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Dinamik

Dynamics
(KM 20903)
Chua Bih Lii
BEng (UMS), MEng (UMS), Grad. IEM, MTAM
Mechanical Engineering Programme
School of Engineering and Information Technology
Universiti Malaysia Sabah

Chapter 1a
Kinematics of a
Particle
To determine the position, displacement, velocity
and acceleration of a particle motion along a
straight line and curved path
To express the relation for a dependent motion and
relative motion of two particles

Contents
1.1 Introduction to Particle Motion Analysis
1.2 Rectilinear Kinematics
1.3 Curvilinear Motion
1.4 Curvilinear Motion: Rectangular Components
1.5 Curvilinear Motion: Normal and Tangential
Components
1.6 Curvilinear Motion: Cylindrical Components

1.7 Absolute Dependent Motion Analysis of Two
Particles
1.8 Relative Motion Analysis of Two Particles

1.1 Introduction to Particle
Motion Analysis
O Particle has a mass but negligible size
and shape.
O Useful to represent the motion of a
body, which the particle refers to its
mass centre and any rotation of the
body is neglected.

You can see a car is
here, with a mass of
few hundred
kilograms

You know there is a
car here, but you can
only see a white dot
now

At this level, you cant
even see the dot. You
may need to use an
imaginary dot for
illustration

At this level, you can
only imagine there is
a car here
O What is the
average
speed of the
car?
O Throughout
the journey
to KKIA T2,
the car is
subjected to
the change
of direction
and traffic
condition
1.2 Rectilinear
Kinematics
Rectilinear Kinematics
O Motion is characterized by the particles
position, velocity and acceleration at any
given instant.
O Rectilinear or straight line motion :
1. Continuous motion
2. Erratic motion


Position
O Single coordinate axis, s
O Used to define position for straight line path
motion
O Origin, O
O Reference point
O Algebraic scalar, s
O Magnitude of s = Dist from O to P
O Position vector, r
O The sense (arrowhead dir of r) is defined by
algebraic sign on s (+ve = right of origin, -ve = left
of origin)


Displacement
O Change in its position, vector quantity
O A particle moves from P to P
O Vector:
O Scalar:
+ve if particles position is
right of its initial position
-ve if particles position is
left of its initial position

O Distance = total length of path travelled

s s s
'
= A
r r r
'
= A
Velocity
O Displacement per unit time
O Average velocity:


O Instantaneous velocity:




O Scalar: (1.1)
t
avg
A
A
=
r
v
( ) t
t
ins
A A =
A
/ lim
0
r v
dt
d
ins
r
v =
dt
ds
v =
|
.
|

\
|

+
O Average speed is defined as total distance
traveled by a particle, s
T
, divided by the
elapsed time
( )
t
s
v
T
avg
sp
A
=
Acceleration
O Velocity of particle is known at points P
and P during time interval t, average
acceleration is




O v represents difference in the velocity
during the time interval t, ie
v v v = A '
t
v
a
avg
A
A
=
O Instantaneous acceleration at time t
is found by taking smaller and smaller
values of t and corresponding
smaller and smaller values of v,


O Algebraically:
(1.2)
( ) t
t
A A =
A
/ lim
0
v a
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
.
|

\
|

+
dt
dv
a =
2
2
dt
s d
a =
O Two possible condition when value
a become negative:
1. Particle is slowing down, its speed is
decreasing [decelerating]
2. It is acting to the left, in the opposite
sense to v

O If velocity is constant, acceleration
is zero
O From Eq. 1.1




O Substitute into Eq. 1.2
(1.3)
dv v ds a =
v
ds
dt
dt
ds
v
=
=
O When acceleration is constant, a
c
:
O Integrate a
c
= dv/dt, assuming that
initially v = v
0
when t = 0
} }
=
t
c
v
v
dt a dv
0
0
t a v v
c
+ =
0
|
.
|

\
|

+
O Integrate v = ds/dt = v
0
+ a
c
t,
assuming that initially s = s
0
when t
= 0
( )
2
0 0
0
0
2
1
0
t a t v s s
dt t a v ds
c
t
c
s
s
+ + =
+ =
} }
|
.
|

\
|

+
O Integrate v dv = a
c
ds, assuming
that initially v = v
0
at s = s
0

( )
0
2
0
2
2
0 0
s s a v v
ds a vdv
c
s
s
c
v
v
+ =
=
} }
|
.
|

\
|

+
The car moves in a straight line such that for a short time
its velocity is defined by v = (0.9t
2
+ 0.6t) m/s where t is in
sec. Determine it position and acceleration when t = 3s.
When t = 0, s = 0.
EXAMPLE 12.1
EXAMPLE 12.1
Answer:
When t = 3s,
s = 10.8m
a = 6m/s
2




O The car do not display the velocity as a
function of time. How to describe the
velocity in equation form?
O v = (0.9t
2
+ 0.6t) m/s
Snippet: Industrial Robots

Erratic Motion
When particles motion is erratic, it is best
described graphically using a series of
curves because it is difficult to obtain
continuous mathematical functions.
a graph can be established describing the
relationship with any two of the variables, a,
v, s, t
The s-t graph can be plotted if the position
of the particle can be determined
experimentally during a period of time t.

To determine the particles velocity as a
function of time, the v-t Graph, use v = ds/dt
Velocity as any instant is determined by
measuring the slope of the s-t graph

v
dt
ds
=
Slope of s-t graph = velocity
When the particles v-t graph is known, the
acceleration as a function of time, the a-t
graph can be determined using a = dv/dt
Acceleration as any instant is determined by
measuring the slope of the v-t graph

a
dt
dv
=
Slope of v-t graph=acceleration
O Since differentiation reduces a polynomial of
degree n to that of degree n-1, then if the s-t
graph is parabolic (2
nd
degree curve), the v-t
graph will be sloping line (1
st
degree curve),
and the a-t graph will be a horizontal line or
constant (zero degree curve)
O When the a-t graph is known, the
v-t graph may be constructed
using a = dv/dt
}
= A dt a v
Change in
velocity
Area under a-t
graph
=
O When the v-t graph is known, the s-t
graph may be constructed using v =
ds/dt
}
= A dt v s
Displacement
Area under v-t
graph
=
O v-s graph can be determined by
using v dv = a ds, integrating this
eqn between the limit v = v
0
at s =
s
0
and v = v
1
at s = s
1

( )
}
=
1
0
2
0
2
1
2
1
s
s
ds a v v
Area under
a-s graph
O v-s graph is known, the acceleration a at any
position s can be determined using a ds = v
dv


|
.
|

\
|
=
ds
dv
v a
Acceleration = velocity times slope of v-s
graph
1.3 Curvilinear
Motion
Motion of a particle along a curved path
Position
O The position of the particle, measured from
a fixed point O, is designated by the position
vector r = r(t).
Displacement
O Suppose during a small time interval t the
particle moves a distance s along the
curve to a new position P, defined by: r = r
+ r. The displacement r represents the
change in the particles position
Velocity
O During the time t, the average velocity of
the particle is defined as



O The instantaneous velocity is determined
from this equation by letting t 0, and
consequently the direction of r approaches
the tangent to the curve at point P. Hence,

t
avg
A
A
=
r
v
dt
d
ins
r
v =
Direction of v
ins
is tangent to the curve
Magnitude of v
ins
is the speed, which may be
obtained by noting the magnitude of the
displacement r is the length of the straight
line segment from P to P.

dt
ds
v =
Acceleration
O If the particle has a velocity v at time t and a
velocity v` = v + v at time t` = t + t. The
average acceleration during the time
interval t is
t
avg
A
A
=
v
a
2
2
dt
d
dt
d r v
a = =
O a acts tangent to the
hodograph, therefore it is not
tangent to the path
O Hodograph is the locus of points for
the arrowhead of the velocity
vector.

1.4 Curvilinear Motion:
Rectangular
Components
Motion of a particle along a path being
represented by a fixed x, y, z frame of
reference.

Position
O Position vector is defined by:
O r = xi + yj + zk
O Magnitude is given by:

O The direction of r is specified by the
component of the unit vector u
r
= r/r


2 2 2
z y x r + + =
Velocity
O Velocity vector:

O Where

O The velocity has a magnitude defined as the
positive value of


O and a direction that is specified by the
components of the unit vector u
v
=v/v and is
always tangent to the path.
z v y v x v
v v v
dt
d
z y x
z y x

= = =
+ + = = k j i
r
v
2 2 2
z y x
v v v v + + =
Acceleration
O Vector:
O where


O The acceleration has a magnitude defined as the
positive value of
The acceleration has a direction specified by the components
of the unit vector u
a
= a/a.
Since a represents the time rate of change in velocity, a will
not be tangent to the path.


z v a
y v a
x v a
a a a
dt
d
z z
y y
x x
z y x



= =
= =
= =
+ + = = k j i
v
a
2 2 2
z y x
a a a a + + =
1.5 Curvilinear Motion:
Normal & Tangential
Components
Description of Motion based on the
particles location as the origin and
coordinates system in accordance to the
normal and tangent of the path.
Planar Motion
O Consider motion of a particle in a plane.
O At a given instant, it is at position s
measured from point O
O Consider a coordinate system that has origin
at a fixed point on the curve on the curve,
and at the instant, considered this origin
happen to coincide with the location of the
particle
O t axis is tangent to the curve at P and is
positive in the direction of increasing s
Designate this positive position direction
with unit vector u
t
For normal axis, note that geometrically, the
curve is constructed from series differential
arc segments
O Each segment ds is formed from the arc of
an associated circle having a radius of
curvature (rho) and center of curvature O
Normal axis n is perpendicular to the t axis
and is directed from P towards the center of
curvature O
Positive direction is always on the concave
side of the curve, designed by u
n
Plane containing both the n and t axes is
known as the oscillating plane and is fixed
on the plane of motion

Velocity
Since the particle is moving, s is a function
of time
Particles velocity v has direction that is
always tangent to the path and a magnitude
that is determined by taking the time
derivative of the path function s = s(t)

where
s v
v
t

=
= u v
Acceleration
O Acceleration of the particle is the time rate
of change of velocity
t t
v u u v v a

+ = =
As the particle moves along the arc ds in
time dt, u
t
preserves its magnitude of unity
When particle changes direction, it becomes
u
t

O u
t
= u
t
+ du
t
du
t
stretches between the arrowhead of u
t

and u
t
, which lie on an infinitesimal arc of
radius u
t
= 1

n n n t
v s
u u u u

u = = =


O Where




O Magnitude:

2
v
a
vdv ds a v a
a a
n
t t
n n t t
=
= =
+ =

u u a
2 2
n t
a a a + =
Normal component of acceleration
represents the time rate of change in the
direction of the velocity. Since a
n
always acts
towards the center of curvature, this
component is sometimes referred to as the
centripetal acceleration
As a result, a particle moving along the
curved path will have accelerations directed
as shown

3-D Motion
If the particle is moving along a space curve,
at a given instant, t axis is completely
unique
An infinite number of straight lines can be
constructed normal to tangent axis at P

O A third unit vector u
b
, defines a binormal
axis b which is perpendicular to u
t
and u
n
Three unit vectors are related by vector cross
product
O u
b
= u
t
x u
n
u
n
is always on the concave side

Radius of Curvature
O If the path is expressed as y = f(x), the
radius of the curvature at any point on the
path is determined from

2 2
2 / 3 2
/
] ) / ( 1 [
dx y d
dx dy +
=
1.6 Curvilinear Motion:
Cylindrical
Components
Path of motion in terms of cylindrical
components. It is more Convenient to express
angular position and radial distance for
engineering problems in these terms.
Polar Coordinates
O If motion is restricted to the plane, polar
coordinates r and are used
O Specify the location of P using both the
radial coordinate r, which extends outward
from the fixed origin O to the particle and a
traverse coordinate , which is the
counterclockwise angle between a fixed
reference line and the r axis

Positive directions of the r and coordinates
are defined by the unit vectors u
r
and u

u
r
extends from P along increasing r, when
is held fixed
u

extends from P in the direction that


occurs when r is held fixed and is
increased
Note these directions are perpendicular to
each other

Position
O At any instant, position of the particle
defined by the position vector
r
ru r =
Velocity
O Instantaneous velocity v is obtained by the
time derivative of r

To evaluate , note that u
r
changes only its
direction with respect to time since
magnitude of this vector = 1
During time t, a change r will not cause a
change in the direction of u

r r
r r u u r v

+ = =
r
u

However, a change will cause u


r
to
become u
r
where
O u
r
= u
r
+ u
r
Time change is u
r
For small angles , vector has a
magnitude of 1 and acts in the u

direction
u
u
u
u
u u
u
u
u

=
|
.
|

\
|
A
A
=
A
A
=
A A
r
t
r
t
r
t t
0 0
lim lim

- where

- Radical component v
r
is a measure of the rate of
increase or decrease in the length of the radial
coordinate
- Transverse component v

is the rate of motion


along the circumference of a circle having a
radius r

u
u
u u

r v
r v
v v
r
r r
=
=
+ = u u v
Angular velocity indicates
the rate of change of the angle
- Since v
r
and v

are mutually perpendicular,


the magnitude of the velocity or speed is
simply the positive value of


- Direction of v is tangent
to the path at P

dt d / u =
( ) ( )
2 2
r r v + =
Acceleration
O Taking the time derivatives, for the instant
acceleration,


During the time t, a change r will not change
the direction u

although a change in will
cause u

to become u


For small angles, this vector has a magnitude =
1 and acts in the u
r
direction
O Therefore, u

= - u
r

u u u
u u u u u u u u v a



r r r r r
r r
+ + + + = =

O Where

- The term is called the
angular acceleration since it measures the
change made in the angular velocity during
an instant of time
- Use unit rad/s
2

u u
u
u
u u


r r a
r r a
a a
r
r r
2
2
+ =
=
+ = u u a
2 2
/ dt d u u =

O Since a
r
and a

are always perpendicular,


the magnitude of the acceleration is simply
the positive value of

Direction is determined from the vector
addition of its components
Acceleration is not tangent to the path
( ) ( )
2 2
2
2 u u u



r r r r a + + =
Cylindrical Coordinate
If the particle P moves along a space, then
its location may be specified by the three
cylindrical coordinates r, , z
z coordinate is similar to that used for
rectangular coordinates

Since the unit vector defining its direction,
u
z
, is constant, the time derivatives of this
vector are zero
Position, velocity, acceleration of the
particle can be written in cylindrical
coordinates as shown

z r
z r
z r p
z r r r r
z r r
z r
u u u a
u u u v
u u r

+ + + =
+ + =
+ =
u
u
u u u
u
) 2 ( ) (
2
1.7 Absolute
Dependent Analysis of
Two Particles
Motion of one particle will depend on the
corresponding motion of another particle
Dependency occur when particles are interconnected
by the inextensible cords which are wrapped around
pulleys
For example, the movement of block A downward
along the inclined plane will cause a corresponding
movement of block B up the other incline
Specify the locations of the blocks using position
coordinate s
A
and s
B
Note each of the coordinate axes is (1) referenced
from a fixed point (O) or fixed datum line, (2)
measured along each inclined plane in the direction
of motion of block A and block B and (3) has a
positive sense from C to A and D to B
If total cord length is l
T
, the position coordinate are
related by the equation

T B CD A
l s l s = + +
Here l
CD
is the length passing over arc CD
Taking time derivative of this expression,
realizing that l
CD
and l
T
remain constant,
while s
A
and s
B
measure the lengths of the
changing segments of the cord



The negative sign indicates that when block
A has a velocity downward in the direction of
position s
A
, it causes a corresponding
upward velocity of block B; B moving in the
negative s
B
direction
A B
B A
v v
dt
ds
dt
ds
= = + 0
Time differentiation of the velocities yields
the relation between accelerations
O a
B
= - a
A

1.8 Relative Motion
Analysis of Two
Particles
There are many cases where the path of the
motion for a particle is complicated, so that it
may be feasible to analyze the motions in
parts by using two or more frames of reference
O For example, motion of an particle located at
the tip of an airplane propeller while the
plane is in flight, is more easily described if
one observes first the motion of the airplane
from a fixed reference and then
superimposes (vectorially) the circular
motion of the particle measured from a
reference attached to the airplane

Position
Consider particle A and B, which moves
along the arbitrary paths aa and bb,
respectively
The absolute position of each particle r
A

and r
B
, is measured from the
common origin O of the
fixed x, y, z reference frame

Origin of the second frame of reference x, y
and z is attached to and moves with particle
A
Axes of this frame only permitted to
translate relative to fixed frame
Relative position of B with respect to A is
designated by a relative-position vector r
B/A
Using vector addition

A B A B /
r r r + =
Velocity
By time derivatives,



Here
refer to absolute velocities, since they are
observed from the fixed frame
Relative velocity is
observed from the translating frame

A B A B /
v v v + =
dt d dt d
A A B B
/ and / r v r v = =
dt d
A B A B
/
/ /
r v =
Since the x, y and z axes translate, the
components of r
B/A
will not change direction
and therefore time derivative o this vector
components will only have to account for the
change in the vector magnitude
Velocity of B is equal to the velocity of A
plus (vectorially) the relative velocity of B
relative to A as measured by the translating
observer fixed in the x, y and z reference

The time derivative yields a similar
relationship between the absolute and
relative accelerations of the particles A and B
O

Here a
B/A
is the acceleration of B as seen by
the observer located at A and translating with
the x, y and z reference frame

A B A B /
a a a + =