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CAST IRON /STEEL (ALLOY OF Fe & C)

If C%
Hardness
Brittleness
Ductility
Castability
Formability
Weldability
Machinability


Increases
Decreases
PROPERTIES OF CAST IRON
High Compressive strength .
High Damping capacity . ( generally
with Gray C.I from which lathe bed
are made .)
High Casting capability.
High Machinability .( even it is hard
and brittle ) , so its exception .
Poor Weldability because of high %
of carbon .
Poor Formability .



IRON
STEEL
.008% to 2%
Carbon
ALLOY STEEL
HIGH Speed
Steel
TUNGSTEN
BASED
W : Cr : V
18 : 4 : 1
Cutting tool
materials
MOLEYBEDNUM
BASED
10 % TO 12%
Moleybednum
Used in industries
nowdays, Cheaper
Stainless Steel
18 : 8
Cr : Ni
Syringes,knifes,
Shaving Blades.
(Diificult to
machine , difficult
to weld ) . More
tougher and
harder.
PLAIN STEEL
Low Carbon
Steel
Upto .35% C
Parts ,
Components
Medium Carbon
Steel
.35% to .83% C
Screw drivers,
Knife, Shafts,
Chiesels
High Carbon
Steel
.83% to 2% C
Cutting tools,Single
point , Chiesel, Dril
bits, Hacksaw Blade
CAST IRON
2% to 6.67% C







TUNGSTEN based
H.S.S
W : Cr : V
(18 : 4 : 1)
TUNGSTEN
( W)
Has Hot hardness Property
( improved hardness even at
high temperatures)
CHROMIUM
(Cr)
Improves Corrosion
Resistance as well as
Strength of material.
VANADIUM
(V)
Improves Impact Strength ,
Fatigue Strength of the
Material

IRON
STEEL
.008% to 2%
Carbon
CAST IRON
2% to 6.67% C
ALLOY C.I
1. By small
addition of
alloying
elements like
Nickel ,
Chromium ,
Moleybednu
m ,
Vanadium.
GRAY C.I
(soft)

1. Self Lubricating
Property.
2. when cut , Gray
colour appears on
cutting portion.
3. Carbon content is in
the form of Graphite
4.In Lathe Stock , where
tailstock move (
sideways) , made up of
Gray C.I
WHITE
C.I(hard)
1.mostly
water
quenching.
(rapid cooling
in water)
2.Railway
Tracks,
Railway
wheels.
MALLEABLE
C.I
1. As
compared to
other C.I ,
Malleable C.I
has more
malleability
DUCTILE
C.I
(spheroidical
C.I)
1.By small addition
of magnesium or
cerium .
2.Has more fluidity
and castibility.
3.In general it is
used for intricated
castings as well as
big sized castings
due to excellent
casting property.
Through Hardening
(Quenching)
Through Annealing






ALLOY C.I
NICKEL
Improves machinability
and corrosion resistance .
CHROMIUM
Improves corrosion
resistance and prevents
formation of graphite .
MOLEYBEDNUM
Improves strength and
wear reasistance property
, but decrease the
machinability.
VANADIUM

Improves carbide
formation and this
improves the impact
strength and hardness .

HEAT TREATMENT
PROCESSES
ANNEALING
(furnace cooling)
1.For softening , improving the
ductility of metals through
very slow cooling in furnace .
2.internal stresses can be
relieved.
3.Remove surface defects.
NORMALIZING
(air cooling)
1.Similar to annealing, but
cooling rate is higher than
annealing.
2.So, softness is less
compared to annealing.
HEATING ABOVE CRITICAL
TEMPERATURES.
HARDENING
(rapid cooling)or
(Quenching)
1.Rapid cooling in the form of
water quenching or oil
quenching .
2. More internal stresses
produced .
3.Surface cracks produced .
TEMPERING
1. Always done after
hardening process to remove
internal stresses and surface
defects
2.Improves toughness
3. But loss in surface hardness
occurs .
ALWAYS DONE BELOW
LOWER CRITICAL
TEMPERATURE. (Heat
around 200 deg - 300 deg
celsius , maintain temp.
for long period of time
and furnace cooling is
done .)
CASE HARDENING
1. Used to generate outer
surface hardening .
Carburizing , Nitriding ,
Cyaniding , Flame
Hardening , Induction
Hardening .

AUSTENITE (727
deg celsius)
Water Quenching
will form
( Martensite Structure )
( More hard and brittle)
Oil Quenching
/cooling
will form
( Very fine Pearlite )
Air cooling
will form
( Fine Pearlite )
Furnace cooling
will form
( Coarse Pearlite )
Temperatures
Critical temp.
Lower critical
temp.
( after this phase
change ,
properties change
occurs)
upper critical
temp.
( after this no
change occurs)
Recrystallization
temp.
It is approxi.
equal to 40% of
melting point of
the metal , but it
depend upon
prior working of
the metal
Working on metal
below rec. temp. is
called Cold Working
and above this temp. is
called hot working
processes.



BCC delta -Iron

FCC Non-magnetic gamma - Iron


BCC magnetic alpha - Iron

IRON





1539

1403
TEMP

908
768