad&anced parameters

)opology ( allo!s creation of a conform mesh on a shell of not se!ed faces,
A+rom &ADA means that mesh conformity is assured by conformity of a shape,
A.re(processA and A.re(processJJA allo! the CLS1I+ soft!are to pre(process the
geometrical model to eventually produce a conform mesh,
!erbosity le&el ( Defines the percentage of AverbosityA of CLS1I+ Q6(766R,
Add option ( provides the choice of multiple advanced options' !hich appear' if selected' in a
table !here it is possible to input the value of the option and to edit it later,
%lear option ( removes the option selected in the table,
#he follo!ing options are commonly usable, #he notion of diag used in the descriptions means the
diagonal of the bounding box of the geometrical ob4ect to mesh,
topo5eps0 )real* ( is the tolerance level inside a &AD patch, Cy default is e?ual to diag STU
76(>, #his tolerance is used to identify nodes to merge !ithin one geometrical face !hen
)opology option is to pre(process, Default is diag@76,6,
topo5eps" )real* ( is the tolerance level bet!een t!o &AD patches, Cy default is e?ual to diag
STU 76(>, #his tolerance is used to identify nodes to merge over different geometrical faces
!hen )opology option is to pre(process, Default is diag@76,6,
$SS )real* ( is an abbreviation for Alength of sub(segmentA, 3t is a maximal allo!ed length of a
mesh edge, Default is 6,<,
frontal )integer*
7 ( the mesh generator inserts points !ith an advancing front method,
6 ( it inserts them !ith an algebraic method )on internal edges*, #his method is slightly
faster but generates less regular meshes,
Default is 6,
hinterpol5flag )integer* ( determines the computation of an interpolated value v bet!een t!o
points P" and P! on a curve, Let h" be the value at point P"% h! be the value at point P!% and t
be a parameter varying from 6 to 7 !hen moving from P" to P! ,
6 ( the interpolation is linear: v + h" , t -h! . h" /
7 ( the interpolation is geometric: v + h" 0 pow- h!1h"% t/
8 ( the interpolation is sinusoidal: v + -h",h!/1! , -h".h!/1!0cos-P20t/
Default is 6,
hmean5flag )integer* ( determines the computation of the average of several values:
(7 ( the minimum is computed,
6 or 8 ( the arithmetic average computed,
7 ( the geometric average is computed,
Default is 6,
%heckAd,acentEdges' %heck%loseEdges and %heck4ellDefined )integers* ( gives the
number of calls of e?ually named subroutines the purpose of !hich is to improve the mesh of
domains having narro! parts, At each iteration'%heck%loseEdges decreases the si0es of the
edges !hen t!o boundary curves are neighboring'%heckAd,acentEdges balances the si0es of
ad4acent edges' and %heck4ellDefined chec-s if the parametric domain is !ell defined,
Default values are 6,
%oef8ectangle )real*( defines the relative thic-ness of the rectangles used by subroutine
%heck%loseEdges )see above*, Default is 6,8<,
eps5collapse )real* ( if more than 6,6' CLS1I+ removes curves !hose lengths are less than
eps5collapse, #o obtain an approximate value of the length of a curve' it is arbitrarily split into
86 edges, Default is 6,6,
eps5ends )real* ( is used to detect the curves !hose lengths are very small' !hich sometimes
constitutes an error, A message is printed if 3abs-P!.P"/ 4 eps$ends' !here P" and P! are the
extremities of a curve, Default is diag@<66,6,
prefix )char* ( is a prefix of the files generated by CLS1I+, Default is AxA,
refs )integer* ( reference of a surface' used !hen exporting files, Default is 7,
#he follo!ing advanced options are not documented and you can use them at your o!n ris-,
3nteger variables:
addsurfBivertex
bac-ground
coiter
communication
decim
exportBflag
fileBh
gridnu
gridnv
intermedfile
memory
normals
optim
pardomBflag
pinch
rigid
surforient
tconf
topoBcollapse
Ieal variables:
addsurfBangle
addsurfBI
addsurfB/
addsurfB+
addsurfBr
addsurfB.A
angleBcompcurv
angleBridge
epsBpardom
String variables:
exportBformat
exportBoption
importBoption
%ustom si<e map

1ser si0es can be defined on faces' edges or vertices,
#he faces' edges and vertices can belong to the meshed geometrical ob4ect or to its sub(shapes
)created using Explode command*,
roups of faces' edges and vertices are also handled,
3t is possible to attribute the same si0e to several geometries using multi(selection,
#he si0es are constant values or python functions,
3n case of a python function' the follo!ing rules must be respected:
#he name of the function is f,
3f geometry is a face or a group of faces' the function is f)u'v*,
3f geometry is an edge or a group of edges' the function is f)t*,
3f geometry is a vertex or a group of vertices' the function is f)*,
#he function must return a double,
See Also a sample #13 Script of the creation of a CLSurf hypothesis' including si0e map,
%omputation of the physical si<e
#he physical si0e is obtained by ?uerying si0emap functions associated to the input &AD ob4ect for
surfaces' curves and points, Each function can either return a value h )!hich is then trimmed bet!een
the t!o bounds hphymin and hphymax*' or Ano ans!erA )by not assigning a value to h*' thus providing
great flexibility in the specification of the si0es, #he computation depends on !hether point . is
internal to a surface' internal to a curve' or at the end of several curves:
3f point . is internal to a surface' the &AD surface si0e function is ?ueried, 3f no ans!er is
returned' one interpolates !ith the values at the vertices of the discreti0ed interface curves,
3f point . is internal to a curve' the &AD curve si0e function is ?ueried first, 3f no ans!er is
returned' the surface si0e function is ?ueried for every ad4acent surface and the mean value of
the returned values is computed, 3f no ans!er is returned' si0es h7 and h8 at both ends of the
curve are considered )see next item* and the interpolated value is computed,
3f point . is at the extremity of several curves' the &AD point si0e function is ?ueried first, 3f no
ans!er is returned' the curve si0e function is ?ueried for every ad4acent curve and the mean
value of the returned values is computed, 3f no ans!er is returned' the surface si0e function is
?ueried for every ad4acent surface and the mean value of the returned values is computed, 3f
there is still no ans!er returned' the default value hphydef is -ept,
3n order to compute the mean of several values' the arithmetic mean is used by default' but this can be
modified by the parameter hmean flag, 3n the same !ay' in order to interpolate t!o values' a linear
interpolation is used by default' but this can be modified by hinterpol flag,
%ustom enforced &ertices

3t is possible to define some enforced vertices to CLSurf algorithm !ithout creating any vertices by
&AD algorithms,
#he enforced vertex is the pro4ection of a point defined by its )x'y'0* coordinates on the selected
face,
3t is possible to define several enforced vertices on a face or a group of faces,
3f the pro4ected point is on the boundary or outside of the face' it !ill be ignored,
See Also a sample #13 Script of the creation of a CLSurf hypothesis' including enforced vertices,
$imitations
&urrently CLS1I+ plugin has the follo!ing limitations,
#he created mesh !ill contain inverted elements if it is based on a shape' consisting of more
than one face )box' cone' torus,,,* and if the option AAllo! %uadrangles )#est*A has been
chec-ed before computation,
S3+.E exception is raised at the attempt to compute the mesh based on a box !hen the option
A.atch independentA is chec-ed,
CLS1I+ algorithm cannot be used as a local algorithm )on sub(meshes* or as a provider of a
lo!(level mesh for some 9D algorithms' because the CLS1I+ mesher )and conse?uently
plugin* does not provide the information on node parameters on edges )1* and faces )1'"*, +or
example the follo!ing combinations of algorithms are impossible:
global ME+3S#O or %uadrangle)mapping* J local CLS1I+;
CLS1+I J .ro4ection 8D from faces meshed by CLS1I+;
local CLS1I+ J Extrusion 9D;
Hexotic /arameters hypothesis
/exotic .arameters hypothesis !or-s only !ith Hexotic algorithm, #his algorithm is a commercial
soft!are,

Name ( allo!s to define the name of the hypothesis )/exotic .arameters by default*,
Nb= Hexes Min $e&el ( allo!s defining the minimal level of recursive partitioning on the initial
octree cube,
Nb= Hexes Max $e&el ( allo!s defining the maximal level of recursive partitioning on the
initial octree cube,
Salome 9uadrangles ( not documented,
7enerate smooth meshes no ridges ( specifies that the mesher can ignore ridges, A ridge is a
geometrical entity )a sharp edge*, #he resulting meshes !ill have better ?uality elements' at the
price of AsmoothingA out the geometry,
Authori<e in&alid elements ( specifies that the mesher must conform as much as possible to
the geometry )especially the sharp edges*, #he resulting meshes may contain invalid elements
)but !ith positive volumes: for example' three vertices of an hexahedron on the same edge*' for
the benefit of better geometry accuracy,
Sharp angle threshold in degrees ( specifies the angle bet!een t!o triangles above !hich the
hex mesher !ill consider the edge common to these t!o triangles as being a AridgeA, A ridge is a
geometrical entity )a sharp edge* !hich has to be -ept as it is in the final hex mesh,#he default
value is E6 )degrees*,
3f you raise this value' the hex mesher !ill detect less ridges' and the final solid mesh !ill
therefore be smoother, On the other hand' if you reduce this value' more ridges !ill be detected
and the algorithm !ill face harder situations to conform to,
Additional Hypotheses
Additional Hypotheses can be applied as a supplement to the main hypotheses' introducing additional
concepts to mesh creation,
#o define an Additional Hypothesis simply select it in %reate Mesh menu, #hese hypotheses are
actually changes in the rules of mesh creation and as such don:t possess ad4ustable values,
Non %onform mesh allo.ed hypothesis
Non %onform mesh allo.ed hypothesis allo!s to generate non(conform meshes )that is' meshes
having some edges ending on an edge or face of ad4acent elements*,
9uadratic Mesh
%uadratic Mesh hypothesis allo!s to build a ?uadratic mesh )!hose edges are not straight but bro-en
lines and can be defined by three points: first' middle and last* instead of an ordinary one,
/ropagation of 0D Hypothesis on opposite edges
/ropagation of 0D Hypothesis on opposite edges allo!s to propagate a hypothesis onto an opposite
edge, 3f a local hypothesis and propagation are defined on an edge of a ?uadrangular face' the opposite
edge !ill have the same hypothesis' unless another hypothesis has been locally defined on the opposite
edge,
See Also a sample #13 Script of a .ropagation hypothesis operation
9uadrangle /reference
#his additional hypothesis can be used together !ith %uadrangle )Mapping* and 2etgen 8D algorithms,
3t allo!s 2etgen 8D to build ?uadrangular meshes at any conditions,
3t allo!s %uadrangle )Mapping* to build ?uadrangular meshes even if the number of nodes at the
opposite edges of a meshed face is not e?ual' other!ise this mesh !ill contain some triangular
elements, This use case is obso'ete now) 5se Quadrangle Parameters hypothesis with type
Quadrangle Preference set instead)
#his hypothesis has one restriction on its !or-: the total ?uantity of segments on all four sides of the
face must be even )divisible by 8*,
)riangle /reference (obsolete)
#his additional hypothesis can be used only together !ith %uadrangle )Mapping* algorithm, 3t allo!s
to build triangular mesh faces in the refinement area if the number of nodes at the opposite edges of a
meshed face is not e?ual' other!ise refinement area !ill contain some ?uadrangular elements, This
hypothesis is obso'ete now) 5se Quadrangle Parameters hypothesis with type Triangle Preference set
instead)
%onstructing submeshes
Submesh is a mesh on a geometrical subob4ect created !ith algorithms and@or hypotheses other than
the algorithms and hypotheses assigned to the parent mesh on the parent ob4ect,
3f a geometrical subob4ect belongs to several geometrical ob4ects having different meshes or
submeshes' it !ill be meshed !ith the hypotheses of a submesh of a lo!er dimension,
+or example' a face of a box is meshed !ith a submesh using algorithms and hypotheses other than the
parent mesh on the !hole box, #he face and the box share four edges' !hich !ill be meshed !ith
algorithms and hypotheses of the submesh on the face' because the face is a 8D ob4ect !hile the box is
a 9D ob4ect,
3f the dimensions are the same' an arbitrary algorithm@hypothesis !ill be used, #his means that an edge
shared by t!o faces each having its o!n different submesh' !ill be meshed using algorithms and
hypotheses of any of the t!o' chosen randomly,
&onstruction of a submesh consists of:
Selecting a mesh !hich !ill encapsulate your submesh
Selecting a geometrical ob4ect for meshing
Applying one or several previously described hypotheses and meshing algorithms !hich !ill be
used at computation of this submesh
To construct a submesh:
+rom the Mesh menu select %reate Submesh or clic- "Create #um.mesh" button in the toolbar,

"Create #ubmesh" button
#he follo!ing dialog box !ill appear:

3t allo!s to define the Name' the parent Mesh and the 7eometry )e,g, a face if the parent mesh
has been built on box* of the submesh, ;ou can define algorithms and hypotheses in the same
!ay as in &reate mesh menu,
3n the Ob4ect Cro!ser the structure of the ne! submesh !ill be displayed as follo!s:

3t contains:
a reference to the geometrical ob4ect on the basis of !hich the submesh has been
constructed;
Applied hypotheses folder containing the references to the hypotheses applied to the
construction of the submesh;
Applied algorithms folder containing the references to the algorithms applied to the
construction of the submesh,
-uilding %ompounds
&ompound Mesh is a combination of several meshes,
To 6ui'd a compound:
+rom the Mesh menu select -uild %ompound or clic- "6ui'd Compound Mesh" button in the
toolbar,

"6ui'd Compound Mesh" button
#he follo!ing dialog box !ill appear:

Name ( allo!s selecting the name of the resulting %ompound,
Meshes ( allo!s selecting the meshes !hich !ill be concatenated, #hey can be chosen in
the Ob4ect Cro!ser !hile holding %trl button,
/rocessing identical groups ( allo!s selecting the method of processing the namesa-e
existing on the united meshes,
#hey can be either
(nited ( all elements of roup7 on MeshB7 and roup7 on MeshB8 become the
elements of roup7 on the &ompoundBMesh' or
8enamed ( roup7 on MeshB7 becomes roup7B7 and roup7 on MeshB8
becomes roup7B8, See &reating roups for more information about groups,
%reate common groups for initial meshes chec-box permits to automatically create
groups of all elements of the same type )nodes' edges' faces and volumes* for the resulting
mesh from the elements of the initial meshes,
;ou can simply unite meshes or choose to Merge coincident nodes and elements' in
!hich case it is possible to define the )olerance for this operation,

Example of a compound of t.o meshed cubes
Editing Meshes
After you have created a mesh or submesh !ith definite applied hypotheses and algorithms you can
edit your mesh by assigning ne! hypotheses and algorithms or unassigning the applied hypotheses
and algorithms, #he editing proceeds in the same !ay as Mesh %reation,

;ou can also change values for the current hypothesis by clic-ing the "Edit Hypothesis" button,

"Edit Hypothesis" button
See ho! the mesh constructed on a geometrical ob4ect changes if !e apply different algorithms to it,

Example of a mesh .ith Max= Element area "D hypothesis roughly corresponding to 0D
hypotheses on edges

And no. the Max Element area is greatly reduced
!ie.ing meshes
After definition of algorithms and hypotheses a ne! mesh is listed in the Ob4ect Cro!ser, Iight(clic-
on it and select %ompute ( the mesh !ill be automatically displayed in the !)+ #D !ie.er,
Alternatively clic- Display only to hide all other ob4ects at the same time,
!)+ #D !ie.er is described in detail in the documentation on 7(I module,
After the mesh has appeared in the "ie!er' you can select it !ith left mouse clic- and get information
about it' change its presentation parameters and access to other useful options by right(clic-ing on the
selected mesh,

Hide all ( allo!s to hide all ob4ects in the vie!er,
(pdate ( refreshes the presentation of your mesh in the Ob4ect Cro!ser' applying all recent
changes,
Mesh 3nfos ( provides information about the mesh,
Mesh Element 3nfo ( provides basic information about the selected element of the mesh,
+ind Element by .oint ( allo!s to find all mesh elements' to !hich belongs a point !ith the
given coordinates,
2umbering ( allo!s to display the 3D numbers of all meshing elements or nodes composing
your mesh in the vie!er,
Display Mode ( allo!s to select bet!een Direframe' Shading and 2odes presentation,
Display Entity ( allo!s to display +aces' Edges or both,
"D 9uadratic ( allo!s to select bet!een the representation of ?uadratic edges as bro-en lines
or as arcs
*rientation of faces ( sho!s vectors of orientation of faces of the selected mesh, #he
orientation vector is sho!n for each 8D mesh element and for each free face of a 9D mesh
element, the vector direction is calculated by the first three nodes of the face produced by
vectors n7(n8 and n7(n9,
&olors @ Si0e ( allo!s to select color and si0e of meshes,
#ransparency ( allo!s to change the transparency of mesh elements,
&lipping ( allo!s to create cross(sections of the selected ob4ects,
&ontrols ( graphically presents various information about meshes,
Hide ( allo!s to hide the selected mesh from the vie!er,
Sho. *nly (allo!s to display only the selected mesh' hiding all other from the vie!er,
Dump &ie. ( exports an ob4ect from the vie!er in bmp' png' 4pg or 4peg image format,
%hange background ( allo!s to redefine the bac-ground color, Cy default it is blac-,
!ie. *perations chec-box ( allo!s to sho!@hide the visuali0ation toolbar in the vie!er
!indo!,
8ecording *perations ( allo!s to sho!@hide the recording toolbar in the vie!er !indo!,
Mesh infos
#here are three information boxes: Standard Mesh Infos' Ad&anced Mesh Infos and Mesh Element
Info,
Standard Mesh Infos
#he Standard Mesh Infos box gives only the information on the number of elements of maximum
dimension and the number of nodes in the mesh, /o!ever' from this 3nfo you can learn about groups
selected on this mesh,
#o vie! the Standard Mesh Infos' select your mesh or submesh in the *b,ect -ro.ser and select
Standard Mesh Infos from the Mesh menu or clic- "#tandard Mesh 2n3os" button in the toolbar,

"#tandard Mesh 2n3os" button
#he follo!ing information !ill be displayed:

Ad&anced Mesh Infos
#he Ad&anced Mesh Infos box gives more information about the mesh' including the total number of
faces and volumes and their geometrical types,
#o vie! the Ad&anced Mesh Infos' select your mesh or submesh in the *b,ect -ro.ser and select
Ad&anced Mesh Infos from the Mesh menu or clic- "Advanced Mesh 2n3os" button in the toolbar,

"Advanced Mesh 2n3os" button
#he follo!ing information !ill be displayed:

Mesh Element Info
#he Mesh Element Info dialog box gives basic information about the type' coordinates and
connectivity of the selected mesh node or element,
3t is possible to input the Element 3D or to select the Element in the "ie!er,


ind Element by /oint
#his functionality allo!s you to find all mesh elements to !hich belongs a certain point,
To 3ind the e'ements:
7, Select the mesh
8, Select from the Mesh menu or from the context menu the +ind Element by .oint item,

"7ind E'ement by Point" button
#he follo!ing dialog box !ill appear:

9, 3n this dialog box you should select:
the coordinates of the point;
the type of elements to be found; it is also possible to find elements of all types related to
the reference point, &hoose type AAllA to find elements of any type except for nodes and
6D elements,
>, &lic- the Apply or *+ button,

#he reference point and the related elements,
Numbering
Displaying node numbers
3n MES/ you can display the 3D numbers of all nodes of your mesh in the vie!er,
To disp'ay 2 numbers o3 nodes:
7, Display your mesh in the vie!er
8, Iight(clic- on the mesh in the 9D vie!er and from the associated pop(up menu choose
Numbering A Display Nodes B,

Displayed node numbers
Displaying element numbers
3n MES/ you can display the 3D numbers of all meshing elements composing your mesh in the vie!er,
To disp'ay 2 numbers o3 e'ements:
7, Display your mesh in the vie!er
8, Iight(clic- on the mesh in the 9D vie!er and from the associated pop(up menu choose
Numbering A Display Elements B,

Displayed element numbers
Display Mode
Cy default your ob4ects are represented as set in /references,
/o!ever' right(clic-ing on the mesh in the *b,ect -ro.ser' and selecting Display Mode' you can
display your mesh as:

4ireframe

Shading

Nodes
4ireframe can combine !ith Nodes and Shading,
Shading and 4ireframe modes can combine !ith Shrink' ho!ever Nodes can:t,

Shrink
Display Entity
3n this submenu you can choose to display only volumes' faces or edges or combine them,

*nly aces

*nly Edges
%olors > Si<e

1sing this dialog you can define the follo!ing set of mesh visuali0ation parameters:
Elements
ill ( color of surface of elements )seen in Shading mode*,
-ack ace ( color of interior surface of elements,
*utline ( color of borders of elements,
0D slements ( color of 6D elements,
Si<e of 0D slements ( si0e of 6D elements,
4idth ( !idth of lines )edges and borders of elements*,
Shrink coef= ( relative space of elements compared to gaps bet!een them in shrin-
mode,
Nodes
%olor ( color of nodes,
Marker ( group of options allo!ing to change the representation of points )see .oint
Mar-er page*,
*rientation of faces
%olor ( color of orientation vertors,
Scale ( si0e of orientation vectors,
#D &ectors ( allo!s to choose bet!een 8D planar and 9D vectors,
/oint Marker
;ou can change the representation of points in the 9D vie!er either by selecting one of the predefined
shapes or by loading a custom texture from an external file,
Standard point mar-ers
#he Mesh module provides a set of predefined point mar-er shapes !hich can be used to display points
in the 9D vie!er, Each standard point mar-er has t!o attributes: type )defines shape form* and scale
factor )defines shape si0e*,


Mesh presentation .ith standard point markers
&ustom point mar-ers
3t is also possible to load a point mar-er shape from an external file, #his file should provide a
description of the point texture as a set of lines; each line is represented as a se?uence of A6A and A7A
symbols' !here A7A symbol means an opa?ue pixel and A6A symbol means a transparent pixel, #he
!idth of the texture corresponds to the length of the longest line in the file' expanded to the nearest
byte(aligned value, #he height of the texture is e?ual to the number of non(empty lines in the file, 2ote
that missing symbols are replaced by A6A,
/ere is a texture file sample:
33????33
33????33
????????
????????
????????
????????
33????33
33????33


Mesh presentation .ith custom point markers
)ransparency

1sing this slider you can set the transparency of shading, Absolutely transparent shading !ill be
invisible, Cy default it is absolutely opa?ue,
%lipping
1sing this menu you can create cross(section vie!s )clipping planes* of your mesh,
#o start' clic- on the (ew button,

2o! you can define the parameters of your cross(section: *rientation )M(;' M(V or ;(V*; Distance
bet!een the opposite extremities of the ob4ect' if it is set to 6,< the ob4ect is split in t!o halves; and
8otation )in angle degrees* around C ); to V* and around D )M to V*, 3f the Sho. pre&ie. button is
on' you can see the clipping plane in the #D !ie.er,

)he plane and the cut ob,ect
3f the Auto Apply button is on' you can previe! the cross(section in the #D !ie.er,

)he cross;section
#o get a ne! ob4ect from %lipping' clic- Apply,
7rouping elements
3n Mesh module it is possible to create groups of mesh elements: nodes' edges' faces or volumes:
by selecting the elements of the specified -ind by their 3Ds or directly on the presentation in the
"#$ vie!er ( Standalone group tab of &reate group dialog,
by creating a group of elements of the selected type from all such elements of the chosen
geometrical ob4ect ( 7roup on geometry tab of &reate group dialog,
by creating a group including all types of elements from an existing geometrical ob4ect ( using
&reate roups from eometry dialog,
by creating several groups of elements )nodes' edges' faces and volumes* from the chosen
submesh ( using Mesh ;A %onstruct 7roup Menu item, 3n this case groups of elements are
created automatically,
by creating groups of entities from existing groups of superior dimensions ( using &reate roup
of 1nderlying Elements dialog,
#he created groups can be later:
Edited
Sub4ected to Coolean operations
Deleted
An important tool' providing filters for creation of Standalone groups is Selection filter library,
%reating groups
3n MES/ you can create groups of elements of different types, #o create a group of elements in the
Mesh menu select %reate 7roup,
#o create any group you should define the follo!ing:
Mesh ( the name of the mesh !hose elements !ill form your group, ;ou can select your mesh
in the Ob4et Cro!ser or in the 9D vie!er,
Elements )ype ( set of radio buttons allo!s to select the type of elements !hich !ill form your
group:
Nodes
Edges
aces
!olumes
Name field allo!s to enter the name of your ne! group,
SALOME .latform distinguishes bet!een the t!o roup types: Standalone 7roup and 7roup on
7eometry,
:Standalone 7roup:
Standalone 7roup consists of mesh elements' !hich you can define in the follo!ing !ays:
&hoosing them manually !ith the mouse in the 9D "ie!er, ;ou can clic- on an element in the
9D vie!er and it !ill be highlighted, After that clic- the Add button and the 3D of this element
!ill be added to the list,
Applying +ilters, #he Set filter button allo!s to apply a definite filter to selection of the
elements of your group, See more about filters on the Selection filter library page,
Cy adding all existing entities of the chosen type to the group, +or this turn on the Select All
chec- box, 3n this mode all controls' !hich allo! selecting the entities manually or by filters'
are disabled,
#o remove a selected element or elements from the list clic- the 8emo&e button, #he Sort $ist button
allo!s to sort the list of 3Ds of mesh elements,
Select from set of fields allo!s to choose a submesh or an existing group !hose elements of the
previously defined type !ill be added to the list of elements !hich !ill form the ne! group,
%olor ( allo!s to assign to the group a certain color' for example' defining boundary conditions, #his
feature introduces a useful element of preprocessing in Mesh module, 2ote that %olor attribute defines
the colors used for the display of the elements of the group,
4arning #he Med &olor group interface may change in future versions of Salome,

+or example' to create a ne! group containing all entities of the existing group and some other faces
selected in the vie!er:
select the A+aceA type of entities and input the name of the ne! group,
chec-s AroupA chec-box in ASelect +romA group,
select the existing group in the ob4ect bro!ser or in the vie!er,
clic- AAddA in A&ontentA group, A3d ElementsA list !ill be filled !ith 3Ds of faces belonging to
the exising group,
select other faces in the vie!er,
clic- AApplyA button to create the ne! group,
.lease note that the ne! group does not have references to the source group, 3t contains only the list of
face 3Ds, So if the old group !ill be changed' the ne! one !ill not be modified,

3n this picture the bro!n cells belong to a group defined manually,

3n this picture the bro!n cells belong to the group defined by the criterion )aper A 0,
See Also a sample #13 Script of a &reate a Standalone roup operation,
:7roup on 7eometry:
#o create a group on geometry chec- 7roup on geometry in the 7roup type field, 7roup on
geometry contains the elements of a certain type belonging to the selected geometrical ob4ect, #o
define a group select in the Ob4et Cro!ser or in the 9D vie!er a geometrical ob4ect from !hich the
elements !ill be ta-en, After confirmation of the operation a ne! group of mesh elements !ill be
created,


3n this picture the cells !hich belong to a certain face are selected in green,
%reate 7roups from 7eometry
#o use this operation' select in the Mesh menu %reate 7roups from 7eometry,

#his operation allo!s creating on a selected geometry several groups consisting of elements of all
types,
#he group names !ill be the same as the names of geometrical ob4ects, #he #ype of group of mesh
elements is defined automatically by the nature of the 7eometric ob,ect,
%reate 7roup of (nderlying Elements
#o create groups of entities from existing groups of superior dimensions' in the Mesh menu select
7roup of underlying entities,
#he follo!ing dialog box !ill appear:

3n this dialog box specify the name of the resulting group' types of entities and set of source groups,
3n the figure belo!' there are t!o source "olume groups:

Source groups
3n this case the follo!ing results for +aces' Edges and 2odes are obtained:

+aces

Edges

2odes
Editing groups
To edit an existing group o3 e'ements:
7, Select your group in the Ob4ect Cro!ser and in the Mesh menu clic- the Edit 7roup item or
"Edit 8roup" button in the toolbar,

"Edit 8roup" button
#he follo!ing dialog box !ill appear:

3n this dialog box you can modify the name of your group and add or remove the elements
forming it, +or more information see &reating roups page,
8, &lic- the Apply or Apply and %lose button to confirm modification of the group,
To convert an existing group on geometry into standa'one group o3 e'ements and modi3y:
7, Select your group on geometry in the Ob4ect Cro!ser and in the Mesh menu clic- the Edit
7roup as Standalone item,

"Edit 8roup as #tanda'one" button
#he group on geometry !ill be converted into standalone group and can be modified as group
of elements,
8, &lic- the Apply or Apply and %lose button to confirm modification of the group,
(sing operations on groups
3n MES/ you can perform some Coolean operations on groups' !hich belong to one and the same
mesh,
1nion
3ntersection
&ut
(nion of groups
#his operation allo!s to create a ne! group in such a !ay that all mesh elements that are present in the
initial groups !ill be added to the ne! one,
To union groups:
7, 3n the Mesh menu select the (nion 7roups item, #he follo!ing dialog box !ill appear:

3n this dialog box you should specify the name of the resulting group and set of groups !hich
!ill be united,
+or example' !e have t!o groups roup7 and roup8,
#he result of their (nion !ill be roup78:

roup7

roup8

roup78
8, &lic- the Apply or Apply and %lose button to confirm creation of the group,
See Also a sample #13 Script of a 1nion of roups operation,
Intersection of groups
#his operation allo!s to create a ne! group in such a !ay that all mesh elements that are present in all
initial groups together are added to the ne! one,
To intersect groups:
7, 3n the Mesh menu select the Intersect 7roups item, #he follo!ing dialog box !ill appear:

3n this dialog box you should specify the name of the resulting group and set of groups !hich
!ill be intersected,
+or example' !e have t!o groups roup7 and roup8,
#he result of their Intersection !ill be roup78a:

roup7

roup8

roup78a
8, &lic- the Apply or Apply and %lose button to confirm creation of the group,
See Also a sample #13 Script of an 3ntersection of roups operation,
%ut of groups
#his operation allo!s to create a ne! group in such a !ay that all mesh elements that are present in the
main groups but are absent in the tool groups are added to the ne! one,
To cut groups:
7, 3n the Mesh menu select the %ut 7roups item, #he follo!ing dialog box !ill appear:

3n this dialog box you should specify the name of the resulting group and groups !hich !ill be
cut,
+or example' !e have t!o groups roup7 and roup8,
#he result of their %ut !ill be roup78b:

roup7

roup8

roup78b
8, &lic- the Apply or Apply and %lose button to confirm creation of the group,
Deleting 7roups
#o delete a group in the Main Menu select Mesh ;A Delete 7roups and select one or several groups
you !ish to delete in the 9D vie!er or in the Ob4ect Cro!ser,
#he selected groups !ill be listed in Delete groups .ith contents menu, #hen clic- Apply and %lose
button to remove the selected groups and close the menu or Apply button to remove them and proceed
!ith the selection,

.lease' note that this operation remo&es groups .ith their elements, #o delete a group and leave its
elements intact' right(clic- on the group in the Ob4ect Cro!ser and select Delete in the pop(up menu or
select the group and choose Edit ;A Delete in the Main Menu,
About 6uality controls
Mesh 6uality control in MES/ is destined for visual control of the generated mesh,
Application of a definite ?uality control consists of usage of the corresponding algorithm' !hich
calculates a value of a definite geometric characteristic )Area' Length of edges' etc* for all meshing
elements' composing your mesh, #hen all meshing elements are colored according the calculated
values, #he reference bet!een the coloring of the meshing elements and these calculated values is
sho!n !ith the help of a scalar bar' !hich is displayed near the presentation of your mesh,
#here are 6D' 7D' 8D and 9D ?uality controls,
6D mesh ?uality controls:
+ree nodes
7D mesh ?uality controls:
+ree borders
Corders at multi(connection
Length
8D mesh ?uality controls:
+ree nodes
+ree edges
Length 8D
Corders at multi(connection 8D
Area
#aper
Aspect ratio
Minimum angle
Darping
S-e!
9D mesh ?uality controls:
Aspect ratio 9D
"olume
+ree faces
ree borders
#his mesh ?uality control highlights borders of faces consisting of edges belonging to one face only,

3n this picture the free borders are displayed in !hite,
-orders at multi;connection
#his mesh ?uality control highlights borders of faces consisting of edges belonging to several faces,
#he amount of faces is specified by user,

3n this picture the borders at multi(connection are displayed in blue,
$ength
Length ?uality control criterion returns a value of length of edge,

ree nodes
#his mesh ?uality control highlights the nodes !hich are not connected to any mesh element,

3n this picture some nodes are not connected to any mesh element after deleting some elements and
adding several isolated nodes,
ree edges
#his mesh ?uality control highlights borders of elements of mesh consisting of edges belonging to one
element of mesh only,

3n this picture some elements of mesh have been deleted and the AholesA are outlined in red,
$ength "D
#his ?uality control criterion consists of calculation of length of the edges combining the meshing
elements )triangles and ?uadrangles* of your mesh,
To app'y the 9ength ! :ua'ity criterion to your mesh:
7, Display your mesh in the vie!er,
8, &hoose %ontrols A $ength "D or clic- "9ength !" button in the toolbar,

"9ength !" button
;our mesh !ill be displayed in the vie!er !ith its elements colored according to the applied
mesh ?uality control criterion:

-orders at multi;connection "D
#his mesh ?uality control highlights borders of elements of mesh' consisting of edges belonging to
several elements of mesh,

Area
Area mesh ?uality control is based on the algorithm of area calculation of meshing elements, 3t can be
applied to meshes consisting of 8D meshing elements !ith 9 and > nodes )triangles and ?uadrangles*,
To app'y the Area :ua'ity contro' to your mesh:
7, Display your mesh in the vie!er,
8, &hoose %ontrols A Area or clic- "Area" button,

"Area" button
;our mesh !ill be displayed in the vie!er !ith its elements colored according to the applied
mesh ?uality control criterion:

)aper
)aper mesh ?uality criterion represents the ratio of the areas of t!o triangles separated by a diagonal,
So it can be calculated only for elements consisting of > nodes,
To app'y the Taper :ua'ity criterion to your mesh:
7, Display your mesh in the vie!er,
8, &hoose %ontrols A )aper or clic- "Taper" button in the toolbar,

"Taper" button
;our mesh !ill be displayed in the vie!er !ith its elements colored according to the applied
mesh ?uality control criterion:

Aspect 8atio
#he Aspect 8atio ?uality criterion for mesh elements reveals the degree of conformity of a mesh
element to the regular element of its type )!ith all edges having the same length*,
#he Aspect 8atio of a triangle 8D element consisting of 9 nodes is calculated by the formula:

#he Aspect 8atio of a 6uadrangle 8D element consisting of > nodes is the !orst )i,e, the
greatest* value from all triangles !hich can be built ta-ing three nodes of the ?uadrangle, #here
are four triangles to consider:

To app'y the Aspect &atio :ua'ity criterion to your mesh:
7, Display your mesh in the vie!er,
8, &hoose %ontrols A Aspect 8atio or clic- "Aspect &atio" button in the toolbar,

"Aspect &atio" button
;our mesh !ill be displayed in the vie!er !ith its elements colored according to the applied
mesh ?uality control criterion:

Minimum angle
Minimum angle mesh ?uality criterion consists of calculation of the minimum value of angle bet!een
t!o ad4acent sides of a 8D meshing element )triangle or ?uadrangle*,
To app'y the Minimum ang'e :ua'ity criterion to your mesh:
7, Display your mesh in the vie!er,
8, &hoose %ontrols A Minimum angle or clic- "Minimum Ang'e" button,

"Minimum Ang'e" button
;our mesh !ill be displayed in the vie!er !ith its elements colored according to the applied
mesh ?uality control criterion:

4arping

4arping indicates that a face is not planar and is applied only to 8D elements !ith > nodes, #his
?uality control criterion is based on a pro4ection plane created by:
7, bisecting the four element edges'
8, creating a point on the plane at the vector average of the corners' !here the x(axis extends from
the point to the bisector on edge 8,
#he plane normal is in the direction of the cross product of the x(axis and the vector from the origin to
the bisector of edge 9, Every corner of the ?uad !ill then be a distance =h= from the plane, #he length
of each half edge is measured and the shortest length is assigned =l=, #he !arp angle is the arcsine of
the ratio of the pro4ection height =h= to the half edge length =l=,
To app'y the ;arping :ua'ity criterion to your mesh:
7, Display your mesh in the vie!er,
8, &hoose %ontrols A 4arping Angle or clic- ";arping ang'e" button of the toolbar,

";arping ang'e" button
;our mesh !ill be displayed in the vie!er !ith its elements colored according to the applied
mesh ?uality control criterion:

Ske.
Ske. mesh ?uality criterion reflects the angle bet!een the lines that 4oin opposite sides of a ?uadrangle
element or the greatesr angle bet!een three medians in triangle elements, #his mesh ?uality criterion
can be applied to elements composed of > and 9 nodes )?uadrangles and triangles*,

To app'y the #<ew :ua'ity criterion to your mesh:
7, Display your mesh in the vie!er,
8, &hoose %ontrols A Ske. or clic- "#<ew" button of the toolbar,

"#<ew" button
;our mesh !ill be displayed in the vie!er !ith its elements colored according to the applied
mesh ?uality control criterion:

Aspect ratio #D
#he Aspect 8atio #D mesh ?uality criterion calculates the same parameter as the Aspect ratio criterion'
but it is applied to 9D mesh elements: tetrahedrons' pentahedrons' hexahedrons' etc,
#he Aspect 8atio of a tetrahedron 9D element is calculated by the formula:
Other element types li-e polyhedron' pentahedron and hexahedron use the follo!ing formula:
To app'y the Aspect &atio 3 :ua'ity criterion to your mesh:
7, Display your mesh in the vie!er,
8, &hoose %ontrols A Aspect 8atio #D or clic- "Aspect &atio 3" button of the toolbar,

"Aspect &atio 3" button
;our mesh !ill be displayed in the vie!er !ith its elements colored according to the applied
mesh ?uality control criterion:

!olume
!olume mesh ?uality criterion reflects the volume of meshes of a 9D ob4ect,
To app'y the =o'ume :ua'ity criterion to your mesh:
7, Display your mesh in the vie!er,
8, &hoose %ontrols A !olume or clic- "=o'ume" button in the toolbar,

"=o'ume" button
;our mesh !ill be displayed in the vie!er !ith its elements colored according to the applied
mesh ?uality control criterion:

ree faces
#his mesh ?uality control highlights the faces connected to less than t!o mesh volume elements, #he
free faces are sho!n !ith a color different from the color of shared faces,

3n this picture some volume mesh elements have been removed' as a result some faces became
connected only to one volume, i,e, became free,
About filters
ilters allo! pic-ing only the mesh elements satisfying to a specific condition or a set of conditions,
+ilters can be used to create or edit mesh groups' remove elements from the mesh ob4ect' control mesh
?uality by different parameters' etc,
Several filters can be combined together by using logical operators A( and >&, 3n addition' applied
filter criterion can be reverted using logical operator (>T,
Mesh filters use the functionality of mesh ?uality controls to filter mesh nodes @ elements by specific
characteristic )Area' Length' etc*,
#he functinality of mesh filters is available in both 13 and #13 modes:
3n 13' filters are available in some dialog boxes via an additional ASet +iltersA button' clic-ing
on !hich opens the dialog box allo!ing to specify the list of filter criterions to be applied to the
current selection, See Selection filter library page to learn more about selection filters and their
usage in 13,
3n .ython scripts' filters can be used to choose only some mesh entities )nodes and@or elements*
for the operations' !hich re?uire the list of entities as input parameter )create@modify group'
remove nodes@elements' etc*, #he page +ilters usage provides examples of the filters usage in
.ython scripts,
Selection filter library
Selection filter library is a po!erful tool enabling to create filters to be used on meshes, ;ou can access
to it from the Main Menu via )ools > Selection filter library,
$ibrary file name sho!s the path and the file name !here your filters !ill be stored, Cy clic-ing the
6rowse button you can load an existing filter library,
Names of filters lists the filters created or uploaded for the current study, ;ou can Add or Delete
filters,
3n ilter name box you can specify the name for your filter, Cy default it is prefixed !ith the
corresponding entity type,
Each filter can be applicable to Nodes' Edges' aces or !olumes, ;ou can combine many criteria in
one filter' but they all must be of the same Entity type,
#he Add button creates a ne! criterion at the end of the list of criteria, #he Insert button creates a ne!
criterion before the selected criterion, #he 8emo&e button deletes the selected criterion, #he %lear
button deletes all criteria,
Each Entity type has its specific list of criteria' ho!ever all filters have common syntax, +or each
criterion you should specify the )hreshold !alue and !hether !e search for the elements that should
be More' $ess or E6ual to this !alue, ;ou can also reverse the sense of a criterion using (nary
operator 2ot and you should specify logical relations bet!een criteria using -inary operators Or and
And,
Some criteria should have the additional parameter of )olerance,
Dhen !e create a Standalone 7roup using filters )for this clic- Set ilters button in the %reate
7roup menu*' the menu for setting filters loo-s a bit differently, #oggling Insert filter in &ie.er
chec-box enables to previe! the group selected !ith your current filter in the vie!er,
3n the Source field you choose if the filter !ill be applied to the !hole Mesh' the Initial Selection or
the %urrent 7roup,
%opy from=== button gives you a possibility to load an existing filter from Selection filter library and
Add to=== button gives you a possibility to save your current filter in the Library,
Note' 3f the button Apply and %lose is disabled' there is no selected mesh in the Ob4ect Cro!ser and
the filter can not be created, ;ou have to select the mesh and the button !ill be enabled,
Some criteria are applicable to all Entity types:
-elong to 7eom selects entities !hose all nodes lie on the shape defined by )hreshold !alue,
3f the threshold shape is a sub(shape of the main shape of the mesh the algorithm !or-s faster' if
this is any other shape the algorithm !or-s slo!er,
$ying on 7eom selects entities !hose at least one node lies on the shape defined by the
)hreshold !alue, 3f the hreshold shape is a sub(shape of the main shape of the mesh the
algorithm !or-s faster' if this is any other shape' the algorithm !or-s slo!er,
8ange of IDs allo!s selection of entities !ith the specified 3Ds, )hreshold !alue can be' for
example: A7'8'9'<6(E6'E9'EF'F6(FHA
%olor of 7roup allo!s selection of entities belonging to the roup !ith the color defined by
the )hreshold !alue,
Some criteria are applicable to all Entity types' except for Nodes
$inear allo!s selection of Linear or %uadratic elements )if 1nary is set to A2otA*
7eometry type allo!s selection of elements by their geometric type defined by the )hreshold
!alue, #he list of available geometric types depends on the element entity type defined by the
)hreshold !alue,
#he follo!ing criteria are applicable to all Entity types except for !olumes:
-elong to /lane selects entities !hose all nodes belong to a specified plane !ithin a given
)olerance,
-elong to %ylinder selects entities !hose all nodes belong to a specified cylinder !ithin a
given )olerance,
-elong to Surface selects entities !hose all nodes belong to a specified arbitrary surface !ithin
a given )olerance,
Additional criteria to select mesh Edges are the follo!ing:
ree -orders selects free 7D mesh elements' i,e, edges belonging to one face only, See also a
+ree Corders ?uality control,
-orders at Multi;%onnections selects edges belonging to several faces, #he number of faces
should be more' less or e?ual )!ithin a given )olerance* to the predefined )hreshold !alue,
See also a Corders at Multi(&onnection ?uality control,
$ength selects edges !ith a value of length' !hich is more' less or e?ual )!ithin a given
)olerance* to the predefined )hreshold !alue, See also a Length ?uality control,
Additional criteria to select mesh aces are the follo!ing:
Aspect ratio selects 8D mesh elements !ith an aspect ratio )see also an Aspect Iatio ?uality
control*' !hich is more' less or e?ual )!ithin a given )olerance* to the predefined )hreshold
!alue,
4arping selects ?uadrangles !ith !arping angle )see also a Darping ?uality control*' !hich is
more' less or e?ual )!ithin a given )olerance* to the predefined )hreshold !alue,
Minimum angle selects triangles and ?uadrangles !ith minimum angle )see also a Minimum
angle ?uality control*' !hich is more' less or e?ual )!ithin a given )olerance* to the predefined
)hreshold !alue,
)aper selects ?uadrangles cells !ith taper value )see also a #aper ?uality control*' !hich is
more' less or e?ual )!ithin a given )olerance* to the predefined )hreshold !alue,
Ske. selects triangles and ?uadrangles !ith s-e! value )see also a S-e! ?uality control*'
!hich is more' less or e?ual )!ithin a given )olerance* to the predefined )hreshold !alue,
Area selects triangles and ?uadrangles !ith a value of area )see also an Area ?uality control*'
!hich is more' less or e?ual )!ithin a given )olerance* to the predefined )hreshold !alue,
ree edges selects 8D mesh elements consisting of edges belonging to one element of mesh
only, See also a +ree Edges ?uality control,
ree faces selects 9D mesh elements !ich belong to less than t!o volumes,
-orders at Multi;%onnections "D selects cells consisting of edges belonging to several
elements of mesh, #he number of mesh elements should be more' less or e?ual )!ithin a given
)olerance* to the predefined )hreshold !alue, See also a Corders at Multi(&onnection 8D
?uality control,
$ength "D selects triangles and ?uadrangles combining of the edges !ith a value of length'
!hich is more' less or e?ual )!ithin a given )olerance* to the predefined )hreshold !alue, See
also a Length 8D ?uality control,
%oplanar faces selects mesh faces neighboring the one selected by 3D in )hreshold !alue
field' if the angle bet!een the normal to the neighboring face and the normal to the selected face
is less then the angular tolerance )defined in degrees*, Selection continues among all neighbor
faces of already selected ones,
Additional criteria to select mesh !olumes are the follo!ing:
Aspect ratio #D selects 9D mesh elements !ith an aspect ratio )see also an Aspect Iatio 9D
?uality control*' !hich is more' less or e?ual )!ithin a given )olerance* to the predefined
)hreshold !alue,
!olume selects 9D mesh elements !ith a value of volume )see also a "olume ?uality control*'
!hich is more' less or e?ual )!ithin a given )olerance* to the predefined )hreshold !alue,
-ad oriented &olume selects mesh volumes' !hich are incorrectly oriented from the point of
vie! of MED convention,
Modifying meshes
Salome provides an extremely vast specter of mesh modification and transformation operations' giving
the possibility to:
Add mesh elements from nodes to polyhedrons at an arbitrary place in the mesh,
Add ?uadratic mesh elements )used in ?uadratic meshes* from ?uadratic nodes to ?uadratic
polyhedrons at an arbitrary place in the mesh,
Iemove any existing mesh elements,
Ienumber nodes and elements of the mesh,
#ranslate in the indicated direction the mesh or some of its elements,
Iotate by the indicated axis and angle the mesh or some of its elements,
Scale #ransform the mesh or some of its elements,
Duplicate nodes,
&reate a symmetrical copy of the mesh through a point or a vector of symmetry,
1nite meshes by se!ing free borders' conform free borders' border to side or side elements,
Merge 2odes' considered coincident !ithin the indicated tolerance,
Merge Elements' considered coincident !ithin the indicated tolerance,
Move 2odes to an arbitrary location !ith conse?uent transformation of all ad4acent elements
and edges,
3nvert an edge bet!een neighboring triangles,
1nite t!o triangles,
1nite several ad4acent triangles,
&hange orientation of the selected elements,
&ut a ?uadrangle into t!o triangles,
Split volumic elements into tetrahedra,
Smooth elements' reducung distortions in them by ad4usting the locations of element corners,
&reate an extrusion along a vector,
&reate an extrusion along a path,
&reate an edge or a surface by revolution of the selected node or edge,
Apply pattern mapping,
&onvert regular mesh to ?uadratic' or vice versa,
enerate boundary elements,
Adding nodes and elements
3n MES/ you can add to your mesh different elements such as:
2odes
6D Elements
Edges
#riangles
%uadrangles
.olygons
#etrahedrons
/exahedrons
.olyhedrons
To add a node or an e'ement to your mesh:
7, Select your mesh in the Ob4ect Cro!ser or in the 9D vie!er,
8, +rom the Modification menu choose the Add item' the follo!ing associated submenu !ill
appear:

+rom this submenu select the type of element !hich you !ould li-e to add to your mesh,
Note'
All dialogs for ne! node or element adding to the mesh )except for the dialog for 6D
elements* provide the possibility to automatically add a node or element to the specified
group or to create the ane! using Add to group box' that allo!s choosing an existing
group for the created node or element or giving the name to a ne! group, Cy default' the
Add to group chec- box is s!itched off, 3f the user s!iches this chec- box on' the combo
box listing all currently existing groups of the corresponding type becomes available, Cy
default' no group is selected, 3n this case' !hen the user presses Apply or Apply E %lose
button' the !arning message box informs the user about the necessity to input ne! group
name, #he combo box lists both standalone groups and groups on geometry, 3f the user
chooses a group on geometry' he is !arned and proposed to convert this group to
standalone, 3f the user re4ects conversion operation' it is cancelled and a ne!
node@element is not createdO
See Also sample #13 Scripts of Adding 2odes and Elements operations,
Adding nodes

3n this dialog box set coordinates for your node in the %oordinates set of fields and clic- the Apply or
Apply and %lose button, ;our node !ill be created:

Adding 0D elements

3n this dialog box specify the node !hich !ill form your 6d element by selecting it in the 9D vie!er
and clic- the Apply or Apply and %lose button, ;our 6D element !ill be created:

Adding edges

3n this dialog box specify the nodes !hich !ill form your edge by selecting them in the 9D vie!er !ith
pressed Shift button and clic- the Apply or Apply and %lose button, ;our edge !ill be created:

Adding triangles

3n this dialog box specify the nodes !hich !ill form your triangle by selecting them in the 9D vie!er
!ith pressed Shift button and clic- the Apply or Apply and %lose button, ;our triangle !ill be
created:

Adding 6uadrangles

3n this dialog box specify the nodes !hich !ill form your ?uadrangle by selecting them in the 9D
vie!er !ith pressed Shift button and clic- the Apply or Apply and %lose button, ;our ?uadrangle !ill
be created:

Adding polygons

3n this dialog box specify the nodes !hich !ill form your polygon by selecting them in the 9D vie!er
!ith pressed Shift button and clic- the Apply or Apply and %lose button,

Adding tetrahedrons

3n this dialog box specify the nodes !hich !ill form your tetrahedron by selecting them in the 9D
vie!er !ith pressed Shift button and clic- the Apply or Apply and %lose button, ;our tetrahedron !ill
be created:

Adding hexahedrons

3n this dialog box specify the nodes !hich !ill form your hexahedron by selecting them in the 9D
vie!er !ith pressed Shift button and clic- the Apply or Apply and %lose button, ;our hexahedron
!ill be created:

Adding polyhedrons

#here are t!o different !ays to add polyhedral volumes,
3f you select Node as Elements )ype you !ill specify the nodes !hich !ill form the faces of your
polyhedron by selecting the nodes in the 9D vie!er !ith pressed Shift button and clic-ing the Add
button to add the face in the list of +aces by 2odes' !hich !ill form your polyhedron, 2ote' that it
could be very useful to toggle .olyhedron .revie! chec-box to see the results of your selection,
#he second !ay is some!hat simpler' ho!ever' there are cases !hen it does not provide you !ith the
necessary level of precision, 3f you select ace as Elements )ype' you !ill be able to select the faces
!hich !ill form your polyhedron in the 9D vie!er !ith pressed Shift button, 3f you:ve managed to
obtain the necessary result' clic- the Apply or Apply and %lose button, ;our polyhedron !ill be
created:

Adding 9uadratic Elements
MES/ module allo!s you to !or- !ith 9uadratic Elements,
%uadratic Edge is not a straight but a bro-en line and can be defined by three points: first' middle and
last, All more complex 9uadratic Elements differ from ordinary ones in that they consist of %uadratic
Edges,
To add a :uadratic e'ement to your mesh:
7, Select your mesh in the Ob4ect Cro!ser or in the 9D vie!er,
8, +rom the Modification menu choose the Add item and select one of the follo!ing:

Note'
All dialogs for ?uadratic element adding to the mesh provide the possibility to
automatically add an element to the specified group or to create the group ane! using
Add to group box' that allo!s choosing an existing group for the created node or element
or giving the name to a ne! group, Cy default' the Add to group chec- box is s!itched
off, 3f the user s!iches this chec- box on' the combo box listing all currently existing
groups of the corresponding type becomes available, Cy default' no group is selected, 3n
this case' !hen the user presses Apply or Apply E %lose button' the !arning message
box informs the user about the necessity to input a ne! group name, #he combo box lists
both standalone groups and groups on geometry, 3f the user chooses a group on geometry'
he is !arned and proposed to convert this group to standalone, 3f the user re4ects
conversion operation' it is cancelled and a ne! ?uadratic element is not created,
#o create any 9uadratic Element specify the nodes !hich !ill form your triangle by selecting
them in the 9D vie!er !ith pressed Shift button, #heir numbers !ill appear in the dialog box as
%orner Nodes )alternatively you can 4ust input numbers in this field !ithout selection*,#he
edges formed by the corner nodes !ill appear in the table, #o define the middle nodes for each
edge double(clic- on the respective field and input the number of the node, All edges and the
ob4ect formed by them !ill be displayed in the Ob4ect bro!ser, Dhen all edges are defined you
!ill be able to clic- Apply or Apply and %lose button to add the element to the mesh,

8e&erse button for %uadratic Edges s!itches the first and the last nodes, +or all other elements
it reverses the element,
8emo&ing nodes and elements
3n MES/ you can remove nodes and all types of cells of your mesh,
2odes
Orphan 2odes
Elements
&lear Mesh Data
8emo&ing nodes
To remove a node:
7, Select your mesh in the Ob4ect Cro!ser or in the 9D vie!er,
8, +rom the Modi3ication menu choose &emove and from the associated submenu select the (odes'
or 4ust clic- "&emove nodes" button in the toolbar,

"&emove nodes" button
#he follo!ing dialog box !ill appear:

3n this dialog box you can specify one or several nodes:
choose mesh nodes !ith the mouse in the 9D "ie!er, 3t is possible to select a !hole area
!ith a mouse frame; or
input the node 3Ds directly in ID Elements field, #he selected nodes !ill be highlighted
in the vie!er; or
apply +ilters, Set filter button allo!s to apply a filter to the selection of nodes, See more
about filters in the Selection filter library page,
Note'
Ce careful !hile removing nodes because if you remove a definite node of your mesh all ad4acent
elements !ill be also deleted,
8emo&ing orphan nodes
#here is a ?uic- !ay to remove all orphan )free* nodes,
To remove orphan nodes:
7, Select your mesh in the Ob4ect Cro!ser or in the 9D vie!er,
8, +rom the Modi3ication menu choose &emove and from the associated submenu select >rphan
(odes' or 4ust clic- "&emove orphan nodes" button in the toolbar,

"&emove orphan nodes" button
#he follo!ing Darning message box !ill appear:

&onfirm nodes removal by pressing A;esA button,
8emo&ing elements
To remove an e'ement:
7, Select your mesh in the Ob4ect Cro!ser or in the 9D vie!er,
8, +rom the Modi3ication menu choose &emove and from the associated submenu select the
E'ements' or 4ust clic- "&emove e'ements" button in the toolbar,

"&emove e'ements" button
#he follo!ing dialog box !ill appear:

3n this dialog box you can specify one or several elements
choose mesh elements !ith the mouse in the 9D "ie!er, 3t is possible to select a !hole
area !ith a mouse frame; or
input the element 3Ds directly in ID Elements field, #he selected elements !ill be
highlighted in the vie!er; or
apply +ilters, Set filter button allo!s to apply a filter to the selection of elements, See
more about filters in the Selection filter library page,
9, &lic- Apply or Apply and %lose to confirm deletion of the specified elements,

)he initial mesh

)he mesh .ith some elements remo&ed
%learing Mesh Data
To remove a'' nodes and a'' types o3 ce''s in your mesh at once:
7, Select your mesh in the Ob4ect Cro!ser or in the 9D vie!er,
8, +rom the Modification menu choose Iemove and from the associated submenu select the &lear
Mesh Data' or 4ust clic- "C'ear Mesh ata" button in the toolbar, ;ou can also right(clic- on
the mesh in the Ob4ect Cro!ser and select &lear Mesh Data in the pop(up menu,

"C'ear Mesh ata" button
8enumbering nodes and elements
3n MES/ you can renumber the nodes and elements of your mesh,
2odes
Elements
8enumbering nodes
To renumber the nodes o3 your mesh:
7, 3n the Modification menu select 8enumbering submenu and choose the Nodes item or clic-
"&enumbering nodes" button in the toolbar,

"&enumbering nodes" button
#he follo!ing dialog box !ill appear:

8, +ill the Mesh field by selecting your mesh in the Ob4ect Cro!ser or in the 9D vie!er,
9, &lic- the Apply or Apply and %lose button to perform the operation,
8enumbering elements
To renumber the e'ements o3 your mesh:
7, 3n the Modification menu select 8enumbering submenu and choose the Elements item or
clic- "&enumbering e'ements" button in the toolbar,

"&enumbering e'ements" button
#he follo!ing dialog box !ill appear:

8, +ill the Mesh field by selecting your mesh in the Ob4ect Cro!ser or in the 9D vie!er,
9, &lic- the Apply or Apply and %lose button to perform the operation,
)ranslation
#his geometrical operation allo!s to translate in space your mesh or some of its elements,
To trans'ate a mesh:
7, +rom the Modification menu choose )ransformation (K )ranslation item or clic-
"Trans'ation" button in the toolbar,

)ranslation button
One of the follo!ing dialogs !ill appear:
3t is possible to define the vector of thanslation:

by t.o points

by the &ector from the origin of coordinates
8, 3n the dialog:
specify the 3Ds of the translated elements:
Select the .hole mesh1 submesh or group activating this chec-box; or
choose mesh elements !ith the mouse in the 9D "ie!er, 3t is possible to select a
!hole area !ith a mouse frame; or
input the element 3Ds directly in ID Elements field, #he selected elements !ill
be highlighted in the vie!er; or
apply +ilters, Set filter button allo!s to apply a filter to the selection of
elements, See more about filters in the Selection filter library page,
specify the vector of translation:
specify the cooordinates of the start and end /oints of the vector of translation;
or
specify the end point of the !ector of rotation starting at the origin of
coordinates,
specify the conditions of translation:
activate Mo&e elements radio button to create the source mesh )or elements* at
the ne! location and erase it from the previous location;
activate %opy elements radio button to create the source mesh )or elements* at
the ne! location' but leave it at the previous location' the source mesh !ill be
considered one and single mesh !ith the result of the rotation;
activate %reate as ne. mesh radio button to leave the source mesh )or elements*
at its previous location and create a ne! mesh at the ne! location' the ne! mesh
appears in the Ob4ect Cro!ser !ith the default name Mesh2ameBrotated )it is
possible to change this name in the ad4acent box*;
activate %opy groups chec-box to copy the groups of elements of the source
mesh to the ne!ly created mesh,
&lic- Apply or Apply and %lose button to confirm the operation,
8otation
#his operation allo!s to rotate in space the mesh or some of its elements,
To rotate the mesh:
7, +rom the Modification menu choose )ransformation (K 8otation item or clic- "&otation"
button in the toolbar,

8otation button
#he follo!ing dialog !ill appear:

8, 3n this dialog:
specify the 3Ds of the elements !hich !ill be rotated:
Select the .hole mesh1 submesh or group activating this chec-box; or
choose mesh elements !ith the mouse in the 9D "ie!er, 3t is possible to select a
!hole area !ith a mouse frame; or
input the element 3Ds directly in ID Elements field, #he selected elements !ill
be highlighted in the vie!er; or
apply +ilters, Set filter button allo!s to apply a filter to the selection of
elements, See more about filters in the Selection filter library page,
specify the axis of rotation:
specify the cooordinates of the start /oint of the vector of rotation;
specify the !ector of rotation through the coordinates of its end point !ith
respect to the coordinates of the start point;
specify the Angle of rotation
specify the conditions of rotation:
activate Mo&e elements radio button to create the source mesh )or elements* at
the ne! location and erase it from the previous location;
activate %opy elements radio button to create the source mesh )or elements* at
the ne! location' but leave it at the previous location' the source mesh !ill be
considered one and single mesh !ith the result of the rotation;
activate %reate as ne. mesh radio button to leave the source mesh )or elements*
at its previous location and create a ne! mesh at the ne! location' the ne! mesh
appears in the Ob4ect Cro!ser !ith the default name Mesh2ameBrotated )it is
possible to change this name in the ad4acent box*;
activate %opy groups chec-box to copy the groups of elements of the source
mesh to the ne!ly created mesh,
&lic- Apply or Apply and %lose button to confirm the operation,

)he initial mesh

)he rotated mesh
Scale
#his geometrical operation allo!s to scale in space your mesh or some of its elements,
To sca'e a mesh:
7, +rom the Modification menu choose )ransformation (K Scale )ransform item,
One of the follo!ing dialogs !ill appear:
Dith one scale factor:

Or !ith different scale factors for axes:

8, 3n the dialog:
specify the 3Ds of the translated elements:
Select the .hole mesh1 submesh or group activating this chec-box; or
choose mesh elements !ith the mouse in the 9D "ie!er, 3t is possible to select a
!hole area !ith a mouse frame; or
input the element 3Ds directly in ID Elements field, #he selected elements !ill
be highlighted in the vie!er; or
apply +ilters, Set filter button allo!s to apply a filter to the selection of
elements, See more about filters in the Selection filter library page,
specify the base point for scale
specify the scale factor
specify the conditions of scale:
activate Mo&e elements radio button to create the source mesh )or elements* at
the ne! location and erase it from the previous location;
activate %opy elements radio button to create the source mesh )or elements* at
the ne! location' but leave it at the previous location' the source mesh !ill be
considered one and single mesh !ith the result of the scale operation;
activate %reate as ne. mesh radio button to leave the source mesh )or elements*
at its previous location and create a ne! mesh at the ne! location' the ne! mesh
appears in the Ob4ect Cro!ser !ith the default name Mesh2ameBscaled )it is
possible to change this name in the ad4acent box*;
activate %opy groups chec-box to copy the groups of elements of the source
mesh to the ne!ly created mesh,
&lic- Apply or Apply and %lose button to confirm the operation,
Example of using'
7, &reate ?uandrangle mesh 9x9 on a simple planar face )866x866*

and union 9 faces )along axis V* to group AgrBfacesA

8, .erform scale operation for the !hole mesh and create a ne! mesh:

result after operation:
9, .erform scale operation for the !hole mesh and copy elements:

result after operation:
>, .erform scale operation for a group of faces and copy elements:

result after operation:
<, .erform scale operation for t!o edges and move elements:

result after operation:
E, .erform scale operation for one face and move elements:
result after operation:
Duplicate Nodes
#his operation allo!s to duplicate nodes of your mesh, Duplication consists in replacement of an
existing mesh element by another one, Lo!er level elements of the duplicated ones are cloned
automatically,
To dup'icate nodes:
7, +rom the Modification menu choose )ransformation (K Duplicate Nodes item or clic-
"up'icate (odes" button in the toolbar,

Duplicate Nodes button
8, &hec- in the dialog box one of t!o radio buttons corresponding to the type of nodes duplication
operation you !ould li-e to perform,
9, +ill the other fields available in the dialog box )depends on the chosen operation mode*,
>, &lic- the Apply or Apply and %lose button to perform the operation of nodes duplication,
ADuplicate 2odesA dialog has t!o !or-ing modes:
Dithout the duplication of border elements
Dith the duplication of border elements
4ithout duplication of border elements
3n this mode the dialog loo-s li-e:

.arameters to be defined in this mode:
7roup of nodes to duplicate )mandatory*: these nodes !ill be duplicated,
7roup of elements to replace nodes .ith ne. ones )optiona'*: the duplicated nodes !ill be
associated !ith these elements,
%onstruct group .ith ne.ly created nodes option )chec<ed by de3au't*: if chec-ed ( the group
!ith 4ust created nodes !ill be built,
4ith duplication of border elements
3n this mode the dialog loo-s li-e:

.arameters to be defined in this mode:
7roup of elements to duplicate )mandatory*: these elements !ill be duplicated,
7roup of nodes at not to duplicate )optiona'*: group of nodes at crac- bottom !hich !ill not
be duplicated,
7roup of elements to replace nodes .ith ne. ones )mandatory*: the duplicated nodes !ill be
associated !ith these elements,
%onstruct group .ith ne.ly created elements option )chec<ed by de3au't*: if chec-ed ( the
group !ith 4ust created elements !ill be b
Symmetry
#his geometrical operation allo!s to perform a symmetrical copy of your mesh or some of its elements,
To create a symmetrica' copy o3 the mesh:
7, +rom the Modification menu choose )ransformation (K Symmetry item or clic- "#ymmetry"
button in the toolbar,

Symmetry button
One of the follo!ing dialogs !ill appear:
3t is possible to mirror a mesh or some of its elements through:

a point 2defined by a point and a &ector3

an axis

a plane 2defined by a point and a normal to the plane3
8, 3n the dialog:
specify the 3Ds of the elements for the symmetry operation:
Select the .hole mesh1 submesh or group activating this chec-box; or
choose mesh elements !ith the mouse in the 9D "ie!er, 3t is possible to select a
!hole area !ith a mouse frame; or
input the element 3Ds directly in ID Elements field, #he selected elements !ill
be highlighted in the vie!er; or
apply +ilters, Set filter button allo!s to apply a filter to the selection of
elements, See more about filters in the Selection filter library page,
depending on the nature of the mirror ob4ect:
if the mesh is mirrored through a point' specify the coordinates of the point
if the mesh is mirrored through an axis:
specify the cooordinates of the start /oint of the axis vector;
specify the axis !ector through the coordinates of its end point !ith
respect to the coordinates of the start point;
if the mesh is mirrored through a plane:
specify the cooordinates of the /oint lying on the plane;
specify the axis !ector through the coordinates of its end point !ith
respect to the coordinates of the start point,
specify the conditions of symmetry operation:
activate Mo&e elements radio button to create the source mesh )or
elements* at the ne! location and erase it from the previous location;
activate %opy elements radio button to create the source mesh )or
elements* at the ne! location' but leave it at the previous location' the
source mesh !ill be considered one and single mesh !ith the result of the
rotation;
activate %reate as ne. mesh radio button to leave the source mesh )or
elements* at its previous location and create a ne! mesh at the ne!
location' the ne! mesh appears in the Ob4ect Cro!ser !ith the default
name Mesh2ameBrotated )it is possible to change this name in the
ad4acent box*;
activate %opy groups chec-box to copy the groups of elements of the
source mesh to the ne!ly created mesh,
&lic- Apply or Apply and %lose button to confirm the operation,
Se.ing meshes
3n SMES/ you can se! elements of different meshes, #he current functionality allo!s you to se!:
+ree borders
&onform free borders
Corder to side
Side elements

Se.ing button
To sew e'ements o3 di33erent meshes:
7, +rom the Modification menu choose the )ransformation item and from its sub(menu select
the Se.ing item,
8, &hec- in the dialog box one of the radio buttons corresponding to the type of se!ing operation
you !ould li-e to perform,
9, +ill the other fields available in the dialog box,
>, &lic- the Apply or Apply and %lose button to perform the operation of se!ing,
Se. free borders
#his functionality allo!s you to unite t!o free borders of a 8D mesh,

+or se!ing free borders you should define three points on each border: first' second and the last node:
the first node specifies beginning of the border;
the second node specifies the part of the border !hich should be considered )as far as the free
border usually forms a closed contour*;
the last node specifies the end of the border,
;ou can select these nodes in the 9D vie!er or define by its id,
#he first and the second nodes should belong to the same lin- of a face, #he second and the last nodes
of a border can be the same, #he first and the last nodes of t!o borders can be the same, #he
corresponding end nodes of t!o borders !ill be merged, 3ntermediate nodes of t!o borders !ill be
either merged or inserted into faces of the opposite border,
#he se!ing algorithm is as follo!s:
7, #he parameter )1* of each node !ithin a border is computed, So that the first node has 1G6,6'
the last node has 1G7,6' for the rest nodes 6,6 W 1 W 7,6;
8, &ompare node parameters of the t!o borders, 3f t!o nodes of the opposite borders have close
parameters' they are merged' i,e, a node of the first border is replaced in all elements by a node
of the second border, 3f a node has no node !ith a close parameter in the opposite border' it is
inserted into an edge of element of the opposite border' an element is split, #!o nodes are
considered close enough to merge' if difference of their parameters is less than one fifth of
minimum length of ad4acent face edges on the borders,

Se.ing free borders
See Also a sample #13 Script of a Se! +ree Corders operation,
Se. conform free borders
#his functionality can be used to unite t!o free borders of a 8D mesh,

#he borders of meshes for se!ing are defined as for ASe! free bordersA except that the second free
border is not limited and can be defined by the first and the second nodes only, #he first nodes of t!o
borders can be the same,
#he algorithm is follo!ing: counting nodes starting at the first ones' the n(th node of the first border is
merged !ith the n(th node of the other border' until the end of either of borders, 2odes of the first
border are replaced in all elements !ith corresponding nodes of the second border,
+or se!ing conform free borders you should define three points on the first border and t!o points on
the second one, 1ser can select these nodes in 9D vie!er or define node by its id,

Se.ing conform free borders
See Also a sample #13 Script of a Se! &onform +ree Corders operation,
Se. border to side
ASe! border to sideA is intended to se! a free border to a mesh surface,
#he free border is defined as for ASe!ing of free bordersA, #he place !here to se! the border is defined
by t!o nodes' bet!een !hich the border faces are placed' so that the first border node is merged !ith
the first node on the side and the last node of the border is merged !ith the second specified node on
the side,

#he algorithm is follo!ing,
7, +ind a se?uence of lin-ed nodes on the side such that the found lin-s to be most co(directed
!ith the lin-s of the free border,
8, Se! t!o se?uences of nodes using algorithm of ASe!ing of free berdersA,
+or se!ing border to side you should define three points on the border and t!o points on the
side, 1ser can select these nodes in 9D vie!er or define node by its id,

Se.ing border to side
See Also a sample #13 Script of a Se! Corder to Side operation,
Se. side elements
#his operation is intended to unite t!o mesh surfaces,

Surfaces may be defined by either 8d or 9d elements, #he number of given elements of the sides must
be the same, #he sets of given elements must be topologically e?ual' i,e, each node of one element set
must have a corresponding node in the other element set and corresponding nodes must be e?ually
lin-ed, 3f there are 9d elements in a set' only their free faces must obey to that rule,
#!o corresponding nodes on each side must be specified, #hey must belong to one element and must
be located on an element set boundary,
Se!ing algorithm finds and merges the corresponding nodes starting from the specified ones,

Step;by;step se.ing process

)he result of side elements se.ing
+or se!ing side elements you should define elements for se!ing and t!o nodes for merging on the
each side, 1ser can select these elements and nodes in 9D vie!er or define them by its id,
Merging nodes
#his functionality allo!s user to detect groups of coincident nodes !ith specified tolerance; each group
of the coincident nodes can be then converted to the single node,

Merge nodes button
To merge nodes o3 your mesh:
7, +rom the Modification choose )ransformation and from its sub(menu select the Merge nodes
item, #he follo!ing dialog box shall appear:

Name is the name of the mesh !hose nodes !ill be merged,
Automatic or Manual Mode allo!s choosing ho! the nodes are processed,
)olerance is a maximum distance bet!een nodes sufficient for merging,
Exclude 7roups group box allo!s to ignore the nodes !hich belong to the specified
mesh groups,
8, Automatic mode'
3n the Automatic Mode all 2odes !ithin the indicated tolerance !ill be merged, #he
nodes !hich belong to the groups specified in the Exclude 7roups !ill be not ta-en
into account,
9, 3f the Manual Mode is selected' additional controls are available:
Detect button generates the list of coincident nodes for the given )olerance,
%oincident nodes is a list of groups of nodes for merging, All nodes of each group !ill
form one after the operation,
8emo&e button deletes the selected group from the list,
Add button adds to the list a group of nodes selected in the vie!er !ith pressed
AShiftA -ey,
Select all chec-box selects all groups,

Edit selected group list allo!s editing the selected group:

adds to the group the node selected in the vie!er,

removes from the group the selected node,

moves the selected node to the first position in the group, #his means that all other nodes
!ill be merged into this one,
>, #o confirm your choice clic- Apply or Apply and %lose button,

)he initial obgect

)he ob,ect has been merged .ith a &ery big tolerance
Merging Elements
#his functionality allo!s to merge coincident elements of a mesh selectable in the dialog box,

Merge elements button
7, &hoose in the main menu Modification (K )ransformation (K Merge elements item, #he
follo!ing dialog box shall appear:

Name is the name of the mesh !hose elements !ill be merged,
Automatic or Manual Mode allo!s choosing ho! the elements are processed,
8, Automatic mode'
3n the Automatic Mode the elements created on the same nodes !ill be merged,
9, 3f the Manual Mode is selected' additional controls are available:

Detect button generates the list of coincident elements for the given )olerance,
%oincident elements is a list of groups of elements for merging, All elements of each
group !ill form one after the operation,
8emo&e button deletes the selected group from the list,
Add button adds to the list a group of elements selected in the vie!er !ith
pressed AShiftA -ey,
Select all chec-box selects all groups,
Edit selected group list allo!s editing the selected group:

adds to the group the element selected in the vie!er,

removes from the group the selected element,

moves the selected element to the first position in the group, #his means that all other
elements !ill be merged into this one,
#o confirm your choice clic- Apply or Apply and %lose button,
3n this picture you see a triangle !hich coincides !ith one of the elements of the mesh, After !e apply
Merge Elements functionality' the triangle !ill be completely merged !ith the mesh,

Merging Elements
#his functionality allo!s to merge coincident elements of a mesh selectable in the dialog box,

Merge elements button
7, &hoose in the main menu Modification (K )ransformation (K Merge elements item, #he
follo!ing dialog box shall appear:

Name is the name of the mesh !hose elements !ill be merged,
Automatic or Manual Mode allo!s choosing ho! the elements are processed,
8, Automatic mode'
3n the Automatic Mode the elements created on the same nodes !ill be merged,
9, 3f the Manual Mode is selected' additional controls are available:

Detect button generates the list of coincident elements for the given )olerance,
%oincident elements is a list of groups of elements for merging, All elements of each
group !ill form one after the operation,
8emo&e button deletes the selected group from the list,
Add button adds to the list a group of elements selected in the vie!er !ith
pressed AShiftA -ey,
Select all chec-box selects all groups,
Edit selected group list allo!s editing the selected group:

adds to the group the element selected in the vie!er,

removes from the group the selected element,

moves the selected element to the first position in the group, #his means that all other
elements !ill be merged into this one,
#o confirm your choice clic- Apply or Apply and %lose button,
3n this picture you see a triangle !hich coincides !ith one of the elements of the mesh, After !e apply
Merge Elements functionality' the triangle !ill be completely merged !ith the mesh,

Diagonal in&ersion of elements
3n MES/ you can inverse the diagonal )edge* of a pseudo(?uadrangle formed by t!o neighboring
triangles !ith one common edge,
To inverse the diagona':
7, +rom the Modification menu choose the Diagonal in&ersion item or clic- "iagona'
2nversion" button in the toolbar,

"iagona' 2nversion" button
#he follo!ing dialog box shall appear:

8, Enter the 3D of the re?uired edge in the Edge field or select this edge in the 9D vie!er,
9, &lic- the Apply or Apply and %lose button,

)he selected edge

)he in&erted edge
(niting t.o triangles
3n MES/ you can union t!o neighboring triangles )cells* by deletion of the common edge,
To unite two triang'es:
7, +rom the Modification menu choose the (nion of t.o triangles item or clic- "5nion o3 two
triang'es" button in the toolbar,

"5nion o3 two triang'es" button
#he follo!ing dialog box shall appear:

8, Enter the 3D of the re?uired edge in the Edge field or select this edge in the 9D vie!er,
9, &lic- the Apply or Apply and %lose button,

)he selected triangles

)he union of t.o triangles
(niting a set of triangles
3n contrast to the previous operation this one allo!s to unite at once many triangles if they have
ad4acent edges,
To union severa' triang'es:
7, Display a mesh or a submesh in the 9D vie!er,
8, 3n the Modification menu select the (nion of triangles item or clic- "5nion o3 triang'es"
button in the toolbar,

"5nion o3 triang'es" button
#he follo!ing dialog box !ill appear:

)he main list shall contain the triangles !hich !ill be united, ;ou can clic- on an
triangle in the 9D vie!er and it !ill be highlighted, After that clic- the Add button and
the 3D of this triangle !ill be added to the list, #o remove a selected element or elements
from the list clic- the 8emo&e button, #he Sort button allo!s to sort the list of 3Ds, #he
Set filter button allo!s to apply a definite filter to selection of triangles,
Apply to all radio button allo!s to modify connectivity and type of all triangles of the
currently displayed mesh or submesh,
%riterion menu allo!s to apply the operation only to those ob4ect !hich meet the
chosen criterion )from the list of %uality &ontrols' i,e, S-e!' Darping' Minimum Angle'
etc,*
Select from set of fields allo!s to choose a submesh or an existing group !hose triangle
elements !ill be automatically added to the list,
9, &lic- the Apply or Apply and %lose button to confirm the operation,
3f some selected triangle elements have no ad4acent edges !ith one of the others' the operation on these
elements shall ta-e no effect,

)he chosen triangles

)he union of se&eral triangles ; se&eral 6uadrangular cells are created
%hanging orientation of elements
Orientation of an element is changed by reverting the order of nodes of the selected elements,
To change orientation o3 e'ements:
7, Display a mesh or a submesh in the 9D vie!er,
8, 3n the Modification menu select the *rientation item or clic- >rientation button in the toolbar,

">rientation" button
#he follo!ing dialog box !ill appear:

)he main list shall contain the elements !hich !ill be reoriented, ;ou can clic- on an
element in the 9D vie!er and it !ill be highlighted, After that clic- the Add button and
the 3D of this element !ill be added to the list, #o remove a selected element or elements
from the list clic- the 8emo&e button, #he Sort button allo!s to sort the list of elements
3Ds, #he Set filter button allo!s to apply a definite filter to selection of elements of
your group,
Apply to all radio button allo!s to modify the orientation of all elements of the
currently displayed mesh or submesh,
Select from set of fields allo!s to choose a submesh or an existing group !hose
elements !ill be automatically added to the list,
9, &lic- the Apply or Apply and %lose button to confirm the operation,
%utting 6uadrangles
#his operation allo!s to cut one or several ?uadrangle elements by addition of a supplementary edge
!hich !ill connect t!o opposite corners,
To cut :uadrang'es:
7, Display a mesh or a submesh in the 9D vie!er,
8, 3n the Modification menu select the %utting of 6uadrangles item or clic- "Cutting o3
:uadrang'es" button in the toolbar,

"Cutting o3 :uadrang'es" button
#he follo!ing dialog box !ill appear:

#he main list contains the list of ?uadrangles, ;ou can clic- on an ?uadrangle in
the 9D vie!er and it !ill be highlighted )loc- Shift -eyboard button to select
several ?uadrangles*, &lic- Add button and the 3D of this ?uadrangle !ill be
added to the list, #o remove a selected element or elements from the list clic-
8emo&e button, Sort list button allo!s to sort the list of 3Ds, ilter button allo!s
to apply a definite filter to the selection of ?uadrangles,
Apply to all radio button allo!s to modify the orientation of all ?uadrangles of the
currently displayed mesh or submesh,
/re&ie. ( provides a previe! of cutting in the vie!er,
%riterion
(se diagonal 0;# and (se diagonal ";? allo!s to specify the opposite corners
!hich !ill be connected by the cutting edge,
(se numeric factor ( allo!s to apply the operation only to those ob4ects !hich
meet the chosen criterion )from the list of %uality &ontrols' i,e, S-e!' Darping'
Minimum Angle' etc,*
Select from ( allo!s to choose a submesh or an existing group !hose ?uadrangle
elements !ill be automatically added to the list,
9, &lic- the Apply or Apply and %lose button to confirm the operation,

)he chosen 6uadrangular element

).o resulting triangular elements
Splitting &olumes into tetrahedra
#his operation allo!s to split volumic elements into tetrahedra, 8D mesh is modified accordingly,
To sp'it vo'umes:
7, Display a mesh or a submesh in the 9D vie!er,
8, 3n the Modification menu select the Split into )etrahedra item or clic- "#p'it into Tetrahedra"
button in the toolbar,

"#p'it into Tetrahedra" button
#he follo!ing dialog box !ill appear:

#he main list contains the list of volumes, ;ou can clic- on a volume in the 9D
vie!er and it !ill be highlighted )loc- Shift -eyboard button to select several
volumes*, &lic- Add button and the 3D of this volume !ill be added to the list, #o
remove the selected element or elements from the list clic- 8emo&e button, Sort
list button allo!s to sort the list of 3Ds, ilter button allo!s to apply a definite
filter to the selection of volumes,
Note' 3f you split not all ad4acent non(tetrahedral volumes' your mesh becomes
non(conform,
Apply to all radio button allo!s to split all volumes of the currently displayed
mesh or submesh,
Split hexahedron
Into F tetrahedra' Into F tetrahedra and Into "? tetrahedra allo!s to specify
the number of tetrahedra a hexahedron !ill be split into, 3f the specified method
does not allo! to get a conform mesh' a generic solution is applied: an additional
node is created at the gravity center of a hexahedron' serving an apex of
tetrahedra' all ?uadrangle sides of the hexahedron are split into t!o triangles each
serving a base of a ne! tetrahedron,
Select from a set of fields allo!s to choose a submesh or an existing group !hose
elements !ill be automatically added to the list,
9, &lic- the Apply or Apply and %lose button to confirm the operation,
Smoothing
Smoothing is used to ad4ust the locations of element corners )nodes* to reduce distortions in these
elements,
To app'y smoothing to the e'ements o3 your mesh:
7, 3n the Modification menu select the Smoothing item or clic- "#moothing" button in the
toolbar,

"#moothing" button
#he follo!ing dialog !ill appear:

8, 3n this dialog:
specify the 3Ds of the elements !hich !ill be smoothed:
Select the .hole mesh1 submesh or group activating this chec-box; or
choose mesh elements !ith the mouse in the 9D "ie!er, 3t is possible to select a
!hole area !ith a mouse frame; or
input the element 3Ds directly in ID Elements field, #he selected elements !ill
be highlighted in the vie!er; or
apply +ilters, Set filter button allo!s to apply a filter to the selection of
elements, See more about filters in the Selection filter library page,
define the ixed nodes ids that should remain at their location during smoothing, 3f a
mesh is built on a shape' the nodes built on its geometric edges are al!ays fixed, 3f the
smoothing is applied to a part of the mesh' the nodes of boundary elements are also
fixed, 3t is possible to additionally fix any other nodes, #he fixed nodes can be selected
manually or by filters' 4ust as the smoothed elements,
choose the Smoothing Method'
$aplacian smoothing pulls a node to!ard the center of surrounding nodes
directly connected to that node along an element edge,
%entroidal smoothing pulls a node to!ard the element(area(!eighted centroid of
the surrounding elements,
#ypically' the Laplacian method !ill produce the mesh !ith the least element
distortion, 3t is also the fastest method, &entroidal smoothing usually produces a
mesh !ith more uniform element si0es, Coth methods produce good results !ith
AfreeA meshes,

specify the Iteration limit, Coth smoothing methods iterate through a number of steps
to produce the resulting smoothed mesh, At each ne! step the smoothing is reevaluated
!ith the updated nodal locations, #his process continues till the limit of iterations has
been exceeded' or till the aspect ratio of all element is less than or e?ual to the specified
one,
specify the Max= aspect ratio ( the target mesh ?uality at !hich the smoothing
algorithm should stop the iterations,
activate in parametric space chec-box if it is necessary to to improve the shape of faces
in the parametric space of geometrical surfaces on !hich they are generated' else the
shape of faces in the 9D space is improved,
9, &lic- Apply or Apply and %lose button to confirm the operation,

)he initial mesh

)he smoothed mesh
Extrusion
Extrusion is used to build mesh elements of plus one dimension than the input ones, Any line or planar
element can be extruded, Line elements !ill extrude into ?uadrilateral plane elements, #riangular and
%uadrilateral plane elements extrude into .entahedron and /exahedron solids respectively,
To use extrusion:
7, +rom the Modification menu choose the Extrusion item or clic- "Extrusion" button in the
toolbar,

"Extrusion" button
#he follo!ing dialog common for line and planar elements !ill appear:


8, 3n this dialog:
select the type of elements !hich !ill be extruded )7D or 8D*'
specify the 3Ds of the elements !hich !ill be extruded:
Select the .hole mesh1 submesh or group activating this chec-box; or
choose mesh elements !ith the mouse in the 9D "ie!er, 3t is possible to select a
!hole area !ith a mouse frame; or
input the element 3Ds directly in ID Elements field, #he selected elements !ill
be highlighted in the vie!er; or
apply +ilters, Set filter button allo!s to apply a filter to the selection of
elements, See more about filters in the Selection filter library page,
3f the Extrude to Distance radio button is selected
specify the distance at !hich the elements !ill be extruded'
3f the Extrude Along !ector radio button is selected
specify the coordinates of the vector along !hich the elements !ill be extruded'
or select the face )the normal to the face !ill define the vector*
specify the distance of extrusion along the vector'
specify the number of steps;
activate 7enerate 7roups chec-box if it is necessary to copy the groups of elements of
the source mesh to the ne!ly created one,
9, &lic- Apply or Apply and %lose button to confirm the operation,

)he mesh .ith an edge selected for extrusion

)he mesh .ith extruded edge
Extrusion along a path
3n principle' Extrusion along a path !or-s in the same !ay as Extrusion' the main difference is that
!e define not a vector' but a path of extrusion !hich must be a 7D mesh or 7D sub(mesh, #o get an
idea of ho! this algorithm !or-s' examine several examples' starting from the most simple case of
extrusion along a straight edge, 3n the examples the sample mesh !ill be extruded along different paths
and !ith different parameters, #his 8D mesh has t!o ?uadrangle faces and seven edges, Loo- at the
picture' !here !hite digits are the node numbers and green are the element numbers:

Extrusion along a straight edge
)not using base point or angles*

#he image sho!s a 7D path mesh' built on a linear edge' and the initial 8D mesh,

#he image sho!s the result of extrusion of t!o edges )X7 and X8* of the initial mesh along the path,
2ode X7 of path mesh has been selected as Start node,
Extrusion along a cur&ilinear edge
)!ith and !ithout angles*

#he image sho!s a 7D path mesh' built on curvilinear edge' and the initial 8D mesh,

#he central image sho!s the result of extrusion of one edge )X8* of the initial mesh along the path,
2ode X7 of path mesh has been selected as Start node,

#he same' but using angles Y><' ><' ><' 6' (><' (><' (><Z
Extrusion of a "D face along a mesh built on a .ire
3n this example the path mesh has been built on a !ire containing 9 edges, 2ode 7 is a start node,
Linear angle variation by 7H6 degrees has also been applied,
Meshed wire
The resu'ting extrusion
Extrusion of "d elements along a closed path

#he image sho!s a path mesh built on a closed edge )circle*,

#he central image sho!s the result of extrusion of both faces of the initial mesh,
2ote' that no se!ing has been done' so' there are six coincident nodes and t!o coincident faces in the
resulting mesh,

#he same' but using angles Y><' (><' ><' (><' ><' (><' ><' (><Z
To use Extrusion a'ong a path:
7, +rom the Modification menu choose the Extrusion along a path item or clic- "Extrusion
a'ong a path" button in the toolbar,

"Extrusion a'ong a path" button
#he follo!ing dialog common for line and planar elements !ill appear:

8, 3n this dialog:
select the type of elements !hich !ill be extruded )7D or 8D*'
specify the IDs of the elements !hich !ill be extruded
Select the .hole mesh1 submesh or group activating this chec-box; or
choose mesh elements !ith the mouse in the 9D "ie!er, 3t is possible to select a
!hole area !ith a mouse frame; or
input the element 3Ds directly in ID Elements field, #he selected elements !ill
be highlighted in the vie!er; or
apply +ilters, Set filter button allo!s to apply a filter to the selection of
elements, See more about filters in the Selection filter library page,
define the .ath along !hich the elements !ill be extruded'
.ath definition consists of several elements:
Mesh or submesh ( 7D mesh or sub(mesh' along !hich proceeds the extrusion
Start node ( the start node, 3t is used to define the direction of extrusion
activate 7enerate 7roups chec-box if it is necessary to copy the groups of elements of
the source mesh to the ne!ly created one,
9, #here are t!o optional parameters' !hich can be very useful:
3f the path of extrusion is curvilinear' at each iteration the extruded shape is rotated to
-eep its initial angularity to the curve, Cy default' the -ase /oint around !hich the
shape is rotated is the mass center of the shape' ho!ever' you can specify any point as
the -ase /oint and the shape !ill be rotated !ith respect to this point,
#he shape can also be rotated around the path to get the resulting mesh in a helical
fashion, ;ou can set the values of angles at the right' add them to the list of angles at the
left by pressing the "Add" button and remove them from the list by pressing the
"&emove" button,

"Add" button

"&emove" button
$inear &ariation of the angles option allo!s defining the angle of gradual rotation for
the !hole path, At each step the shape !ill be rotated by angle@nb, of steps,
>, &lic- Apply or Apply and %lose button to confirm the operation, Mesh edges !ill be extruded
into faces' faces into volumes, #he external surface of the resulting 9d mesh )if faces have been
extruded* is covered !ith faces' and corners !ith edges, 3f the path is closed' the resulting mesh
can contain duplicated nodes and faces' because no se!ing is done,
8e&olution
Ievolution is a type of surface meshing by generation from discreti0ed lines, 3t is used to build mesh
elements of plus one dimension than the s!ept ones, Each s!ept 7D element produces one or more
?uadrangles )or triangles if one node of a rotated element lays on the revolution axis*,
To app'y revo'ution:
7, +rom the Modification menu choose the 8e&olution item or clic- "&evo'ution" button in the
toolbar,

"&evo'ution" button
#he follo!ing dialog common for line and planar elements !ill appear:

8, 3n this dialog you should specify:
the type of elements !hich !ill be extruded )7D or 8D*'
specify the 3Ds of the elements !hich !ill be revolved:
Select the .hole mesh1 submesh or group activating this chec-box; or
choose mesh elements !ith the mouse in the 9D "ie!er, 3t is possible to select a
!hole area !ith a mouse frame; or
input the element 3Ds directly in ID Elements field, #he selected elements !ill
be highlighted in the vie!er; or
apply +ilters, Set filter button allo!s to apply a filter to the selection of
elements, See more about filters in the Selection filter library page,
specify the axis of revolution:
specify the cooordinates of the start /oint of the vector of revolution;
specify the !ector of revolution through the coordinates of its end point !ith
respect to the coordinates of the start point, Alternatively' it is possible to specify
the vector through the normal to the selected face,
specify the angle of revolution and the number of revolution steps'
Angle by Step ( the elements are extruded by the specified angle at each step )i,e,
for AngleG96 and 2umber of StepsG8' the elements !ill be extruded by 96
degrees t!ice for a total of 96[8GE6*

Example of 8e&olution .ith Angle by Step
#otal Angle ( the elements are extruded by the specified angle only once and the
number of steps defines the number of iterations )i,e,for AngleG96 and 2umber
of StepsG8' the elements !ill be extruded by 96@8G7< degrees t!ice for a total of
96*,

Example of 8e&olution .ith )otal Angle
specify the tolerance for the operation
activate /re&ie. chec-box to sho! the parameter(setting in the vie!er
activate 7enerate 7roups chec-box to copy the groups of elements of the source mesh
to the ne!ly created one,
9, &lic- Apply or Apply and %lose button to confirm the operation,
/attern mapping
About patterns
#he pattern describes a mesh to generate: positions of nodes !ithin a geometrical domain and nodal
connectivity of elements, A pattern also specifies the so(called -ey(points' i,e, the nodes that !ill be
located at geometrical vertices, #he pattern description is stored in WpatternBnameK,smp file,
#he smp file contains > sections:
7, #he first line indicates the total number of pattern nodes )2*,
8, #he next 2 lines describe nodes coordinates, Each line contains 8 node coordinates for a 8D
pattern or 9 node cordinates for a 9D pattern, 2ote' that node coordinates of a 9D pattern can be
defined only by relative values in range Q6;7R,
9, #he -ey(points line contains the indices of the nodes to be mapped on geometrical vertices )for
a 8D pattern only*, 3ndex n refers to the node described on the n(th line of section 8, #he index
of the first node 0ero, +or a 9D pattern the -ey points are not specified,
>, #he remaining lines describe nodal connectivity of elements' one line for each element, Each
line holds indices of nodes forming an element, 3ndex n refers to the node described on the n(th
line of section 8, #he first node index is 0ero, #here must be 9 or > indices on each line for a 8D
pattern )only 8d elements are allo!ed* and >' <' E or H indices for a 9D pattern )only 9d
elements are allo!ed*,
A 8D pattern must contain at least one element and at least one -ey(point, All -ey(points must lie on
boundaries,
A 9D pattern must contain at least one element,
An example of a simple 8D pattern smp file:
NNN S$L>01 !D mesh pattern *le
NNN
NNN Nb o* ponts&
J
!33 3 N# 3
?33 3 N# ?
3 3 N# !
3 #?33 N# 3
3 #!33 N# F
?33 #!33 N# 5
!33 #!33 N# 4
!33 #?33 N# Q
?33 #?33 N# K
NNN In"(es o* F -ey#ponts
! 3 F 4
NNN In"(es o* ponts o* 4 elements
3 ? K
K 5 4 Q
! 3 K
K 3 F 5
K Q 3
K ? !
#he image belo! provides a previe! of the above pattern:

An example of a simple 9D pattern smp file:
NNN S$L>01 3D mesh pattern *le
NNN
NNN Nb o* ponts&
J
3 3 3 N# 3
? 3 3 N# ?
3 ? 3 N# !
? ? 3 N# 3
3 3 ? N# F
? 3 ? N# 5
3 ? ? N# 4
? ? ? N# Q
3,5 3,5 3,5 N# K
NNN In"(es o* ponts o* 4 elements&
3 ? 5 F K
Q 5 ? 3 K
3 ! 4 Q K
! 3 F 4 K
3 ! 3 ? K
F 5 Q 4 K
Application of pattern mapping
To app'y pattern mapping to a geometrica' ob?ect:
+rom the Modification menu choose the /attern Mapping item or clic- "Pattern mapping" button in
the toolbar,

"Pattern mapping" button
#he follo!ing dialog box !ill appear:
+or a "D pattern

3n this dialog you should specify:
/attern' !hich can be loaded from ,smp pattern file previously created manually or generated
automatically from an existing mesh or submesh,
ace !ith the number of vertices e?ual to the number of -ey(points in the pattern; the number
of -ey(points on internal boundaries of the pattern must also be e?ual to the number of vertices
on internal boundaries of the face;
!ertex to !hich the first -ey(point should be mapped; Alternatively' it is possible to select
8efine selected mesh elements chec-box and apply the pattern to
Mesh ace instead of a geometric +ace
and select Node instead of vertex,
Additionally it is possible to:
8e&erse the order of key;points Cy default' the vertices of a face are ordered
countercloc-!ise,
Enable to %reate polygons near boundary
and %reate polyhedrons near boundary

+or a #D pattern

3n this dialog you should specify:
/attern' !hich can be loaded from ,smp pattern file previously created manually or generated
automatically from an existing mesh or submesh,
A 9D bloc- )Solid* ob4ect;
#!o vertices that specify the order of nodes in the resulting mesh, Alternatively' it is possible to
select 8efine selected mesh elements chec-box and apply the pattern to
One or several Mesh &olumes instead of a geometric 9D ob4ect
and select t!o @b 2odes instead of vertices, Additionally it is possible to:
Enable to %reate polygons near boundary
and %reate polyhedrons near boundary

Automatic eneration
#o generate a pattern automatically from an existing mesh or submesh' clic- Ne. button,
#he follo!ing dialog box !ill appear:

3n this dialog you should specify:
Mesh or Submesh' !hich is a meshed geometrical face )for a 8D pattern* or a meshed solid
)for a 9D pattern*, Mesh nodes lying on the face vertices become -ey(points of the pattern,
A custom /attern Name
Additionally' for a 8D pattern you may choose to /ro,ect nodes on the face to get node
coordinates instead of using Apositions on faceA generated by the mesher )if there is any*, #he
faces having a seam edge cannot be used for automatic pattern creation,
Dhen a pattern is created from an existing mesh' t!o cases are possible:
A sub(mesh on a face@solid is selected, #he pattern is created from the 8d@9d elements bound to
the face@solid by the mesher, +or a 8D pattern' the node coordinates are either Apositions on
faceA computed by the mesher' or coordinates got by node pro4ection on a geometrical surface'
according to the user choice, +or a 9D pattern' the node coordinates correspond to the nodes
computed by the mesher,
A mesh' !here the main shape is a face@solid' is selected, #he pattern is created from all 8d@9d
elements in a mesh, 3n addition' if all mesh elements of a 8D pattern are built by the mesher' the
user can select ho! to get node coordinates' other!ise all nodes are pro4ected on a face surface,
Mapping algorithm
#he mapping algorithm for a 8D case is as follo!s:
#he -ey(points are set countercloc-!ise in the order corresponding to their location on the
pattern boundary, #he first -ey(point is preserved,
#he geometrical vertices corresponding to the -ey(points are found on face boundary, /ere'
AIeverse order of -ey(pointsA flag is set,

#he boundary nodes of the pattern are mapped onto the edges of the face: a node located
bet!een t!o -ey(points on the pattern boundary is mapped on the geometrical edge limited by
the corresponding geometrical vertices, #he node position on the edge depends on its distance
from the -ey(points,

#he cordinates of a non(boundary node in the parametric space of the face are defined in the
follo!ing !ay, 3n the parametric space of the pattern' the node lies at the intersection of t!o
iso(lines, Coth of them intersect the pattern boundary at t!o points at least, 3f the mapped
positions of boundary nodes are -no!n' it is possible to find' !here the points at the intersection
of isolines and boundaries are mapped, #hen it is possible to find the direction of mapped
isolinesection and' filally' the poitions of t!o nodes on t!o mapped isolines, #he eventual
mapped position of the node is found as an average of the positions on mapped isolines,

#he 9D algorithm is similar,
%on&ert to>from 9uadratic Mesh
#his functionality allo!s you to transtorm standard meshes to ?uadratic and vice versa, See Adding
?uadratic elements for more information about ?uadratic meshes,
To produce a conversion:
7, +rom the Modification menu choose the &onvert to@from %uadratic Mesh item' or clic-
"Convert to13rom :uadratic" button in the toolbar,

"Convert to13rom :uadratic" button
#he follo!ing dialog box !ill appear:

8, 3n this dialog box you should select:
if you !ish to convert standard mesh to ?uadratic or ?uadratic to standard;
if you !ish to place medium nodes of the ?uadratic mesh on the geometry )meshed
ob4ect*,

Standard mesh )coarse mesh on a torus*

%uadratic mesh
9, &lic- the Apply or *+ button,
7enerate boundary elements
#his functionality allo!s to generate mesh elements on the borders of elements of a higher dimension,
To generate border e'ements:
7, +rom the Modification menu choose A&reate boundary elementsA item' or clic- A&reate
boundary elementsA button in the toolbar

%reate boundary elements icon
#he follo!ing dialog box !ill appear:

%reate boundary elements dialog box
,
8, &hec- in the dialog box one of three radio buttons corresponding to the type of operation you
!ould li-e to perform,
9, +ill the other fields available in the dialog box,
>, &lic- the Apply or Apply and %lose button to perform the operation,
A&reate boundary elementsA dialog allo!s creation of boundary elements of three types,
"D from #D creates mesh faces on free facets of volume elements
0D from "D creates mesh edges on free edges of mesh faces
0D from #D creates mesh edges on all borders of free facets of volume elements
/ere a 3ree 3acet means a facet shared by only one volume' a 3ree edge means an edge shared by only
one mesh face,
3n this dialog:
specify the Mesh1 submesh or group' the boundary !hich of !ill be analy0ed,
specify the )arget mesh' !here the boundary elements !ill be created,
)his mesh adds elements in the selected mesh or the mesh the selected submesh or
group belongs to,
Ne. mesh adds elements to a ne! mesh, #he ne! mesh appears in the Ob4ect Cro!ser
!ith the name that you can change in the ad4acent box,
activate %opy source mesh chec-box to copy 8D or 9D elements )depending on the operation
type*' !hich belong to the analy0ed Mesh1 submesh or group field' to the ne! mesh,
deactivate %opy missing elements only chec-box to copy boundary elements already present in
the analy0ed mesh to the ne! mesh,
activate %reate group chec-box to create a group to !hich the missing boundary elements are
added, #he ne! group appears in the Ob4ect Cro!ser !ith the name that you can change in the
ad4acent box,
(sing SA$*ME Note-ook
SA$*ME Note-ook allo!s defining variables to be used for creation and modification of ob4ects,

Setting of &ariables in SA$*ME Note-ook

(se of &ariables to add a node in MESH module
#he follo!ing limitations on the use of variables still exist:
Distribution of Layers hypothesis ( parametrical values are correctly applied' but they are not
restored after A1pdate studyA operation,
2umber of Segments hypothesis' Distribution !ith #able Density and Distribution !ith
Analytic Density ( parametrical values are not applicable,
#ranslation dialog box' default mode )translation by t!o points* ( parametrical values are
correctly applied' but they are not restored after A1pdate studyA operation,
Merging nodes dialog box ( parametrical value )tolerance of coincident nodes detection* is
correctly applied' but it is not restored after A1pdate studyA operation,
Ievolution dialog box ( it is impossible to use the angle of revolution as Atotal angleA if it is
defined as variable,
Extrusion along a path dialog box ( it is impossible to use ALinear variation of the anglesA mode
if at least one of those angles is defined as variable,
.attern mapping dialog box ( parametrical values )indices of nodes* are correctly applied' but
they are not restored after A1pdate studyA operation,
&lipping dialog box,
%olors > Si<e dialog box,