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LESSON

4
LECTURE
POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS PARTS
LIST & FUNCTION
SUB OBJECTIVE
At the end of this lesson the t!inee "ill #e !#le to$
%& De'onst!te !n (ndest!ndin) of Positi*e Dis+l!,e'ent P('+s- P!ts List !nd
F(n,tion&
%&. DISPLACEMENT PUMP
As defined in the lesson "l", that a displacement pump in which energy is periodically
added by application of force. To one or more movable boundaries, of any desired
number of enclosed fluid containing volumes resulting in a direct increase in pressure
up to the value required to more the fluid through valves or parts into the discharge
line. See Fig. 5!" for classification of displacement pumps.
/&. RECIPROCATIN0 PUMP
A reciprocating is a positive displacement pump which at constant speed, deliver
essentially the same capacity at any pressure within the capability of the driver and
the strength of the pump. Thus reciprocating pump is most useful in the field of high
pressure and low capacity. #n some application the constant delivery at varying
pressure is a definite advantage and act as a metering device.
/&% CLASSIFICATION
A reciprocating pump may be defined as a pump that operates using a bac$ and forth
straightline motion and frequently they driven by an air or steam reciprocation piston.
%otary driven reciprocating pumps are usually powered by electric motor and or by
internal combustion engines.
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Fi)& 41/& C(t!"!2 sho"in) the inten!l +!ts of e,i+o,!tin) +iston +('+s&
Fi)& 413& On the to+ is ! t2+e of +l(n)e +('+ to+ to #otto' is the ,onst(,tion
of ! +l(n)e +('+&
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-ost of the pump bodies and plungers are made of stainless steel or other
corrosionresistant alloys. ,sually, the clearance between the plunger and the pump
body is very small. #n many cases the plunger and the pump body are /A00*&
4ground or polished as a set or pair5 to form a closetolerance fit. This close fit
eliminates lea$age within the pump and helps to meter the fluid discharge more
accurately.
The plunger in this pumps is prevented from lea$ing fluid by several sets of
).*'%+( 4' shaped crosssection5 pac$ing. The pac$ing materials may be rubber,
neoprene, nylon Teflon, or other materials depending on the fluid being pumped.
(ormally ad6usting the length of the stro$e, through a calibrated connecting rod
ad6ustment controls the amount of fluid discharge.
3&. DIAP4RA0M PUMP
The reciprocating pumps used in the power and desal plants, are diaphragm pumps.
They are use for chemicals dosing in the systems.
STRUCTURE FUNCTION AND MATERIALS OF DIAP4RA0M PUMP
Fig. 11 is a simplified section drawing of diaphragm pump, one of the chemical
dosing pumps.
". An electric motor
3. A pair of couplings
!. 7orm which is connected to couplings
1. 7orm wheel assembly. This is shown in main cross section drawing
5. )am assembly. *8plained later
9. ()ran$ shaft
:. )ross head &iaphragm
;. )am 0iston )onnecting rod.
<. Function is same as e8plained in !." .3
"=. 2land pac$ing
"". 0lunger
"3. 0late
"!. .andle assembly
"1. 2land pac$ing
"5. )am .ead
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0ower is transmitted by an electric motor 4"5, which connects worm 4!5 to pair of
couplings 435.
7hen an electric motor is used to drive the pump, the worm transmits the power to
the worm wheel 415 and the ( cran$ shaft, via a slotted $ey way and $ey. The
(cran$ is attached eccentrically to the center of the shaft. )am 455 provide eccentric
motion to the connecting rod 4:5 plunger connected with connecting rod, provided
reciprocating motion and which pushed the oil lowered the diaphragm 4;5. +n the
other side of the diaphragm fluid pushed out through the discharge valve.
Fi)& 414& 5!6& Se,tion D!"in) of Di!+h!)'&
5#6& Vie" A1A&
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4&. STRO7E ADJUSTMENT T4ROU04 T4E N 1CRAN7
The principle of stepless stro$e ad6ustment 4from => to "==>5, with the pump
operating or idle, depends upon the upward and downward movement of the )ran$.
This movement changes the total value of the eccentricity of the cam and the )ran$
from => to "==>.
Figure 15 4a5 7hen the stro$e is =>, the ()ran$ is at the bottom.
4b5 7hen the stro$e is "==>, the ()ran$ is at the top.
Fi)& 418& Pin,i+le of the N1C!n9 !nd sto9e !d:(st'ent
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8&. FUNCTION OF REPLENIS4MENT C4AMBER
A replenishing chamber consists of an oil relief valve 43=5 and an Fig. 19 oil
compensating valve 4";5.
Fi)& 41;& Oil Flo" Di!)!' in the Di!+h!)' +('+
The oil relief valve actuates when the pressure in the displacement chamber is higher
than the specified value. 7hen the oil volume in the displacement chamber is greater, the
diaphragm touches the plate 4"15 prior to the completion of discharge stro$e, resulting in
an e8cessive pressure rise in the chamber.
An oil compensating valve actuates to provide the oil to the displacement chamber. 7hen
the plunger 4"!5 is on a suction stro$e, if the oll volume in the displacement chamber is
lower, the diaphragm touches the plate 4"15 prior to the completion of the suction stro$e,
producing a lower discharge flow rate and decreasing the pressure in the displacement
chamber. The negative pressure induces the entry of the oil in the oil compensating valve
to the displacement chamber, by the spring force created by the negative pressure.
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;&. MATERIAL
Following table shows the materials used in the main parts of the diaphragm pump.
T!#le 41%& M!tei!ls of '!in +!ts of ! di!+h!)' +('+&
<&. ROTAR= PUMPS
%otary pumps are positive displacement pumps in which the main pumping action is
caused by relative movement between the rotating and stationary elements of the
pumps distinguishes them from reciprocating positive displacement pumps. The
positive displacement nature of the pumping action of rotary pumps distinguishes
them from the general class of centrifugal pumps.
%otary pumps are useful in handling both fluids and liquids, where fluid is a general
term that includes, gases, vapors, and mi8tures thereof, and sometimes solids in
suspension, and where liquid is a more specific term that is limited to true liquids
which are relatively incompressible and relatively free of gases, vapors, and solids.
See Fig. 1: for various type of rotary pump.
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Fi)& 41< so'e +ositi*e dis+l!,e'ent +('+s
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<&/ S4AFT AND COUPLIN0
-ost rotary pumps have drive shaft which accept drive torque from a power source.
The ma6ority of rotary pumps are mechanically coupled to the driving power source
with couplings of various type.
>&. ROTAR= E?TERNAL 0EAR PUMP
.eavyduty geartype pumps are able to withstand rugged operating conditions, are
simple in construction, and are economical in cost and maintenance 4Fig. 1;5. .igh
volumetric efficiency of gear type pumps depends on maintaining complete sealing of
all gear tooth contact surfaces. All gear surfaces are precision finished, and each pair
is matched carefully.
2eartype pumps are made with fewer wor$ing parts than many other types of
pumps. )astings are made of a special alloy iron, are precision machined, and are
capable of resisting bursting under severe shoc$ loading.
Fi)& 41> C(t!"!2 *ie" sho"in) +!ts of ! sin)le fl(id1+o"e +('+
*nd covers for fluid power pumps are usually specified and coded. These details are
important in specifying and ordering parts. The shaftend cover may be furnished in
either flange or pad mounting, and the portend cover may be provided either with no
porting or with end porting arrangements.
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The drive shafts are also specified and ordered by code number. They may be either
splined or straight$eyed shafts.
A bearing carrier is used on tandem pumps and motors. #t is positioned between
ad6acent pumps or motors. The bearing carrier is also available with tapered thread,
SA* thread and straightthread fittings, and either with no porting or with left and?or
right hand side porting.
Some rotary geartype pumps for generalpurpose applications use a pac$ed bo8 for
the shaft seal. The pac$ing gland should be ad6usted to permit slight seepage for
best performance. A mechanical uses less power than the pac$ed bo8, has longer
service life under proper conditions, and does not require ad6ustment. Special
mechanical seals, such as 'iton 41===F5, and Teflon 45==+F and corrosion
resistant5, can be supplied for special conditions.
#n the rotary pump, a steam chest located between the casing and the outboard
bearing effectively transfers heat to both the pump and the pac$ing. #t can be used
with hot water, steam, and heat transfer oil@ or it can be used as a cooling chamber.
The steam chest is ideal for transferring thic$, viscous liquids, such as asphalt mi8es,
creosote, refined sugars, corn starch, etc.
An ad6ustable relief valve 1< in the pump faceplate eliminates outside piping and
protects the pump from e8cessive outlet line pressure@ it also permits the operator to
close the discharge line without stopping the pump, under standard operating
conditions. 'arious spring siAes are available to provide ad6ustments over the full
operating range of the pump from != to "== psi.
As aforementioned, the rotary geartype pumps are more simple in design, and they
have fewer wor$ing parts than the rotary vanetype and pistontype pumps. The
names of the various parts of a typical geartype pump can be learned from the
diagram and parts list in Fig. 1"=.
Fig. 1<. An ad6ustable relief valve protects the rotary geartype pump from e8cessive
outlet line pressure
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Fi)& 41%. E@ten!l & inten!l )e! +('+
Fi)& 41%%& Di!)!' !nd +!ts list fo ! )e! t2+e +('+
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A&. SCREB PUMPS
Screw pumps are a special type of rotary positive displacement pump in which the flow
through the pumping elements is truly a8ial. The liquid is carried between screw threads on
one or more rotors and is displaced a8ially as the screws rotate and mesh. #n all other rotary
pumps the liquid is forced to travel circumferentially, thus giving the screw pump with its
unique a8ial flow pattern and low internal velocities a number of advantages in many
applications where liquid agitation or churning is ob6ectionable.
Fi) 41%/& 1 Di!)!'s of s,e" !nd )e! ele'ents- sho"in) 5!6 !@i!l !nd 5#6
,i,('feenti!l
Fi)& 41%3& Sin)le1oto
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%.&. CONSTRUCTION
Basic types as indicated in the introduction, there are three ma6or types of screw
pumpsC
". Singlerotor
3. -ultiplerotor timed
!. -ultiplerotor untimed
The second and third types are available in two basic arrangements singleend and
doubleend. The doubleend construction is probably the best$nown version as it
was by far the most widely used f or many years because of its relative simplicity and
compactness of design.
Fi) 41%4 T2+es of s,e" +('+s
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%%&. ADVANTA0ES & DISADVANTA0ES OF A SCREB PUMP
ADVANTA0ES
7ide range of flows and pressures
7ide range of liquids and viscosities
.igh speed capability, allowing freedom of driver selection
/ow internal velocities
Selfpriming, with good suction characteristics
.igh tolerance for entrained air and other gases
-inimum churning of foaming
/ow mechanical vibration, pulsationfreeflow, and quiet operation
%ugged, compact design easy to install and maintain.
.igh tolerance to contamination in comparison with other rotary pumps
DISADVANTA0ES
%elatively high cost because of close tolerances and running clearances
0erformance characteristics sensitive to viscosity change
.igh pressure capability requires long pumping elements
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