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HI L IGAYNON REFERENCE GRAMMAR

by
Elmer P. Wol fenden
t ini ve rs i t y of H awai i Pr e s s
Honolulu 1 971
The work
report ed he re i n was pe rforme d pur s ua
nt
to a c ontrac t wi th t he Pe ac e Corp s , Was hington , D . C .
2 0 5 2 5 . The
opi ni ons expr e s s ed
he re i n are thos
e o f the
author and
s hould not b e c ons trued as repr e s enti ng
the
opi ni ons or poli c i e s o f any agenc
y o f the Uni t ed
Sta
t e s
government .
Li brary o f Congr e s s Cat alog Card Numbe r
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À
I S BN 0 - 870 2 2 -867- 6
Copyr i ght � 1 971 by Uni ve rs ity o f Hawa i i Pre s s
All ri ght s r e s erve d
Manufact ured i n the Uni ted S t at e s o f Amer i c a
CONTENTS
I NTRODUCTI ON
PART I . THE S OUND SYS TEM
1 . Phonology . . Þ
2 . Morphophonemi c s .
PART I I . THE S TRUCTURE OF WORDS
3 . Part i c l e s .
4 . B a s e s . 4
5 . Des c ri p� i ve s
6 . Verb s .
PART I I I . THE STRUC TURE OF WORD STRI NGS
7. Phras e s t ruc ture
8 . C l au s e s t ructure
1
7
1 0
3 1
3 9
47
8 2
9 0
1 0 6
1 57
1 6 1
2 1 1
I NTRODUC TI ON
H i l i g aynon i s s poken i n the c entral Phi l ippi ne s on the
i s l ands of Panay , Negros and Romblon and is the l ingua
fr anc a for much of the we s t e rn Vi s ayas . H i l i gaynon i s an
Aus t rone s i an l anguage and is c lo s e ly re l at e d to Cebuano ,
the maj or tr ade l anguage o f c entral and s outhern
Phi l i ppi ne s , and Tagalo g , the language o f Mani l a , the
c e nt r al plain o f Luz on , and the b as i s o f the Fi li pi no
nati onal l anguag e .
Thi s grammar i s b a s e d on the s p e e ch us e d i n I l o i l o City
on the i s land of Panay . The dat a us e d we re gathe re d from
Mi s s e s Coraz on Aldalde and C e c i l e Motus , H i l i g aynon
s p e ake rs , t o whom I am indeb t e d for the i r pat i e nc e and
unt i r i ng e ffort s , and from the t ext s o f s t or i e s t aken
from c opi es o f H i l i g aynon , a popular magaz i ne publ i s he d
i n that language i n I lo i l o Ci ty .
re fe rre d t o as I l ongo .
The language i s al s o
The purpo s e o f thi s manus c ript i s t o pr e s ent i n out l i ne
form a de s c ript i o n o f the grammat i c al s t ruc ture o f
H i l i g aynon wi t h exampl e s t o i llus t rate the parti cular
c ons t ruc t i o ns foun d . The de s c ri pt i on is not exhaus t ive .
Furt her work wi ll have to b e done i n the area o f word
format i o n , for example , to a c c ount for many compl e x
2
affixat i ons only b r i e fly ment i one d he re o r not di s cu s s e d
at all . Nei ther has any att empt be e n made t o de s c ri be
the l e xi c al fe atures of t he word roots .
The t e rm gr ammar here re fe rs to the way words are or-
gani z e d i nto s ent enc e s . Wor ds thems elves c an s omet ime s
b e broken down into s everal part s , e . g . , t h e word
uns e l fi s hne s s has a root s el f , and affi xes un- , - i s h ,
and ne s s . Roots are the mi nimal forms o f words . A
format i o n i s a word whi ch c on s i s t s o f a root wi th one o r
more affi xes or parts . Words , the n , c ons i s t o f roots
with or without affixat i o n . Compound words c ontai n more
than one root . Wor ds groupe d t ogether i n s p e c i f i abl e
ways are c ons truct i ons . A phra s e i s a c ons t ruct i on , a
c laus e i s a c ons truct i on , a s ent e nc e i s a c ons truc t i on .
It i s als o ne c e s s ary to re c o gni z e that words do not
func t i o n al i ke i n grammat i c al c o ns t ruc t i ons , whi ch i s
anothe r way o f s ayi ng that t he re are a vari e ty o f
grammat i c al funct i ons . It i s us ual t o find that s ome
grammat i c al po s i t i ons c an be fi lle d by a wi de vari e t y
o f words whi l e ot he r po s it ions ar e s t r i ct ly limi t e d t o
only o n e or two words . The lat t e r us ually are the
marke rs o f the c ons t ruct i on whi l e the fo rme r are the
elements be i ng j o i ne d i n the c ons t ruct ion . For exampl e ,
3
t he predi c at e func t i o n i n any l anguage c an b e f i l l e d by
any one of a long l i s t o f words ; the s pe ake r has to cho o s e
o n e that e xpre s s e s h i s thought s a t t h e moment . Noun
po s s e s s i on i n Engl i s h , on the other hand , i s s i gnal e d by
a s t r i c t ly l i mi t e d s et o f marke r s .
The method employed i n thi s de s c ri pt i o n has b e e n to
c onc entrate the maj or e ffort on des �ri bi ng the c on-
s t ruc t i o ns reveal e d by the markers . Le s s e ffort has
gone i nt o the t as k of deli mi t i ng the s et s o f i t ems j o i ne d
i n t he c ons t ruc t i ons . The de li mi t i ng o f s uch s e t s i s
c ert ai nly an i mport ant unde rt aki ng but als o one whi ch
wi ll re qui re ext ended s t udy t ime s i nc e s uch s et s fre-
quent ly numb er thous ands of words pe r s et . Obvi ous ly ,
that ki nd o f s t udy wi ll have t o b e done over a pe ri o d o f
ye ars . I t i s t o b e hoped that i t wi ll not b e negle c t e d
b e c aus e o f the magni tude o f t he t a s k .
Thi s pre s e nt at i o n c omme nc e s wi th the de s c r i pt i o n o f the
s ound s ys t e m, then proc eeds t o a de s c ri pt i on o f word
format i on and fi nally pre s ents an analy s i s of the
di fferent c ons t ruc t i ons found i n the s ynt ax . The
i llus t r at i ons are wr i t t e n in s emi -phonet i c orthography
i� the s e ct i o n on Phono logy , but the us ual s pe l l i ng o f
H i l i g aynon as prac t i c e d by t he nat i ve s peake rs i s us e d
4
i n the remai nder o f the i l lus t r at i ons .
A t ext e nt i t l e d H i l i g aynon for Be gi nners , by C e c i le
Motus , has be e n prepared for i nt e ns i ve s tudy by pri -
mar i ly Pe ac e Corps Volunt e e r s . Thi s Re fe re nc e Grammar
i s i nt ende d to as s i s t s uch s t udi e s . I t i s i ndepe�dent
of the t e xt , however , and pres ent s the s t ruc tures o f
the l anguage a s analy z e d for t h e r e fe renc e grammar
rathe r than as an i nte grat e d d i s c us s i on c orrelat e d
wi t h t he l e s s o n mat e r i al s o f the forme r . Some o f the
te rmi nology , there fore, and c e rt ai n part s of the analy s i s
pre s e nt e d he re wi ll not b e the s ame a s that i n t he
t e ac hi ng t ext .
Chart I - A.
Chart I - B .
Chart I I .
Chart I I I .
Chart IV .
Chart Y.
Chart V I .
Chart VI I .
Chart VI I I .
Chart I X .
CHARTS
The Vowe ls of H i l i g aynon
The C ons onant s o f H i li gaynon
Introduc e rs of the D e fi ni t e Phras e
I ntroduc e rs o f Att r ibut i ve Phras e s
Introducers o f Lo c at i ve Phr a s e s
Ve rb As pe c t Affixes
S ummary Chart o f H i l i g aynon Foc us , Mode ,
and As pe c t Affi xes
Sub s t i t ut e s for Pe rs onal Noun Phr a s e s
T he Demons t r at i ve Sub s t it ut e s f o r non­
Pe rs onal Noun Phra s e s
S i t uat i onal R o l e s o f t h e Fo cus Complement
PART I . THE S OUND SYSTEM
1 . Phonology
1 . 1 . S egmental s ounds
1 . 1 1 . Vowels
1 . 11 . 1 . The vowel i
1 . 1 1 . 2 . The vowel u
1 . 11 . 3 . The vowel a
1 . 12 . Cons onant s
1 . 12 . 1 . The s t ops
1 . 1 2 . 11 . Bi l ab i al s t ops
1 . 1 2 . 12 . De nt al s t op s
1 . 12 . 1 3 . Velar s t ops
1 . 1 2 . 1 4 . Glott al s t op
1 . 1 2 . 2 . The fri c at i ve s
1 . 1 2 . 21 . Lab i o- dent als
1 . 1 2 . 22 . Alveolar and glot t al fri c at i ve s
1 . 12 . 2 3 . Affri c at e s
1 . 12 . 3 . Nas als
1 . 1 2 . 4 . L i qui ds
1 . 1 2 . 5 . Semi vowels
1 . 2 . Ac c e nt and i nt onat i on
1 . 3 . Syllabl e - i ni t i al c ons onant clus t e r s
1 . 3 1 . Clus t e r s wi th l i qui ds as s e c ond membe rs
8
1 . 3 1 . 1 .
1 . 31 . 2 .
1 . 3 1 . 3 .
1 . 3 1 . 4 .
1 . 3 1 . 5 .
1 . 3 1 . 6 .
1 . 3 1 . 7 .
1 . 31 . 8 .
1 . 31 . 9 .
1 . 3 2 .
1 . 3 2 . 1 .
1 . 3 2 . 2 .
1 . 3 2 . 3 .
1 . 3 2 . 4 .
1 . 3 2 . 5 .
1 . 3 2 . 6 .
1 . 3 2 . 7 .
1 . 3 2 . 8 .
1 . 4 .
2 .
2 . 1 .
2 . 11 .
2 . 12 .
p r
p l
b r
bl
t r
dr
kr
kl
gr
Clus t e r s wi th s emi vowe l s as s e c ond membe r s
pw
bw
kw
gw
by
dy
s y
ly
Phonolog i c al s egment s and the orthography
Morphophonemi c s
S t r e s s s h i ft
Str e s s s hi ft to the r i ght
Stre s s s h i ft to t he l e ft
2 . 2 .
2 . 3 .
2 . 4 .
2 . 41 .
2 . 4 2 .
2 . 5 .
2 . 5 1.
2 . 5 2 .
2 . 5 3 .
2 . 5 4 .
2 . 5 5 .
2 . 5 6 .
Vowel l o s s
Metathe s i s
As s imi lati on
As s imi l at i o n o f nas als
Nas al a s s imi l at i on and l o s s
Cons onant replac ement
d
r
1
g
y
w
9
1 . PHONOLO GY .
H i l i gaynon has twenty- five s i gni f i c a nt s ounds plus a c c ent .
The s e ar e fi ve vowels and twe nty c ons onant s . Vowe l s
fi ll the nucleus s lot o f s yllab l e s , c o ns onant s f i l l t he
margi n s lot s . Ac c ented words have one pri mary s t re s s .
Some words have no s t r e s s o f t he i r own but rather " lean"
on words whi ch do . S t re s s l e s s words are re ferred t o
a s c l i t i c s or part i c l e s . A clus t er o f a s t r e s s e d word
t ogether with one or mor e part i c l e s is a s t r e s s group .
A word i s compo s e d o f s yllab l e s . I n H i l i gaynon , s yllab l e s
are e i t he r open or c los e d . An open s yllabl e h as no fi nal
c ons onant . A c lo s e d s yllabl e has a fi nal c ons onant .
I n the orthography us e d by the H i l i gaynon s p e akers, word­
i ni t i al glott al s t o p is not symb ol i z e d . That gives words
the appearance o f b e i n g vowel- i ni t i al , e . g . , anum
' s i x ' , ugat ' ve i n ' , i du ' ' do g ' . The s e words are pro-
nounc e d wi th an i ni t i al glottal s t op i n i s ol at i on .
( i du ' als o has a fi nal glottal . )
The s tudy o f the phonology o f a l anguage i s c onc e rned
wi th the way utt eranc e s i n the language are pronounc e d .
The r e s ults o f s uc h a s tudy gi ve the s i gni fi c ant s ounds
o f.the language . By " s i gn i f i c ant s ounds " is me ant the
b as i c i nvent ory o f s ounds whi ch rema i n when t he
10
PHONEMI C CHARTS
Vowel s : i u
e 0
a
Chart I - A.
T h e Vowe ls o f H i l i gaynon
Cons onant s : p t k q
b d g
c
J
f s h
v
m n
1
r
w y
S t r es s : I
æ
I
Chart I - B .
The Cons onant s o f H i l i g aynon
11
1 2
variat i o ns and changes o f form
have b e en ac c ount e d for i n
t he analy s i s . They are the i rre duc i bl e minimum s et o f
s ounds whi ch mus t b e symb o l i z e d i n the orthography i n
order to properly r e a d and unde rs tand t h e l anguage .
A thorough phonolog i c al de s cri pt i o n wi l l als o , however ,
de s c ri be the var i at i ons o f the s ounds and when and
whe re to make them in order to be properly unde rs t o o d
whe n s pe aki ng , o r i n o rde r t o hear wi t h unde r s t anding .
1 . 1 . S egment al s ounds . The s egment abl e s ounds , vowel s
and cons onant s , are de s c ri be d i n thi s s e c t i on . Ac c ent
is de alt w{th in a lat e r s e c t i o n s i n c e i t is not con­
s i de re d a s ound s e gmentabl e out o f a s t ri ng of s pe e c h
s ounds .
s ound .
I t i s rathe r a s ound s upe ri mp o s e d on anot her
1 . 11 . Vowel s . The five vowels of H i l i gaynon are a , e ,
i , o , and u . The two vowel s e and o o c cur only i n loan
words from Spani s h or Engli s h . Even s o the vowels o f
mo s t l oan wor ds are rap i dly b e i ng a s s imi l at e d t o the
pronunc i at i o n o f nat i ve H i l i gaynon s ounds . Thi s de-
scription ,
t he re fore , tre ats e wi th the de s c ri pt i o n of i
and o wi th u .
1 . 11 . 1 .
The vowel i i s a hi gh front vowel havi ng a tens e
1 3
var i ant i n open s yllab l e s and a lax vari ant i n c l o s e d
s yllabl e s . T h e t e n s e vari ant i s s imi l ar to the vowel
s ound i n the Engl i s h words " s e e , b e , he " . Exampl e s from
Hi l i g aynon are the following :
qi num
1
( qi . num)
2
' dr i nk '
qi duq ( qi . du q )
b i l i ( bi . l i )
' dog '
' c o s t '
s unugi ( s u . nu . gi ) ' burn '
b i lug ( b i . lug ) ' pi e c e '
buri ( b u . ri ) ' buri palm 1
The l ax vari ant whi c h appe ars i n c l o s e d s yllabl e s
approac hes the s ound o f the Engl i s h vowel i n the words
" s it , hi t , fit , " but is a l i t t l e hi ghe r . I t i s s l i ghtly
lower than t he H i l i gaynon i . I t i s not gi ve n a s eparate
symb o l , howeve r , s i nc e i t is only a vari ant pronun c i at i on
o f the i vowe l . Exampl e s o f the l ax vari ant are the
followi ng :
qas i n ( qa . s i n ) ' s alt '
qi s wag ( qi s . wag ) _•t o move '
Iawi t
3
( I a . wi t ) ' pi c k fruit '
par i q ( p a . r i q ) ' pr i e s t '
qi t lug ( qi t . lug ) ' egg '
s ug i d ( s u . gi d ) ' t e ll '
1
q repres ent s t he gl ott al s t op i n thi s di s cus s i on o f
pho nology . Els ewhere i n t he grammar glott al s t op i s
wri t t e n as i n the c urrent H i l i gaynon s p e ll i ng .
2
syllabl e divi s i on i s s hown by the pe ri ods i nt e rnal i n
t h e word .
3
1 i s u s e d t o re pre s ent the velar nas al i n t hi s di s cus s i on .
Thi s s ound i s repre s e nt e d by ng i n the H i l i g aynon s pe ll­
ing and e ls ewhe re i n this gr ammar .
14
The vowel e approac hes the Eng l i s h vowel whi ch i s the
nuc leus o f the fol lowi ng words " s ay , hay , way , " and it
c ont r as t s with i , with whi ch i t us ually var i e s i n the
loan words , i n the followi ng pai r :
par i q ( p a . ri q ) ' pr i e s t ' pareq ( p a . r e q ) ' c ompadre
( godfathe r ) 1
I n all other pai rs the two vowels o c cur i n alt ernat e
pronun c i at i ons o f a gi ve n word .
kalye or kalyi
t urpe or turpi
kafe or kafi
' s t reet '
1 s t up i d '
' c o ffe e '
1 . 1 1 . 2 . The vowel u i s a h i gh bac k vowel whi ch al s o has
var i ant s whi ch ar e t e n s e i n open s yllab l e s and l ax i n
c l o s e d s yllabl e s . They are both s ymbo l i z e d he re by the
one le t t e r : u . The t e n s e vari ant o c c urri ng i n open
s yllabl e s i s pronounc e d l i ke t he vowe l s ound o f the
Eng l i s h words " s oup , s t oop , frui t . " Exampl e s from
H i l i g aynon are the followi ng :
qut al ( qu . t al) ) ' debt '
qugat ( qu . gat ) 1 ve i n '
s unug ( s u . nug ) ' t o burn '
qup a ( qu . pa )
qul il ( qu . lil)
hunaq ( hu . naw )
' ri c e hus k '
' charc oal '
' thought '
The lax vari ant i s s imi l ar to the Engl i s h vowel s ound i n
1 5
t h e words "aoot (whi c h contras t s w i t h s ui t ) , full , foot " .
The H i l i g aynon s ound i s s l i ght ly h i ghe r . Example s are
the followi ng :
qugs ad ( qug . s a d ) ' full moon '
qabu ( qa . b u) ' as he s '
qus qus ( qus . qus ) ' regre s s ,
s l i de down '
haqum ( ha . qum) ' re ady '
The vowel o i s a mi d bac k vowel, li ke Engl i s h " oh , s o ,
t o e . " Loan words wi th o are a b i t more c ommon than tho s e
wi th e . S everal do not appear t o fluctuat e .
r o s a ( ro . s a ) ' ro se , p i nk '
qob i s po ( qo . b i s . po ) ' b i s hop '
lolo ( lo . l o ) 1 grandfather 1
qoras ( qo . ras ) 1 hour ,
t ime '
Mos t loan words c ontai ni ng o fluctuat e fre e ly wi th u :
goma or guma ' rubb e r '
qobrah or qubrah ' work '
qokt obr e or quktubre ' O c t ob e r '
qot s o or qut s u ' e i ght '
The vowel u c o nt r as t s wi th the vowel i i n the followi ng
words :
quswag ( qus . wag ) ' advanc e '
tuqun ( tu . qun ) ' s t udy ,
l e arn '
tubu ( tu . bu) ' pi pe '
qi s wag ( qi s . wag ) ' t o move
over '
t i qun ( t i . qun ) ' moment ,
mi nut e '
t ub i q ( t u . b i q ) ' wat e r '
16
1 . 11 . 3 . The vowel a i s a low cent ral vowel as in the
pronunc i at i on of t he Engl i s h words : " c ot , hot , rah , rot . "
Wh i le a i s a true low vowe l in open s yllab l e s , i n c l o s e d
s yllab l e s i t i s r ai s e d s l i ght ly . Exampl e s o f a i n
H i l i g aynon a r e t h e following words :
qamay ( qa . may ) ' father ' qapaq ( qa . paq ) ' mut e , dumb '
damgu ( dam. gu ) ' dr e am ' b ag aq ( ba . gaq ) ' lung '
qut al ( qu . t al) ' debt ' bug al ( bu . gal ) ' pr i de '
The vowel a i s i n c ontras t wi th both i and u as i s s e en
by the followi ng c ont r as t i ng pai r s :
qapaq ( qa . paq ) ' mut e ,
dumb '
s unuga ( s u . nu . ga ) ' burn
( i t ) I
s i l i ( s i . l i ) ' ( ki nd o f
fi s h ) '
b as aq ( b a . s a q ) ' wet '
qamu ( qa . mu ) ' that ' s i t '
qapan ( qa . p an ) ' gras s ­
hoppe r '
dahun ( da . hun ) ' le a f '
b aga ( ba . ga ) ' embe rs '
b alas ( b a . las ) ' s and '
qas a ( qa . s a ) ' hope '
qini ( qi . ni ) ' th i s '
qupa ( qu . pa ) ' ri c e hus k '
s unugi ( s u . nu . gi ) ' b urn
( at ) '
s i l a ( s i . l a ) ' they '
b as i q ( b a . s i q ) ' probably '
qimu ( qi . mu )
' your ( s g ) '
qapi n ( qa . pi n ) ' t o defen d '
dihun ( di . hun ) ' t o b e gin 1
bugaq ( bu . gaq ) ' lime s t one '
bulus ( bu . lus ) ' borrow '
qas u ( qa . s u ) ' s moke '
qi naq ( qi . naq ) ' that '
17
yari (ya . ri} ' thi s (ne ar}' yaraq (ya . raq ) ' that (ne ar ) '
diri (di . r i} ' t o t hi s ' di raq (di . raq ) ' t o that '
1 . 1 2 . Cons onant s . The re are twenty d i f ferent d i s t i nc t i ve
c ons onant al s ounds i n H i l i gaynon . Four of the s e, f , v,
c, _¸ app e ar only in b orrowed words .
1 . 12 . 1 . St ops . O f t he s even s t ops four are vo i c e l e s s
and three are vo i c e d .
1 . 12 . 11 . There ar e two b i l abi al s t ops , p and b . p i s
vo i c e l e s s and unas p i rat e d exc ept whe n i t o c curs a s the
be g i nni ng margi n o f a s t re s s e d s yl labl e . b i s vo i c e d
and unas pi rat e d . T h e two s ounds c ontras t i n the
followi ng words :
/ p/ pa ' yet, s t i ll '
put u ' nat ive r i c e c ake '
palay ' unhus ke d r i c e '
gupak ' c rush, de s t roy '
t apuk ' ea s i ly t orn '
t akup ' c ove r '
s ap s ap ' (ki nd o f fi s h ) '
/b / b a ' expres s . o f di s -
butu ' vot e '
b al ay ' hous e '
b e li e f '
gub ak ' has t e n maturat i on '
t abuk ' t o c ros s '
t akub ' kn i fe s he ath '
s ab s ab ' l ap up (by
animal ) '
1 . 1 2 . 1 2 . There ar e two dental s t ops , t and d . T o form
the H i l i gaynon t and d the t o ngue b lo c ks the air s t r e am
1 8
at t h e b ac k o f the uppe r front t e eth . Engl i s h t and d
are forme d at t he gum r i dge rather than at t he t eeth
thems elve s .
The vo i c el e s s memb e r o f the pai r i s �. the vo i c e d i s
d . �i s us ually unas pi rat e d . S l i ght as pi rati on may
s omet imes be he ard , howeve r , when it o c c urs as the fi rs t
s ound o f a s t r e s s ed s yllabl e . The two s ounds are c on­
t r as t e d in the following words :
/ t / t akup ' c over '
gukat ' rans om '
p ani t ' s ki n '
t apuk ' e as i ly t orn '
/ d/ dakup
qukad
pan i d
t abuk
' t o c at c h '
' di g i nt o '
' pi e c e s '
' t o c ro s s '
1 . 12 . 1 3 . Th ere are two ve lar s t op s , �and £· k i s the
vo i ce l e s s membe r , and £ is the vo i c e d membe r . k may
o c cur wi th l i ght as pi rat i on when be g i nni ng s t re s s e d
s yllab l e s . £i s never as p i rat e d . The H i l i gaynon velar
s t op s are made farther bac k i n the mouth than the Engli s h
velar s t ops exc ept when they pre c e de front vowe ls . The
followi ng p ai r s o f words s how the c ont ras t in the two
s ounds :
/ k/ kamu ' your ( pl ) '
kab ay ' ho pe fully '
abukadu ' avoc ado '
/ g / gamu ' me s s y , troubl e '
gab ay ' float wi th '
abug
adu ' lawyer '
19
b aka ' c ow ' bag a ' emb e rs '
maka- ' ab il ity ' affi x mag a- ' c ont i nuat i ve a c t i o n '
affix
tuluk ' look , s t are ' tulug ' s l e ep '
li bak ' go s s i p , b ac kb i t e ' Hb ag ' o f f key , flat '
1 . 12 . 14 . The s ound l abe l e d " glot t al s t op " i s not a
s i gn i fi cant s ound i n Eng l i s h ; i t i s i n H i l i g aynon . The
glottal s t op is made by c l o s i ng off the air s t r e am at the
vo i c e box , or glott i s . I n word- i ni t ial po s i t i o n i t i s
not symboli z e d i n writ t e n H i l i gaynon . I n H i l i gaynon
orthography the glottal s t op is symboli z e d i n vari ous
ways or not at al l . I t appe ar s that the pr e s ent orth-
ography was devi s e d duri ng the Span i s h peri o d and no
symb o l i z at i on for glott al s t op appears in Spani s h , thus
no c on s i s t ent symbol i z at i on was avai l abl e for that
H i l i g aynon s ound . I t wi ll b e symboli z ed here only for
illus t r at i ve purpo s es . The followi ng pai rs c ont ras t the
glot t al s t op wi th its abs enc e :
' lungs '
b aokuq ' b ench '
b at aq ' chi l d '
tubuq ' growth '
' emb ers '
bata ' bathrob e '
tubu ' s ugarc ane '
Thi s next group o f word pai rs c ont ras t the glot t al s t op
wi th h s i nc e i t i s s omet ime s c onfus e d wi th that s ound :
2 0
/ q / bugqat ·�e avy '
qawaq ' s pac e '
/ h/ bughat ' re lap s e, s i ck
agai n '
hawaq ' gi ve away '
quna ' alre ady exi s t i ng ' hunaq ' thought '
qilu ' orphan ' hflu ' thre ad '
The glot t al s t op i s s omet i me s c o nfus e d wi th

· The
fol lowi ng pai rs of words c ontras t i t wi th

:
/ k/ kadlaw ' laugh ' / q/ qadlaw 1 s un , day '
tuluk ' s t are, look ' t uluq ' dri p '
gub ak ' ha s t e n matura- gub aq ' de s t roy '
t i on '
kamu ' you ( pl
) ' qamu ' that ' s i t '
kamut ' h and ' q amut ' c ont ri but i on '
1 . 12 . 2 . F r i c at i ve s . Fri c at i ve s are s o named b e c aus e
they are forme d by allowi ng the ai r s t r e am t o pas s
through the mouth vi a s ome con s t r i c t ed or narrowed open-
i ng . The ai r s t r e am produc e s fri c t i on " no i s e " as it
exi t s through the s e openi ngs , thus t he name " fr i c at i ve " .
The re are four H i l i g aynon fri c at i ve s and two affr i c at e s ,
a re lat e d s ound type c ompo s ed o f a s t op plus a fri c at i v e .
1 . 12 . 21. The l abi o - dental fri c at i ve s have both b e e n i n-
tro duc e d i nto H i l i gaynon from lo an words : f i s voi c e le s s
and
� i s voi c e d . f i s i n t h e pro c e s s o f as s imi l at i on t o
21
Hiligaynon �· and � t o �
·
As a r e s ult the re is fluctuation
b etween f and�· and b etween � and b . The following words
illus t r at e the fricative s £ and v:
franka ( fr a'. ka) ' frank ' Vic tor ( vik . t o r ) ' Vict or '
kafe ( ka . fe ) ' c o f fe e ' D avid ( da . vid ) ' David '
Filipinas ( fi . li . pi . nas ) ' Philippine s '
1 . 12 . 2 2 . A voic e le s s fric ative �is produc e d above t he
gum ridge b ack b ehind t he uppe r front t e eth . h is a
voic e l e s s glottal fric ative and is s ometime s c onfu s e d
with s . The following pairs o f words c ontras t the two
s ounds :
/h/ b ahaq ( b a . haq ) ' fl oo d ' I s / bas aq ( b a . s aq ) ' we t '
bas o ( ba . s o ) ' gl as s ' b ahoq ( ba . hoq ) ' odor '
las o ( la . s o ) ' ribbo n ' l aho ( l a . ho ) ' was h c lothe s
without pre - s o aking '
1 . 12 . 2 3 . There are two affric at e s , one voic e l e s s , �. and
one voic e d, J. I n current Hiligaynon orthography c is
frequent ly writ t e n �and . is writ t e n �
·
The s e s ounds
only appear in l o an words . The foll owing p airs o f words
illus t r at e their oc curre nc e but do not s how any minimal
cont r as t s sinc e the numbe r of loan words is limit ed .
2 2
I c I
caca ( ca . c a) ' chacha
( danc e ) '
I j I j aj ' judge '
cans a ( t s ans a) ' chanc e ' j as 'jaz z '
ca ( or t sa ) 't ea ' jo 'Jo e '
l e cun ( l e . c un ) ' roas t pig ' jiyp 'jeep '
( or lit s o n )
1 . 1 2 . 3 . Nasal s . Nasal c ons onant s ar e pro duc e d with air
through the nasal pas sage ins t ead o f through the mouth .
There are three nasal s in Hiligaynon : �¡ �¡ and �· m is
a bilabial s ound ; �is a dental , and� is the velar nasal
and is pronounc e d like.! o f " s ing" . I n the following
pairs , the s e three s ounds are c o nt ras t e d . Not e that
� is als o c ontras t e d with £with which it is s ometimes
c onfus e d .
lml manu ' right ( not l e ft ) ' I n I nanuq 'what ? 1
quma ' fie l d ' quna 'to pre c e de '
ra- 's tative ' affix na- 'b e gun action '
( not b egun action )
qamu 'that ' s it ' qanu 'what? '
I n I na 'yet , s til l ' I
o
l
]a ' ( att ributive
linker ) 1
bulan 'moon , month ' bula
o
' c o c k fight '
nus nus ' s c rub '
]
uS]DS ' whine '
qunud ' fl e s h ' huQud 've ry much s o '
I rI mara ' plural ( o f noun) '
rawa ' wonder, marve l '
duluf ' on the way,
trave l '
/Q/ b araq ' jar, vas e '
mara I ( plur aliz e r ) I
l araw ' fly '
/g/
2 3
mag a - ' continuative
action ' a ffix
gawa ' look o ut
window '
tilug ' s l e ep '
ma rga I mangO I
l argaw ' vinegar '
1 . 1 2 . 4 . Liquids . There are two s ounds c al l e d " liquids " ,
t he 1 and t he r.
m &
For l the tongue is pre s s ed flat
agains t the alveolum wit h the tip jus t b ehind the uppe r
front t eeth . The _ is a flap, which s ometimes s ounds
like a c l e ar English _ when it o c curs initially in name s
or like t t in " Betty " . The two s ounds are c ontras t e d
in t he pairs o f words be l ow, and a l s o with d s in c e the re
is fr e quent c hange betwe e n the s e s ounds in word forma-
tion .
/1/ pal a ' s hove l ' /r/ par a ' for '
lima ' five ' r 1ma ' bre adfruit '
lintaq ' le e ch ' re nt a ' r ent '
dilaq ' t ongue ' diraq ' the re '
/1/ l agaq ' boil ' /d/ dagat 1 s e a 1
q1 lu ' o rphan ' qiduq I dog I
t akul ' loos e, flopping t akid 1 s hut t e r 1
s hoe s '
24
l ahun ' s o ft mud at dalhun ' l e ad '
r ivers i de .
I
/ d / b alud ' o c ean wave ' / r / b alur ' valor '
dut aq ' e arth ' rut a ' route '
qada ' gi ve away ' qara ' the re '
1 . 1 2 . 5 . S emi vowe l s . There are two s emi vowe l s . w i s a
non- s yllab i c bac k rounded vo c o i d whi ch appears i n con-
s onant po s i t i ons in s yllab le s .

i s a non-s yllab i c front
unrounded vo c o i d whi ch appears i n c o ns onant po s i t i ons .
The Followi ng words i l lus t r at e the di s t ribut i o n o f � and
�*
/w/ walaq ' none ' /y
I yas yas ' mi l l e d r i c e '
qiwi q ' t ai l ' b ay aw ' b rother-i n-law '
b awal ' t abo o , forb i dden ' kalye ' s t reet , road '
J)awi t ' t o p i c k frui t ' b ayu ' dres s '
l afaw ' fly ( i n s e ct ) ' yuhum ' s mi le '
b aliw ' amne s i a ' humay ' c ooked r i c e '
paks iw ' fo o d c ooked i n habuy ' throw '
s our s auc e '
b aylu ' e xchange '
l . 2 . Ac c ent and I ntonat i o n . The t e rm ac c ent here re fers
to the emphas i z i ng o f a s yllabl e i n a word by means of
l oudne s s , vowel l ength , p i t ch , or a comb i nat i on o f thes e .
2 5
Some words may have mo re t han one ac c e nt e d s yllabl e . All
words exc ept the grammatic al partic l e s have one primary
ac c e nt e d s yllab l e and if more than two s yllabl e s us ually
a s e co ndary ac c ent on one of the other s yllab l e s .
I ntonation re fe rs to the s eque nc e o f pit ch levels through
a s e nt e nc e . No dat a are ye t availabl e on the int onation
patte rns of Hiligayno n .
Primary ac c e nt i s le xically s ignific ant a s c an b e s ee n
from t h e c ontras t o f s t re s s , or ac c ent , plac ement in the
following wor ds .
q1 l a 'they '
q amu ' mas t e r '
pas a ' to p as s '
b agqu ' new '
panit ' s kin '
luku ' c raz y , foo l '
p al a ' s hovel '
qilB
qamu
pas a
b agqu
pan1 t
luku
' wild '
' th at is it '
' s prinkle wat e r '
' b e fore '
' tuna '
' command to dog t o s it '
( or whe n dog re c line s
with he ad on out ­
s t re t c he d front paws . )
palaq ' big ant s '
l . 3 . Syllable -initial c ons onant clus t e rs . No c ons onant
c lus te rs o c cur in s yllable -initial pos ition in native
Hiligaynon words . Loan words from Spanis h and Englis h
have int ro duc e d a numbe r o f diffe rent clus t e r s , however .
2 6
The followi ng ar e a fe w exampl e s .
1 . 31 .
Clus t e r s wi th l iqui ds as s e c ond memb e r .
1 . 3 1 . 1 . / pr/ i s an unas pi rat e d b i lab i al s t op followe d
by a t apped / r I .
word- i ni t i al :
wor d-me di al :
prenda
aprub
'
pawn , pawns hop
'
'
approve
'
1 . 31 . 2 . / pl/ i s a c omb i nat i on o f the vo i c e l e s s b i lab i al
unas p i rat e d s t op and a l i ght /1/ .
word- i ni t i al : plays
word-me di al : qapliy
' pl i e r s '
I apply I
l . 3 1 . 3 . / br/ i s a vo i c e d bilab i al s t op c omb i ned wi t h a
t apped / r / .
word- i ni t i al : b rut s a
word-medi al : Abrll
'paint brus h 1
' Apri l
'
1. 31 . 4 . / bl / i s a vo i c e d b i l ab i al s t op followe d by a
li ght lat e ral .
word- i ni t i al : blus a
word-medi al : probl ema
'blous e '
'problem '
2 7
1 . 31 . 5 . / t r / i s a vo i c e l e s s dental unas pi r at e d s t op
followe d by a t apped / r / .
word-i ni t i al :
word-me di al :
t rapu
qat ras
' rag, wi pe '
' r e c o i l , b ac k-off '
1 . 31 . 6 . / dr/ i s a voi c e d dental s t op followed by a
t apped / r / .
word- i ni t i al :
wo rd-me di al :
drayb
qadr e s
'dri ve '
' addre s s '
1 . 31 . 7 . / kr/ i s a vo i c ele s s unas p i rat e d velar s t op
c omoi ne d wi th a t appe d / r / .
word- i ni t i al : kray6la
wo rd-me di al : qokra
' c r ayon'
' okra
'
1 . 3 1 . 8 . / kl/ i s a voi c e le s s ve lar una s pi r at e d s top
comb i ne d wi th a vo i c e d l at e r al .
word- i ni t i al : klab ' c lub'
1 . 31 . 9 . / gr/ i s a vo i c e d ve lar s t op followed by a
t apped / r / .
word- i ni t i al :
word-me di al :
grabe
agrabyado
' gr ave , s er i ous '
' aggri e ve d , o ffende d '
2 8
1 . 32 . Clus t e rs wi t h a s emi vowel as s e c ond memb e r .
1 . 32 . 1 . /pw/ i s an unas pi r at e d vo i c e l e s s bi l ab i al s t op
followe d by a vo i c e d bac k rounde d c ons onant al voco i d .
1 . 3 2 . 2 .
pwede
pwera
' pos s ibl e '
' except '
/ kw/ i s an unas pi rat e d voi c�le s s ve lar s t op
followed by a vo i c e d b ack rounded c ons onantal vo c o i d .
kwadrado ' quadrangle '
1 . 32 . 3 . / gw/ i s a voi c e d ve lar s t op followe d by a
voi c e d bac k rounde d c ons onant al voc oi d .
gwapa ' b eauty of face '
1 . 3 2 . 4 . /bw/ i s a voi c e d b i l ab i al s t op foll owe d by a
vo i c e d b ac k rounde d c ons onant al vo c o i d .
bwas ' t omo rrow '
1 . 3 2 . 5 . / dy / i s a vo i c e d alveo lar s t o p followed by a
vo i c e d h i gh front unrounded c ons onant al voc oi d .
dynt ay
s adya
' s mall '
' happy '
2 9
1 . 3 2 . 6 . / s y/ i s a vo i c e l e s s grooved alveolar fri c at i ve
followe d by a voi c e d hi gh front unrounded c o ns onant al
vo c oi d .
abunans ya ' abundan c e'
1 . 32 . 7 . / ly / i s a vo i ce d alve olar lat eral followe d by
a vo i c e d h i gh front unrounde d c ons onantal·vo c oi d .
kut s i lyo
lyab e
' kni fe '
' ke y '
1 . 3 2 . 8 . /by/ i s a voi c e d b i l ab i al s top followed by a
voiced h i gh front unrounded c ons onant al voc oi d .
kambyu ' make change ( o f mo ney} '
1 . 4 . Phonologi c al s egments and the orthography. The
symboli z at i on of the s ound s e gment s c o rre s ponds c l o s e ly
wi th the symbo l s us e d i n the phonologi c al analys i s and
d e s c ri pt i on . The symbo l s us e d i n normal wri t ing o f
t h e l anguage vary only i n a few i ns t anc e s from tho s e
s ymbo l s g i ve n i n the phonologi c al d e s c r i pt i on . In the
chart be l ow the orthographi c e qui vale nc e o f the phono­
logi c al symbo l s is g i ven .
3 0
Phonologi c al s ymbo l s Orthograph i c s ymb o l s
i i
e e
a a
0 0
u u
p p
b b
t t
d d
k k ( exc ept b e fore
i , e , i n loan
words )
qu ( i n l o an words
b e fore i,�)
g g
c c
j j
q ( wo rd- fi nally )
m
( as the s e c ond
memb er of a c on-
s onant c lus t e r )
f f' p
v v, b
s s
.h h , j
m m
n n
û
ng
1 1
r r
w w
y y
S t r e s s ( not s ymb ol i z e d )
Z MORPROPRONEMI CS .
Thi s s e ct i on deals wi t h the c l as s i fi c at i o n and de s c ri p-
t i on o f the pronunc i at i on c hange s whi ch o c c ur when ma r-
pheme s c ome to gether i n word format i o n or s yntact i c s e -
quenc e s . I n H i l i gaynon the changes are li mi t e d t o s ounds
i n the s yllab l e s on the b o rders whe re two mo rphemes meet .
The types o f changes o c c urr i ng i n thi s language invo lve
as s imi l at i on o f one s ound to anothe r, change in po sit i on
o f two s ounds, los s o f p art i c ul ar s ounds, replac ement of
s ounds, and vari ous comb i nat i ons o f the s e type s .
4
ZJ S t r e s s s hi ft . Stre s s or ac c ent i s frequently
s h i ft e d from i t s o r i g i nal plac e on a s t em whe n affi xat i on
oc curs . Not all s t ems undergo thi s s hi ft, s o the reader
mus t le arn whi ch s t ems do and whi ch do not as he le arns
the l anguage . The pr i nc i pal types o f s hi ft are e i t he r
to the ri ght t owards the end of t he word, or t o the l e ft
t owards the b e gi nni ng o f the word . Spe c i fi c c onditions
det e rmi ne the di re ct i on .
ZJJ S t r e s s s hi ft t o the right . St r e s s s hi ft s t o the
r i ght when a s uffi x i s adde d to a s t em b ut no furt he r
4
From he re t o the end o f the gr ammar c urrent Hi li gaynon
s pe lli ng is adopt e d for the example s . Phone t i c s p elli ng
i s ab andone d .
31
3 2
changes occ ur . Exampl e s :
' around ' lfbot + ka- - an Þ kali b6t an ' worl d , uni ­
vers e '
' progres s ' uswag + ka- - an Q kauswagan ' progre s s '
devel opment '
' fi ni s h ' t apes + ka- - an
' wors hi p ' dmb a + - ( h ) an
Þ kat apOS an I the end>
fi ni s h '
_ s i mb ahan ' church '
2 . 1 2 . S t re s s s hi ft to the l e ft . S t re s s s hi ft s t o the
l e ft whe n t he s uffi xat i on is a c c ompan i e d by vowe l l o s s
i n t h e s t em s yl labl e next t o t h e s uffi x . Example s :
' chas e ' lag as
+ -on
Þ
lags on
l ag as + -on > *lagas 6n
5
lags on
' b ri ng ' dala + -on > dalqon
' ri de ' s akay + - an
¯
s akyan ' vehi c l e for r i d i ng '
' ki l l ' patay + -on
Þ
patyon
2 . 2 . Vowe l lo s s . Whe n cert a i n roots are s uffi xed and
the s t r e s s s hi ft s to the r i ght , the vowel forme rly
c arrying the s t r e s s i s l o s t . In addi t i on t o the follow-
i ng e xample s als o s ee tho s e o f the pre c e di ng s e c t i on .
Not e that aft e r l o s s o f the vowe l t he s t r e s s then s hi ft s
to t h e l e ft .
5
The a s t e r i s k ( * ) marks a word form whi ch i s i nt e rme d i at e
b etween re al forms - i t never actually o c c urs .
Example s :
' bri ng ' dala + -on
>
dalon
dala
+
-on > *dala6n
' de s t roy ' gub aq + -on > g6b-on
' wet ' ba s a q
+
-on Þ b as -on
' bi t e ' kagat + - o n
>
kadt on
' hurt ' s akS:t + - an
>
s akt an
33
' t o b ri ng s omet hi ng '
dalqun
' t o de s t roy s ome­
thi ng '
' t o wet s omethi ng '
' to b i t e s omet hi ng '
' t o hurt s omeone '
' pe r s on ' t aw6 + ki na- - an
`
ki na t aw-an ' b i rth '
Z 3 . Met athe s i s . The lo s s o f the vowel i n the s t em-
fi nal s yllabl e may b r i ng two c ons onant s t ogethe r . In
s ome i n s t an c e s ( not pre di c t able yet ) t h e s e c ons onant s
undergo met at he s i s o f pos i t i o n .
Example s :
' dr i nk ' i nom + -on
>
imnon ' t o dri nk s omethi ng '
q!nom + -on
7
*qi num6n *qi num6n qfmnon
' pl ant ' t anom + - an
3
t amnan ' t o pl ant a f i eld '
' enter ' s ulo d
+ - an
`
s udlan ' t o enter a plac e '
' change ' q i l i s + - an
>
qi s lan ' t o change a thi ng '
' le ar n ' t uon + - an
`
t un-an ' t o s tudy s omethi ng '
' r epay ' b alo s
+ - an
`
b as lan ' t o r epay '
3 4
2 . 4 . As s imi l ation . When c ons onant s come t o gether ac r o s s
wo r d or mo rpheme boundar i e s , as s i mi lati on change s o f o n e
or the o t he r fr e quent ly o c cur .
2 . 41 . As s i mi lat i on o f nas al t o the following c ons onant .
When affi x-fi nal ve l ar nas als ( ng ) are changed t o the
s ame po i nt o f art i culat i on as the followi ng cons onant i n
i ni t i al p o s i t i o n o f the s t em , the c hanges are as follows :
-ng + b- > -mb - , -ng + d- > -nd- , -ng
+ g- > -ngg-.
-ng + 1- > -nl- , -ng + h-
` - ngh- .
Thi s type o f change o c c urs i n verbs or ge rund-li ke words
i nvolvi ng the mang- or �af fi x .
Exampl e s :
pang- + bas a
p ang- + b akal
p i l a nga b e s e s
p ang-
+
dul s i
mang- + dakop
mang- + dala
mang- + lukat
mang- +
l ab a
p amb a s a
pamb akal
pi lamb e s e s
pandul s i
mandakop
mandala
manlukat
manlab a
' us e d for re adi ng '
' us ed for buyi ng '
' how many t i me s ? '
' us e d for d e s s ert '
' t o c at ch s omethi ng '
' t o c ar ry s omethi ng '
' t o uproot '
' t o launde r '
3 5
mang� + gamot manggamot ' to look for roots '
mang� + g i s i' manggi s i1 ' t o tear to p ieces '
mang- + h imo manghimo ' t o make s omethi ng '
mang- + himos manghimo s ' to arr ange , f i x '
Z.¬Z. As s i mi lat i o n plus c ons onant lo s s . Further c om-
p l i c at i o n s omet imes ar i s es when the mang�/pang- affi xes
are att ached to a s tem . Wi t h cert ai n s tems t he fi t i al
c ons onant o f t he s t em i s l o s t after t he nas al i s as s i m­
i l ated and the nas al a s s umes the pl ace o f b ot h i t self
and the lost c ons onant .
mang-
+
p i s o _*mamp i s o ` mami s o ' chi c ken s teali ng '
p ang- + pat ay > *pampat ay
`
p amat ay 1 for ki l l i ng 1
p ang- + p as yar >*pampasyar > p amas yar 1 t o t ake a walk '
pang- + bato , p amato ' us ed for fi ght i ng '
kas i ng- + b anwa > kas i manwa 1 t ownmate 1
p ang- +
t ulok _
panulok ' ga ze '
mang- + tudl o '
`
manunudlo ' ' teacher '
p ang- + dumdom
>
panumdom ' to t hi nk'
nang- +
dul s i
`
nanul s i ' c andies '
p ang- + dala
`
p anala ' manner o f c arryi ng '
3 6
p ang� + kahoy
_ pang ahoy ' g ather i ng o f wood '
p ang- + kut ana ` p angutana ' as k i ng o f que s t i ons '
mang- + gamot ` mangamot ( als o manggamot )
' l ook for root s '
pang- + s ug i d ` panugi d ' way o f re l at i ng an i nc i dent '
p ang- + s imb a
.
panimb a ' way o f wors hi ppi ng '
mang- + ut ang _ mangut ang ' t o b o rrow money '
mang- + away
`
mangaway ' t o fi ght ( quarrel ) 1
Cons o nant change . I n c e rtai n i ns t an c e s s ome con-
s onant s are replac e d by others .
/ d / b e c omes / r/ .
' pay ' b ay ad + - an
>
b ayaran ' wi l l pay s omethi ng '
' rope ' lub i d + -on
`
lub i ron ' b e made i nto twine
'
' re s t r ai n ' hawi d + - an ` hawi ran ' t o re s t r ai n s ome-
thi ng '
' re s pe c t ' t ahod + -on
¯
t ahuron ' b e r e s pe ct e d '
' know ' s ayod + na- -an _ nas ayran ' knew '
2 . 5 2 . / r / b e c omes /1 / . The only i ns t anc e o f t h i s change
i s a c a s e where a previ ous ly s uffi xe d s t em undergoes
further s uffixat i on .
' t e ll ' s ug i d + - an _ s ugi ran ' t o t e l l '
' t o t e l l ' s ugi ran + -on
_ s ugi l anon 1 s t ory '
3 7
2 . 5 3 . / 1 / b e comes / d/ . Only one i ns t an�e of t hi s change
has be e n ob s e rve d .
' bri ng ' dala + -on ¸ dad-on 'wi l l bri ng s omethi ng '
2 . 5 4 . / g / b e c omes / d / . Only one i ns t anc e of t hi s
change has be e n obs erved .
'b i t e ' kagat + -on ` kadt o n ' wi l l b e bi t t e n '
2 . 5 5 . / i / b e c omes / y/ .
qagi + - an
þ
qagyan ' pat ch '
2 . 5 6 . , / o / b e c omes /w/ .
na + gamo + - an _ nagamwan ' troub le d '
PART II . THE. STRUCTURE OF WORDS
I nt roduct i on
¸0 . Par t i c l e s
¸ J Lexi cal part i c l e s
¸ JJ The t emporal part i c l e s
¸.JJJ a nay
¸ JJZ ant e s
¸.JJ.¸
Ï
¸JJ.¬. na
¸JJ.¸. �i
¸JZ. The mo dal part i c l e s
¸JZJ bas i
¸JZ.Z s eguro
¸JZ.¸ daw
¸JZ4 s egurado
¸JZ. ¸. s i :em:r e
¸JZ6 . makon
¸JZ(. kunt ani
¸JZ8 . ki nahangl an
¸J¸ Limi t i ng part i c l e s
¸ J¸.J. lamang
¸J¸. 2 . halos
¸.J¸.¸ manga
4 0
3 . 13 . 4 .
3 . 1 3 . 5 .
3 . 1 3 . 6 .
3 . 1 4 .
3 . 1 4 . 1 .
3 . 14 . 2 .
3 . 14 . 3 .
3 . 1 4 . 4 .
3 . 14 . 5 .
3 . 1 5 .
3 . 1 5 . 1 .
3 . 1 5 . 2 .
3 . 1 5 . 3 .
3 . 1 5 . 4 .
3 . 16 .
3 . 2 .
3 . 21 .
3 . 21 . 1 .
3 . 31 . 2 .
3 . 21 . 3 .
3 . 2 2 .
3 . 2 2 . 1 .
3 . 2 2 . 2 .
3 . 2 3 .
3 . 2 3 . 1 .
me dyo

mi smo
Verb al part i cl e s

pwe de
mahimo
am bot
hi ngan
The emphat i c part i c l e s
gi d
gal i '
day on
s ige
L o c at i onal part i c l e s
Grammat i c al part i c l e s
Phras e i nt r oducers
I nt ro duc e rs o f the de fi ni t e phra s e s
I nt roduc e rs o f t h e attri but i ve phras e s
I ntroduc e r s o f the l o c at i ve phra s e s
Phra s e l i gatures

ka
I nt e r-s e nt e nc e relators
bala
3 . 2 3 . 2 .
3 . 2 3 . 3 .
3 . 2 4 .
3 . 2 4 . 1 .
3 . 2 4 . 11 .
3 . 24 . 1 2 .
3 . 2 4 . 1 3 .
3 . 2 4 . 1 4 .
3 . 24 . 1 5 .
3 . 2 4 . 1 6 .
3 . 24 . 17 .
3 . 24 . 2:
3 . 2 4 . 21 .
3 . 24 . 2 2 .
3 . 2 4 . 2 3 .
3 . 2 4 . 2 4 .
3 . 2 4 . 2 5 .
3 . 2 4 . 3 .
3 . 2 4 . 31 .
3 . 2 4 . 3 2 .
3 . 2 4 . 3 3 .
3 . 2 4 . 3 4 .
3 . 2 4 . 3 5 .
3 . 2 4 . 36 .
41
man
naman
I ntra-s ent e nc e relators
The conj unc t i ons j o i ni ng di vers e c ondi t i ons

ugal i ng
pero
bas t a
mas k i n
b i s an
pwe ra
The conj unct i ons j oi ni ng c oo c c urri ng c ondi t i o ns

kon
pat i
s amt ang
ukon
The c onj unc t i ons j o i ni ng c onve rgent c ondi t i ons
kundi '

bus a '
i nton s i s
gani
ab i
4 2
3 . 24 . 37 . t i
4 . 0 . Bas e s
4 . 1. Root b a s e s
4 . 2 . Borrowe d roots
4 . 3 . De rive d ro o t s as b a s e s
4 . 31.
4 . 32 .
4 . 3 3 .
5 . 0 .
5 . 1.
5 . 11.
5 . 12 .
5 . 13 .
5 . 14 .
5 . 15 .
5 . 2 .
5 . 2 1.
5 . 22 .
5 . 2 3 .
5 . 2 4 .
5 . 2 5 .
5 . 2 6 .
B as e s de ri ve d wi th pro duct i ve affi xes
Bas e s de ri ve d by root re dupl i c at i o n
Fo s s i l i z e d b a s e s
D e s c ri pt i ve s
Modal de s c ri pti ve s
±

-Vl-


Graphi c de s c ri pt i ve s
t ig-
t ag-
t ag a-
i nug-
manug-
mag aka-
5 . 3 .
5 .3 1.
5 .31 . 1 .
5 .3 1.2 .
5 . 3 2 .
5 . 3 3.
5 . 3 4 .
5 . 3 5 .
5 . 3 6 .
5 . 3 7.
6. 0 .
6 .1.
6 . 1 1 .
6.11.1 .
6 . 11 .2 .
6 . 1 1 . 3 .
6 .11. 4 .
6 . 12 .
6.12 . 1 .
6.1 2 . 2 .
6 . 2 .
6. 21.
6 . 22 .
De gre e s o f c ompar i s on i n de s c r ipt i ve s
Diminut i ve degree
Re dupl i c at i o n o f root
�ulu-
Ab s olut e e qual i t y in magka­
Comparat i ve e quality in kas i ng­
Comp arat i ve wi th phras e c o ns t ruct i ons
I nt en s e degree
More i nt e n s e degree
Superlat i ve degree
Ve rb s
Ve rb Fo c us
The Act i on focus e s
Goal foc us
Re ferent focus
Ac c e s s ory focus
Actor focus
The
·
Stati ve focus e s
S t at i ve Goal focus
S t at i ve Ac tor focus
Ve rb as pe ct
Unre al as pe c t
Re al as pec t
43
4 4
6.2 3 . As pec t and t ime
6 . 2 4. Various vi ews o f as pe ct i n Phi li ppi ne l anguage s
6 . 3 . Ve rb mo de
6 . 31 . S imple ve rb mo des
6 . 31.1 . Neut ral or unmarked mode
6 . 31 . 2 . The Purpo s i ve mo de
6 . 31.3 . The Durat i ve mo de
6 . 31 . 4 . The Caus at i ve mode
6 . 3 1.5 . The Di s t r ibut ive mod e
6.31 . 6 . The Cooperat i ve mo de
6 . 3 1 . 7 . The Dub i t at i ve mo de
6 . 31 . 8 . The Obl i gatory mo de
6 . 3 2 . The C omplex mo de s
6.3 2 . 1. I nt e ns i ve plus c aus at i ve
6.3 2 .2 . Durat i ve plus c aus at i ve
6 . 32 . 3 . I nt ens i ve plus di s t r ibut i ve
6 . 32 . 4 . Comb i nat i ons wi th obl i gatory mode
6.32 . 5 . Focus c omb i nat i ons
6 . 32 . 5 1 . Comb i nati ons wi th i-
6.3 2 .5 2 . Comb i nat i ons wi th mapa-
,6 . 32 . 6 . Mi s c e l l aneous mode s
6 . 3 2 . 61 . Mode s p e c i fyi ng no rmal us e
6 . 3 2 . 62 . Plural ac ti ons
6.3 2 . 6 3 . Reque s t for ac t i on
6 . 3 2 . 64 . Att enuat i ve mode
6 . 32 . 6 5 . Mode of s e parat e act i o ns
6 . 3 2 . 6 6 . Mode o f i nt e n s e s i mple act i o ns
6 . 3 2 . 6 7 . Mo de o f change o f s t at e
6 . 32 . 6 8 . Mi s c e llaneous mo de s
INTRODUC TI ON
The mi nimal fre e form o f a lexi c al i t em i n H i l i gaynon
is a root morpheme . Bound forms are affix morpheme s .
Affi xes are o f three type s : pre fi xes are prepo s e d t o a
s t e m; i nfi xes ar e us ually i ns e rte d i mme di at e ly aft e r the
fi rs t c ons onant of the s t em ; s uffi xes are po s tpos e d to
the s t em . A s t em may b e e i ther a root or a root wi th
affi xat i on . Affi xe d forms , i n other words , c an under-
go furthe r affi xat i on . A word is the final product o f
the proc e s s e s i nvolving root s and affi xe s . Some words
come through t he proc e s s e s c ons i s t i n g only of a root .
Othe rs end up as c omplex format i ons o f a root plus
affixe s .
Lexi c al i t ems i n the d i c t i onary are root bas e forms
having a s et o f fe at ur e s .
It s e ems probable that verb
roo t s have an i nherent feat ure o f focus . Whether any
of the other root types have thi s i s unc e rt ai n . Some
H i l i g aynon roots are i nfle c t able and s ome are not . Un­
i nfl e c t ab l e roots are de s c ri be d i n s e ct i on 3 , Part i c l e s .
I nfl e c t abl e roots are d i s c us s e d i n t he three s uc c e e di ng
s e ct i o ns : s e c t i o n 4 , �; s e c t i o n 5 , D e s c ript i ve s ;
and s e ct i on 6 , Ve rb s .
4 6
3 . PART I CLES .
I ndependent uninfle c t e d words d i s t i ngui s he d from s ub-
s t i tut e s and b as e s are l abe l e d Part i c l e s i n t hi s grammar .
S ome p art i c l e s are lexi c al fi lle rs whi ch add s emant i c
i nformat i o n t o phr as e s and c l aus e s ; others are grammat i c al
markers whi ch s i gnal synt ac t i c c ons t ruc t i o ns . I n an
e ffort to keep the func ti ons o f the two groups c l e arly
d i s t i nc t i n t h i s grammar the l ab e l Lexi c al Par t i c l e i s.
as s i gned t o memb e rs o f the l e xi c al fi lle r group , and the
marke rs of grammat i c al re lati ons are c al l e d Grammat i c al
Part i cl e s .
3 . 1 . Lex i c al Part i c le s . On the bas i s o f t he i r s emant i c
cont e nt the Lexi c al Part i c le s may b e loos e ly group e d i n
f i ve c l as s e s : t he T emporal , Modal , Li mi t i ng , Verbal , and
Emphat i c .
3 . 11 . The Temporal Part i c l e s relate an i n c i dent t o t i me
or s ome s t at e o f c omple t i o n .
3 . 11 . 1 . The Part i c le anay has the me ani ng 'fi rs t , b e fore' .
S i Ana palas aot s ubong pe ro anay indi ' .
the-pers onal Ana fond-o f-dance now but b e fore not
"Ana is fond o f danc i ng now but s he was n ' t b e fore . "
4 7
4 8
I kaw anay mags ulod s a b al ay antes ako .
you before wi ll-enter i nt o -the hous e before I
" You enter the house f i r s t before I do . "
3 . 11. 2 . The Parti c le antes has the meani ng o f ' before ' .
Ikaw anay mags ulod s a b al ay antes ako .
you fi rs t t o -enter i nt o-the house before I
" You enter the house f i r s t before I do . "
Antes ka magkadt o s a Bagui o mag- agi ka s a balay .
before you wi ll-go t o-the Bagui o wi l l - s t op you at-the
house
" Before you go to Bagui o s t op at the hous e . "
3 . 11. 3 . The P art i cle � has the meani n g o f ' s t i l l , yet ' .
Nagapal i go ' p a s i a s ang h i nal i nanuktok kamo .
was - s howeri ng s t i ll he when s uddenly knocked you-pl
" He was s t i ll s howeri ng when s uddenly you knocked . "
Nagatuon p a s i Jos e s ang l angoy .
i s - learni ng s t i l l the-pers onal Jos e o f-the s wi m
" Jos e i s s t i ll learni ng to s wi m . "
3 . 11. 4 . The P art i cle� has the meani ng o f ' already , now ' .
abakal na ako s ang b ag-o .
wi l l-buy now I o f-the new
"I ' ll buy a new one now . "
Nagkuh a ' na s i a s ang gumame l a .
got alre ady s h e of-the hi b i s cus
" She has alre ady gotten a hib i s cus . "
49
3 . 11 . 5 . The Part i c l e lagi has the meaning of ' always ' .
Lagi s i a nagakadt o s a b aybay .
always he goe s to-the b e ach
"He always goes to the be ach . "
Nagalumpat s i a l agi s a kudal .
j umps he always on-the fence
" He always j umps on the fen c e . "
3 . 12 . The Modal· Part i c l e s . The P art i c l e s of t hi s group
repres ent the i nc i dent i n t e rms of i t s t ruth value .
3 . 12 . 1 . The P art i c l e b as i ' has the meaning of ' mi ght b e ' .
There i s a s t rong probabi l i t y that the s t at ement i s un-
t rue , or that the i nc i dent wi l l not happe n .
b as i ' mahulog ka s a hag dan kung madanl o g .
mi ght fall you on-the s t ai r s if s li ppery
" You mi ght fall on the s t ai r s if they are s l i ppe ry . "
Bas i ' s i a ang mamae s t r a ko .
mi ght s he the t e ac her of-me
" She mi ght be my t e ac her . "
5 0
3 . 1 2 . 2 . The Part i c l e s eguro has the meaning of ' mayb e ' .
I t s pre s e nc e i ndi c at e s that the s p eaker i s unc e rtai n as
to the t ruth value of the s t atement .
Wal a s i a di ri , s e guro nagtulog .
not- e xi s t s he at -here maybe s l ept
"She is not he re , maybe s he s l ept . "
Nagahi bi ang b at a s e guro mas aki t ang t i yan niya .
i s - crying the chi l d maybe s i ck the s t omach of-hi m
" The chi ld i s c ryi ng ( b e c aus e ) mayb e hi s s t omach
ac hes . "
3 . 1 2 . 3 . The P art i c l e daw has the me ani ng of ' prob ably ' .
I t s p r e s e nc e i ndi c at e s s t rong probab i li ty that the s t ate-
ment wi ll prove to be true .
D aw s i Ana i na ' •
prob ably the-pers onal Ana that
" That's prob ably Ana . "
D aw p areho ang kat aas on nat o n .
prob ably s ame the he i ght of-us
" Our he i ght i s prob ab ly the s ame . "
3 . 12 . 4 . The P art i c l e s egurado has the meani ng of
's urely ' •
Nagai nom s i a s ang tub a s ubong s e gurado mahubag s i a .
drinking he of-the p alm-wi ne now s ure ly drunk h e
" H e i s dri nki ng tub a now s o s ure ly h e wi l l b e drunk . "
Segur ado nga t arde s i a kay alas nueve na .
s urely l i g . l ate he bec aus e t ime ni ne already
5 1
" S urely he i s l ate bec ause i t i s already ni ne o ' cloc k . "
3 . 1 2 . 5 . The Part i c le s iyempre has the mean i ng o f
' c ert ai nly t rue ' .
Mas aylo s i Art s i yempre .
wi l l-move the-per s onal Art cert ai n
" Art wi ll move for s ure . "
S iyempre mat aas s i a maayo maghampang s ang b as ketbol .
certai n t al l he good wi ll-play o f-the bas ketball
" Surely he plays
·
bas ketb all well because he i s t all . "
3 . 12 . 6 . The Part i c le makon has the meani ng o f ' would
be ' .
Makon nakuha ang premyo kung nag-ent ra ka pai ndi s ­
i ndi s .
should t ook the pri z e i f entered you c ompet i t i on
" You would have t aken the pri ze i f you had entered
the contes t . "
Magpakamabuot makon gas t o s an ko i kaw s a pag-es kwel a .
wi ll-be- good would s pend by-me you t o�the s chooli ng
" I f you would be good I would fi nance your s chooli ng . "
3 . 1 2 . 7 . The Part i c le kuntani ( or t ani ) has the meani ng
o f ' hopefully , would that ' .
5 2
Kunt ani gus to k o mag-es kwela pero wala s ing kwart a.
would l i ke by-me wi ll-s chool but not-ex i s t o f-the
money
" I would l i ke t o go t o s chool but I have no money . "
Mas aylo kuntani s i Art s a bag-o nga balay kung
nakatrab aho s i a .
wi ll-move would the-pers onal Art t o -t he new l i g ,
house i f c an-work he
" Art would li ke to move t o a new house i f he c an
fi nd work . "
3 . 12 . 8 . The Part i c le ki nahanglan has a meani ng o f
' mus t , ought ' . Thi s word als o o c curs as a verb wi t h a
meani ng o f ' need ' . Here i t i s a s t r onger word .
Ki nahangl an s i a magluto s ang p amahaw .
mus t he wi ll- c ook o f-the breakfas t
" He has t o c o ok s ome breakfas t . "
Ki nahanglan magkuha ka s ang eks ami n .
mus t t o-t ake you of-the exam
" You mus t t ake the exam. "
S i Ros a kinahanglan s a konferen sy a .
t he-pers onal R o s a i s -needed at-the c onference
" Ros e is needed at the c o nference . "
3 . 13 . Li mi t i ng P art i c les . Thi s group o f P art i c les
li mi t s the i n c i dent in s ome way .
3 . 13 . 1 . The Part i cle l amang has t he meani ng o f ' only ,
5 3
j us t ( s o ) ' . ( It may al s o b e abbrev i at e d l ang. )
S i Art masaylo s a bag-o nga balay l amang naunahan s i a .
the-pers o nal Art wi ll-move t o-a new l i g . hous e only
was - f i r s t e d he
" Art would have move d i nt o a new hous e but s omeone
b e at hi m t o i t . "
S i a lamang ang kahi balo s ang h i t abo .
s he only the knows o f-the i n c i de nt
" She i s the only one who knows about the i n c i dent . "
3 . 1 3 . 2 . The Part i c l e h al o s has the meaning o f ' almos t ,
b arely ' .
Halos s i a nakat apos s ang kur s o .
almos t he f i ni s he d of-the c ours e
" He b are ly fini s he d the cours e . "
H alos -halos s i a makab as a .
b arely h e able -to-re ad
" H e i s b arely able to re ad . "
3 . 1 3 . 3. The P art i c le manga has the me ani ng o f
' approximat e ly ' us ually wi th re ferenc e t o t ime , but als o
wi th re fe re nc e t o s i z e or numb e r . ( Th i s part i c le i s
homophonous wi th manga ' ( plural ) ' . ) Manga may b e
abbre vi at e d mga .
5 4
Makadto k i t a s a s i udad s a manga a l a s t r e s s a hapon .
wi ll- go we to-the c i ty at-the about t i me thre e i n­
the aft e rnoon
" We will go t o the c i ty about three o ' c loc k . "
Halos mga i s a na ka s i mana karon . . .
almos t about one now l i g . week b e fore . . .
" Almo s t a week ago now . . . "
S a manga alas nueve mangl ab a ako .
at-the about t ime ni ne wi ll-launde r I
" At about ni ne o ' c l o c k I wi l l do the laundry . "
3 . 1 3 . 4 . The Parti c le medyo has the meaning o f ' s omewhat ,
j us t a b i t 1 •
Me dyo mai ni t s ubong .
s omewhat warm now
" I t ' s s omewhat warm now . "
Ang b at a medyo s ut i l .
t he chi ld s omewhat naughty
" The child is s omewhat naughty . "
3 . 1 3 . 5 . The Part i c l e hus to has the meaning o f ' enough ' .
Hus t o g i d ang kwart a para s a mat r ikul a .
e nough re ally t h e money for t o-the mat ri culat i o n
" T he money i s re ally enough f o r t he matri cul at i o n
fe e . "
5 5
Ang bag-o k o nga s apat o s hus t o s a t ii l n iya .
the new o f-me li g . s ho e s enough t o -the foot o f-her
" My new s ho e s fit her feet . "
3 . 1 3 . 6 . The P art i c l e mi s mo has the meaning o f ' s el f '
and i s re flexive .
S i a mi smo ang naghatag s ang probl ema s a iya
kaugal ingon .
s he he r s e l f the gave o f-the problem to-the he r
mi s fortune
" She gave the mi s fortune ( problems of her mi s fortune )
t o hers e l f . "
S i la mi s mo nga t i nawo ang nag-abus o .
they thems elves l i g . followers the abus e d
" They th ems elves a s followers are t h e ones who di d
the abus i ng . "
3 . 14 . Verbal Part i c l e s a r e s o c las s i fi e d b e c aus e they
us ually c o o c c ur wi th the ve rb s or act li ke verb s them-
s e lve s at t ime s .
3 . 14 . 1. The P art i c l e kuno has the meani ng o f 'it i s
report e d , h e s ays ' . I t has be e n c alle d the Reportat ive
Part i c l e by s ome .
S i a kuno ang hi nablas s ang gobe rnador .
s he report s the ni e c e o f-the governor
" She s ays that she is the n i e c e of the governor . "
5 6
Ako kuno ang makuha s ang premyo .
I i t- i s - s ai d the wi ll-get of-the pri z e
" I t i s I , they s ay , who wi ll g e t t h e pr i z e . "
3 . 14 . 2 . The Part i c l e pwede has the meaning of
' po s s ib l e ' .
Pwede ako mak akadt o s a t i enda s ub on g .
pos s ib i l i ty I c an-go t o-the market now
" I t i s pos s ibl e that I c an go to the market now . "
Kung pwe de s i a makamaneho hulat on ko s i a .
i f p o s s i ble h e c an-drive wi l l-wait by-me he
" I f i t ' s p o s s i ble for hi m to dri ve , I wi ll wai t for
hi m . "
3 . 14 . 3 . The Part i c l e mahimo has the meaning o f ' pos s i -
ble , pos s ib i l i ty ' .
Kung mahimo hulat on ko s i a .
i f p o s s i ble wi ll-wai t by-me he
" I f po s s i ble , I wi ll wait for hi m . "
Mahimo b al a makapamangkot ?
po s s i ble que s t i on c an- as k
" C an a que s t i o n be as ked? "
3 . 14 . 4 . The Part i cl e ambot has the meaning o f ' not
know ' .
Ambot , i ndi ko s i a ki lala .
don • t know , not I he know
" Don ' t know , I don. ' t know hi m . "
5 7
Ambot waay ako s a kahi b alo kung nakas aylo s i Art s a
b ag-o nga b alay .
don ' t-know anythi ng I in-the knowle dge if able -t o-b e
move d the-pers onal Art t o-the new li g . hous e .
" I don ' t know , I don ' t know if Art move d t o a new
hous e . "
3 . 14 . 5 . The P art i c l e hi ngan has the meaning of ' us e l e s s
( oc curs wi th wala ) ' .
Wala hi ngan ang iya pangabudlay kay gas t o do ra ang
i ya as awa .
not -e xi s t us el e s s the h i s l abor b e c aus e b i g- s pender
the h i s s pous e
" Hi s l abor i s us e l e s s b e c aus e h i s wife i s a b i g
s pender . "
A-ng pagtuon wala hi ngan kung i ndi ' magami t .
the s t udyi ng not - exi s t us e l e s s if not wi ll-us e
" L e arni ng ( s tudyi ng ) i s us e le s s unl e s s i t i s us e d . "
( or . . . if i t i s not us e d . )
3 . 15 . Emphat i c Part i c l e s add de gre e s o f emphas i s t o
s t at ement s .
3 . 15 . 1 . The P art i c l e �has the me ani n g of 've ry , i n-
de e d' .
Mabuot g i d s i a .
good i nde e d s he
" She i s very good . "
5 8
Mas aylo g i d Art s a b ag-o n g a balay .
wi ll-move really Art t o-the new l i g . hous e .
" Art wi ll really move t o a new hous e. "
3 . 1 5 . 2 . The P art i c le gali ' has the meani ng o f ' really ' .
S i a gali ' ang maes t r a ko s a s unod nga tui g .
s he real ly the teacher- female o f-me i n-the follow­
ing li g . year
" She i s really the . one who wi ll be my teacher next
year . "
Ikaw gal i ' !
you real ly
" I t s really you ! "
3 . 1 5 . 3 . The P art i c le dayon means ' immedi ately , r i ght
away ' .
Dayon s i a nags ulod s a t r ab aho .
i mmedi ately he entered at -the work
" He immedi ately began the j ob . "
Maobr a ako dayon kung may b a c ante .
wi ll-work I i mmedi ately i f there- i s vacancy
" I ' ll work i mmedi ately i f there is a vacancy . "
3 . 1 5 . 4 . The Part i c le s i ge means ' O . K . , go ahead ' .
S i ge mamalaklon ki t a s a Qui apo .
O . K . , wi ll-s hop us -pl i n-the Qui apo
" Okay , let ' s s hop in Quiapo . "
S i ge , magl akat ka .
O . K . , wi ll-walk you
" Okay , you go . "
5 9
3 . 16 . Loc at i onal Part i c le s . There ar e two s et s o f
part i c l e s whi ch i ndi c ate general lo c at i on s uch as , ' here ,
there , et c . , ' but they appar ent ly have the s ame di s t r-
but i on .
' he re '
' the re , ne arby '
' the re , d i s t ant '
I
ari
ara '
ad t o
I I
yari
yara '
yadt o
Se t I I i s deri ved from s e t I by t he addit i on o f a pre fi x
� whi ch s eems t o be the s ame pre fi x whi ch o c curs on
other l o c at i onal words as i - . I n the above s et s the i -
h a s changed t o � b e fore t h e vowe l - i ni t i al root s .
Apparent ly the glottal s top whi ch b egi ns all vowel - i ni -
t i al r o o t s i s l o s t followi ng t he i - pre fi x .
I n the followi ng loc ati onals the i - form o f the word has
a di ffe rent d i s t ri but i on from the root alone .
dalom ' deep ' i dalom ' unde r '
b ab aw ' up ' i bab aw ' ' above '
s ulod ' i nne r ' i s ul o d ' i ns i de '
gwa 1 ' out ' i gwa ' ' out s i de '
hul i d ' s i de ' ihul i d ' b es i de '
60
Examples :
S a i dalom s ang l ames a ang ba s ur ahan .
i n- the under o f-the t ab le t he t ras h- c an
" The t ras h c an i s under the t ab le . "
Ara ' s a dalom s a l ames a ang b as urahan .
there i n-the deep at-the t ab le the t ras h- c an
" The t r as h c an i s there under the t ab le . "
Ang s ulod s ang kahon li bro
the i nner o f-the box b o ok
" A book i s i n the i nner part o f t he b ox . "
Ang i s ulod s a kahon l i bro .
the i ns i de at-the box book
" A book i s i ns i de the bo x . "
S ang yari ang maes t r a mahi po s ang t anan .
when here the teac her - female quiet the all
" When the teacher i s here everyone i s quiet . "
Y ara s i a s a kwarto ni Mr . Lopez .
there he i n-the room o f-the-pers onal Mr . Lopez
" There he i s in Mr . Lopez ' room . "
S ang yar a ' s i a s a opi s i na mas ady a kame .
when there he i n-the o ffi ce happ� . you-pl
" When he i s there i n the o ff i ce you are happy . "
Y adt ong b at a nga nagat s i nelas ang es t udyante ko .
that- li g . c hi ld li g . i s -wear i ng- s li ppers the s t udent
o f-me
" That c hi ld weari ng s l i pper s i s my s tudent . "
61
Compare the yari c las s wi th t he Loc at i ve Noun Phras e
Demons t r at i ve Sub s t i t ut e s , s ome example s o f whi ch follow ,
with whi ch they are s ometimes c o nfus e d .
Di ri ang l ap i s
at-here t h e pe nc i l
" The penc i l i s he re ( s omewhe re ) . "
D i dt o ang b at a s a kwarto .
at -there the c hi ld i n-the room
"Th e c hi ld i s the re i n the room • "
Wala s i a di ra '
not - ex i s t he at -there
" H e i s not there . "
3 . 2 . Grammati cal Parti c l e s . I n t hi s s e c t i on an e ffort
has be e n made to group the gr ammat i cal part i c le s having
s i mi l ar funct i o ns . The p art i c l e s whi c h int roduce phras e s
are de s c ri be d i n s e c t i on 3 . 2 1 . Tho s e whi c h connect
e lements wi thi n phra s e s are di s c us s e d i n s e c t i o n 3 . 2 2 .
The part i c l e s whi ch i ndi c at e grammat i c al re lati ons b e -
twe en s e nt e nc e s a r e di s cus s e d i n 3 . 2 3 . The part i c l e s
whi ch are us e d t o c onj o i n part s o f s e nt e nc e s i nte rnally
are de s c r i be d in s e c t i o n 3 . 2 4 .
3 . 2 1 . Phras e I nt roduce rs . Par t i c l e s whi ch i ntroduc e
phras es and mark them for s ub s t ant i val func t i o n are
O Z
c a l l e d he re Phras e I ntroduc ers . They appear i n gram-
mat i c al c ons truc ti on wi th a doub le func t i o n : they mark
the phras es they i nt roduce as s ub s t ant i val , and they
s p e c i fy how the part i c ular phras e they introduce i s
grammat i c ally c onne c t e d to the r e s t o f the c laus e . The
s et s of grammat i c al part i c l e s are di s t i ngui s he d on the
b as i s of the phras e s they i ntroduc e , i . e . , the func t i ons
they pe r form . Di ffe re nc e s i n numb e r ( s i ngul ar /plural )
and pe rs o n ( pe rs o nal / non-pers onal ) i nt e r s e c t wi th t hi s
fi rs t d i s t i nct i on .
¸ Zl 1. I ntroduc ers o f the D e fi ni t e Phras e . The De -
fi ni t e Phras e type func ti ons as t op i c , or f o c us c om-
plement , o f c laus e s and as appo s i t i ve to noun he ads .
D e fi ni t e Phras e s als o o c cur as the pre di c at e phras e i n
the Equat i onal s ent e nc e type . Ang marks the c ommon noun
phras e and s i marks the pers onal noun phras e . The i nt ro-
duc e rs o f thi s phras e type are gi ve n i n Chart I I .
S i ngul ar Plural
Pe rs onal s i s an day
non-Pers onal ang ang manga
Chart I I .
I ntroduc ers o f the De f i ni t e Phr a s e
Exampl e s :
. . . s i J o s e . . .
the-pers o nal J o s e
" . . . Jos e . . . "
. . . ang s agi ng .
the b anana
" . . . the b anana . . . "
. . . s anday Jos e . . .
the-pers onal-plural Jo s e
" . . . J o s e and tho s e wi th hi m . .
. . . ang manga s ag i ng . . .
the plural b anana
" . . . the b ananas . . . "
6 3
"
I p angluto ko s ang lumpya ang kalaha
q .
wi ll-us e-to-c ook by-me o f-the lump i a the fry-pan
" I ' l l us e the fryi ng p an for c ooki ng lumpi a . "
Ang kut s i lyo hi l i wa s ang karne .
the kni fe purpo s e- t o- s l i c e o f-the me at
" The kni f e i s for s l i c i ng me at . "
N agt alan- aw s anday Puri ng s ang hampang .
wat ched the -pe rs onal-plural Puring o f-the game
" Puring and her compani ons wat c hed the game . "
Ang kus i na ang p aglutuan mo s ang p amahaw .
the ki t che n the c ooking-plac e by-you o f-the bre akfas t
" The ki t chen i s where you wi ll c ook br e akfas t . "
6 4
Ang paglutuon mo s a kus i na ang karne .
the t o-b e- c o oke d by-you i n-the ki t chen t he me at
" Wh at you wi ll c ook in the k i t chen is the meat . "
3 . 2 1 . 2 . Introduc e rs o f the Att ri but i ve Phr as e . The
Att ribut i ve Phr a s e func t i ons i n two ways depending on
the cho i c e of marke r . s i ng marks the phras e as a de­
fi ni t e di re ct obj e ct whe n att r i but i ve to verbs and as
an i nt imat e a s s o c i at e when at t r ibut i ve to nouns . s i ng
do e s not have a c orre s pondi ng pe rs onal noun phras e
c ount e rpart ; only t he c ommon noun phr as e form o c curs
wi th thi s marker . s ang als o i ntroduc e s an Att ri but i ve
Phras e but s i gnals an i nde fi ni t e di r e c t obj e c t , o r an
i ndi re c t obj e ct when at tri but i ve to verb s . I t marks the
pos s es s o r whe n att ri but i ve t o nouns . The pe rs onal noun
phras e c orre s ponding t o the s ang phr a s e i s marke d by the
part i c l e ni .
The i ntroduc e r s o f thi s phras e type are g i ven i n Chart
I I I .
S i ngul ar Plural
P e r s onal ni nan day
non- Pe rs onal s i ng s i ng manga
s ang s ang manga
Chart I I I .
Int roduc e r s o f Attr ibut i ve Phra s e s
Example s :
o • o ni Jos e . . .
the-pers onal Jos e
" . • . o f J o s e • • • "
. . . s ang s agi ng . . .
of-the b anana
" . . . of a b anana . "
. . . nanday J o s e . . .
of-the-pers onal-plural J o s e
" • 4 e o f J o s e and tho s e wi t h hi m . . • "
¤ e • s ang manga s ag i ng • e e
o f-the plural b anana
" • . • of s ome b ananas • . . "
Mas i ghat ag s i l a s ang arot .
eac h-gi ve they o f - a c ont r ibut i on
" They e ach gave a c ontri but i on . "
N agut om s i a s ang p aglakat .
hunge re d he of-a walki ng
" H e i s hungry from walking . "
Nagakaon s i a s ang lumpya s ang kus i ne ro .
i s - e at i ng he o f- a lump i a o f- a c o ok
" H e i s e at i ng s ome o f the c o ok ' s lumpi a . "
Nagakaon s i a s ang lumpya s i ng manok .
i s - e at i ng he o f- a lump i a o f-the c hi cken
" He is e at i ng s ome c hi cken lump i a . "
66
N akak i t a s i a s i ng mga t awo .
s aw he o f-the plural pe rs on
" He s aw the people . "
Mai luto ' kamo nanday Puring s ang paniudt o .
wi l l - c ook-for you-plural by-the-plural-pe rs onal
Puri ng o f- a lunch
" Puri ng and her c ompani ons wi l l c ook s ome lunch for
you . "
3 . 2 1.3. I ntroduc e r s of the Lo c at i ve Phras e . The
Loc at i ve Phras e has a s i mi l ar func t i o n wi th e i the r verb
heads o r noun heads . Thi s phras e s p e c i fi e s the l o c at i on
of the i nde fi ni t e abs t rac t re ferent . The i nt roduc e rs o f
t hi s phras e type a r e g i ve n i n Chart IV .
S i ngular Plural
Pe rs onal kay kanday
no n-Pers onal s a s a manga
Chart IV .
I ntroduc e rs o f Loc ati ve Phr as e s
Examp l e s :
. . . kay J o s e . . .
to-the J o s e
" . . . to J o s e . . . " ( als o , " from Jo s e , a t J os e , e t c . " )
. . . s a b al ay . . .
at-the hous e
" . . . at the hous e . . . " ( al s o , " t o the hous e , et c . " )
. . . kanday J o s e . . .
to-the-pers onal-plural J o s e
" . . . t o Jos e and tho s e wi th h i m . . . "
. . . s a manga balay . . .
to-the plur al hous e
" to the hous e s . . . "
Lutuon ko ang l angka s a manok .
wi ll- cook by-me the j ack frui t at-the chi cken
" I ' ll cook the j ackfrui t with the c hi c ken . "
Mai luto ' ko s i a s ang p agkaon s a alas ons e .
wi ll- c ook-for by-me he o f- a food at-the t i me eleven
" I ' ll cook s ome food for hi m at eleven o ' c loc k . "
Makad ala ako s ang regale kay Jo s e .
c an- c arry I of-a g i ft t o -the-pers onal J o s e
" I c an c arry a g i ft to J o s e . "
Paki gdalon mo ang lapi s kanday Mr . Cruz .
ple as e - c arry by-you the pe nc i l t o-the-pe rs onal-plural
Mr . C ruz
" Pleas e c arry the pe nc i l to Mr . Cruz and tho s e with
hi m . "
Gas tus an ko i kaw s a pag- e s kwel a .
wi ll-s p end- for by-me you on-the s chooli ng
" I wi ll fi nanc e your s chooli ng . "
68
3 . 22 . Phr as e Ligatures o c cur i nt e rnally in phra s e s and
li nk phras e - l e vel uni ts .
3 . 2 2 . 1 .
The par t i c le � s e rve s to c onne c t a non-
numeri c al modi fi e r wi th a he ad word •
. . . s a b ag-o nga balay . . .
t o-the new l i g . hous e
" . . . t o the new hous e . . . "
. . . s e gurado nga t arde s i a .
c e rtai nly li g . lat e he
" • e • he i s c e rtai nly lat e • e ¤ "
The marke r � has a vari ant �wh i ch i s the us ual
form at t ached t o vowel- final words i n e ve ryday s pe e ch .
� i s us ually us e d following c ons onant - fi nal words ex­
c ept tho s e endi ng i n � whi c h o c cur wi th �· ( I n
l i t e rary Hi l i g aynon , howeve r , � i s u s e d almo s t ex­
clus i ve ly . )
. . . s a b ag-ong b al ay . . . / / ( . . e s a b ag-o nga b al ay . . . )
i n-the new- l i g . hous e
" . . . i n t he new hous e . . . "
. . . s ang daang li bro e . . / / ( . . . s ang daan nga li bro . . . )
o f- a old-l i g . book
" . . . o f an old bo ok . . . "
. . . s a di ut ay nga r e s t aur an ¢ µ •
at-the small l i g . re s t aurant
" . . . at the small r e s t aurant . .
. . . ang l akat nga das i g .
the walk l i g . fas t
" . . . t h e f a s t walk . . . "
II
3 . 22 . 2 . The part i c l e ka s e rves t o l i nk nume r i c al mod-
i fi e rs t o he ad words within phr a s e s .
. . . i s a ka gant a .
one li g . ganta
" . . . one ganta . . . "
. . . duha ka kahon . . .
two l i g . bo x
" • . . t wo boxes . . . "
3 . 2 3 . I nt e r- s ent e nc e Relator s . S e nt e n c e s o f a narra-
t i ve can b e loos ely b ande d t oge t he r by a l exi c al theme .
Each s entenc e then adds to or e xpounds s ome as pe c t o f
the theme . No overt marke r i s re qui red i n t h i s t ype o f
relati ons hi p . I n a more di re c t way , howeve r , s ent e nc e s
c an b e t i e d t o gether by me ans o f overt g rammati cal
marke rs , here re fe rre d to as I nt e r- s ent e nc e Re l at o r s .
They i ndi c at e that the s e ntenc e o f whi ch they are a part
i s i n s ome e xt e rnal relati ons hi p with another s ent enc e .
The part i cul ar type o f relat i ons hi p depends on t he p art-
7 0
i c l e us e d .
¸ ¸ , Z¸.J.
s
The part i c l e b ala has the meaning o f ' ( que s t i on ) •
and i mp l i e s that there i s a s t at ement or re s pons e i n
answe r .
kuhaan ko bala s ang gumamela ang mae s t r a ?
wi ll-get- for by-me que s t i on o f-the hi b i s cus the
t e acher
" Shall I get a hi bi s cus for the t e ache r ? "
I ni bala ang s apat o s n i Mar i o ?
t h i s que s t i on the s ho e s of-the-pers onal Mar i o
"Are the s e t he s ho e s o f Mari o ? " ( or , "Are t he s e
Mar i o ' s s ho e s ? " )
¸.Z¸.Z. The parti c l e � means ' next , als o , t oo ' . I t
i ndi c at e s that the s e nt e nc e o f whi ch i t i s a p ar t i s i n
s e quence wi t h a previ ous one . The relat i ons hi p i s one
o f looki ng b ack for a connect i o n . Th i s marker may
o c c ur i n conj o i ne d c laus e s as well as i ndependent one s .
Kami Fi l i pi no ; ako t aga-Bac olod kag s i a man .
we-exc l . Fi l i pi no I from-Bac olod and s he als o
"We are Fi l i pi no ; I ' m from Bacolod and s he als o . "
S i a man mes t i s a Es panyo l .
s he t o o mi xe d Spani s h
" She t o o i s ha l f Spani s h . "
7 1
3 . 2 3 . 3 . The p art i cle naman i s a s ent e nc e c onne c t or
whi ch relates s ent e nc e s as di re c t r e s ul t s o f a pr evi ous
ut t e ranc e . The naman s ent e nc e i s a logi c al next act
i n a progres s i on .
Ako naman ang magneho .
I i n-turn the dri vi ng
" My turn to drive now . "
S i l a naman ang maghamb ang .
they i n-turn the to-play
" They wi ll b e the ones t o play next . "
3 . 2 3 . 4 . Cont r as t o f man and � c an b e s e en t o s ome
extent in the followi ng �xamp l e s although i t is di ff­
i cult t o s pe c i fy exac tly .
S i a man ang mah amp ang .
s he als o the t o-play
" She wi ll al s o play . "
S i a naman ang mahampang .
s he i n-turn the to-play
" She wi ll play agai n . "
Ako man kahib alo maglut o ' s i na 1 •
I al s o know to- cook that
" I als o know how t o cook that . "
72
Ako naman magluto ' s ina ' .
I i n-turn t o - c o o k that
" I , in t urn , wi l l c o o k that . "
I ndi s i a nag-abet kay man wala s ing kot s e .
not h e arri ve d b e c aus e als o not -exi s t o f-the c ar
" He di d not arri ve b e c au s e they have no c ar . "
I ndi s i a nag- abet kay wala naman s i a s i ng kot s e .
not s he arri ve d b e c aus e not-exi s t i n-turn s �e o f­
the c ar
" She di d not c ome b e c aus e s he has no c ar agai n . "
3 . 2 4 . I ntra- s ent e nc e Re lators c onj o i n. c ons t ruct i ons
i nt e rnal i n a s e nt e n c e . For e as e of de s c ri pt i on t he
group o f part i c le s i s s ub - di vi de d i nto tho s e whi ch
conj o i n Di ve r s e Condi t i ons , tho s e whi ch c onj o i n C o -
o c curri ng Condi t i o ns , and tho s e whi ch c onj o i n Convergent
Condit i ons .
3 . 24 . 1 . The Conjunc t i o ns jo i ni ng Di ve rs e Condi t i ons .
The R e l at o rs or Conj unct i ons o f t h i s group , i n general ,
have meanings o f ' but ' or ' even i f ' .
3 . 2 4 . 11 . The Conj unct i o n � ' b ut ' i s one o f three
conj unc t i ons wi th thi s me ani ng .
7 3
Mai ni t ang adlaw apang ang mga t awo nagali nakat s a
b ayb ay .
hot the s un but the plural pe rs o n go i ng t o -the
b e ach
" The s un is hot , but the people are goi ng to the
b e ach anyway . "
Nagae s kwela s i a apang makat i bawas s a pangabuhi .
i s - s tudyi ng he but c an- overc ome i n-the l i fe
" He i s s t udyi n g s o he c an s uc c e e d i n li fe . "
3 . 2 4 . 12 . The Conj unc t i o n ugali ng means ' b ut unfortu-
nately ' or i t may s ometimes b e t r ans lat e d ' although ' .
Manuglakat na kami ugal i ng nag-ab ot ang b i s i t a .
t i me-to-go alre ady we but arri ve d the vi s i t or
" I t was t i me for us to go but the vi s i t ors arri ve d . "
Magradwar s i a ugal i ng ang i ya lola nagamas aki t .
wi l l-graduat e he but the hi s grandmot he r i s -s i ck
" He i s graduat i ng although hi s grandmother i s i ll . "
3 . 2 4 . 13 . The Conj unc t i o n pe ro has the meani ng o f ' but '
and i t s e ems t o have no other s h ades o f meaning c onne c -
t e d wi t h i t .
Maal am ang b at a pero mas aki t o n .
i nt e l l i gent the chi ld but s i ckly
" The chi ld i s i nt e lli ge nt but s i ckly . "
Gus t o ko t ani maglakat pero nagaulan .
li ke by-me wi s h to-walk but i s -rai ni ng
"
I would li ke to go for a walk , but i t i s rai ni ng . "
7 4
3 . 2 4 . 1 4 . The Conj unc t i on ba s t a has the meaning o f
obl i g at ory act i o n t ogether wi t h the ' but ' , and may be
trans late d ' but mus t ' .
Baklan ko i kaw s ang b i s i kle ta ba s t a magtuon k a s ang
maayo .
wi l l-buy- for by-me you of-the b i cyc l e but -mus t wi ll­
s t udy you o f-the good
" I ' ll buy you a b i cyc l e , but you mus t s t udy well . "
Mas aot ako ba s t a magtukan s ang p i ano .
wi ll-dan c e I but-mus t wi l l-play of-the pi ano
" I ' ll danc e , but you ' ll have to play the pi ano . "
3 . 2 4 . 1 5 . The Con j unc t i on mas ki n has the me ani ng o f
1 even though ' .
Magtuon kamo mas ki n pobre ki t a .
wi l l - s t udy you even-though poor we
"You wi ll s tudy even though we are poor . "
Maayo s i a s a bas ketbol mas k i n di ut ay s i a .
good h e i n-the bas ketb all e ven-though small he
" He i s good i n bas k etball even though he i s smal l . "
3 . 2 4 . 16 . The Conj unct i o n b i s an means ' even ' .
B i s an nagaulan malakat ako .
even i s - rai ni ng wi ll -walk I
" Even i f i t ' s rai ni ng I ' ll go . "
Mahi nay s i a b i s an magkaon .
s l ow he even t o - e at
" He i s s l ow even i n e at i ng . "
7 5
3 . 2 4 . 17 . The Conj unct i o n pwe ra has the meani ng o f
' exc ept '
Dal-on ni nyo i na ' pwe ra ang lame s a .
c arry by-you that except t h e t abl e
" You c arry eve rythi ng exc ept the t abl e . "
Pwera l ang s i J o s e mabuot ang mga b at a .
except only the-pe rs onal J o s e good the plural c hi l d
" The c hi l dre n are go o d e xc e pt for J o s e . "
3 . 2 4 . 2 . The Conjunc t i ons jo i ni ng c ooc c urri ng Condi t i ons
j o i n a c t i ons or s t at e s exi s t i ng at the s ame t i me .
3 . 24 . 2 1 . The Conj unct i on � means 1 ang 1 •
N akalakat s a Mi ndanao s i Jos e kag s i Mar i a .
went t o-the Mi ndanao the -pe r s o nal Jos e and the-per­
s onal Mar i a
" J o s e and Mar i a went t o Mi ndanao . "
Ako mae s t r a s a Pub l i c S chool kag s i a man .
I t e acher- female i n-the pub l i c s chool and s he al s o
" I am a t e ac her i n the Pub l i c Sc hools , and s o i s
s he . "
3 . 2 4 . 2 2 . The Conj unct i o n kon means ' i f , when ' .
7 6
Maluto ako ko n makadto s i a di ri .
wi ll- cook I i f wi l l - c ome h e t o -he re
" I ' ll c ook i f he c ome s he re . "
Mab akal ako s ang kot s e kon may t r ab aho ako .
wi ll-buy I of-the c ar i f there - i s work I
" I ' ll buy a c ar i f I have a j ob . "
3 . 2 4 . 2 3 . The Conj unct i on pat i has t he meaning o f
' i nc ludi ng ' .
Gi nakuha niya pat i ang s apat o s .
i s - ge t t i ng by-he i nc ludi ng the s ho e s
" H e i s ge t t i ng ( everythi ng ) i nc ludi ng the s ho e s . "
T an an-t anan malakat pat i ang t i gulang .
all wi ll-go i nc ludi ng the o l d- lady
" Everybo dy wi ll go i nc ludi ng the o l d lady . "
3 . 2 4 . 2 4 . The Conj unc t i on s amtang has the meaning o f
' whi l e ' .
Nagab a s a ako s amt ang nagahampang ang mga bata .
i s -readi ng I whi l e are-playing the plural c hi l d
" I a m r e adi ng whi l e the chi ldren a r e play ing . "
S amtang nagahulat kami s ang s al akyan nags ug i l anon
kami .
whi l e i s -wai t i ng we o f-the bus i s -talki ng we
" Whi l e we we re wai t i ng for the bus we were chat t i ng .
"
3 . 24 . 2 5 . The Conj unct i o n ukon means ' or ' . The marker
77
has a var i ant whi ch i s fr e quent ly us e d : £ ' or ' . With
the negat i ve , ukon means ' nor ' .
P al akton mo s i J o s e ukon s i Juan?
wi l l-have-go by-you the-pers onal J o s e or the-per­
s onal Juan
"Wi l l you have J o s e go or Juan ? "
Pal akt on mo s i Jo s e o s i Juan?
wi l l-have-go by-you the-pers onal J o s e or the-per­
s o nal Juan
" Wi l l you have Jo s e go or Juan ? "
Malakat ako ukon mapab i l i n
wi ll-go I or wi ll- c aus e -to- remai n
" Shall I go or s t ay ? "
Bi s an s i Jos e ukon s i Pe dro i ndi kahi balo maglangoy .
even the-pers onal Jos e or the-pers onal P e dro not
know t o- swi m
" Ne i the r Jos e nor Pedro knows how t o swim . "
3 . 2 4 . 26 . The affi xe s �, kapag- , and pagka- g i ve a
ge rundive meani ng t o roots wi th ve rb- l i ke meani ng , i . e . ,
an ac t i o n root . They als o o c c ur as part i c l e s i nt roduc i ng
a dependent c laus e . The whole c o ns t ruc t i on then has a
meani ng o f " c ondi t i onal " or " c onti ngent " act i on , and i s
t r ans l at e d i nto Engl i s h by ' i f , whe n , et c . , i n mo s t
i ns t anc e s .
7 8
Example s :
Paglakat ko makaon s i l a .
when-leave by-me wi l l - e at them
" When I l e ave , they will e at . "
Note t hat the � i s affi xed i n the no rmal manner i n
the above example . I t may b e s eparat e d as a fr e e form .
Pag i l akat ni ya ang i ya t i i l mas aki t .
i f wi ll-move by-him the hi s foot pai nful
" I f he move s h i s foot it is pai n ful . "
Pagkaaga nagb a s a anay s i Jun s ang pamant alaan .
when-morni ng r e ad fi r s t the-pers onal June of-the report
" I n t he morni ng June re ad t he report f i r s t . "
Kapag h ampang an ang lagwe rta mapatay ang bul ak .
i f wi ll-play-i n t he yard wi ll-di e t he flower
" I f the yard i s played in the flower s will di e . "
3 . 2 4 . 3 . Conjunct i ons jo i ni ng Convergent Condi t i on s j o i n
condi t i ons or s t at e s whi c h have a c aus e and e ff e c t
relat i ons hi p .
3 . 2 4 . 31 . The Conj unct i o n kundi ' has the meani ng o f
' then 1 •
Kung i ndi ' s i Juan magkant a kundi s i Pedro na l ang .
i f not the-per s o nal Juan wi ll- s i ng then the -pe rs onal
Pe dro alre ady only
" I f Juan won ' t s i ng then Pe dro wi ll . "
79
Kung kapoy ka kundi magpahumay ka na .
i f t i r e d you then be - caus e d-t o-re s t yo u alre ady
" I f you are t i r ed then re s t . "
3 . 2 4 . 3 2 . The Conj unct i on � has the me ani ng o f
' be c aus e ' .
S i Art mas aylo s a bag-o nga b alay kay mahal ang
rent a .
the-pers onal Art wi ll-move t o-the new li g . hous e
b e c aus e expens i ve the rent
"Art wi ll move to a new hous e b e c aus e the rent i s
hi gh ( whe re h e i s now ) . "
N agtulog ako kay gi nkapoy ako .
s lept I b e c aus e t i re d I
" I s lept b ec aus e I was t i re d . "
3 . 2 4 . 3 3 . The Conj unc t i o n bus a ' means ' the r e fore , s o ' .
Madame ang bulak di ra ' bus a ' manguha ki t a .
many the flower at -there t he re fore wi ll-get we
" There are lot s o f flowe rs there so l et ' s get s ome . "
I ndi ' s i a nagaamdi g bus a ' nadi s gras ya s i a .
not h e i s - c ar e ful therefore had-a c c i dent he
" He i s not c ar e ful s o he had an ac c i dent . "
3 . 2 4 . 3 4 . The Conj unct i on i nt ons i s also has the me ani ng
of ' t he re fore ' .
8 0
Supl ada s i a i nt ons i s gi n-aki gan s i a .
proud s he there fore was -repr imanded s he
" She ' s prou� there fore s he was repri mande d . "
H ambo g s i a i ntons i s gi ngamo s i a s ang mga hubo g .
proud he s o-then t roub l e d he by-the plural drunk
" S i nc e he i s proud he was t roubl e d by the drunkards . "
3 . 2 4 . 3 5 . The Conj unct i on gani has t he me ani ng of
' the re fore , s o the n ' .
Wala s i a s a balay gani nagdi ret s o ako pauli .
not - e xi s t s he i n-the hous e there fore went - s t rai ght
I ret urn
" She was not at home , so I r et urne d i mme di at e ly . "
S i Mr . Reyes ang mae s t r o gani magpakamabuot ka .
the -pe rs onal Mr . Re ye s the t e ache r-male there fore
wi ll-be - good you
" Mr . Reyes is your t e ache r , there fore you mus t be
goo d . "
3 . 2 4 . 36 . The Conj unc t i on ab i has t he me ani ng o f ' s o
ple as e ' or a po l i t e re que s t .
S i Art mas aylo s a b ag-o nga balay ab i bulugan mo
s i a .
the-pers onal Art wi ll-move t o -the new l i g . hous e
s o-pl e a s e wi ll-help by-you he
" Art wi ll move t o a new hous e , s o pleas e he lp hi m . "
8 1
Wala s i P e dro s a opi s i na ab i t anawon mo s i a s a b al ay .
not -exi s t the-pers onal Pedro at -the o ff i c e s o -pl e as e
l ook- for by-you he at-the hous e
" P e dro i s not i n the o f fi c e , s o pl e as e s ee i f he i s
at home . "
3 . 2 4 . 3 7 . The Conj unc t i o n t i has the me ani ng o f ' s o '
and i s s i mi l ar t o abi i n func t i o n exc ept i t lacks a
c onnot at i on o f po l i t e re que s t .
T i , mas aylo g i d Art s a b ag-o nga b al ay .
s o , wi ll-move re ally Art t o -the new li g . hous e
" Oh , Art wi ll re ally move t o a new hous e . "
Nahulog s i a s a hagdan t i napi ang s i a .
fell he on-t he s t a i r s s o c ri ppl e d he
" He fell on the s t ai r s s o he i s c r i pple d . "
3 . 2 4 . 3 8 . The p art i cl e para me ans ' for ' or ' s o that ' .
Gi ns i nggi t an ko s i a para madas i g .
s hout e d by-me h e for fas t
" I shout e d for hi m to hurry . "
I l i kui mo ako s ang karbao para s a uma .
turn-for by-you I o f-the c arab ao for t o-the fi e l d
" Turn t h e c ar abao t o t h e f i e l d f o r me . "
4 . BASES .
I nfle c t abl e roots are i nt roduc e d i n thi s s e c t i on and the
di s cus s i on i s c onti nued i n s e c t i ons 5 and 6 .
I n fle c t ab l e roots are b a s e s and i nc lude both root s wi th­
out any ki nd o f affi xat i o n and tho s e wi th s ome form o f
deri vat i onal affi xat i on . There i s a di fferenc e b etween
deri vat i onal pro c e s s e s and i nfle c t i onal pro c e s s e s . In
H i l i gaynon , deri vat i onal affixat i on provi des a way to
vary or modi fy the me an i ng c ont ent of the root . I nfle c -
t i onal affi xat i on , on the ot he r hand , play s a role i n
the grammat i c al func ti oni ng o f t he r o o t but does not
affect its b as i c meani ng .
4 . 1 . Root Bas e s . Root b as e s i n H i l i g aynon c annot b e
di vi ded i nto part s o f s pe e c h on the b as i s o f the i r form .
Roots whi ch i ntui t i ve ly ( t o an Engl i s h s p e aker ) would
s e em to be verb s may be us e d as " noun s " j us t as e as i ly as
verb s , and vi c e ve r s a .
There are lexi c al groups , howeve r , whi ch c orres pond t o
I ndo-European par t s o f s pe e ch , but i t mus t b e remembe re d
that thi s i s an i nformal c las s i fi c at i on b as e d on meani ng .
From a lexi c al vi ewpo i nt , there appe ar to b e roots repre-
8 2
8 3
s ent i ng act i ons , obj e ct s , quali t i e s , and numb ers .
Obj e ct s : bug as ' r i c e '
lub i ' co c onut palm '
i s da ' ' fi s h '
i l aga ' ' rat '
b aybay ' beach '
s ub a ' ' r i ver '
Qual i t i e s : i t om ' blac k '
di ut ay ' s mal l '
bas a ' ' wet '
hi pos ' qui et '
s aki t ' pa i nful '
t amad ' l azy '
Ac t i ons : t i g- ang ' bo i l r i c e '
g i s a ' fry '
kaon ' e at '
l akat ' walk '
l i ko ' ' t urn '
bakal ' buy '
Numb ers : i s a ' one ' pi t o ' s even '
duh a ' two ' walo ' e i ght '
t at l o ' three ' s i am ' ni ne '
apat ' four ' napulo ' t e n '
lima ' fi ve ' napul ong is a ' e leven '
a nom ' s i x ' napul ong duha ' twelve '
Root s wi thout affi xes o c cur i n all type s o f s entenc e s .
8 4
T he following exampl e s s how r o o t s as he ad words i n e i t he r
t he t op i c or pre di c at e c on s t ruc t i ons o f s e nt e nc e s .
a . Roots as de s c ri pt i ve word .
I ni t ang ki naluto ' s ang s ag i ng .
" H e at i s what ri pens a b anana . "
Pi ang ang p anglakat ni ya .
" H i s walki ng i s l ame . "
Barato ang b akal ko s ang b ayo
" The dre s s I bought was c he ap . "
Bayo ang gi nb akal ko .
" What I b ought was a dre s s . "
Mahal ang b akal ko .
" My purc has e was exp ens i ve . "
Ang t uon ni ya pi gaw .
" H i s l e arning i s weak . "
b . Roots as uninfle c t e d verb word i n a verb phras e .
Pali hog ako b akal s ang napulo ka ganta nga bugas .
" Ple as e buy me t e n gant as o f r i c e . "
Luyag ko i balay ang di e s mi l .
" I want t o bui l d a hous e wi th the te n thous and . "
Sagi ng ang i s i p ni ya .
" Banana i s what he i s t hi nki n g o f . "
At ras ! " Go back ; revers e ! "
Ang langoy ni ya mas ako '
" He swims rapi dly . "
Ang tuon niya di ' maayo .
" H i s s t udyi ng i s not good . "
Palihog mo nus nos s ang s ah i g .
" Pl e as e s crub the floor . "
c . Roots as ' noun-li ke ' wo rd.
I du ' ang gi napalangoy ni y a .
" A dog i s what h e i s trai ni ng t o swim . "
Ang hat ag ni ya l ibra .
"A book i s what he i s g i vi ng . "
Ang gi ns ul at ni ya li bra .
" A book i s wh at he wrote . "
S agi ng ang i s i p niya .
" Banana i s what he i s thinking o f . "
Bolpen mo ! " It i s your b allpen . "
Ang i pat uka ' mai s .
8 5
" Corn i s for the chi cken ' s pe c ki ng ( or pi cki ng ) . "
Duta ' ang gintuk a ' ni ya .
"The e arth i s what s he pec ks . "
86
Ang gi ntuk-an ni ya s alug .
"The ground i s whe re s he p e cke d . "
Tuo ang l i ke ' niya .
" To the r i ght i s where he turne d . "
Mada s i g ang i s i p ni y a .
" She has an alert ( qui c k ) mi nd . "
4 . 2 . Borrowe d words . I n a grammar li ke t hi s one i t i s
o f p as s i ng i nt e r e s t to note s ome o f t h e typ e s o f ' lo an '
words whi ch have come i nto Hi l i gaynon from other lang-
uage s . From Chi nes e , H i l i gaynon has t s a ' t e a ' , pans i t
' me at-noodle di s h ' , t iyan ' s tomach ' , boys i t ' b ad luck ' ,
and syopan ' r i c e- bre ad s andwi ch 1 From Spani s h h ave
come s al a ' l i vi ng room ' , kus i na ' ki t chen ' , b apo r ' s hi p ' ,
s i lya ' chai r ' , karne ' me at ' , kab ayo ' ho rs e ' , and
pi ras o ' p i e c e ' , t o name a few . From Engl i s h have come
t i t s e r ' t e ache r ' , mi t i ng ' me e t i ng ' , bus ' bus ' , �
' ke ros ene ' , kash ' c as h ' , and downt own ' downtown ' .
4 . 3 . De ri ve d roots as Bas e s . Roots o c c uri ng wi th
deri vat i onal affi xe s are deri ved Bas e s .
4 . 3 1 . B as e s de ri ve d by product i ve affi xe s .
With �:
87
puertahan ' door ' pue rta + - an ' doorway '
dungkulan ' float ' dungkol ' t o float '
With mang- + C . V . re dupl i c at i on :
mananab ang ' l awye r ' t ab ang ' help '
manunudlo ' ' t eac her ' tudlo ' ' t e ach '
manananom ' pl ant e r ' t anom ' plant '
mangangahoy ' wood- gathe re r ' kahoy ' wood '
mangunguma ' farme r ' uma ' farm '
Wi th manog-
Manugbakal s ang balay s i a .
" He i s buye r o f the hous e . "
manug- arado ' plowe r ' arado ' plow '
manugmas ah i s t a ' mas s eus e ' mas ahi s t a ' mas s age '
manugtahi ' ' dr e s s maker ' t ahi ' ' s ew '
4 . 32 . Bas e s deri ved by root re dupli c at i o n i ndi c at e s
that the root meaning i s dimi s he d i n s ome way . The
ac c e nt i n the s e c a s e s falls on di fferent s yllabl e s in
the two forms of the re dupli c at i o n .
b al ay-b §lay
nanay-nanay
' doll hous e '
' a make-b eli eve
mo ther '
balay ' hous e '
nanay ' mothe r '
8 8
b at a ' -b at a • ' make-b e l i eve c hi ld ' b at a ' ' chi l d '
l akat-1kat ' walk a l i t t l e ' l akat ' walk '
b at a ' -bat a • ' chi l di s h , younge r ' b at a ' ' chi l d '
b as � ' -b as a ' ' damp ' b as a ' ' wet '
das � g- das i g ' a l i t t l e fas t er ' das i g ' fas t '
When t he ac c ent falls on the s ame s yllab l e s as t he
ori gi nal roots , repet i t i on i s the me ani ng indi c at e d .
b al ay-balay ' every hous e ' b al ay ' hous e '
s unod- s unod ' one aft e r anothe r ' s un6d ' next '
dugay-dugay ' lat e r on ' dugay ' pe ri od o f t i me '
Hwat - 1 1wat ' repeat e dly ' l iwat ' repeat '
t anan-t anan ' al l i n all , al- t anan ' al l '
t o g ethe r '
tu1 g-tu1 g ' ye arly , annually 1 t ui g ' year '
4 . 3 3 . Fo s s i l i z e d B as e s . A numbe r o f bas e s are formed
from s i mpl e roots by the addit i o n of affi xes and have
now att ai ne d the s t atus o f fos s i l i z e d b as e s with root-
li ke funct i ons . The s e b a s e s are not t he r e s ult o f
normal deri vat i onal affixat i o n . Rathe r , many o f the s e
pet ri fi e d forms have s prung from normally i nfl e c t e d
forms . I n s ome c a s e s an i nfle c t e d form o f the s ame
s hape s t i ll func t i ons with the o r i gi nal i nfle c t i onal
meani ng .
Example s :
gi nikanan ' parent s ' gi kan
Mags ulat ka s a i nyong g i ni kanan .
" You wri t e t o your parent s . "
pi nani d ' pi e c e ' pani d
N agpab i l i n s i a s i ng p i nani d nga bulawan .
" She had a p i e c e o f gold l e ft . "
kan-on ' c ooked r i c e ' ka-on
Ang gi nkaon ni ya kan-on .
" Cooked r i c e i s what he at e . "
' e at '
8 9
t i ni kli ng ' ( a d anc e ) ' 4 t i kli ng ' ( s p e c i e s o f ki nd ) '
I nugs a-ot s ang ti ni kl i ng ang b ayong i n i .
" Th i s dre s s i s for danc i ng the t i nikli ng . "
pi nakas ' dr i e d f i s h ' p akas
Al ab al i gya ' namo n t anant anan ang pi nakas .
"We s o l d all t he dr i e d f i s h . "
5 . DESCR IPT IVES .
The labe l " de s c ri pt i ve " i s i nt e nded t o c over tho s e
word forms whi ch have a c harac teri s t i c adj e c t i val -li ke
i nfle c t i o n or c on s i s t o f roots wi th adj e c t i val- li ke
meani ng . The c l aus e s i n whi ch the s e ki nds of words
mani f e s t the Pre di c at e do have Subj e ct s ( marke d by �
phras e s ) but they are not i n a focus c ompl ement re l a­
t i on t o the Predi c at e . D e s c r i pt i ve s are als o t i mele s s
but may b e li mi t e d b y the pres e nc e o f one o f the t ime
words e l s ewhe re in the c l aus e . One type of i nfle c t i on
for thi s group o f words i s marke d by affi xes whi ch s how
degr e e s o f c ompar i s o n . The affi xe s o f the s et are not
mut ually s ub s t i t ut abl e , however , and c ertai n of them
may c o o c cur r e s ult i ng in a complex c ombi ne d meani ng .
The bulk o f the D e s c ri pt ive affi xe s al s o func t i o n as the
modal affi xe s of the ve rb .
5 . 1 . Mo dal D e s c ript i ve s . I n the fol lowi ng e xampl e s the
De s c r i pt i ve s fill the Predi c ate s lot and de s c ri be the
Sub j e ct . The re ader s hould not b e c o nfus e d by the fact
that the affi xe s of t h i s group also appear at vari ous
t i me s i n the verb i nfl e c t i on . The s e are t he s ame affi xe s
,
but t he re are di ffe rent r e s t r i c t i o ns , and t he re fore
90
91
di fferent funct i on , on t he i r oc curre nc e i n De s c ri pt i ve s .
5 . JJ. The a f f i x ma- ha s a me ani ng o f �e i ng i n the s t at e
o f ' , s i milar to t h e verb affi x , but wi th De s c ri pti ves
there i s no ac c ompanyi ng verb i nfle c t i on o f Focus and
As pe c t .
Mabudlay ang pagluto ' s a kus i na .
di f f i cult the c ooki ng i n- the ki t chen
" C ooki ng i n the ki t chen is di ffi cult . "
Mat ahum s i a .
b e aut i ful s he
" She i s b e aut i ful . "
Madas i g ang pananum ni ya s ang humay .
qui c k the plant i ng o f-him o f-the r i c e
" H e i s qui ck a t plant i ng r i c e . "
Mahi pi d ang b at a magt r ab aho .
neat the c hi ld t o -work
"The chi l d works ne atly . "
Ang balay ni Mar i o mal impyo .
the hous e o f-the-pers onal Mar i o c l e an
"The hous e o f Mar i o i s c le an . "
5 . 1 2 . The affi x � has the me ani ng o f ' b e i ng c aus e d to
be ' i n the s t at e o f .
9 2
Pahulam k o ang maki ni lya .
c aus e-bor row by-me the typewri t e r
" I ' ll have the typewr i t e r borrowe d . "
Pali hog ku nus no s s ang s alog .
c aus e - re que s t by-me t o - s c rub o f-the floor
" Pl e as e s c rub the floor . "
Pakuha ko ang nar s i ng kay I nday .
c aus e-t o-t ake by-me t he nurs i ng t o -the-pers onal I nday
" I ' ll have I nday t ake nurs i ng . "
Pas ulat s a mga bata ang leks yon .
c aus e-t o-wr i t e t o-the plural c hi ld the l e s s on
" Have the c hi ldren wri t e t he l e s s o n . "
Pakaon ko ang pans i t s a kuri ng .
c aus e-t o- e at by-me the noodl e s t o -the c at
" I ' l l have the c at e at the noodle s . "
5 . 13 . The affix -Vl- de s c ri be s the purpo s e for whi ch
s omet hi ng i s us e d as an i nt e ns e de s i re or s p e c i ali z e d
us e . -Vl- i s an i nf i x cons i s t i ng of a re dupl i c ate d Y
_
o f the s t em and J . The i nfi xat i on o c curs immedi ately
followi ng the first c ons onant of the s t em .
Hi liwa s ang karne ang kut s i lyo .
for- s l i c i ng of-the meat the kni fe
"The kni fe is for s l i c i ng meat . "
S i N anay p al alut o ' .
the-pers onal Mother for-c ooki ng
"Mothe r i s fond of c ooki ng . "
Palanghugas s i a s ang t i i l .
for-was hi ng s he o f-the feet
" She i s fond o f was hi ng he r feet . "
Kapalakaon s ang mga bat a ' !
for-much- e at i ng of-the plural c hi ld
" How much the c hi ldre n e at ! "
9 3
) . 14 . The affi x � has the meaning o f ' c ont i nui ng
b e i ng ' .
pagabal i gya ' ang l ibro .
i s - s e l l i ng the book
" The bo ok i s to be s o l d . "
Pagabal i gya ' ni ya ang l i bro bwas .
i s - s e lli ng by-him the book t omor row .
" H i s s e lli ng o f the book i s tomorrow . "
Pagalut o ' ang relyeno s a pugon .
t o-be -co oke d the relyeno on-the s t ove
" The relyeno i s t o b e co oke d on the s t ove . "
P agas ulat ang kant a s a p i s ar a .
t o-be-wri t t e n the s ong on-the bl ackboard
"The s ong i s to b e wri t t en on the blac kboard . "

5 . 1 5 . When the affi x � has ( a . ) the meani ng o f ' us e ,
or purpo s e for ' s ound c hange does not o c cur . Whe n �
means ( b . ) ' di s t ri but i ve or habi t ual act i on ' the s ound
change whi ch t ake s plac e when � is affi xed to the
s t em c ons i s t s of nas al as s imi lat i o n plus c ons onant lo s s .
Alt e rnat e ly , the s ound change may b e li mi t e d t o nas al
a s s imi l at i o n , i f the s t em- i ni t i al c ons onant i s voi c e d .
Example s :
� + dakop
' c at ch '

+
tuon
' s t udy '
� + bunal
' whi p '
� + pani t
' s ki n '

+ gamot
' root '
� + kuha
' ge t '
( a . )
pangdakop ' us e d
for c at chi ng '
pangtuon ' us ed
for s tudy i ng '
pangbunal ' us ed
for whi pp i ng '
panganit ' us ed
for pe e l i ng '
pangamot ' us e d
for di ggi ng up
root s '
pangkuha ' us e d
for get t i ng '
Ang p angtulo g niya madamo l .
( b . )
panakop ' c at chi ng '
(or pandakop)
panuon ' s tudyi ng '
pamunal ' whi ppi ng '
pamanit ' pe e l i ng '
pangamot ' root
di ggi ng ' ( or �
gamot )
panguha ' g ett i ng '
the us e d- for- s le epi ng of-hi s t hi c k
" What he us e s f o r s le e pi ng i s t hi c k ( e . g . , a bl anket ) . "
5 . 2 .
Ang panulog ni ya mahamuo k .
the s l e epi ng o f-hi s s ound
"He s le e ps s oundly . "
Madas i g ang pangtabas ni y a .
qui ck the us e d- for-cut t i ng o f-hi s
" The thi ng h e us e s for cut t i ng i s qui ck . "
Madas i g ang panab as niya
qui ck the cut t i ng o f-hi s
" H i s cut t i ng i s qui � k ( o r rapi d ) . "
9 5
Graphi c De s c ript i ves . The s e D e s c ri pt i ve s are
charact e ri z e d by affi xat i ons wh i ch des c ri be i n t e rms of
the phy s i cal world rather than ab s t ract qual i t i e s .
5 . 21 . The affi x t ig- has the meaning o f ' charact e ri z e d
by . ' The younger generat i o n today freely i nt e r changes
thi s wi th t ag- .
Ti g-ul an na s ubo ng .
s e as on- rain alre ady now .
" I t ' s the rai ny s e as on now . "
T i gt alanum s ang humay s ubong .
s e as o n-pl ant of-a r i c e now
" I t ' s r i c e-plant i ng s e as o n now . "
T i gt i l i gang ang alas di yes .
s e as on-c ook-ri c e the t i me t e n
" I t ' s t i me to c o o k r i c e a t t e n o ' c loc k . "
96
T i gkuluha s ang kalamp ay bwas .
s e as on- t o - ge t o f- a c r ab t omor row
" Tomorrow i s the s e a s on to ge t c r ab s . "
T i g - al ani na s ubong .
harve s t - s e as on alre ady now .
" I t ' s now harve s t s e as on . "
5 . 2 2 . The affi x t ag- has a meaning s i mi l ar t o t ig- ,
' charac t eri z e d by , s e as o n o f ' .
Tagduha ka p i s os ang abani ko .
two-each-one l i g . p e s o the fan
"The fans c o s t 12 . 0 0 e ach . "
Taglami g na s ubong .
s e as on-c ool already now .
" It ' s the c ool s ea s on now . "
T agtululug s ang b at a ang alas nue va .
s e as on-s le ep o f- a chi ld the t ime n i ne
" Ni ne o ' clo ck i s t he t i me for t he c hi ld to go to
s leep . "
Tags i nko s ent i mo s ang habon .
fi ve-eac h c e ntavos the s o ap
" The s o ap i s fi ve cent avo s e ach . "
Tag- uno s i ngkwent a ang yarda .
e ac h- one fi fty the yard
" One yard i s one - fi fty . "
9 7
5 . 2 3 . The affi x t aga- has the me ani ng o f ' plac e o f
ori gi n , from ' .
T aga-Pi l i pi nas ako .
from-Phi l i ppi ne s I
" I ' m from the Phi l i ppi nes . "
T ag a- s yudad s ang I loi lo s i a .
from- c i t y o f- a I lo i lo he
" He i s from t he c i ty o f I l o i l o . "
Taga-tupad ako s ang s ub a ' .
from-near I o f- a ri ver
" I ' m from near the ri ve r . "
Taga- ant i que s i a .
from- ant i que he
" He i s from Anti que . "
Ang t aga-Jaro di ri , s i Pabl o .
the from-Jaro that the-pe r s o nal Pabl o
" That o ne from J aro i s Pablo . "
5 . 2 4 . The affi x i nug- has t he meani ng o f
'
exp e c t e d
us e ' .
I nugbayad s ang mat ri cula ang kwart a .
expe c t e d-t o-pay o f- a mart i culat i o n- fe e the money
"The money is to be us e d to p ay the mat ri culat i o n
fee . "
9 8
I nugkant a s ang dalaga s ubong .
exp e c t e d-t o - s i ng o f- a gi rl now .
" I t ' s t i me for the g i r l to s i ng now . "
Inugs aot s ang t i ni kli ng ang b ayo nga i ni .
exp e c t e d- for-danc e o f-a t i ni kli ng the dre s s l i g .
t hi s
" Th i s dr e s s i s for danc i ng the t i ni kl i ng . "
I nuglumpat s ang mat aas ni Pe dro s ang nagpi t o ang
re feree .
exp e c t e d-to- j ump o f- a h i gh by-t he -pe rs onal Pedro
o f- a whi s t le d the re fe re e
"When the re feree whi s t le d i t was the t i me when
Pe dro was to j ump hi gh . "
5 . 2 5 . The affix manug- has the meaning o f ' i s the
oc c upat i o n o f ' .
Manugkuha s i a s ang s ekret aryal .
purpo s e-t aking s he o f-the s e c re t ar i al
" She i s goi ng to t ake s e c r e t ari al . "
Manuglab ada s i a namon .
purpo s e - laundry s he o f-us
" She is our laundry woman . "
Manugb akal s ang b al ay s i a .
buyer o f-the hous e h e
" He i s buye r o f the hous e . "
Manug- arado ako s ang umah .
plower I o f-the f i e l d
" I am plower o f the f i e l d . "
9 9
Manugpag aar ado s ang lup a ' ni Mr . Re ye s s i Jo s e .
b e i ng-plower o f-the l and o f-the-pe rs o nal Mr . Reyes
the-pers onal J o s e
" Jos e i s t h e plower o f Mr . R eye s ' l and . "
5 . 26 . The affi x magaka- means ' i s -b e coming . "
Magpakai s i p s i Jos e fa kung maleksyon s i a .
i s -b e c oming-s e l f i s h the-per s o nal J o s e fa i f le s s oned
s he
" J o s e f a b e c omes s el f i s h i f s he get s the l e s s on . "
Magpakamabuot k a .
i s -b e c omi ng-go o dn e s s you
" Be good ! "
Magpakahi m-ong ang b at a kung wala s i ng s aki t .
wi l l-be-go o d -t empe re d the c hi ld i f none o f the s i ck
" The chi l d wi ll b e good t empe r e d i f s he i s not s i c k . "
Magpakamab aikog ka s a pagt anom s ang humay .
will-be -s trong you i n-the pl ant i ng o f-the ri ce
" Be s trong i n pl ant i ng r i c e ! "
Degree s o f c ompari s on i n De s c ript i ve s . Like de-
gre e s i n adj e ct i ve s i n European l anguage s , there are
po s s i b i l i t i e s of s ayi ng whether a part i c ular de s c r i pt i on
i s normal as e xp e c t e d or i s mo re than us ual or l e s s than
100
us ual i n de gre e o f i nt ens i ty . The previ ous li s t o f
des c ri pt i ve s may b e taken a s normal s i tuat i ons . Di ffer-
ent from normal de gre e s o f i nt ens i ty are t he Di mi nut i ve ,
the Supe rlat i ve , and the Equalat i ve .
5 . 31 . Di mi nut i ve degre e . The Di mi nut i ve degree re fe rs
degrees of de s c r ipt i o n whi ch ar e l e s s than normal i n
quant i ty or quali ty .
5 . 31 . 1 . One type o f Dimi nut i ve degree i s marked by a
re dupl i c at i on o f the whole root and i ndi c at e s that the
qual i ty is ' pretended or s i mul at e d . 1 The a c c ent i s
us ually o n di fferent s yllab l e s i n the two roo t s s o
dupl i c a t e d .
b at a ' b at a ' ' pret ended chi l d ' from b at a ' ' chi l d '
nanaynanay ' play mother ' from nanay ' mothe r '
b alaybalay ' doll hous e ' from balay ' hous e '
l ahuglahog ' j us t ki dding ' from l ahog ' j oke '
dugaydogay ' a l i t t l e whi l e ' from � ' long
pe ri o d o f t ime '
pat aypat ay ' almo s t dead ' from

' de ath '
pulap6l a ' fai nt ly re d ' from pul a ' re d '
Kapulapol a s ang mga b i b i g ni Eulal i a .
fai nt ly- re d of-the plural l i p o f-the-pers onal Eulal i a
"Eulal i a ' s li ps ar e fai nt ly re d . "
1 0 1
Nanguy-ab ang ul i t ao kag madugaydogay nagahuragok na .
yawne d the youth and a-l i t t le-whi l e s nore d
" The youth yawne d and i n a l i t t l e whi l e he was already
s nori ng . "
Papat aypat ay s i a .
almo s t - de ad he
" H e was almo s t de ad . "
5 . 31 . 2 . Another dimi nut i ve de gre e i nd i c at e s t hat the
me ani ng of the root is l e s s i nt e n s e than normal . The
affi x is c
1
ulu- . The c
1
repre s ents the i n i t i al c ons o ­
nant o f t he s tem . ( All words be gi n wi th c ons onant s . )
huluhambal ' chi t - chat ' from hamb al ' talk '
t ulut awo ' puppet ' from t awo ' pe rs o n '
bulub aruto ' t oy c ano e ' from b aruto ' bo at '
ngulunguy-ab ' yawni ng from nsu;- ab ' yawn '
pl ayfully '
kulukadlaw ' s mi l i ng from kadlaw ' s mi l e '
gently '
tulut i ndog ' s louchi ng ' from t i ndos ' s t and '
5 . 32 . Ab s olute e �ual ity b etwe e n two or more de s c r i be d
ob j e c t s i s expre s s e d wi t h t he maska- affi x .
Magkas i l i ang kolor s ang i l a b ayo .
s ame- darkne s s the c olor o f-the the i r dre s s
" Th e i r dr e s s e s are the s ame i n darkn e s s o f c o lor . "
_
U2
Magkakl as e s i l a s a ' phys i c s ' .
s ame- c las s they i n-the ' phys i c s '
" They are c l as smat e s i n ' phys i c s ' . "
Magka s i l i ngan kami s a Mani l a .
s ame- ne i ghborhood we i n-the Mani l a
"We ' r e n e i ghbors i n Mani la . "
Magkadako s i l a s a li ma ka t ui g .
s ame- s i z e they i n-the fi ve l i g . year
" They ' ll b e t he s ame s i z e i n five ye ar s . "
5 . 3 3 . Comparat i ve e qual i ty i s e xpre s s e d wi th t he
kas i ng- affi x .
Kas i ngt aas ni P e dro s i Juan .
s ame-he i ght o f-the-pe r s onal P e dro t he -pe rs onal Juan
" P e dro i s the s ame h e i ght a s Juan . "
Kas i ngdi ut ay s ang mai s ang pe rl as .
s ame - smalln e s s o f-the corn the pe arl
" The p e arl is as small as a grai n of c o rn . "
Kas i ngpal ekero ni Pabl o s i y a .
s ame -playboyne s s o f-the-pers onal Pabl o he
"He is a playboy l i ke Pablo . "
Kas i ngput ot ko s i a .
s ame- s hortne s s o f-me he
" He i s t he s ame s hortne s s a s I . "
10 3
S i Pedro kas i n ggwapo ni Juan .
the-pers onal Pe dr o s ame-hands omene s s of-the-pe rs onal
Juan
" Pe dro i s as hands ome as Juan . "
5 . 3 4 . The Comparat i ve degre e may als o b e e xpre s s e d by
a comb i nat i on o f pl ai n D e s c ri pt i ve plus a s p e c i al phras e
c ons truct i on which marks the ob j e c t be i ng c ompare d .
( S e e als o s e c t i o n 7 . 3 4 . 2 . )
Mat aas s i Juan s a kay Jo s e .
t all the-pers onal Juan t o the-pers onal Jos e
" Juan i s t alle r than J o s e . "
Madamo ang i ya nab ali gya ' kay s a kay Fely .
much the he r s o l d than the -pe rs onal Fely
"She sold much mo re than Fely . "
I na ' nga humay mas mat amb ok s ang s a at o s a s ub a ' .
that l i g . r i ch mor e fat o f-the t o tat by-the ri ve r
"That ri c e i s fat t e r t han tho s e by the r i ve r . "
Map i s an s i a � a kay Pe dro .
i ndus t ri ous s he t o-the t o-the-pers onal Pedro
" She i s mo re i ndus t ri ous than Pedro . "
Ang mae s t r a maalam s a kay Mr . Cruz .
the t e acher- female i nt e l l i ge nt t o-the t o -the -pers onal
Mr . Cruz
" The t e acher is more i nt e l l i gent than Mr . Cruz . "
5 . 3 5 . I nt e ns e degree . A degre e o f s l i ghtly more i nt e n s e
1 0 4
quality appears i n re dupli c at e d root s wi t h a c c ent or
s t r e s s placed on the final s yl l able o f e ach root .
b alaybalay ' eve ry hous e ' from b al ay ' hous e '
buno-buno ' ' r e pe at e d from buno ' ' pi e r c e '
pi e r c ing '
laboylaboy ' wande r ' from l aboy ' s hake head '
s akas aka ' fr e quently from s aka ' as c end and
as c end and de s c end '
des c end '
l ikuliko ' go around from li ko ' ' t urn '
and aroun d '
ulongulong ' s hake the from ulong ' t urn he ad '
he ad r epe at e dly '
5 . 3 6 . Much More I nte ns e Degr e e . A D e s c r i pt i ve c an b e
expre s s i ve o f much mo re i nt e ns i ty o f qual ity than no rmal
by the us e of ka- alone on the root .
Kas anag s ang bul an .
br i ght o f- the mo on
" How b r i ght is the moon ! "
Kal ip-ot s ang mamayo s ubo ng .
s hort o f-the dre s s i ng now
" How s hort are women ' � dre s s e s now ! "
( o r , " How s hort i f the dr e s s i ng s tyle now ! " )
Kas ut i l s ang mga b at a ni l a .
naughty of-the plural chi l d of-t he i r s
" The i r chi ldren ar e very naughty . "
Kas i l i ang duag s ang b ayo mo
dark the c olor o f-the dr e s s o f-you
" The c olor o f your dre s s is very dark . "
Kat ahum s ang bul ak
be auti ful o f-the flower
" How b e aut i ful i s the flower ! "
1 0 5
5 . 3 7 . The Supe rlat i ve Degre e . The Supe rl at i ve degree
wi th the meani ng o f ' e . g . b i gge s t , h i ghe s t , et c . ' i s
s hown wi th the affi x pi naka- or pi nakama- .
Lakat an ang pi nakamat am- i s nga s agi ng .
l akat an- ( s p e c i e s o f b anana ) t he s weet e s t li g . b anana
" Lakat an i s the s weet e s t b anana . "
Math ang p i n akamabudlay ko nga leks yon .
math the harde s t o f-me li g . le s s on
" Math i s my harde s t s ub j e ct ( le s s on ) . "
Pi nakaabunansya ang uma ni Juan s a b aryo .
r i c he s t the fi eld o f-the-pers onal Juan i n-the b aryo
" Juan ' s farm is the r i che s t in the barri o . "
I na ' nga i s da ' ang pi nakahadlukan s a s ub a ' .
that li g . f i s h the mo s t - dange rous i n-the r i ver
" Th at f i s h i s the mo s t dangerous i n t he ri ve r . "
6 . VERBS .
Verbs are di s t i ngui s he d from other words i n H i l i gaynon
by t he i r i nfle ct i o n . I nfl e c t i on r e fe rs t o the attac hi ng
o f affi xes t o a root or s t em t o s how var i ous ki nds and
s t at e s of act i on . Verbs are i nfle c t e d for Foc us , As pec t ,
and Mode .
I t i s als o prob ab l e that verb root s have a s et o f i nher­
e nt fe atures whi ch they bri ng to the gr ammat i c al c ons true -
t i o n . At l e a s t s ome o f that s et mus t b e grammat i c al .
Such an a s s umpt i o n c ontri but e s mat e r i al ly to the de s c ri p-
t i o n o f the verb s . I t helps t o ac c ount for the di ffer-
ence in affix pot ent i al among verb root s , and it may also
provi de a b as i s for di s t i ngui s hi ng c l as s e s of l exi c al
root s .
Such i nherent fe atures s hould b e a part o f the di c t i onary
ent ry for each root . Unfortunat e ly , our i nve s t i gat i ons
o f the s e features are not comple te enough t o pe rmi t a
full s t at ement o f i nherent fe atures for every root .
Howeve r , i t i s import ant for the re ade r t o know that ve rb
ro ot s are not s imply lab e l s for ki nds o f ac t i ons ( e . g . ,
run , l augh , e at , thi nk , et c . , ) ; they al s o have r e s t r i c t i ng
grammat i c al feature s whi ch ne e d to b e t aken i nt o cons i d-
J0 O
107
e rat i o n when l e arning the func t ion o f a n ew root . Wher e
s uc h featur e s a r e alre ady known they are s p e c i fie d i n the
di c t i onary , but the i nherent s et o f fe atur e s for s ome
verb roo t s c annot ye t be s pe c i fi e d e i ther fully or i n
de t ai l . The re ade r s hould i nve s t i gat e e ac h ne w root he
e nc ount e rs .
6 . 1 . Verb Focus . The t e rm focus re fers t o a s p e c i al
grammat i c al r el at i o n between the act i on as repre s ent e d
by t h e Predi cate ve rb and one o f t h e p art i c i pant s i n the
act i on as repr e s e nt e d by the noun phras e compl ement s .
The focus re lat i o n has two i ndi c ator s , one i n the ve rb
and the other i n the noun phras e whi ch b e c omes the focus
compl ement .
s e ct i o n .
Only the former are di s c us s e d i n t hi s
The re are s i x foc us affi xe s and t he y s pl i t i nt o two
c l as s es . The c las s o f Ac t i o n focus e s has four memb ers
and the c las s o f S t at i ve focus e s has two memb ers . The
gr ammat i c al re l ati ons marke d by the Ac t i o n fo cus e s s erve
to h i ghl i ght one or anothe r of the following p art i c i pants
i n the ac t i o n : 1 ) the ac tor , 2 ) the go al or r e c e i ver o f
t he ac ti on , 3 ) that whi ch i s us e d to a c c ompl i s h the
ac t i o n o r whi ch is i mpl i c at e d
.
as the conveye d obj e ct in
the ac t i on , or 4 ) the bene f i c i ary or the place of the
1 0 8
act i on . By c ontras t the S t at ive focu s e s s how the topi c
( or fo c us c omplement ) o f a s e nt e nc e to e i t he r have the
ab i l ity t o pe r fo rm an ac t i on or to b e i n s ome r e s ul t ant
s t ate o f an act i on .
The i nt e r s e c t i o n o f Focus wi th As pec t and Mode c at e gori e s
wi ll b e di s c us s e d i n a l at e r s e ct i on .
6 . 1 1 . The Ac t i o n Foc us e s . The four Ac t i o n foc us e s are
l abe l e d Goal focus , R e ferent foc us , Ac c e s s ory foc us , and
Ac tor focus . Though char ac te ri s t i c affixes are as s o c i at e d
wi t h e ach o f t he focus e s as gi ven b e low , t he r e a r e o c c a­
s i ons i n whi ch a root i nfle c t e d wi th the prope r affi x
do e s not re fle c t the focus e xpe c t e d . Thi s doe s not
happen wi th great fr eque ncy , but i t happens o ft e n enough
to warr ant an expl anat i o n . O n e obvious e xp l anat i o n , but
not well-doc ument e d , i s t hat the root o r s t em i nvolved
has an " i nhe rent " focus whi c h , whe n combi ne d wi t h the
foc us s i gnal o f the affi x r e s ul t s i n s omething other
than what i s exp e ct e d . A di fferent e xpl anat i o n p o i nt s
to the po s s i b i l i ty that the focus e s are not de s c r i be d i n
general enough t e rms . But what ever the " r i ght " e xpl ana-
tion the reader s hould b e prepar e d for the s e e xc e pt i ons
and make a hote of the devi ancy i nvolve d .
6 . 11 . 1 . Goal Focus . A verb marke d for Goal focus i ndi -
10 9
c at e s t hat the t o pi c of the s entenc e i s the obj e c t whi c h
di re c t ly r e c e i ve s the act i o n . I n other words , the di re c t
obj e c t of the verb i s the top i c . Thi s foc us i s s i gnal e d
by t he verb s uf fi x -on . The To p i c phras e i s i ntroduc e d
b y the part i c le �.
fi nal roots . )
Exampl e s :
( Vari ant -hon o c curs wi th vowel-
Kuhaon mo ang gumamel a s ang kamot mo .
wi ll-take you the gumame l a ( flowe r ) wi th-the hand your
" You wi ll t ake the gumame l a with your hand . "
Lutuon ko ang pagkaon .
wi ll-c ook I the food
"I wi ll cook the food . "
I s ipon mo ang mga t awo s a b alay .
wi ll-c ount by-you the plural pe r s o n i n-the hous e
" You c o unt the people i n the hous e . "
S i nghut o n mo ang bul ak .
wi ll- smell by-you the flower
" smell the flowe r . "
Ginkaon mo ang mangga s a kus i na .
ate by-you the mango i n the ki t chen
" You at e the mango i n the ki t chen . "
1 1 0
6 . 11 . 2 . Re ferent Focus ( or Loc at i ve Focus ) . A verb
marked for Re ferent focus i ndi c at e s t hat the l o c at i o n or
b ene fi c i ary of the ac t i o n i s the t o pi c of the s ent en c e .
Thi s focus i s s i gnaled by the verb s uffi x - an .
-han o c curs wi th vowe l- final roots . )
Exampl e s :
H ampangan ko s ang madyong ang l ame s a .
wi ll-play-on by-me o f-the madj ong the t abl e
" I wi ll play madj ong on the t ab l e . "
( Vari ant
Lutuan ko s ang kan-on s ang b aboy ang kaldero .
wi l l - c ook-i n by-me o f-the food o f-the p i g the pot
"I will c ook the p i g ' s food in the pot . "
Tukaran ni ya s ang Kundiman s i Mr . Reyes .
wi ll-play- for by-him o f-the Kundiman the -pe rs onal
Mr . Reyes
" He wi l l play ' Kundiman ' for Mr . Reyes . "
Bas ahan ko s ang li bro ang bata ni ya .
wi ll-re ad-for by-me o f-the book the c hi ld o f-her
" I wi l l re ad the book for her c hi ld . "
Gi nkan-an ko ang kus i na s ang mangg a .
at e- from by-me the ki t c he n of-the mango
"I at e s ome mango in the k i t chen . "
Th i s focus i s al s o us ed t o s i ngle out the be ne fi c i ary o f
an ac t i o n as the topi c .
111
Lutuan ko s ang p agkaon s i Tatay .
wi ll-c ook-for I o f-the food the-pers onal Fathe r
" I wi l l cook s ome food f o r Father . "
Lutuan niya kamo s ang s ud-an .
wi l l-c ook-for s he you-pl o f-the vi and
" She wi ll cook s ome vi and for you . "
Kuhaan mo ako s ang bul ak .
wi l l- ge t - for by-you I o f-the flower
" Get a flower for me . "
6 . 11 . 3 . Ac c e s s ory Focus . The pre fi x i - i ndi c at e s t hat
the topi c o f the s ente nc e i s the thi ng us e d i n the pe r-
formanc e o f the act i o n , or that whi ch i s i nvo lve d i n the
ac t i on as a t hi rd p arty . I t may s omet i me s appe ar t o b e
t h e goal but i t i s a go al wi t h whi ch s omet hi ng i s do ne ,
no t a go al whi ch i s affe c t e d or c hange d di re c t ly by the
acti on . The Ac c e s s ory i s fr e quently the i n s t rument whi ch
i s u s e d to ac c ompl i s h the act i o n , e . g . , a penc i l us ed t o
wri t e a let t e r , or an ax us e d t o cut down a t ree ; o r i t
i s s ome thi ng i mpl i c at e d i n the ac t i o n , s uch a s a b anana
t re e whi ch i s plant e d . Goals o f thi s ki nd fi ll a di ffer-
ent role from that of the goals i n the Goal Foc us Con-
s truct i ons . Bene fi c i ar i e s may als o appe ar as topi c wi th
t hi s focus . I t wi l l be remembe r e d that the Re ferent
focus also h i ghl i ght s a be ne fi c i ary of an act i on . Unli ke
1 1 2
the s ituat i on wi t h goals , howeve r , t he r e doe s no t s eem
to b e any d i s c e rnible di fferenc e between the bene fi c i ary
o f a R e ferent focus and one o f an Ac c e s s ory foc us .
Example s o f the Ac c e s s ory Foc us c ons t ruct i ons follow .
I luto ko ang manok .
wi ll- cook by-me the c hi c ken
" I wi l l c ook the c hi cken . "
I s ul at mo s a pi s ar a ang chalk .
wi ll-wr i t e -wi th by-you on-the b l ackbo ard the chalk
" You will wri te on the b l ackbo ard with t he chalk . "
I l i mpyo mo s a s apatos ang t rapo .
wi ll-wi pe -wi th by-you on-the s hoe s the rag
" You wi pe the s hoes wi th the rag . "
I s unog mo ako s ang dahon .
wi ll-burn- for by-you I o f-the l e ave s
" You burn s ome l e ave s for me . "
Ikuh a ' s ang gumamel a ang kamot mo .
wi ll-get-with o f-the gumamela the hand o f-you
" Take a gumame l a wi th your hand . "
Example s o f the b ene fi c i ary o c curri ng as Topi c wi th thi s
focus i nc lude the fourth example above and the followi ng :
I lut o mo s ang adobe ang mae s t r a .
wi ll-c ook- for by-you o f-the adob e t h e t e ache r- female
" C ook s ome adob e for the t e acher . "
1 1 3
I t ahi ' mo s ang b ayo ang hi nablas ko .
wi ll- s ew-for by-you of-the dr e s s the n i e c e o f-me
" S ew a dr e s s for my ni e c e . "
I tuyob mo ako s ang kas i ng .
wi l l - s pi n- for by-you I o f-the top
" Spi n a t op for me . "
I li ko ' mo ako s ang karbao .
wi l l-turn- for by-you I o f-the c arab ao
" Turn t he c ar ab ao for me . "
6 . 1 1 . 4 . Ac t o r Focus . Ac tor focus i s s i gnalled by the
� c l as s of affi xe s and i ndi c at e s that the actor of
the act i on i s t he t o pi c of the s ent enc e .
Exampl e s :
Lumuto s i a s ang li napuhan
wi ll-c o ok he o f-the ve get ab l e s
" He wi ll c ook s ome ve ge t ab l e s . "
Sumul at ka kay J o s e bwas .
wi ll-wri t e you t o-the -pe rs onal J o s e t omorrow
" You wri t e t o Jo s e t omorrow . "
Kumuha s i ya s ang libro .
got s he o f-the book
" She got the book . "
Lumangoy s i J o s e s a b aybay .
wi ll- swim the-pers onal J o s e at-the b each
" Jos e wi ll swim at the b e ach . "
1 1 4
Lumakat ang karo s a .
move d the c arabao- s l e d
" The c arab ao s l e d move d . "
The remai ni ng Ac tor focus affi xe s have c omplex meani ng
whi ch i s part modal a nd pa r t foc al . They are , t he re fore ,
pre s ent e d l at e r i n the s e c t i ons whe re the mo de s wi th
whi ch they s har e meaning are de s cr ib e d .
6 . 1 2 . The S t at i ve Foc us e s . The two S t at i ve focus e s are
S t at i ve Ac tor focus and S t at i ve Go al foc us . The s e labe l s
are i nt e nde d t o b e ge neral c ove r t e rms f o r a var i ety o f
meanings f o r e a c h o f t he two focus e s rathe r than expl i c i t
de f i ni t i o ns .
6 . 12 . 1 . The Stati ve Goal Fo c us is s i gnal e d by the affix
ma- , and us ual ly indi c at e s as t op i c o f t he s ent e nc e the
party whi ch has been put i nt o s ome s t at e , or t o whom
s ome quali ty or charact e r i s t i c i s att r i but e d by anothe r .
Pe rhaps the de s c ri pt i on could b e that o f a focus on the
p arty who i s as s i gned s ome parti cular s t at e or quali ty
o f b e i n g , i n c ontras t to the party whi ch has s uc h a s t ate
or quality i nhe rently .
Example s :
115
Maluto ni ya ang pagkaon s a alas dos e .
wi l l -b e - cookabl e by�her t he food at �the t ime 1 2
" She c an c ook t he food a t 1 2 o ' c lo c k . "
The qual i ty of be i ng cookabl e i s at t r ibut e d t o the foo d .
Magut om s i ya s a l akat .
wi ll-be-hungry s he i n-the walk
" She wi l l b e c ome hungry from walki ng . "
Makapoy ka s a hampang .
wi ll-be-t i re d you i n-the play
" You wi l l b e t i re d from pl ayi ng . "
Mat ambok s i a s a kaon .
wi l l-be- fat s he i n-the e at i ng
" She wi l l b e fat from e at i ng . "
Nal angoy ni J o s e ang b ayb ay .
s wam by-the-pers onal J o s e the b e ach
" J o s e swam at the b e ach . "
6 . 12 . 2 . The S t at i ve Ac tor Focus s i gnal e d by the affi x
c lus t e r maka- indi c at e s that t he t opi c o f the s e nt e nc e
has an i nhe rent ab i l i ty to b e i n the s t ate s p e c i fi e d or
has the i nherent qual i ty name d by the verb root . Al-
though s ome c a s e s are doub t ful , the t opi c is mo s t fre-
que ntly the ac tor o f the s ent e nc e .
Example s :
l l 6
6 . 2 .
Makaluto ' s i Nanay s ang p agkaon .
wi ll-be-able-to-c ook t he-pe r s onal Nanay o f-the food
" Nanay wi ll b e abl e to c ook s ome food . "
Makabus og ang pans i t .
wi l l-make-full t he pans i t
"The pans i t wi ll be fi lli ng . " ( that i s , make the
e at e r full . )
Makab akal s i a s ang balay .
c an-buy s he o f-the hous e
" She c an buy a hous e . "
Makadala ang bata s ang mal et a .
wi ll-b e -able-t o - c arry the c hi ld o f-the s ui t c a s e
" The c hi l d c an carry the s ui t c as e . "
Makalangoy s i a s a s ub a ' .
wi ll-b e - able-t o-s wi m he at-the ri ver
" He can s wi m at the r i ve r . "
Nakab a s a ako s ang l ibro kahapon .
was - able -t o- re ad I of-the book ye s t e rday
" I was able to r e ad a book ye s t e rday . "
Verb Aspe ct . The As pe c t o f a ve rb s hows whether
or not an acti on has be gun . I t may appear t o b e e qui v-
alent to the c at e gory of t e n s e in European languages
but i t does not ac tual ly re lat e to po i nt s i n a s pe c t rum
o f t i me . Ve rbal ac t i on c an b e related to t i me i n
H i l i gaynon but it i s a c c ompli s he d s p e c i fi c ally by the
117
i nc lus i on of t ime words i n the s ent e n c e ( e . g . , ye s t e rday ,
today , now , next year , e t c . , ) rather than by verb i n-
fle c t i on . Think o f the As pe c t , the re fore , as an expr e s -
s i on o f t h e condi t i on o f t h e ac t i on , i . e . , e i ther b e gun
or not b e gun . Ac t i o n whi ch has not yet b e gun i s l abe l e d
t he Unre al Aspe c t . Ac t i o n whi ch has alre ady be gun i s
labe l e d the R e al Aspe ct .
6 . 2 1 . Unreal Aspe c t .
the affi xe s � or !
·
The Unreal As pe c t i s s i gnal e d by
The z e r o marker , ! , appe ars in all
the Ac t i on focus e s except Ac tor Foc us . The affi x m-
appe ars in the l att e r and i n all the Stati ve foc us e s .
Lut uon mo ang adobe .
wi ll-c ook by-you the adobe
" You wi ll c o ok the adobe . "
The verb lutuon has a z e ro marke r for the Unreal As pe c t
i n th i s s ent enc e .
Magalut o ' ang mangga s a anom ka adlaw .
wi ll-ri pen the mango i n s i x l i g . day
" The mang o wi ll ri pen in s i x days . "
The verb magalut o ' has m- marki ng the Unre al As pe c t .
Although i t i s here t r ans l at e d wi th the Engl i s h future
te ns e as the neare s t e qui val e nt me ani ng i n Engli s h , thi s
i s not alway s the mos t appropr i at e t r ans lat i on a s wi ll
__
O
b e s ee n i n future exampl e s .
6 . 22 . R e al Aspe c t . The R e al As pe c t i s s i gnal e d by four
vari ant s : gi n- , - i n- , f , and n- . The affi x gi n- i s the
no rmal marker i n all the Act i o n focus e s except the Ac t or .
The - i n- affi x s e ems to b e a free vari ant o f gi n- and
can us ually be s ub s t i tut e d for i t with no change o f
meaning . The z ero repres entat i on o f R e al As pe c t appe ar s
i n Act o r Foc us forms wi th �. T h e n- vari ant appe ars
as the marke r o f R e al As pe c t i n the re s t o f the Ac t or
Foc us forms and i n the Stat i ve Fo cus e s .
Gi nb akal ko s ang b ayo ang kwart a .
b ought-wi t h I o f-the dr e s s the mo ney .
" I bought a dr e s s wi th the money . "
Naglakat ako s a Bagui o .
walked I to-the Bagui o
" I walked t o Bagui o . "
Lumut o ' s iy a s ang l i napuhan .
c ooked s he o f-the vegetabl e
" She c o o ke d s ome ve ge t abl e . "
6 . 2 3 . Aspe ct and Ti me . The c l ai m t hat H i l i g aynon As -
p e c t s are no t c orrelat e d to poi nt s i n t i me i s s upporte d
by dat a o f the ki nd gi ven be low whi ch s how that the
As pe c ts are us e d wi thout re ferenc e to t i me , but wi th
119
re fe re nc e to the condi t i o n o f the act i on . The re ader i s
e s p e c i ally caut i o ne d agai ns t as s o c i at i ng a f i xe d Engl i s h
t e n s e t rans l at i on wi th e i the r o f t h e H i l i g aynon As pe c t s
s i nc e the t rans l at i on wi l l vary depending on t he re al -
world s i t uat i o n and on t he re qui rement s and r e s t r i c t i ons
of the Engl i s h t r ans l at i on . To i l lus t rate thi s poi nt a
s el e c t i on o f example s i s gi ven b e low s howi ng us e s o f
Unre al As pe c t i n a vari ety o f t i me s i tuat i ons .
Nakatrab aho ako kahapon kung i ndi ' ako magp aBagui o .
was - able-to-work I ye s t e rday i f not I wi ll-go-to­
Bagui o
" I could have worked ye s t e rday i f I hadn ' t been
to
Bagui o . "
The t i me s i t uat i o n o f th e e xampl e above i s pas t t i me but
the act i o n i s expre s s e d p artly as R e al As pe c t ( naka-
trab aho ) and partly as Unreal As pe c t ( magaBagui o ) .
I n the fol lowi ng c laus e the verb pagb ayr an i s R e ferent
Foc us and Unre al As pe c t , me ani ng ' wi l l pay ' , or ' e xpe c t
to pay ' . The ac t i o n i s vi ewe d as not b e gun .
Kahapon i ndi ' ko p agb ayran ang mga b al ayran .
ye s t e rday not by-me wi ll-pay the plural b i ll
" Y e s t e rday , I di d not feel li ke p ayi ng the bi l l s . "
The R e al As pec t o f thi s verb may b e s ub s t i tut e d for the
Unre al Aspect form i n the s ame s e nt e nc e , but with
1 2 0
di fferent meaning .
Kahapon i ndi ' ko gi nb ayran ang mga b alayran .
ye s t e rday not by-me pai d the plural b i ll
" Y e s t e rday , I di d not p ay the b i ll s . "
The R e al As pe c t i s here comb i ne d wi th an overt negat i ve
e l s ewhere i n the c l aus e t o deny that the b e gun ac t i on
was act ually pe rforme d . Compare the following s ent e nc e
wi th t he fi r s t above f o r a di fferent e xample o f the us e
o f Unr e al As pe c t .
Pagb ayran ko ang mga b al ayran bwas .
wi ll-pay by-me the plural bi l l t omor row
" I wi ll pay the b i ll s t omorrow . "
Cons i de r the us e o f the As pe c t s i n the following s en-
t e nc e s for further i ns i ght i nt o the di s t i nc t i o n be tween
t i me and c o ndi t i on o f ac ti on as us e d i n H i l i gaynon .
Makaluto ' s i a s ang p amahaw kung nakab i s - ak ako s ang
kahoy .
c an-b e- c ooked s he o f-the bre akfas t i f was - chopp e d I
o f-the wood
" She wi ll b e abl e t o cook bre ak fas t whe n I have
chopp e d s ome wood . "
Kung mag-abot ka nab a s a ko ang li bro .
i f wi l l- arri ve you have-read by-me the book
" When you ar r i ve I wi ll have r e ad the book . "
121
Kung mag- abot ka makab a s a ako s ang li bro .
i f wi ll-arri ve you wi l l -b e - able-to - re ad I o f-the book
" When you wi ll arr i ve I wi ll b e able t o r e ad the book . "
Kung mag-abot ka nakab a s a ako s ang li bro .
i f wi l l - arri ve you was - abl e -t o-re ad I of-the book
" When you arr i ve I wi ll have read the book . "
Note the di ffe re nc e s i n the two o c c as i o ns o f the verb s ,
makabas a and nakab a s a i n the l as t two s e ntenc e s .
O . 2+ . Var i ous vi ews o f Aspe c t . Re c e nt di s c us s i ons o f
As pe c t i n verb s i n Phi l i ppi ne language s re c o gn i z e s four
b as i c forms
5
vari ous ly labe l e d e i ther as pe c t or t e ns e .
Earl i e r , Bl oomfi e ld had d e s c r i be d two as pe c t s wi th two
O
mo des e ach for T agalog . The l e s s on mat eri als ac c ompa-
nyi ng t hi s re fere nc e gr ammar pres e nt a four-way as pe c t
conj ugat i o n for t he H i l i gaynon verb s . I t can be i llus -
t rat e d by us i ng one o f the Act o r Focus fo rms .
Aspe ct
B as i c As pe c t :
C ompl e t e d As pe ct :
Durat i ve As pe c t :
Propo s e d As pe ct :
5
s e e i t ems i n Bibl i ography .
O
S e e Bloomfi e ld i n Bibl i o graphy .
Actor Focus
mag-
nag-
nag a-
mag a-
J 2 2
There i s a p art i al s i mi lari t y i n t h e four affi xe s : -ag-
app e ars i n all o f them .
and two be gi n wi th n- .
Two o f the s et be g i n wi th m­
Two have an addi t i onal -a-
ending the affi x but two have nothi ng adde d . The s e
s i mi larit i e s have l e d t o a di ffere nt pres ent at i o n i n t hi s
grammar . The m- / n- di s t i nc t i on i s t aken t o b e the only
As pec t s i gnal in the language and the r e s t of the form
is as s i gned to a d i s t i nc t i o n in mo de s and wi l l be di s ­
cus s e d i n later s e ct i ons .
Just i fi c at i on for the analys i s pre s e nt e d he re s t ems from
a c o ns i derat i on of the i nt e r s e ct i ng re l at i ons hi ps of the
As pec t and Mode c at egori e s . By a c c ept i ng only two
As pe ct s , Re al and Unreal , s ymmet ri c al s et s of mo de affi xes
c an be i dent i fi e d . By rej e c t i ng thi s vi ew s ome s et s of
Mode affi xe s are t runc at e d and part i al .
The As pec t s ys tem for the s i x focus e s c an be s e en i n
Chart V .
Goal Focus :
Re ferent Foc us :
Ac c e s s ory Fo cus :
Ac tor Focus
S t at i ve Actor :
S t at i ve Goal :
Unreal As pe c t
Re al As pe c t
Unreal As pe c t
Re al As pec t
Unr e al As pe c t
Re al As pec t
Unreal As pe c t
Real As pec t
Unre al As pe c t
Re al As pe c t
Unre al As pe c t
Real As pe c t
CHART V .
lutuon
gi nlut o '
lutuan
gi nlutuan
i luto '
gi nlut o '
s umul at
s umul at
makalut o '
!akalut o '
malut o '
naluto '
Chart o f the V erb As pe c t Affi xe s .
12+
I l lus tr at i ve s entenc e s t o ac c ompany the forms c i t e d i n
Chart V fol low .
Go al Foc us :
Re ferent Focus :
Lutuan mo ang b i b i ngka .
wi ll- c ook by-you the r i c e- c ake
" You c ook t he r i c e c ake ! "
( or , " You wi l l c ook t he r i c e c ake " . )
Gi nlut o ' mo ang bi bi ngk a .
c ooke d by-you t h e r i c e - c ake
" You c ooke d the ri c e c ake . "
Lutuan ko kamo s ang bi bi ngka .
wi ll- c ook by-me you o f-t he r i c e - c ake
" I wi l l c ook s ome ri c e c ake for you . "
Gi nlutuan ko kamo s ang b i b i ngka .
c ooke d by-me you of-the r i c e - c ake
" I c ooked s ome ri c e cake for you . "
Ac c e s s ory Focus : I luto ' ko ang manok .
wi ll-c ook by-me the c hi cken
" I wi ll c ook the c hi c ken . "
Ac tor Focus :
Gi nlut o ' ko ang manok .
c ooke d by-me the chi c ken
" I c ooked the chi cken . "
Maglut o ' k a s ang bi bi ngka .
wi ll- c ook you o f-the r i c e - c ake
" You cook s ome r i c e cake ! "
( or , " Y ou wi ll c ook s ome r i c e c ake ! " )
naglut o ' ka s ang bi b i ngka .
c ooked you of-the r i c e c ake
" You c o oke d s ome r i c e c ake . "
12 5
S t at i ve Acto r : Makalut o • s i a s ang bi bi ngka .
wi ll-b e - abl e -t o- cook s he o f-the r i c e - c ake
" She wi ll be abl e t o c ook s ome r i c e c ake . "
nakaluto ' s i a s ang bi bi ngka .
c o oke d s he o f-the r i c e - c ake
" She c ooked s ome r i c e c ake . "
S t at i ve Goal : Malut o ' ni ya ang b ib i ngka .
c an-be - c o oke d by-he r the r i c e - c ake
" The r i c e c ake c an be c o oke d by he r . "
Nalut o ' niya ang b i bi ngka .
was - able -to-b e - co oke d by-her the r i c e - c ake
" The r i c e c ake was c ooked by he r . "
6 . 3 . Ve rb Mode . The mode o f the verb expre s s e s the
s p e ake r ' s vi ew of the way i n whi c h the act i on i s t o be
pe r forme d . There are e i ght s i mpl e mode s i n t he
H i l i gaynon verb format i o n : the Neut ral , the Purpos i ve ,
the Durat i ve , the Caus at i ve , the D i s t ri but i ve , the C o-
operat i ve , the Obl i g atory , and the Dub i t at i ve . The
marke d mode s are i llus trat e d in Chart VI for all the
Foc us e s in the Unreal As pe c t . Thi s part i cul ar form o f
t h e verb provi de s t h e c le ar e s t i l lus t rat i ons s i nc e the
overt marker o f mo de freque ntly reverts t o z e ro , ¢ , in
1 2 6
the R e al As pe c t .
6 . 31 . S imple Ve rb Mode s . By de fi ni t i o n the s i mpl e mo des
are s i gnaled by a s i ngle a ffi x . Affi x c omb i nati ons are
handle d i n a late r s e c t i on .
6 . 31 . 1 . Neut ral o r Unmarke d Mode . The verb forms i n
Chart I are gi ven i n t h e Neut ral Mode . Thi s could b e
l abe l e d t h e Unmarke d Mode s i nc e t h e r e s t o f t h e Modes all
have overt affi xe s whi ch are i nc orporat e d i nt o the ve rb
form . Thi s mode , howeve r , lac ks any overt marke r . Re fe r
t o Chart V. for i l lus t rat i ons o f the form of the verb i n
Neut r al Mode .
6 . 31 . 2 . The Purpo s i ve Mode . The Purpos i ve mo de i s
s i gnaled by the affi x �, and i ndi c at e s t hat the act i on
i s pe r forme d deli berat e ly wi th di li ge nc e and c ar e . Note
that the form o f the affi x b e comes mag- for Ac t or Foc us .
The format i o n for e ach focus i s as follows :
Obj e ct Focus :
Refe re nt Foc us :
Ac c e s s ory Foc us :
Act or Foc us :
Stat i ve Act or :
S t at i ve Go al :
�lutuo n
�lutuan
i �luto '
maglut o '
maka�luto '
ma�luto '
1 2 7
I llus trat i ve s e nt e nc e s
Paglutuon mo ang p amahaw s a kus i na .
wi ll- c ook- c ar e fully by-you the br e akfas t i n-the ki t chen
" You wi ll c ar e fully cook br e akfas t in the ki t chen . "
Paglutuan mo ang kus i na s ang pamahaw .
wi ll-c ook- c ar e fully by-you the ki t chen o f-the bre ak fas t
'' You wi l l c ar e fully c ook s ome br eakfas t i n the k i t chen . "
I pagluto ' mo kami s ang pamahaw s a kus i na .
wi ll -c are fully-c ook- for by-you us o f-the br e akfas t i n­
the k i t chen .
" You wi l l c are fully c ook s ome bre akfas t for us i n the
ki t chen . "
Maglut o ' ka s a kus i na s ang pamahaw .
wi l l - c ook you i n-the ki t chen o f-the b r e akfas t
" You wi l l c ar e fully cook s ome br e akfas t i n the k i t chen . "
Makapagluto ' s i a s a i l a ni Mr . Cruz s a s unod nga s i mana .
c an-c ook he t o-the them o f-the-pers onal Mr . Cruz i n-the
followi ng l i g . week
" He c an do the c ooki ng for Mr . Cruz and hi s compani ons
dur i ng the c omi ng we ek . "
Mapag-away s i Pe dro kay Juan .
wi l l-di li gent ly- fi ght the-pers onal Pe dro wi th-the-per­
" Pe dro i s going t o re ally box Juan . "
s onal Juan
6 . 31 . 3 . The Durat ive Mode . The Durat i ve mo de i s s i gnaled
by the affi x -a- combi ne d wi th �. The mo de i ndi c at e s
that the act i on i s vi ewed as a c ont i nui ng pro c e s s .
J 2 O
Goal Focus :
Re fere nt Focus :
As s o c i at i ve Foc us :
Ac tor Focus :
S t at i ve Goal :
S t at i ve Act o r :
�lutU..
�lutuan
i�lut o '
magalut o '
ma�lut o '
( no form )
I llus trat i ve s e nt e nc e s
Pagalutuon ko ang l et s on .
wi ll-b e - c ooki ng by-me the l e c hon
" I ' l l be c ooki ng l e c hon ( b arb
ec
ue d pork } . "
Pagalutuan ko s ang s ud-an ang kulo n .
wi ll-b e- c ooki ng-i n by-me o f-the vi and the pot
" I ' ll c ook the vi and in the pot . "
Pagalutuan ko kamo s ang s ud- an .
wi ll- cook- for by-me you-pl of-the vi and
" I ' ll c o ok s ome vi and for you . "
I pagaluto ' ko ang s ud-an s a kulon .
wi ll-c ook by-me the vi and i n-the pot
" I ' l l c ook the vi and i n the pot . "
I pagalut o ' ko k amo s ang s ud- an .
wi ll-c ook- for by-me you-pl of-the vi and
" I ' ll c o ok s ome vi and for you . "
Mag aluto ' ako s ang let s on .
wi ll-b e -c ooki ng I o f-the l e c hon
" I ' l l b e cooki ng s ome l e chon . "
Mapagalutuan s ang karne ang kulon .
wi ll- cook- i n o f-the meat the pot
129
" The c l ay-pot wi ll b e us e d for c ooki ng s ome me at i n . "
6 . 3 1 . 4 . The C aus ati ve Mode . The C aus at i ve Mode i s s i g-
nal e d by the affi x �, and i ndi c at e s t hat the ac t or i s
not the pe r former o f the ac ti o n . H e i s rathe r the agent
who has s ome one e l s e do i t . A s imple C aus ati ve mo de
format i on for the Ac tor Focus is lacki n g .
for the other focus e s follow .
Ob j e ct F o cus :
Re ferent Foc us :
Ac c e s s ory Focus :
Act or Focus :
S t at i ve Ac t or :
Stati ve Go al :
I llus t rat i ve s e nt e nc e s
�lutuon
�lutuan
i �lut o '
( no form )
maka�lut o '
ma�luto '
Palut uo n ko ang s agi ng .
wi ll-have - c ooked by-me the b anana
" I wi ll have the b anana c ooked . "
I l lus trati ons
1 30
Pa
lutuan ko s ang s agi ng s i Tat ay .
wi ll-have - c ooke d- for by-me of-the b anana the-pers onal
Tat ay
" I wi ll have s omeone c o ok s ome b anana for Tatay . "
Palutuan niya s ang s�gi ng ang kahon .
will-have-ri pened-i n by-he r o f-the banana the box
" She wi ll have s omeone ri pen a b anana i n t he b ox . "
I paluto ' mo ang s �g i ng kay Mart a .
will-have - c ooked by-you the b anana to-the Marta
" You wi ll have Mar t a c ook the b anana . "
Makapaluto ' ako s ang p agkaon .
c an-have-c ooked I o f-the food
"I c an h ave s ome food c ooke d . "
Mapalut o ' ko ang lumpya kay Mrs . Reyes .
c an-have- c ooked by-me the lump i a by-the Mrs . Reyes
" I c an have the lumpi a cooke d by Mrs . Reyes . "
The D i s t ri but i ve Mode . The D i s t ribut i ve Mode
is s i gnal e d by the affix �, and i ndi c at e s that the
action is pe r forme d on a mult i pli c i ty of ob j e ct s , o r i s
repeat e d act i on . I llus t r at i ons o f thi s verb format i on i n
the various focus e s follow .
Ob j e ct Foc us : �lutuon
Re ferent Focus : �lutuan
Ac c e s s ory Foc us :
1 31
Ac t or Focus : manglut o '
S t at i ve Ac tor : maka�lut o '
S t at i ve Goal : ma�luto '
I llus trati ve s ent e nc e s
Panglutuon ko ang lumpya s a kal aha ' .
wi ll- c ook-a-quant i ty by-me the lump i a i n-the fry-pan
" I wi l l c o ok a quant i ty of the lump i a in the fryi ng
pan . "
Panglutuan s ang kan-on s ang b aboy i nang kaldero .
wi ll-c ook- i n o f-the food o f-the p i g that-li g . pot
" I wi ll c ook s ome p i g ' s food i n the pot . "
I panglut o ' ko s ang lumpya ang kalaha ' .
wi ll-b e-us e d-t o-c ook by-me o f-the lump i a the fry-pan
"I wi l l us e the fryi ng pan to cook s ome lumpi a . "
Manglut o ' s i a s ang lumpya .
wi ll-c ook- a- quant i t y s he o f-the lump i a
" She w i l l c ook a quant i ty o f lump i a . "
Makapanglut o ' s i a s a . s ab ado .
c an- c ook-vari ety s he on-the S aturday
" She can do the c ooki ng on S at urday . "
Mapanguha ' s i l a s ang i s da ' s a s ub a ' .
wi ll- c at ch-vari ety they o f-the fi s h on-the ri ver
" They wi ll c at ch s ome fi s h at the ri ver . "
1 3 2
6 . 31 . 6 . T he Coope rat i ve Mode . The Cooperat i ve Mode i s
s i gnale d by the affi x - ki - . The affi x appe ar s a s an
i nf i x in � and does not o c cur apart from that Purpo s i ve
mo de marker or i t s vari ant mag- . The Cooperat i ve Mode
i ndi c at e s that the act i o n is pe r formed j o i nt ly , or that
the re s ult o f s ome ac t i o n is s h are d by the ac tor and the
goal of the act i o n . I llus trat i ons o f i t s o c c urrenc e i n
e ach o f t h e focus e s follow .
Obj e ct Focus : paki glut uon
Re ferent Foc us : p aki glutuan
Ac c e s s ory Foc us : i paki glut o '
Ac tor Foc us : makiglut o '
S t at i ve Actor : makap aki glut o '
Stati ve Goal : map aki glut o '
I llus trat i ve s ent e nc e s
Paki glutuon mo ang s ud-an .
wi ll-ple as e - cook by-you t he vi and
" Pleas e cook the vi and . " ( or , " Y ou wi l l pl e as e cook
the vi and . " )
Paki glutuan ko k amo s ang pani udto .
wi l l - i nvolve-i n-c ooki ng by-me you o f-the lunch
"I wi ll cook lunch for you . "
I pakigluto ' ko kamo s ang paniudt o .
wi ll- i nvolve- i n- c ooking by-me you o f-the lunch
"I will c ook lunch for you . "
1 3 3
Maki glut o ' k i t a s a kus i na n i Tya Epang .
wi ll- s hare-i n- cooki ng we i n-the ki t chen o f-the-per­
s onal Tya Epang
" We wi l l s hare Tya Epang ' s ki t chen for c ooki ng . "
Makap aki glut o ' ako kay Jos e fa s a Lune s .
c an- re que s t - to- cook I o f-the Jos e fa on-the Monday
" I c an reque s t Jos e fa to do the cooki ng on Monday . "
Mapaki glut o ' niya ako para s a S ab ado kay Mari a .
c an- re que s t -t o-have- c ook s he I for on-the S aturday
t o-the -pe rs o nal Mar i a
" She c an reque s t me to have Mar i a c ook on Saturday . "
Paki glutuan ko s ang pani u dtu ang kulon .
will- cook-t ogether by-me o f-the lunch the pot
"I will cook everythi ng for lunch i n the pot . "
I paki glut o ' ko ang paniudt o .
wi ll- c ook-t ogether by-me the lunch .
" I wi ll c ook everythi ng for lunch . " ·
6 . 31 . 7 . Dub i t at i ve Mode . The Dub i t at i ve Mode i s s i g-
nal e d by the affix iga- , and has the meaning o f unc e r-
t ai nty as t o whether the ac t i o n wi l l act ually b e per-
forme d . There i s n o Real As pec t c orrelat i ng wi th t hi s
mode , o f cours e , s i nc e i f t he act i on t ook plac e t he r e i s
1 3 4
no mo re unce rtai nty to i t .
I galuto ' ang manok s a langka .
wi l l-prob ab ly-be - c o o ke d the c hi c ken with-the j ac kfruit
"The chi cken will prob ably b e c ooked with the j ack-
fruit . "
I gat akpan ko s ang kahon ang kahoy .
wil l-prob ably-c over by-me with-the box the wo o d .
" I wi ll prob ably c over the wood with a b ox . "
I g akas lon s i a s a s unod nga tui g .
wi ll-prob ab ly-marry he i n-the following l i g . ye ar
" H e wi ll prob ab ly get marri e d next ye ar . "
I g ab al i gya ' niya ang libro .
wi ll-probably- s e l l by-him the book
" He wi ll probably s ell the book . "
I gakuh a ' s ang kwart a ang pl ato .
will-prob ably- c o l l e c t of-the money the plate
" C o n s i de r c o l l e ct i ng s ome money with the plat e . "
6 . 31 . 8 . The Obligat ory Mode . The Obl i gat ory mode i s
s i gnale d b y � for the Goal Fo cus and b y -i for the
Re ferent Focus , but do e s not have s i mple forms for the
other focus e s . Obl i gat ory mode affi xe s do c ooc cur with
other modes and focus e s i n deri ved verb format i ons . The
Obli gat ory mode o c curs only i n the Unreal As pe c t and no
agent or ac tor o c curs with i t . I n the s i mple form for
Goal and Re fe rent Focus e s the meani ng is s omethi ng li k
e ,
1 3 5
' Let s uch-and-s uch b e done ! ' , whi c h i s a hort ato ry c ommand .
I n combi nat i on wi th other mo de s and focus e s , the meani ng
i s that o f an obl i g atory act i on . ( S e e s e ct i on 6 . 3 2.4.)
Lut ua ang karne , Mar i a .
let-be-c ooked t he meat , Mar i a
" L e t the me at b e c o oke d , Mari a . " ( o r , " C ook the meat ,
Mari a . " )
Kaona ang s agi ng .
le t-be - e at e n the banana
" Let the b anana b e eaten ! " ( or , " Eat the b anana . " )
Kaoni ang s agi ng .
let-be-eaten-fr om the b anana .
" Let s ome o f the b anana b e e at e n . " ( o r , " T ake a b i t e
o f t h e banana ! " )
Lutui ang bag-o nga pugon .
let-be- c ooked-with t he new l i g . s t ove .
" Le t t he new s t ove b e c ooked on ! " ( or , " C ook on the
new s t ove . " )
Thi s mo de i s not i nc luded on Chart VI b e c aus e it has only
two forms ; t he s e are - a for t he Goal Foc us and -i for
Re fe rent Focus .
6 . 32 . The Comple x Mode s . Modes may b e comb i ne d wi th
other mode s t o give comple x verb format i ons . No exhaus -
t i ve l i s t o f s uch p o s s i ble comb i nat i ons has be e n compi l e d
SUMMARY C HART OF HI LI GAYNON
FOCUS , ASPECT , AND MODE AFFIXES
Mode :
Neut r al Purpo s i ve Durat i ve Caus at i ve
Focus :
j
1 . Ac t i on
Fo cus : Goal U . -on p ag--on paga--on pa--on
R . gi n- gi n- gi na- g i np a-
Re f . U . - an pag- - an pag a--an pa--an
R . gi n--an g i n--an gi na--an gi np a--an
Ac e . U . i - i pag- i paga- i pa-
R . gin- gin- g i na- gi npa-
Act . U . -um- mag- mag a-
0
R . - um- nag- nag a-
0
2 . S t at i ve
Foc us : Act . U . maka- makapag- makapaga- makapa-
R . naka- nakapag- nakap aga- nakapa-
Goal U . ma- mapag- mapaga- mapa-
R . na- napag- napaga- napa-
CHART VI A .
SUMMARY CHRT OF HI LI GAYNON
FO CUS , ASPECT , AND MODE AFFIXES
Mode : D i s t ribut ive C ooperat ive Dub i t at i ve
Focus :

l . Ac t i o n
Focus : Goal U . pang--on paki g--on i ga--on
R . gi npang- gi npaki g-
0
R e f . U . pang- - an paki g--an iga--an
R . gi npang--an g inpaki g--an
0
Ac e . U . i pang- i paki g- i ga -
R . gi npang- g i np akig- ¢
Act . U . mang- maki g-
0
R . nang- naki g-
0
2 . S t at i ve
Foc us : Ac t . U . makap ang- makap aki g- 0
R . nakapang- nakapaki g-
0
Goal U . mapang- mapaki g- ¢
R . napang- napaki g-
0
CHART V I B .
1 3 8
he re , but t he following examp l e s are typ i c al o f the p o s -
s ib i l i t i e s .
6 . 32 . 1 . Purpo s i ve plus C aus at i ve . The Purpo s i ve mo de
affi x � c an be added' to the C aus ati ve Mode affi x· �
t o g i ve paga- , wi th the r e s ult ant meaning o f t o c aus e
t o do s ometh i ng d i l i gently or thoroughly .
paga- . . •
_
Indi ' mo s i a pagpakuhaon s ang bulong .
not by-you hi m b e - c aus e d-t o-t ake o f-the medi c i ne
"Don ' t l e t hi m t ake up me di c i ne ( s tudy ) . "
Real As pe c t ¯ gi npakuha '
paga- . . . �
Kung pagpadal-an m o s i a s ang s ul at i pangamus t a m o ako .
i f wi ll-s end by-you he o f-the l e t t e r extend-gre e t i ngs
by-you I
" I f you s e nd hi m a l e t t e r extend my re gards . "
ipaga- . . .
Kung ipagp adal-an mo s i a s ang s ulat . . .
i f c aus e-t o -b e - s ent by-you he o f-the lett e r . . .
" I f you s end hi m a l et t e r . . . "
maga- . . .
Magpalut o ' ka s ang adobo .
have - ) s omeone ) - c ook you o f-the adobo
" You · have s omeone c ook s ome adobo . "
mapaga- .
1 39
Kung may mapagpadal -an ako mapadala ' ako s ang regal o .
i f there- i s wi ll-b e -s endabl e I wi ll-s end I o f-the
gi ft
" I f I c an fi nd s omeone t o t ake i t I wi l l s end a gi ft . "
makapaga- . . .
Makapagpadala ' ako s ang re galo kay J o s e .
c an-reque s t -t o-t ake I o f-the g i ft by-the -pers onal
J o s e
" I c an reque s t Jos e t o t ake a g i ft f o r me . "
The l as t s ent enc e c ontras t s wi th the foll owi ng s ent enc e
whi ch has a c oope rat i ve verb form us i ng pakig- .
makapakig- . .
Makapaki g dala ' ako s ang regalo kay Jo s e .
c an- reque s t� ( s omeone ) -t o - t ake I of-the g i ft by-the­
pe rs onal Jos e
" I c an re que s t s omeone t o as k Jos e t o t ake a gi ft
for me . "
6 . 3 2 . 2 . Dur at i ve plus C aus at i ve . The Durat i ve mo de
� c an be adde d to the C aus at i ve mode �t o gi ve
pagapa- wi th the r e s ul t ant meani ng o f to c aus e s omeone
1 4 0
t o d o s ome thi ng whi ch i s vi ewe d a s a pro c e s s .
pagapa- . . . �
Pagapab aklon k o s i a s ang bulong kung may kwart a ako .
wi ll-b e - c aus i ng-t o-buy by-me he o f-the me d i c i ne i f
t he re -i s money I
" I wi ll have hi m buy s ome medi c i ne i f I have money . "
Re al As pec t ¯ gi napabakal
pagapa- . . . �
S i a ang p agapadal-an ko s ang regal e .
s he the wi ll-be - c aus i ng-to-take by-me o f-the g i ft
" She i s the one who wi ll t ake t he g i ft for me . "
ipagapa- . . .
I pagap ab aklo n ko s i a s ang s ud-an .
wi ll-have-bought by-me he o f-the vi and
" I will have hi m buy s ome vi and . "
magapa- . . .
Magapaluto ' ako s ang adob e .
wi ll-have- cooki ng I o f-the adobe
" I wi ll have ( s omeone ) c ooki ng s ome adobe . "
6 . 3 2 . 3 . Purpo s i ve plus D i s t r ibut i ve . The Purpo s i ve mo de
�c an be added t o the D i s t ributive mode �t o gi ve
pagang- with the re s ult ant meaning o f pe rformi ng a re-
pet i t i ve act i o n wi t h di l i ge nc e .
pagang- . . . �
Pagpanglutuon mo ang manga s ud- an .
wi ll- cook-vari ety by-you the plural vi and
" You wi ll c ook all the vi and . "
Real As pe c t ¯ gi npanglut u '
pagang- . . .
1 4 1
I ndi ' mo p agpang t amnan a ng l agwe rt a s ang bulak .
not by-you wi l l-pl ant -var i ety the yard o f-the flower
" Don ' t pl ant the yard wi th flowe rs . "
magang- . . .
Magp angluto ' s i a s ang lumpya .
wi ll-c ook-repe t i t i ve s he o f-the lump i a
" S h e wi l l c o o k lumpi a ( habi tual tas k ) . "
makapagang- . . .
Makap agpanglut o ' s i Jo s e fa s a fi e s t a .
wi ll-be -able - t o-c o ok-vari ety the-pe rs onal J os e fa at ­
the fi e s t a .
" Jo s e fa c an do the c ooki ng during the f i e s t a . "
O . 3 2 . 4 . Combi nat i o ns wi th Ob ligat ory mode . The Goal
Foc us Obl i g atory mode - a can b e combi ne d wi t h other mo de s
and foc us e s t o gi ve obli gat ory act i o ns i nvolving the goal
1 4 2
to t ho s e part i cular forms .
i -

.
¯ Z
Ikuhaa ang t ub i g s a lame s a .
get-ob l i g . the wat e r on-the t ab l e
" Ge t t he wat e r on the t ab l e . "
Ipakuhaa s i a s ang tub i g .
wi l l-b e -re ques t e d h e o f-the wat e r
" Le t hi m b e re que s t e d t o get s ome wat e r . "

·
.
·
..
P aglakt a ang banwa .
be -walked-to the t own
" Le t the town be walke d t o . " ( o r , "Walk to t own . " )
Pagalakt a ang b anwa .
s hould-be -walked-to the town
" The town s hould be walke d to . " ( or , " S omeone s hould
walk to t own . " )
The Re fer ent Foc us Obl i g at o ry mo de -i c an als o b e c om-
bi ne d wi th other modes and fo cus e s to gi ve obl i g at ory
act i on i nvolving the Re ferent .
i - . . . - i
- -
I kuhai s i a s ang tub i g .
ge t - for s h e of-the wat e r
1 4 3
" L e t wat e r b e go tte n f o r her . " ( or , " Ge t her s ome
wat e r . " )
ipa- . . . - i
I pakuhai s i a s ang tub i g .
c aus e-to-get s he o f-the wat e r
" H ave s omeone get s ome wat e r for he r . "
�4 ¤ a -i
Indi ' s i a paglutui s ang pagkaon .
not s he c ook- for o f-the food
" Don ' t c ook food for her . "
�. . . -i
Pagalutui s ang adobe ang pugon .
be - c ooked-on of-the adobe t he s t ove
" Let s ome adob e b e c ooked on the s t ove . "
( or , " Cook s ome adobe on the s t ove . " )
( or , " Let the s t ove b e us e d for c ooki�g adobe . " )
ma- . . . - i
m m
Wala ' malutui ang s agi ng s a kaho n .
there- i s -not wi ll-ri pen the b anana i n-the box
" Not a b anana i n the box i g ri pe . "
1 4 4
6 . 32 . 5 . Foc us c omb i nat i ons . T he focus e s c an b e c omb i n e d
i n various ways . Exampl e s a r e g i v e n b e l ow .
6 . 3 2 . 5 1 . Comb i nat i o ns wi th i - s how that the meaning o f
the re s ult ant form i s Ac c e s s ory foc us .
Mailuto ' ko s i a s ang pagkaon .
c an- cook- for by-me he o f-the food
" I c an c ook s ome food for hi m . "
i - . . . _
I lutuon ko ang pagkaon .
wi ll- c ook by-me the food
"I will c ook the food . "
i - . . . - an
w m
I lut uan ko kamo s ang p ani udt o .
wi ll-c ook- for by-me you-pl . o f-the lun ch
" I wi l l cook lunch for you all . "
The following c ombi nat i ons wi th ipa- add the C aus at i ve
mo de t o t he format i ons .
ipa- + ma-
Maipaluto ' ko pa kay R o s a ang p agkaon .
c an-have - c o ok e d by-me s t i ll t o-the-pe r s onal Ros a the
foo d .
" I c an s t i l l have Ro s a c o ok t h e food . "
ipa- . . . -on
I palutuon ko ang kan-on .
wi ll-c aus e -t o-b e - c ooked by-me the r i c e .
" I wi ll have the r i c e c ooke d . "
i p a- . . ._
1 4 5
Ipalut uan k o kame s ang s ud-an .
wi ll-have- c ooked-for by-me you-pl . o f-the vi and
"I wi ll have s omeone cook s ome vi and for you all . "
6 . 3 2 . 5 2 . Combi nat i ons wi t h mapa- gi ve a re s ult ant
meaning of ' abl e to c aus e ' to the fo rmat i o ns .
mapa- . .
·

Map alutuan ko s ang pagkaon s i l a .
can- c aus e - t o - c ook-for by-me o f-the food they .
" I c an have s omeone cook food for them . "
mapa- + i -
Maipalut o ' ko na ang pagkaon .
c an- c aus e-t o-be -c o oked by-me now the foo d .
" I can have the food c ooked now . "
6 . 32 . 6 . Mi s c ellaneous mode s . The following mo de s have
be e n obs erve d but no s pe c i fi c c las s i fi c at i o n for them i s
yet c l e ar .
1 4 6
6 . 32 . 61 . Mo de Spe c i fyi ng normal us e . There i s an affi x
-Vl- i n whi ch the V s t ands for the fi r s t vowel of the
s t em whi ch i s re dupl i c at e d and made a part o f thi s affi x
t o gether wi th 1 .
The meani ng s e ems t o b e that the ac t i on
i s the no rmal , or s ometi mes hab i tual , us e o f the t opi c
o f the ac t i on .
-Vl- . . .
Balakal ko s ang li bro i n i nga kwart a .
for-buyi ng by-me o f-the bo ok t hi s l i g . money
" Th i s money wi ll be us e d for buyi ng a book . "
Ang tab ako ang b alali gya ' ni ya .
the t obac c o the for - s e ll i ng by-him
" Toba c c o i s his us ual s al e s i t em . "
-Vl- . . . - an
m ¬
S i l i nghut an s ang buyo d ang bulak .
for-sme l l i ng by-th e b e e the flower
" The flower i s for a bee to s mell . "
Talah i an ko s ang b ayo ang l ame s a .
wi ll-s ew- on by-me o f-the dre s s the t abl e
" I wi ll b e s ewi ng s ome dr e s s es on the t abl e . "
-Vl- . . . -on
H i l iwaon ko s ang kut s i lyo ang karne .
wi ll- s l i c e by-me wi th-the kni fe the meat
" I wi ll s l i c e the me at with the kni fe . "
14
T
( or , " The me at i s t o b e s l i c e d wi th a
kni fe . " )
-Vl- + i -
I s ululat s a p i s ara ang chalk .
wi ll-b e-wr i t i n g on-the bl ac kboard the chalk
" The chalk wi ll be us e d for writ i ng on the b l ack­
bo ard . "
mag- + -Vl-
Maghi l iwa kamo s ang karne .
wi l l-be- s l i c i ng you-pl . o f-the meat .
" You b e s li c i ng s ome me at . "
maga- + -Vl-
Magas i l i pa ' s i la s ang bo l a .
wi ll-k i ck they a b all
" They wi ll ki ck a b al l . "
maka- + -Vl-
Makabulus o g ang pans i t .
c an-fi ll-up the pans i t
" The pans i t always wi ll fi ll ( you ) up . "
6 . 3 2 . 6 2 . Plural ac t i ons . Plur al act i o n i n whi ch the
ac ti on i s plural i z e d and s omet i mes al s o the numb e r of
1 4 8
ac tors i s plurali z e d i s i ndi c at e d by a s e quenc e o f two
affi xes of the s hape -Vl- , gi vi ng -Vl- . . . -Vl- . . . for the
verb format i o n .
maga-
+ -Vl- + -Vl- +· - an + - o n
Nagas ululugi lanon s i la s a s ala .
ar e-t alki ng- at-the-s ame-t ime they i n-the l i vi ng-room
" They are all t alki ng i n the l i vi ng room . "
mag- + -Vl- + -Vl-
Nagkalalaon s i l a .
are - e at i ng- at - the - s ame-t ime they
" Th ey are all e at i ng at the s ame t i me . "
-Vl- + � +

S i l i l i nggi t an ko s i Jos e fa .
s hout i ng- and- s hout i ng by-me the-pers onal Jos e fa
" I s hout and s hout at J o s e fa . "
-Vl- + -Vl- + - o n
Madame nga li bro ang s ulululat on ko .
many l i g . book the writ e - and-wri t e by-me
"I have l ot s and l o t s o f books to wri t e . "
1 4
9
6 . 3 2 . 6 3 . Reque s t for ac t i o n a t a pl ac e . The C ooperat i ve
mode a f f i x -pakig- t o ge the r wi th the Re fe re nt Foc us s uffi x
- an forms the bas e o f a comb i nat i on t o i ndi c at e a re que s t
for act i on t o t ake plac e wi t h r e fe re nc e t o a plac e or
pe rs o n .
pakig-
. 4 e �
Paki g s ul at an ni J o s e s i Mar i a .
wi ll-re que s t -t o-wr i t e by-the-pers onal J o s e the-per­
s onal Mar i a
" J o s e wi ll re ques t s omeone t o wri t e t o Mari a . "
pagakig- . . e �
Pagpaki gs ulatan ko s i J o s e kay Mar i a .
wi ll-re que s t - on-purpo s e-t o -wri t e by-me t he -pe rs onal
J o s e t o-the-pers onal Mar i a
" I wi l l s p e c i f i c ally re que s t Mar i a to wri t e t o Jo s e . "
pagapakig- . . . - an
Pagap aki g s ulat an ni Jos e s i J os e fa .
wi ll-be -re que s t i ng-to-wri t e -t o by-the-pers onal J o s e
the-pers onal Jos e fa
" J o s e wi ll b e re que s t i ng s omeone t o wr i t e to Jos e fa . "
magapakig-
Magapaki g s ulat ako kay J o s e para kay Mari a .
wi ll-b e- re que s t i ng-to-wr i t e I t o-the-pers onal J o s e
for to-the-pers onal Mari a .
1 5 0
" I wi l l reques t Jo s e t o wri t e t o Mari e . "
6 . 32 . 6 4 . Att e nuat e d mode . By re dupli c at i n g the ro o t s
o f s ome verb s the me ani ng o f at t e nuat e d o r di mi n i s he d
ac t i o n or act i on n o t t aken s er i ous ly c an b e s i gn al e d .
Nagal akat l akat s i a .
i s -walki ng- s l owly he
" He i s walki ng s lowly . "
Nagadal adalagan s i a .
i s - runni ng- s l i ghtly he
" He i s runni ng for exe rc i s e . "
Nagatulugtulog s i a s a puno ' .
i s - pretendi ng- s l e ep he i n-the t r e e
" H e i s pretendi ng t o s le e p i n t h e t r e e . "
6 . 32 . 6 5 . Mode o f S eparat e a c t i ons . Act i on c an b e
s p e c i f i e d as done i ndi vi dually b y ac tors rath er t han i n
c onc e rt or t ogethe r . The form o f t he verb i n c lude s the
affi x - s ig- t o s i gnal t hi s .
Mas i glakat s i l a p agtapos s ang kaon .
can-walk they fi ni s hi ng o f-the e at i ng .
" E ach one wi ll l e ave aft e r he fi ni s he s e at i ng . "
Mas i gluto ' na l ang s i la .
cook- alone now only they
" They each cook alone ( the i r own food ) . "
J þ J
O . § 2 · OO . Mode o f I nt ens e s i mpl e ac t i ons . I ndi vi dual
act i ons whi ch are pe rforme d i nt ens i vely c an b e de s c ri be d
wi th the us e o f the - i n- s t em i nfix added to the r e s t o f
the verb i nfl e c t i on .
Nagki naon s i la s a res tauran .
at e - and- ate they i n-the r e s t aur ant
" They at e and at e in the re s t aur ant . "
mag- + -ka- + - i n-
Nagki nag amo s i la s ang p i e s t a .
troubl e d- e ach-other they of-the fi e s t a
" They c on s t ant ly got i nt o t ro ubl e ( wi th e a ch other )
duri ng the fi e s t a . "
maga- + - i n-
Nag ahi nampang s i la s a lagwert a .
are-playi ng-and-playi ng they i n-the yard
" They are playi ng and playi ng i n the yard . "
maga- + - i n- + -Vl-
1 5 2
nagahi l i namb al s i la s a i ni ngl e s .
are - s pe aki ng� i nt ens i ve they i n-the engli s h
" They a r e s p e aki ng i n Engli s h . "
6 . 32 . 6 7 . Change o f Stat e . A change o f s t at e from one
t o anothe r is marked by the affix mangi n- or magi ng-
me aning ' b e c ome ' .
Nagadal i kuntani s i a nga mangi n-padre-de-p ami lya .
i s -hurryi ng pos s i bl e he l i g . to-b e c ome fathe r- o f­
fami ly
" H e i s e age r , i f po s s i bl e , to b e c ome h e ad o f a
fami ly . "
Mangi nk ari bal s i a s a i ndi oras ni Fre d .
b e c ome- c ompe t i t o r he i n-the not hour o f-the-pers onal
Fred
" He wi ll unexpe c t e dly b e c ome Fred ' s c ompet i t or . "
Kon wala s i a makapangi nl aman , ayhan lumus ot s i a s a
i dalom .
i f not-ex i s t s he abl e - c ome -to-know prob ab ly go­
thr ough s he i n-the unde rne ath
" I f s he was not aware of i t , s he probab ly p as s e d
through underne ath . "
Duha dugangan s ang li ma magi ng pi l a?
two wi ll-be-added o f-the f i ve b e c ome how-much
" Two plus fi ve b e comes how much? "
Magi ng mae s t r a s i a kung may gala s t us o n .
wi ll-be come t e ache r- female s he i f t he re - i s wi ll-s pen d
" She wi ll b e c ome a t e ac her i f s he c an afford i t . "
Nagi ng maayo s i a maghampang s ang b as ketbol .
b e c ame good he play o f-the b as ke t bal l
" He b e c ame a g o o d bas ketball pl aye r . "
1 5
3
6 . 3 2 . 6 8 . Mi s c e llaneous c omb i nat i ons . S everal c ombi na-
t i ons have be e n obs e rve d whi c h ar e e i t he r one -of-a-ki nd
typ e s or have no t be e n found t o b e very produc t i ve i n
o t he r foc us e s . The me anings are c omb i nat i ons o f t he
meanings o f t he i ndi vi dual mo dal affi xe s .
maga- + -paga- . . . �
Magapagas ulat an ko s ang t i tulo ang papel .
c an-wri t e-on by-me o f-the t i t l e t he pape r .
" I c an writ e t he deed ( or t i t l e ) on t he pape r . "
Magapagatugy anan ko ang propi edad k ay J o s e .
c an-leave - i n- charge by-me t he property t o-the-per­
s onal J o s e
" I c an l e ave t h e prope rty i n charge o f Jo s e . "
� + -paga- . . . �
Napagatugy anan ko ang propi e dad kay J o s e .
c an-be - l e avi ng- i n- charge by-me the prope rty t o -the
J o s e
" I c an b e l e avi ng t h e prope rty i n charge of J os e . "
ma- + �. . . �
1 5 4

+
�· · · =.
Napagtugy anan ko s ang propi e dad s i J os e .
l e ft - i n- charge by-me o f-the property the-pers onal J o s e
" I l e ft Jos e i n charge o f t he prope rty . "
makapagma- . - . �
Makapagmab aklon s i a .
wi ll-have - s hopped s he
" She wi ll have done s ome s hopping . "
- i n- + - an
Inulanan s i la s a dalan .
were-rai ne d-on they on-the way
" They were c aught i n the rai n along the way . "
mag- + -ka- + -Vl-
Nagkalahub o g ang b i s i t a .
was - drunk t h e vi s i t o r
" T he vi s i t or g o t drunk . "
mag- + -pa- + -Vl-
Nagpal alut o ' s i Nanay .
i s -always - c ooki ng the-pers onal Mo ther
"Mothe r was always cooking . "
15 5
Magkant ahan kame s a i dalom s ang kahoy .
wi ll- s i ng-t ogether you-plural at-the unde r of-the
t re e
" You a l l s i ng under t he t re e . "
mag- + ma-
Magmas i ngki ' s i a .
i s -b e c omi ng-t ough he
" H e i s b e c oming t ough . "
7 . 0 .
7 . 1 .
7 . 11 .
7 . 12 .
7 . 1 3 .
7 . 2 .
7 . 21 .
7 . 2 1 . 1 .
7 . 21 . 2 .
7 . 22 .
7 . 3 .
7 . 31 .
7 . 31 . 1 .
7 . 31 . 2 .
7 . 3 1 . 3 .
7 . 31 . 4 .
7 . 32 .
7 . 3 2 . 1 .
7 . 3 2 . 2 .
7 . 3 2 . 3 .
PART I I I . THE STRUCTURE OF WORD STRINGS
Phras e s
Bas i c phras e p at t e rns
Type A patt ern
Type B patt e rn
Type C pat t e r n
Type A phras e s t ruc tur e s
T he Modi fi e r phra s e s
Ve rb Modi f i e r phras e s
Noun Mo di fi e r phra s e s
T h e C ount phr a s e
Type B phras e s t ruc tur e s
The D e fi ni t e noun phras e
The Pe r s on al Defi ni t e noun phras e
Sub s t i t ut e s for the Pe rs onal De fi ni t e noun
phras e
The non- Pers onal De f i ni t e noun phras e
Sub s t i t ut e s for the non-Pers onal De f i ni t e
noun phras e
The Att ri but i ve noun phras e
The Pers onal Att r i but i ve noun phras e
Sub s t i tut e s for the Pe rs onal Att r i but i ve noun
phr a s e
T he non-Pers onal Att r ibut ive noun phras e
1 5 8
7 . 32 . 4 .
7 . 3 3 .
7 . 3 3 . 1 .
7 . 3 3 . 2 .
7 . 3 3 . 3 .
7 . 3 3 . 4 .
7 . 3 4 .
7 . 3 4 . 1 .
7 . 3 4 . 2 .
7 . 3 5 .
7 . 3 5 . 1 .
7 . 3 5 . 2 .
7 . 3 5 . 3 .
7 . 3 5 . 4 .
7 . 36 .
7 . 36 . 1 .
7 . 36 . 2 .
7 . 4 .
7 . 41 .
7 . 4 2 .
7 . 4 3 .
7 . 4 4 .
S ub s t i t ut e s for the non-Pers onal Attri but i ve
noun phras e
The Loc at i ve noun phras e
The Pers onal Lo c at i ve noun phr as e
Sub s t i t ut es for the Pers onal Loc at i ve noun
phras e
The non-Pers onal Loc at i ve noun phras e
Sub s t i tutes f o r t he non-Pers onal L o c at i ve
noun phras e
De ri ve d Loc at i ve phra s e s
T h e Bene fact i ve phras e
The C omparat i ve phras e
The I nt e rro gat i ve s ub s t i tut e s
I nt e rrogat i ve s ub s t i t ut e s for s ub s t ant i val
phras e s
Int e rrogati ve s ub s t i t ut e s for verb al phras e s
I nt errogat i ve s ub s t i tut e s f o r mo di fi e r phr as es
I nte rrogat ive s ub s t i t ut e s for c l aus es
Summary chart s o f phra s e s ub s t i t ut e s
Subs t i t ut e s for Pers onal noun phras e s
D emons t rat ive s ub s t i tutes f o r non-Pers onal
noun phras es
Typ e C phras e s tructures
The Compound verb phras e
The Pos s e s s e d noun phras e
The Exi s t e nt i al phras e
R e s t r i c t e d phra s e s
7 . 4 4 . 1 .
7 . 4 4 . 2 .
7 . 4 5 .
7 . 4 5 . 1 .
7 . 4 5 . 2 .
7 . 5 .
8 . 0 .
8 . 1 .
8 . 11 .
8 . 11 . 1 .
8 . 11 . 2 .
8 . 1 1 . 3 .
8 . 1 1 . 4 .
8 . 1 2 .
8 . 1 2 . 1 .
8 . 12 . 2 .
8 . 2 .
8 . 2 1 .
8 . 2 2 .
8 . 2 3 .
8 . 2 4 .
8 . 3 .
8 . 4 .
Ve rb Complement phras e s
Noun R e s t r i c t e d phras e s
Pos i t i onal phras e s
Ve rb Po s i t i onal phras e s
Noun Po s i t i onal phras e s
Word order in phras e s
Claus e s
C l aus e s o f Type A pat t e rn
Verb al claus e s
Fo c us complement s o f verbal c laus e s
D e c larat i ve verb al c l aus e s
Impe rat ive verbal c l aus e s
Exi s t enti al verbal c l aus e s
Nonverb al c l aus e s
D e s c r i pt i ve c l aus e s
E quat i onal c laus e s
Cl aus e s o f Type B patt e rn
ka- c l aus e s
pakig- c l aus e s
t ig- c laus es
The pre-ve rb c laus e s
Ne gat i o n o f c laus e s
I nterrogat i ve c l aus e s
1 5 9
1 6 0
8 . 41 .
8 . 4 2 .
8 . 5 .
8 . 5 1 .
8 . 5 2 .
8 . 6 .
8 . 61 .
8 . 6 2 .
Y e s /No queat ions
Que s t i ons with int e rrogat ive s ub s t i tut e s
Comple x s ent enc e s
S ent e nc e s w i t h a r e l at ive c l aus e
S e nt en c e s wi t h c onj o i ned c l aus es
Claus e word order
Order o f Ve rb C ompl ement s
Emphat i c word order
7 . PHRASES .
For the purpos e o f t hi s grammar a phras e i s de fi ne d as a
grammat i c al c ons t ruc t i on li nki ng two lexi c al uni t s . A
phras e di ffers from a c laus e i n t hat the uni t s o f the
phras e ar e i n ei ther a mo di fi er-head o r a relator-axi s
relati ons hi p , whi l e the c laus e c ons truct i on i s typ i c ally
a s ub j e c t -predi c at e , or topi c-predi c at e , relati ons hi p .
S o l ong as one o f the two lexi cal uni t s whi ch make up the
phras e i s a s i ngle word , the other uni t may b e one or
many . An emb e dde d c l aus e , for example , may func t i o n as
one . Vari ous phras e s thems elves may func t i o n as a uni t .
Phr as e s are o f two ki nds , verb phras e s and noun phras e s .
Ve rb phras e s are di s t i ngui s he d from noun phras e s b y the
fac t that they h ave no marki ng par t i c l e s t o i ntroduce
the m, and by the pre s e nc e o f an i nfle c t e d verb as the
he ad word o f the phras e . Ve rb phras e s are the only type
of phras e whi ch may appe ar as the mani fe s t at i on o f
Predi c ate i n Ve rb al c l aus e s .
N oun phras e s are di s t i ngui s he d from other phras e s b y the
typ i c al pr e s e nc e of a noun-marki n g part i cl e whi ch i ntro-
duc e s the phr as e . I n a few c a s e s phras e s are clas s i fi e d
a s N oun phras e s be c aus e they have noun-li ke words fi lli ng
1 6 1
1 6 2
t h e head s l ot o f t h e phr as e although there i s n o charac ­
t e r i s t i c no un-marki ng part i cl e i nt ro duc i ng the phras e .
Sub s t i tute s , us ually s i ngle words , replac e the phras e s
f o r whi ch t he y a r e s ub s t i t ut e s .
Bas i c Phras e Pat t e rns . Be fore att empt i ng a des c ri p-
t i o n o f the i ndi vi dual phras e s a few . words can b e s ai d
ab out the ge ne ral s i mi l ar i t i e s o f s t r uc ture between Noun
and Verb phras e pat t e rns . On the s urfac e there i s a
general s amene s s about s ome o f the H i l i gaynon phras e s .
The e lement ary s t ructure o f t he three mo s t common types
are graphi c ally i l lus t rat e d in the di agrams A , B , and C .
7 . 11 . Tye A Patt e rn . I n phras e s o f type A the two
p art s of the phras e are j o i ne d by an overt part i c le whi ch
marks the grammati c al relat i ons hi p .
Part i c l e
Di agram A .
The i ndi vi dual phras e s o f t hi s unde rlyi ng s t ructure con­
tras t wi th each other i n the ki nds o f grammat i c al p art i -
c le s whi ch may appe ar i n the Part i c le s l ot . Phras e s
us i ng t he s ame part i c le may als o c ontras t i f t he r e are
s uffi c i ent di ffere nc e s b etwe en them i n the fi lle rs o f
the other two s l ot s . Though i t i s common for s i ngl e words
to appe ar i n the s lot s o f t h i s phras e type , it is not
i nfrequent t hat dependent c l aus e s o r other typ e s o f
phras e s may appear i n one o f the s lo t s as mod i fi er o f the
he ad word .
7 . 12 . Te B Patt ern . I n phras e s o f type B t he i ntro-
duc t ory part i c le i s one eleme nt of the phras e , the other
i s the wo rd i nt roduc e d . Thi s type i s , i n s ome way s ,
s i mi l ar to Engl i s h prepo s t i onal phras e s .
Part i c le  
Di agram B .
Phras e s whi ch are formed on the patt e rn o f t ype B c on­
tras t in the c hoi c e o f part i c l e to be us e d in the p art i ­
c le s lot . Whi l e phras e s o f type A appe ar i n both the
verb phras e and noun phra s e c at e gori e s the phras e s of
type B are only noun phras e s .
7 . 1 3 . Tye C Pat t e rn .
I n type C phras e s the two parts
o f the phr as e are s imply j uxtapo s e d wi thout t he b ene fi t
o f marki ng part i c l e s .
1 6 4
Di agram C .
The verb phras e s o f t hi s type o ft e n appe ar wi th pronouns
or other words i nt e rs p e r s e d b etween the two uni t s but
they are not part of the phras e . S i nc e the p arts o f the
phras e may be di s c ont i nuous , i . e . , may be s eparat e d by
other s t re t che s of s pe e c h , i t i s s omet i me s d i f fi cult to
re c ogni z e t hi s phras e type among the verb phras e s . The
noun phr as e s o f thi s type , however , are mo re eas i ly re c ­
ogni z e d s i nc e o t he r e l ement s almo s t never i nt e rvene be ­
twe e n the t wo part s o f a noun phras e .
7 . 2 . Tye A phras e S t ructure s . On the pattern o f the
type A s t ruc ture two ge neral phras e types o c cur l ab e l e d
Modi f i e r phras e s a n d Count phra s es r e s pe c t i ve ly . ( Pa-
renthe s e s e nc los e the i l lus t r at e d phra s e s i n t he s ample
H i l i gaynon s ent e nc e s o f thi s chapt e r . )
7 . 2 1 . The Mo di fi e r Phras e s . Modi f i e r ph

as e s are e i ther
verb Modi fi e r phra s e s or noun Modi f i e r phra s e s and are
di s t i ngui s he d by vi rtue of having the parti c le � ( o r
i t s vari ant �) as fi lle r o f the part i c l e s l ot o f the
phras e . Some form o f modi fi c at i on i s s i gnaled by t hi s
phras e type . The various phras e s c o ns t ruc te d on t hi s
1 6 5
pat t e rn are c ont r as t i ve and di s t i nct from e a c h other on
the b as i s of the fi lle rs of t he other s l o t s on e i t he r
s i de o f t h e part i c le .
7 . 2 1 . 1 . Verb Modi f i e r Phras es . The Ve rb Modi f i e r phras e
i s di s t i ngui s he d from all other phras e typ e s by vi rtue
of having i nfl e c t e d verb s as fi lle rs of the he ad s lot
and ve rb s or d e s c r ipt i ves i n the other s l ot . The re la-
t i on may b e thought o f as adverb i al-li ke .
Example s :
. . . nagyuhom nga hi nali . . .
smi l e d l i g . s uddenly
" . . . smi l e d s uddenly . . . "
e • e madas i g nga nagadalag an . . .
fas t li g . i s - runni ng
" . . . i s runni ng fas t . . . "
. . . maabt i k nga s umakay . . .
qui ck l i g . rode
" . . . rode qui ckly . . . "
. . . mat uod nga nagb ali k . . .
true l i g . returned
" . . . t ruely returne d . . . "
I n the following s e nt e nc e s the phra s e s appear i n a
larger c ontext . Compare s t r e s s wi th that i n S e c . 4 . 3 2 .
166
( Nagyuh6m nga hi nal i ) s i J o s e fa s a h i t ab6 ' .
s mi l e d li g . s uddenly the-pers onal Jos e fa at -the
c i rcums t an c e s
" Jos e fa s uddenly smi l e d a t the c i rc ums t anc e s . "
( Madas i g nga nagadalagan ) ang mga i n- adlaw .
fas t l i g . ran the plural day
" The day s pas s e d qui c kly . "
( Maabt 1 k nga s umak ay ) s i Toni s a i ya k6t s e . . .
qui c k l i g . rode the -pe r s onal Toni i n-the h i s c ar
" Toni qui ckly rode o f f i n hi s c ar . . . "
( Makadal1 anay nga t i nulok ) s i J o s e ni Doktor Caj arte .
able-t o-hurry b e fore li g . look e d the-pers onal Jos e by­
the do c t or Caj arte
" Dr . Caj art e looked at Jo s e for awhi l e . "
( Matuod nga nagbal1 k ) na ang kas anag s a mga mat a ni
Dolores .
t rue li g . returne d now the b r i ghtne s s i n-the plural
eye o f-the-pers onal Dolores
" The b r i ght ne s s i n Dolo r e s ' eyes s ure ly returne d . "
( Hi nali nga nakaukl 6 ' ) s i J un .
s uddenly l i g . j e rked the-pers onal Jun
" Jun s udde nly j e rke d . "
7 . 21 . 2 . Noun Modi f i e r Phras e s . The Noun Modi fi e r Phrase
is di s t i ngui s he d from all other phras e types by vi rtue of
havi ng a noun- li ke word i n the H e ad s lot o f the phras e .
The mo d i f i e r i s us ually a de s c ri pt i ve , but nouns and ver
bs
als o o c cur as mod i fi e r s .
Exampl e s :
. . . di ut ay nga b at a . . .
small l i g . c hi ld
" . . . small c hi l d . . . "
q q • pula nga gi nb akal ko . . .
red l i g . bought · by-me
" . . . re d ( thi ng ) whi c h I bought . . . "
. . . t awo nga mahadlok . . .
pe rs o n l i g . fri ght e ne d
" . . . fr i ght e ne d pe rs on . . . "
I n the s ent e nc e s b e low the Noun Modi fi e r phras e s app e ar
i n a l arge r c ont ext .
( Di ut ay nga b at a ) s i Pe dro .
s mall l i g . c hi ld the-pers onal Pe dro
" Pe dro i s a small chi ld . "
Mahal ang ( pula nga gi nb akal ko . )
expens i ve the re d-l i g . bought by-me
" The re d art i c le I bought i s expens i ve . "
Pi nakamadas i g ang ( t awong mahadlok ) .
fas t e s t the pe r s on-l i g . fri ght e ne d
" The fri ght ened pe rs on i s t he fas t e s t . "
1 6 8
7 . 2 2 . The C ount Phras e . The Count phra s e s are c las s i -
fi e d as noun phras e s s i n c e they only o c cur wi th numbers
i n the i ni t ial s lot and words repres ent i ng c ount abl e
obj e c t s i n the po s t -Part i c le s lot . The s pe c i al C ount
l i gature ka fi lls t he Part i c le s lot .
Exampl e s :
. . . t at l o ka b at a . . .
three li g . chi l d
" . . . t hr e e c hi l dren . . . "
. . . i s a ka pi ni l i nga adlaw . . .
one l i g . cho s e n l i g . day
" . . . one par t i cular day . . . "
. . . duha ka nagbakal s ang manyi ka . . .
two l i g . b ough t o f-the doll
" . . . two who bought a doll . . . "
May ( t atl o ka b at a ' ) kam1 .
there- are thre e l i g . c hi l d we
"We have three c hi ldre n . "
Nagalang6y s i a s a ( i s a ka ( pi n 1 li ' nga adlaw
) ) .
was - swimmi ng he on-the one l i g . c ho s e n l i g . day
" H e was s·wimmi ng on one part i cular day . "
Nawal a ' ang ( duha ka ( nagbakal s ang many1 ka
) ) .
was -los t the two l i g . bought o f-the do ll
" The two who b ought a doll were l o s t . "
169
7 . 3 . Tye B Phras e S t ructure s . On the bas i s o f t he
Type B Structures three gene ral phras e typ e s o c c ur : the
Defi ni te Noun phras e , the At t r ibut i ve Noun phras e and
the Loc at i ve Noun phras e . There ar e als o Pers onal
and non-Pers onal forms of the s e phras e s and the i r
Sub s t i t ut e s .
7 . 3 1 . The De f i ni t e Noun Phras e . The Part i cl e s lot for
the D e fi ni t e �oun phras e i s fi lled by a grammat i c al
marke r whi ch i ndi c at e s t hat the phras e i s s ub s t ant i val
and that i t repre s e nt s a s pe c i fi c i t e m o f t he cultural
s i t uat i on . The marke rs o f this phras e type di s t i ngui s h
pers onal from common phras e s .
7 . 3 1 . 1 . The Pe rs onal De fi ni t e Noun Phras e . The Part i c l e
s l ot f o r t hi s phras e i s f i l l e d by the marke r s i .
the phras e t o repr e s ent a pe rs o n .
Exampl e s :
4 • 4 s i Jo s e . . .
the -pe rs onal J o s e
" . . . J o s e . . . "
. . . s i Mar i a . . .
the -pe rs onal Mar i a
" . . . Mar i a . . . "
I t s hows
1 7 0
Makalut o ' s ang pamahaw ( s i J o s e ) .
c an- c ook o f-the bre akf as t t he -pe rs onal J o s e
" J o s e c an c o o k s ome br e akfas t . "
Bali gyaan niya ( s i Pedro ) s ang i s da ' .
wi ll-s ell by-him the-pers onal Pedro of-the fi s h
" He wi ll s e ll a fi s h for Pedro . "
Pi nakamat aas ( s i Bi ct or ) s a akon k l as e .
t al l e s t the-pers onal Bi c t o r i n-the my c las s
" Bi c t o r i s the t al l e s t i n my c l a s s . "
The plural form o f the Pers onal D e fi ni t e Noun phra s e
appears with t h e p art i c le s anday i ns t e ad o f t he part i cle
s i .
Exampl e s :
. . . s anday Jos e . . .
the-pers onal -plural Jos e
" . . . Jos e and tho s e wi th hi m . . . " ( o r , Jos e and hi s
fri ends . )
. . . s anday Mari a . . .
the-pers onal-plural Mar i a
" . . . Mari

and her friends . . . "
Mak as ulat ( s anday Jo s e ) s ang i ni ns i k .
c an-wr i t e the-pers onal-plural Jo s e o f-the Chi n e s e
" J o s e and h i s fri e nds c an wri t e i n Chi ne s e . "
N agp alalut o ' ( s anday Li nda
) .
i s - fond- o f- c ooki ng the-pers onal-plural Li nda
" L i nda and her fr i ends ar e fond o f c o ok i ng . "
17 1
Makas us yo ( s anday Pe dro ) s a negos yo .
c an-be -as s o c i at e d the-pers onal-p lural Pe dro i n-the
bus i ne s s
" Pe dro and h i s fri ends are i n bus i n e s s t o gethe r . "
7 . 3 1 . 2 . Sub s t i tutes for the Pers onal D e fi ni t e Noun Phras e .
The s e t o f pe rs onal pronouns whi ch s ub s t i t ute for thi s
phras e are as follows :
S i ngular : l s t Pers on - ako
2nd " - i kaw , ka ( k a i s a pos t-po s i -
t i onal pronoun )
3rd " - s i a
Plural : l s t " I nc lus i ve - ki t a
l s t " Exc lus i ve - kami
2nd " - kamo
3rd "
÷
s i l a
The s ub s t i tut e s o f t h i s s et re plac e the whole phras e ,
i . e . , the I ntroduc e r and the he ad of the phras e .
Examp le s :
N agahi nampang ( s anday Mar i a ) s a l agwert a .
are-playi ng the-pers onal-p lural Mar i a i n-the yard
"Mar ia and her c omp anions are playi ng i n the yard . "
1 7 2
Nagahi nampang ( s i l a ) s a lagwert a .
are-playi ng they i n-the yard
" They ar e playing i n the yard . "
I nul anan ( kami ) s a dalan .
rai ne d-on we-exc l . on-the road
"We were c aught i n t he rain on the way . "
7 . 31 . 3 . The non-Pe rs onal D e fi ni t e Noun Phras e . The p ar­
t i c l e s l ot for t hi s phr a s e i s f i l l e d by the marker �
indi c at i ng that the phras e i s s ub s t antival and non-per-
s onal . The �phras e usually marks the topi c of the
s ent enc e . T op i c is the foc us c omplement of verbal c laus e s ;
the plai n t o pi c of nonverb al c l aus e s . E quat i o nal c l aus es
c ons i s t o f two � phras e s , one e ach as predi c at e and
topi c ( s ee s e ct i on 8 . 12 ) .
. . . ang t i e nda . . .
the s t o r e
" . . . t he s t o r e . . . "
. . . ang nanay . . .
the mothe r
" . . . t h e mother . . . "
. . . and p aka i s a . . .
the c ous i n
" . . . the c o us i n . . . "
1 7 3
Gintun- an n i J o s e ( ang i ya pakai s a ) maglangoy .
t aught by-the-pers onal J o s e t he h i s c ous i n t o - swim
" J o s e t aught h i s c ous i n to swim . "
Bakli ( ang t i enda ) s ang b ayo .
buy the s t ore o f-the dre s s
" Buy a dre s s at the s t ore . "
Many other e xample s c an b e s e e n i n the i llus t r at i ve
s ent e nc e s found throughout the grammar .
The plural form o f the non-Pe rs onal De fi ni t e Noun Phras e
i s forme d by the addit i on o f the part i c l e manga t o the
phr as e i mme di at e ly pre c e di ng the H ead word .
Gi ntun-an ni J o s e ( ang i ya manga p akai s a ) magl angoy .
t aught by-the-pers onal Jos e the h i s plural cous i n t o ­
swim
" J o s e t aught h i s cous i ns to swi m . "
Nagahalampang ( ang manga bat a ' ) s ang be s bo l .
are-playi ng the plural c hi ld o f-the bas eb all
" The c hi ldren ar e playi ng b a s eball . "
I g apalutuon ko ( ang manga s ag i ng ) s a kahon .
wi ll-prob ably-b e-ri pened by-me the plural b anana in­
the box
" I wi ll probably ripen the b ananas i n the box . "
7 . 31 . 4 . S ub s t i t ut e s for the non-Pers onal D e fi ni t e Noun
Phras e . There are s ub s t i t ut e s for thi s phras e in the form
1 7 4
o f the Demons t r at i ve Pronoun s . The demons trati ve pronouns ,
howeve r , are not the s ame type o f s ub s t i t ut e s as t he pe r-
s onal pronouns s i n c e the forme r can c o o c cur wi t hi n the
phras e as a mo di f i e r of the he ad word o f the phr as e , or
they c an s ub s t i t ut e for the who l e phras e as the pe rs o nal
pronouns do . The cho i c e i s l e ft to the s p e ake r . The s et
o f Demons t r at i ve pronouns whi ch s ub s ti tut e s for the S i n-
gular non-Pe rs onal De f i ni t e Noun Phras e i s as follows :
' thi s '
' that-ne ar '
' that- far '
Examp l e s :
S i ngul ar
Demo ns t rat i ve
i ni
i na '
a to
( O ri gi nal ) Nagai nom s ang kafe ( ang t awo ) .
i s - dr i nki ng o f-the c offe e the pe r s o n
" The p e r s on i s dri nki ng co ffee . "
( Sub s t i t ut e ) Nagai nom s ang kafe ( ang i na ' nga t awo ) .
i s - dri nki ng o f-the c o ffee the that l i g .
pe rs on
" Th at pe rs o n i s dri nki ng c offee . "
Nagainom s ang kafe ( i n i} .
i s - dri nk i ng o f-the c o ffe e t h i s
" T h i s ( one ) i s dr i nki ng c o ffee . "
1 7 5
B al akal ko s ang l i bro ( at o nga kwart a ) .
for-buy i ng-wi th by-me o f-the book t hat l i g . money
" That money i s for buy i ng a book . "
Bal akal ko s ang li bro ( i ni ) .
for-buyi ng-wi t h by-me o f-the book t hi s
" Thi s i s for buyi ng a book . "
The s et o f Demons t rat i ve pronouns whi ch s ub s t i tut e s for
the plur al non-Pe rs onal De f i ni t e Noun Phr as e i s as follows :
' th i s '
' that - ne ar '
' that- far '
Exampl e s
Plural
Demons t r at i ve
ang manga i ni
ang manga i na '
ang manga at o
( Or i ginal ) Naghalampang ( ang manga bata ' ) s ang be s bo l .
playe d the plural chi ld o f-the b a s eb al l
" T he chi ldren playe d b a s eb al l . "
( Sub s t i t ut e ) Naghalampang ( ang manga i n i ) s ang b es bol .
playe d the plural t hi s of-the bas eball
" The s e pl aye d b as eball . "
176
( Or i gi nal ) Mab a s a niya ( ang manga s ulat ) bwas .
c an-read by-her the plural l e t t e r tomorrow
" She c an read the l e t t e rs t omo rrow . "
( Subs t i t ut e ) Mab a s a ni ya ( ang manga i na ' ) bwas .
c an-read by-her the plural that t omorrow
" She c an read tho s e tomorrow . "
Mab a s a niya ( ang manga s ulat nga i na ' ) bwas .
c an-read by-her the plural l e t t e r li g .
that t omorrow
" She c an read tho s e l e t t e rs t omorrow . "
7 . 3 2 . The At t ri but i ve Noun Phras e . The p art i c l e s l o t
f o r thi s phras e i s f i l l e d by a grammat i c al marker whi c h
shows the phra s e t o b e s ub s t ant i val and att ri but i ve t o a
he ad word o f anot he r phras e . The marke rs di s t i ngui s h be -
twe e n pe rs onal and non-pers onal phras e s o f t hi s type .
The non-Pe rs onal Att r ibuti ve Noun phras e i s vi ewe d as
repres ent i ng a non- s p e c i fi c i t em o f the cultural s i tua-
t i o n .
7 . 32 . 1 . The Pers onal Att r i but i ve Noun Phras e . The
marker ni fi lls the part i c l e s l o t i n this phras e type and
s hows the phras e to be pe rs o na� i . e . , th e he ad word is a
name o f a pers on , and at t ri but i ve t o another word . At-
t ribut i ve to a verb , t hi s phras e repres ents the agent of
the act i on . Att ri but i ve t o a noun i t i s the pos s e s s or .
Exampl e s
I ndi ' p aghampangan ( n i Seni ) ang pos poro .
not play-wi th by-the-pe rs onal Se ni the mat c he s
" S eni wi ll not play wi th the mat ches . "
Malumpat an ( ni Cora ) ang kanal .
c an- j ump by-the Cora the c anal
" C o r a c an j ump the c anal . "
Ang gi nkuh a ( ni Manuel ) wala s i ng pule s .
the got by-the-pers onal Manue l not o f-the us e
" What Manuel got i s o f no us e . "
Madako ' ang b alay ( ni Tomas ) .
large t he hous e o f-the-pe rs onal Tomas
" Tomas ' hous e i s large . "
J
¯ ¯
T he plural form o f t he Pe rs onal Att ri but i ve Noun Phras e
app e ars wi th the p art i c l e nanday i n the part i c le s lot o f
t he phras e i n s t e ad o f ni .
Example s
Malumpat an ( nanday Cora ) ang kanal .
c an- j ump by-the-pers onal-plural C o ra the canal
" C ora and tho s e with her c an j ump the c anal . "
Madako ' ang b alay ( n anday Tomas ) .
large the hous e o f-the-pe r s onal-plural Tomas
" The hous e of Tomas and tho s e wi th him i s large . "
1 7 8
Gi nt anom ( nanday Huan ) a ng mg a ut an .
plant e d-by the-pers onal-plural Huan t he plural vege­
t abl e
"Huan and tho s e wi t h hi m plant e d s ome veget abl e s . "
7 . 32 . 2 . Sub s t i t ut e s for the Pers onal Att r i but i ve Noun
Phras e . The followi ng s et o f pe r s onal pronouns are s ub -
s t i t ut abl e for t hi s pe rs onal phras e .
S i ngular :
1 s t Pers on
2nd "
3rd "
Plural :
1 s t Pers on , I nc lus i ve
1 s t " Exclus i ve
2nd "
3rd "
Example s
Gins i nghut an ( ni ya ) ang bulak .
smel l e d- o f by-him the flower
"He s melled the flowe r . "
Lutuan ( mo ) ang adob o .
wi ll- cook by-you the adobo
" You wi l l c ook the adobo . "
nakon , ko
ni mo , mo
ni ya
naton
namon
ni nyo
nil a
Ang gi nb akal ( ni la } b ayo .
the bought by-them dr e s s
"What they bought was a dre s s . "
Nags i p a ' ako s ang bola ( nat on ) .
ki c ke d I of-the b all o f-us
"I k i c ke d our ball . "
179
7 . 3 2 . 3 . The non-Pe rs onal Att r ibut i ve Noun Phras e . The
marke r s ang f i l l s the part i c l e s l ot o f thi s phras e . At-
t ribut i ve t o a verb thi s phras e repre s ent s a vari ety o f
ve rb complement s ; at t ri but i ve t o a noun t h i s phras e marks
the pos s e s s or or i de nt i ty of the i t em to whi ch it i s
at tri but i ve .
Exampl e s
Magl i ko ' ka ( s ang karab ao ) s a t uo .
wi ll-turn you o f-the c arab ao t o-the r i ght
" Turn the c arab ao t o the r i ght . "
Gi ns i nghut an ( s ang dalaga ) ang bulak .
s melled- o f by-the gi rl the flower
"The flower was s me lle d by the g i rl . "
Ang langoy ( s ang dalag a ) mas ako ' .
the swim o f-the g i rl rap i d
" The gi rl ' s swimmi ng i s rapi d . "
18 0
B al i gyai ang i s da 1 ( s ang b at a ' ) .
s el l the f i s h of-the chi l d
" S ell t he c hi ld ' s fi s h . "
The plural form o f the non-Pe rs onal At t r ibutive Noun
Phras e appe ars with the s ame part i c l e in the Part i c l e
s lot but wi th t h e plural marker manga ( mga ) i ns e r t e d
immedi at e ly pre c e di ng t he he ad word .
Exampl e s
Gi nkan-an ( s ang manga b aboy ) ang mangga .
at e by-the plural p i g the mango
"The mango was e at en by s ome p i g s . "
Nakab a s a ako ( s ang mga li bro ) .
was - able -t o-re ad I o f-the plural book
" I was abl e t o r e ad t he books . "
Makalangoy s i a s a s ub a ' ( s ang mga mangi ngi s da ' ) .
c an- s wim he i n-the ri ve r o f-the plur al fi s hermen
" H e c an swim in the fi s he rmen ' s r i ve r . "
Sulat i ang li bro ( s ang mga bat a ' ) .
wri t e -i n the book o f-the plural c hi l d
" Wri t e i n t he book o f t he c hi ldren . "
7 . 3 2 . 4 . Sub s t i tut e s for the non-Pers onal Att ri but i ve
Noun Phras e . The Sub s t i t ut e s whi ch replac e t hi s phras e
are the s i ni c l as s o f Demo ns t rat i ve Pronouns .
' o f-thi s '
' o f-that-near '
1 of-that - far 1
Exampl e s
S i ngular
Demons t rati ve
s i ni
s i na '
s ad t o
N agtanom s i a ( s i n i ) s a uma .
pl ant e d he o f-t hi s on-the farm
" He pl ant e d t h i s on t he farm . "
Ki nuha niya ang b a s o ( s ina ' ) s a l ame s a .
t ook by-her the glas s o f-that on-the t ab l e
" She t o ok t h e glas s o f that o n e o n t he t able . "
1 8 1
Map akuha ako s ang mga bul ak ( s i na ' ) .
wi ll- have-get I o f- the plural flower o f-that
" I ' ll have s omeone ge t s ome flowe rs from that . "
The s et o f Demons t rat i ve Pronouns whi ch s ub s t i t ut e s for
the plural non-Pe rs onal Att ri but i ve Noun phr as e i s as
follows :
' o f-thi s '
' o f-that-near '
' o f-that- far '
Plural
Demons t rat i ve
s ang mga i ni
s ang mga i na '
s ang mga adt o / at o
18 2
Exampl e s
Nagt anom s i a ( s ang mg a i ni ) s a uma .
pl ant e d he o f-the plural t hi s on-the farm
" H e pl ant e d t he s e on the farm . "
P alahulam ( s ang mga i na ' ) s i R i c ardo .
fond-of-borrowi ng o f-the plural that the-pers onal
Ri c ardo
" Ri cardo is fond o f borrowi ng tho s e . "
Gi nk an-an ko ang kus i na ( s ang mga at o ) .
at e- i n by-me the k i t chen o f-the plural that
"I at e tho s e i n the ki t c he n . "
I pas i nghot ang bul ak ( s ang mga i na ' ) kay Mari a .
let - s me ll the flower o f-the plural that t o-the Mar i a
" H ave Mar i a s mell t h e flower o f tho s e . "
7 . 3 3 . The Loc at i ve Noun Phras e . The func t i o n o f the
Loc at i ve Noun phr as e i s to s how the loc at i on ( r e al or
abs t ract ) o f the word t o whi ch i t is att r ibut i ve . Thi s
phras e al s o h a s Pers onal and non-Pe rs o nal vari ant s .
7 . 3 3 . 1 . The Pers onal Loc at i ve Noun Phras e . The part i c le
� fi l l s the part i c l e s lot o f thi s phras e type . Att r i -
but i ve t o a verb t hi s phras e appe ar s to func t i o n a s an
" ob j e c t " or " i ndi re c t ob j e c t " as well as a l o c at i on .
Example s
Naki g-upod s i a (kay Ana ) .
reque s t e d-ac company s he wi th-the-pers onal Ana
" She had Ana ac c ompany her . "
J O §
Nagab al i gya ' s i a s ang prut as ( k ay Fely ) .
i s - s e l li ng s he o f-th e fruit t o-the-pers onal Fe ly
" She i s s e lli ng s ome fruit t o Fe ly . "
Gi nhatag ni Reme ang bul ak ( k ay Mar i a ) .
gave by-the-pers onal Reme the flower t o -the-pers onal
Maria
"Reme gave the flower t o Mar i a . "
The plural form o f t hi s phr as e i s i ntroduc ed by the par-
t i c le kanday i ns t e ad of �·
Examples
Hi natag ni Juan ( k anday Mari a ) ang mga mang ga .
gave by-the-pe rs onal Juan t o -the-pers onal-plural Mar i a
t h e plural mang go
" Juan gave the manggos to Mar i a and her fr i ends .
Nagapaki g s ul at ako ( kanday Jos e ) p ara kay Jos e fa .
reque s t i ng-to-wri t e I to-the-pers onal-plural J o s e for
to-the-pers onal Jos e fa
" I am reque s t i ng Jos e and tho s e wi th hi m to wri t e
Jos e fa for me . "
1 8 4
Pagahat ag mo ang mg a s ul at ( kanday J o s e ) .
b e-gi vi ng by-you the plural l e t t e r t o -the-pers onal­
plural J o s e
" Gi ve t h e l e t t e r s to J o s e and hi s fr i ends . "
7 . 3 3 . 2 . Sub s t i t ut e s for the Pers onal Loc at i ve Noun Phras e
.
The akon s et o f pe rs onal pronouns , whi ch s ub s t i tut e s for
th i s phras e , repla c e s only the axi s o f the phras e ; the
re lator is not replac e d .
Example s
S i ngul ar
S i ngular : Demo ns t r at i ve
1 s t Pe rs o n s a akon
2nd " s a i mo
3rd " s a i ya
Plural :
1 s t Pe rs o n , I nc lus ive s a
1 s t
"
Exc lus i ve s a
2nd " s a
3rd
"
s a
Example s
Sumulat s i a ( s a i ya ) kahapon .
wrot e s he t o-the he ye s t e rday
" She wrot e t o hi m ye s t e rday .
a ton
am on
i nyo
i la
1 8 5
Magap anglut o ' s i Carlos s ang manok ( s a at on ) .
wi ll-c ook-s ome the-pe r s on al Carlqs o f-the chi cken t o ­
the us .
" C arlos wi ll c o ok s ome chi ckens for us . "
Ang t ab ako ang bali gya ' niya ( s a i la ) .
the t obac c o the s ell by-he t o-the them
" Toba c c o is what he s el l s t o them . "
7 . 3 3 . 3 . The non-Pe rs onal Loc at i ve Noun Phr as e . The non-
Pe rs onal Loc at i ve Noun Phras e is i ntroduc e d by the part i -
c l e � wh i ch appe ar s i n the Part i c le s lot o f t h e phras e .
Exampl e s
I galut o ' ang manok s a l angk a .
probab ly- cook t h e c hi c ke n wi th-the j ac kfruit
"The chi cke n wi ll probab ly be c ooked with the j ac kfrui t . "
Ang pakadlaw niya s a bata manyi ka .
the c aus e - l augh by-her t o-the chi l d doll
"A doll is what s he us e d t o make the c hi l d l augh . "
Naglumpat s ang mat aas s i Pedro s a paindi s .
j umpe d o f-the hi gh the-pers onal Pe dro i n-the comp e t i ­
t i o n
" Pe dro j umpe d h i gh i n t h e c ompet i t i on . "
Pagasulat o n ang kanta s a pi s ara .
t o-b e-wri tte n the s o ng on-the bl ackboard
" The s ong i s t o be wri tten on the b l ackbo ard . "
1 8 6
T he plural of t hi s phras e i s formed b y the addit i on o f
t h e p art i c l e manga t o t he phras e . I t i s i ns e rt e d i mme di -
at e ly pre c e di ng the he ad wo rd o f the phras e .
Example s
Ang p akadlaw ni ya s a mga b at a manyi ka .
the c aus e - l augh by-her i n-the plural c hi ld doll
" A doll i s what s he us e d t o make the c hi ldren l augh . "
P agas ul aton ang kant a s a mga p i s ar a .
to-b e -wr i t t e n the s ong on-the plural b l ackboard
" The s ong i s t o be wri tt e n on the bl ac kboards . "
Kaathag ang t al an-awon s a mga buki d .
c l e ar the vi ew to-the plural mount ai n
" How c l e ar i s the vi ew o f the mo unt ai n s ! "
7 . 3 3 . 4 . Sub s t i t ut e s for the non-Pers onal Lo c at i ve Noun
Phras e . The D emons t r at i ve Pr onoun s et whi ch s ubs t i tutes
for t hi s phras e s ub s t i t ut e s for the ent i r e phras e i nc lud-
i ng the Part i c l e . The pronoun s et is as follows :
' t o f at here '
' t o / at t he re-near '
' t o / at t he re - far '
S i ngul ar
Demons t rat i ve
di ri
di ra '
d i d t o
Exampl e s
Wala s i a ( di ri ) .
not-exi s t he at-here
" He is not here . "
I gapalutuon mo ang s ag i ng ( di ra ' ) .
prob ably c aus e -ri pen by-you the b anana i n-that
1 8 7
" You wi l l probab ly have t h e b anana ri pe ne d i n t hat . "
Gi nabal i gya ' ko ang li bro ( di dt o ) .
i s - s el l i ng by-me the b ook at -that ( pl a c e ) .
" I am s el l i ng the book t he re . "
Nagas ululugi l anon s i l a ( di ra ' ) .
are-t alki ng-much they i n-there
" They are all t alking i n the re . "
Si paa ang mga bo l a ( di ra ' ) s a bo l fi l d .
let-b e-ki c ked the plural ball from-there at -the ball­
fi eld
" Let t he b alls b e ki c ked from the b al l fi e l d . "
( or " Ki c k the b alls from the ballfi e ld . " )
The Demons t rati ve phras e whi ch s ub s t it ut e s for the plural
Loc at i ve Noun phras e c ons i s t s o f the re gular introducer
� plus the plur al marker manga and membe r s o f the Demon-
s t r at i ve Pronoun s et whi ch s ub s t i tut e s for the De fi ni t e
Noun Phr as e . T h e s ub s t i t ut e phra s e s a r e a s follows :
1 8 8
Plural
Demons trat i ve
' i n/ at the s e ' s a manga i ni
' i n / at thos e-near ' s a manga i na '
' i n/ at tho s e - far ' s a manga a to
Example s
I g apalutuon ko ang mga s agi ng ( s a mga i ni ) .
prob ably- c aus e-ri pen by-me the plural b anana i n-the
plural t hi s
" I ' ll prob ably have the b ananas ri pened i n the s e . "
Baklon ko ang mga b ayo ( s a mga i na ' ) nga e s t ant e .
wi l l-buy by-me the plural dr e s s at -the plural t hat
l i g . plac e
" I wi ll buy the dr e s s e s at tho s e pl ac e s . "
Nagtuon s i J o s e maglangoy ( s a mga d i dt o nga s ub a ' ) .
le arned the-pe r s onal J o s e t o - swi m i n the plural that
l i g . ri ver
" J o s e l e arne d t o s wim i n tho s e r i vers . "
7 . 3 4 . De ri ve d Loc at i ve Phras e s . There are a few phras es
whi ch i t s e ems bes t to d e s c r i be as phra s e s deri ved from
the Loc at i ve phras e .
7 . 3 4 . 1 . The Bene fact i ve Phras e . The Benefact i ve phras e
i s d i s t i ngui s he d from the Loc at i ve phras e by the pre s ence
of the parti cle par a whi ch i s c ompounded wi th the re gular
part i cle i nt roduc e rs o f the Lo c at i ve phras e . The me ani ng
s i gnale d by t hi s c o ns t ruc t i o n i s that the phras e repre-
s e nt s one who i s bene fi t ed by an act i on .
Example s
par a s a . . .
I kuha ' mo ang kut s i lyo s ang gumamela ( para s a maes t r a ) .
get-with by-you the kni fe o f-the gumame l a for-the
t e ac her
" You us e the kni fe to get a gumamela for the t e acher . "
Sulatan roo ako s ang li bro ( p ara s a i s a ka gat o s ka
pe s o s ) .
wri t e - for by-you I o f-the book for the one li g . hundr e d
l i g . pe s o s
" You wri t e a bo o k for me for 10 0 pe s o s . "
Map aki gluto ' ni ya ako ( para s a Sabado ) kay Mari a .
c an-reque s t - c ook by-her I for Sat urday t o-the-pers onal
Mari a
" She c an reque s t Mar i a t o c o o k f o r me on S aturday . "
para kay . . .
Bal i gyaan mo s ang i s da ' s i Huan ( para kay C ora ) .
wi ll-s ell-to by-you of-the fi s h the pe rs onal Huan
" S e ll the f i s h to Huan for C ora . "
1 9 0
Makahatag ako s ang li bro kay Jo s e ( p ara kay N anay ) .
c an-give I o f-the book t o -the-per s o nal J o s e for-the
Nanay
" I c an gi ve a book t o J o s e for N anay . "
par a s a ( Pronoun ) . . .
! t un-an mo s i Pepe magluto ' ( p ara s a akon ) .
wi ll-t e ach by-you the-pers onal Pepe t o - c ook for t o ­
t he me
" You t e ach Pepe to c ook for me . "
Kaunon mo ang mangga ( p ara s a i ya ) .
e at by-you the mango for the hi m
" Eat the mango for hi m . "
7 . 3 4 . 2 . The Comparat i ve Phras e . The c ompar e d i t em i s
repre s ent e d b y a phras e wi th twin markers . The pe rs onal
phra s e i s marke d by the c omb i nat i on sa kay . . . ; the c ommon
phras e i s marke d by s ang s a . . . , and s ub s t i t ut e s are t aken
from the Loc at i ve s et . ( s ee als o S e c t i on 5 . 3 4 . )
Kadas i g magdalagan s i J o s e s a l agwe rta ( s a kay Mar i a )
.
fas t t o-run the-pers onal Jos e i n-the yard t o -the the­
pe rs onal Mar i a
" J o s e runs fas t e r than Mar i a i n t he yard . "
Mas maalam s i Pe dro ( s a kay Juan ) .
mo re i nte lli ge nt the-pers onal Pe dro t o-the the-per­
s onal Jua
n
" Pe dro i s more i nt e l li gent than Juan . "
191
Mat aas ang anak ni Mr . Reye s ( s a kay C re s ) .
t all the chi l d o f-the-pe r s onal Mr . Reyes t o -the the­
pe rs onal Juan
"Mr . Reye s ' daught e r i s t al l e r than Cres . "
Mat aas ang l ap i s ( s ang s a b alpen ) .
h i gh the pe nc i l o f-the t o -t he b allpen
" The penc i l is h i gher than t he b allpen . "
Maalam ang among i du ' ( s ang s a imo kuri ng ) .
i nt el l i g e nt the our-li g . dog o f-the t o-the your c at
" Our dog i s more i nt e l l i gent than your c at . "
Maalam ang among i du ' s ang ( di ra ' ) .
i nt e l l i gent the our-l i g . dog o f-the t o-that
" Our dog i s more i nt e l l i gent than that ( one ) . "
7 . 3 5 . The Int errogat i ve Sub s t i t ut e s . The I nte rrogat i ve
Sub s t i tutes are s ub di vi de d i nto groups on the b as i s o f
the i r s ub s t i t ut i on potent i al .
Int e rrogat i ve Sub s t i tut e s for Sub s t ant i val
Phras e s . The s ub s t i tute s ano ' what ? ' and di i n ' whe r e ? '
s ub s t i t ut e for common noun phras e s .
Example s
Ano ang s i l i ng mo ?
wh at the s p e ak by-you
" What are you t alking ab out ? "
1 9 2
Ano kuno?
what i s -reported
" What di d he s ay ? "
D i i n ang mga kut s ar a mo gi nbut ang?
where the plural s poons by-you put
" Where di d you put the s poons ? "
S a d i i n mo gi nkuha ' ang bulak ?
at -the-whe re by-you t o ok t h e flower
" Where di d you get the flowe r ? "
The I nt erro gat i ve di i n al s o o c curs wi th D emons t r at i ve
Pronouns i n a c o ns t ruc t i o n whi ch t rans l at e s as ' whi c h? ' .
Example s
Di i n s i n a ' ang mae s t r o mo ?
whe re tho s e the t eac her o f-you
" Wh i ch of tho s e is your t e ache r ? "
D i i n s ato ang pri nc i pal?
where o f-tho s e the pri nc i pal
" Whi ch o f them i s the pri nc i pal ? "
The I nt e rrogat ive s i n-o ' who ? ' s ub s t i t ut e s for Pers onal
D e fi ni t e Noun Phras es .
S i n-o ang pre s i de nt s ang as s o s as yon ni nyo?
who the pres i dent o f-the a s s o c i at i on o f-you-plural
" Who is the Pres ident of your as s o c i at i o n ? "
S i n-o s i I nday nga s i l ing mo ?
who the-pers onal I nday l i g . s pe ak o f-you
" Who i s I nday whom you s p e ak about ? "
1 9 3
I n c ons truct i o n wi t h the plural D e f i n i t e Noun Phr as e
I ntroduc er part i c l e s anday, s i n-o als o s ub s t i tut e s for
the plural Pers onal De f i ni t e Noun Phras e .
S anday s i n-o ang maupod?
the-pers onal-plural who the wi ll-go
" Who o f tho s e wi ll go ? "
S anday s i n-o makuha s ang eks ami n?
the-pe rs o nal-plural who wi ll- get o f-the exam
" Who o f tho s e wi ll t ake the exam? "
I n c ons truct i on wi th t h e Pe rs onal Lo c at i ve Noun Phra s e
I ntroduc e r p art i cle �. s i n- o h a s t h e meani ng o f ' who s e ? ' .
Kay s i n-o balay i na ' ?
t o -the-pers onal who hous e that
" Who s e hou s e i s that ? "
Kay s i n-o i ni ng s apat o s ?
to-the-pers onal who thi s -li g . s ho e s
" Wh o s e s ho e s ar e the s e ? "
7 . 3 5 . 2 .
Int errogat i ve Sub s t i tutes for Ve rbal Phras e s .
The I nt e rrogat i ve � ' what ' i s als o us e d i n plac e o f
verb al phras es . The form � i s a vari ant form o f ano .
1 9 4
Nano ang g inabuhat mo ?
what the are-doing by you
" What are you doing ? "
�may als o b e i nfle c t e d t o s ub s t i tute for more s p e c i fi c
types o f verb al phras e s .
Maano s iya s a t i e ndahan?
what -will-do s he in-the market
"What will she do in the market ? "
Maano k a bwas ?
what-wi ll-do you t omorrow
" What ' ll you do t omorrow? "
Gin-ano mo ang kwart a ?
what - di d by-you the money
" What di d you do with the money ? "
Gi naano mo ang l api s ?
what - are-doi ng by-you the penc i l
" What are you do i ng wi th the penc i l ? "
Gi npaano
·
ang bata?
what- have- done the c hi ld
" What di d ( he ) have the c hi ld do ? "
Gi napaano ang mga b ata?
what - i s -havi ng- done the plural c hi ld
" What i s ( he ) havi ng the chi ldren do? "
1 9 5
¯ · 3 5 . 3 . I nt e rrogat i ve Sub s t i t ut e s for Modi fi e r phras e s .
The I nt e rrogat i ve s whi ch s ub s t i t ute for Modi f i e r phras e s
are li mi t e d to tho s e whi ch as k f o r c ount or numb e r mo di -
fi ers although �/ ano may as k about qual i ty .
rogat i ve s are t he followi ng :
pi l a as ks ' how many ? ' .
F i l a kamo mag-ut od?
how-many you t o - s i bli ng
The I nt er-
" How many s i bl i ngs ar e you? " ( or , " How many brothers
and s i s t e r s are you i n all? " )
F i l a ka o ras ang byahe di i n has t a s a Bagui o ?
how-many l i g . hour s t h e t r i p from-here unt i l at-the
Bagui o
" How many hours does t he t r i p from he re t o Bagui o t ake ? "
s an-o as ks ' whe n? ' .
S an-o mal akat ang bapor?
when wi ll-le ave the b o at
" When wi ll the b o at l e ave ? "
San-o ang programa maumpi s a?
whe n the program will-b e gi n
" When wi ll the program b e g i n? "
nano as ks ' what ? ' wi th re fe re nc e to qual i ty .
196
Nano kat am- i s i na ' ?
what s weet ne s s t hat
" What i s the s weetne s s of that l i ke ? "
Wi th the pre fi x ika- t he Int e rrogat i ve s i nqui re about the
pl ac e i n a c o unt o f i t ems one p art i cular i t em holds .
Ikaano nga grado s i a?
li ke-what li g . grade he ?
" What grade i s he i n? "
I kas an-o mo i s i l ibwar ang okasyon?
li ke-when by-you c e lebrat e the o c c as i on
" When wi ll you c e lebrat e the o c c as i o n? "
I kap i l a s a l i nya ang hi nabl o s mo ?
li ke-how-many i n-the li ne t he n i e c e o f-you
"In what pl ac e in the line is your ni e c e ? "
Ikap i l a ka b e s e s ka na nakakadto s a Bagui o ?
li ke-how-many l i g . t i me s y o u now gone t o -the Bagui o
" How many t i me s now have you gone to Bagui o ? "
7 . 3 5 . 4 . Int errogat ive Sub s t i t ut e s for Claus es . Two
I nterrogat i ve s c an be cl as s i fi e d as c l aus e s ub s t i t ut e s :
ngaa ' why? ' and paano ' how? ' .
Ngaa s i a nagahib i ' ?
why s he c ry i ng?
" Why is s he c ryi ng ? "
Ngaa malakat kamo dayon?
why wi ll-leave you i mme di at e ly
"Why wi ll you l e ave r i ght now? "
Paano ka nakaabot dir i ?
how you c ame here
" How di d you c ome here ? "
Paano mo g i nh i mo �ni ?
how by-you made t hi s
" How di d you make thi s ? "
7 . 36 . Summary Chart s o f t he Phras e Sub s t i tut e s .
19 7
The
following chart s of Noun Phras e s ub s t i tut e s are given for
e a s e of compar i s on and re fe re nc e .
7 . 3 6 . 1 . Chart o f the Pe rs o nal Noun Phras e Sub s t i t ut e s .
The ako s et o f Pronouns s ub s t i t ut e s for the Pe rs o nal
D e fi ni t e Noun Phras e , the akon s e t o f Pronouns s ub s t i t ut e s
for t h e Pers onal Loc at i ve Noun Phras e , and t h e �s et
of Pronouns s ub s t i t ut e s for the Pers onal Att ribut i ve Noun
Phras e . The s e pronoun s ub s t i tut e s are di s pl ayed i n
Chart V I I for c ompar i s on .
1 9 8
Noun Phras e s :
Pronouns :
S i neular : I
you
he ( et c . )
Plural : we ( i nc l . )
we ( exc l . )
you
they
De f i ni t e At t ributi ve Loc at i ve
ako akon nakon ( ko )
i kaw , ka i mo nimo ( mo )
s i a i ya ni ya
ki t a a t on nat on ( t a )
kami amon namon
kamo i nyo ni nyo
s i l a i l a ni la
CHART VI I .
Sub s t i tut e s for Pe rs onal Noun Phras e s .
7 . 3 6 . 2 . Chart o f the Demons t r at i ve Sub s t i t ut e s for the
non-Pers onal Noun Phras e s . The Demons t rat i ve s ub s t i t ut e s
a r e di s playe d i n Chart VI I I f o r compar i s on . The i ni s et
s ub s t i t ut e for D e f i ni t e Noun phras e s . The s i ni s et s ub­
s t i tute for the Att ri but i ve Noun phras e s . The di ri s et
s ub s t i tute for the Loc ati ve Noun phras e s .
Phras e s :
Pronouns :
' thi s '
' that '
' that '
199
De f i ni t e Attri but i ve Loc ati ve
i ni s i ni di ri
i na ' s i na ' di ra '
a t o s ad t o di d t o
CHART VI I I .
Demons t rat i ve Sub s t i t ut e s .
7 . + -
Tye C phras e s t ruc ture . On the patte rn o f the
Type ( C ) s t ruc ture , that of two forms in an unmarked �e-
l at i ons hi p , the re are three phras e c o ns t ruct i ons : the
Compound Ve rb Phras e , t he Pos s e s s e d No un Phras e , and the
0
Exi s t ent i al Phras e .
7 . 4 1 . The Compound Ve rb Phras e . The Compound Verb Phras e
cons i s t s o f a verb i n the f i r s t s lot and an i nfi ni t i ve -li ke
verb i n the s e cond , or a di fferent arrangement fi nds a
de s c ri pt i ve i n the fi rs t s l o t and a verb i n the s e c ond .
Note that the el ement s o f the phr as e may b e i nt errup t e d
b y o t he r e lement s o f t he s e nt e nc e .
Example s
a ) Verb wi th verb .
2 0 0
( Nagat uon magl angoy ) s i Jo s e .
i s -le arning t o - swim the-pe r s onal J o s e
" J o s e i s l e arning t o swim . "
I n the e xampl e s b e low all the parenth e s i z e d words i n a
gi ven s ent e nc e b elong to the s ame phras e but are s eparate
d
by other words .
( I t un- an ) roo ako ( magl angoy ) .
wi ll-teac h by-you I t o- s wim
" Te ach me t o swi m . "
( P ali hugon ) ro s i l a ( mab akal ) s ang bugas .
c aus e-reque s t by-you they t o -buy of-the r i c e
" You have them buy s ome r i c e . "
( Nagapl ano ) ako ( mabali k ) s a Mani l a s a Oktubr e .
i s -planning I t o - ret urn t o-the Mani l a i n-the O ctober
" I am pl anni ng t o return to Mani l a i n O c t obe r . "
b ) Pre-verb wi th verb root .
( Pali hog ako b akal ) s ang napulo ka ganta nga bugas .
re que s t I buy o f-the t e n li g . ganta ( a meas ure ) l i g .
r i c e
" Pl e as e buy me te n g antas o f r i c e . "
( Palihog ro nus no s ) s ang s al o g .
reque s t o f-you s c rub o f-the floor .
" Pleas e s c rub the floor . "
( Luyag ko maglut o ' ) s ang adobe .
want by-me t o-c ook o f-the adobe
" I want to cook s ome adobe . "
c ) De s c ri pt i ve wi th verb .
( Madas i g ) s i a ( magl angoy ) .
fas t he t o- s wim
" He swims fas t . "
2 0 1
I patun-on ko s i Jos e ( matudlo maglangoy ) kay Mar i a .
c aus e -t o-le arn by-me the-pers onal J o s e c an-t e ach t o ­
s wi m to-the-pers onal Mar i a
" I wi l l have J o s e le arn how t o t e ach Mar i a to swim . "
( Kadas i g magb as a ) s ang I ngles ang b at a .
fas t t o-re ad o f-the Engli s h t he chi ld
" The c hi ld re ads Engl i s h fas t . "
( nas i g ) ang maki na ( magdal agan ) .
fas t the machi ne t o-run
" The machi ne runs fas t . "
d ) Verb wi th unmarke d phras e . The s e are i ns t anc e s whe re
an unmarked phras e appears to be the obj e ct o f the c laus e .
Normally , t hi s func t i o n would b e marked by the marker s ang
when the ob j e ct i s not the focus c omplement . But the s e
phra s e s d o not o c cur wi th marke rs i n t h e following s e n-
t enc e s .
2 0 2
( Mag- i s i p ) k a ( i s a a s t a napulo ) .
count you one unt i l t e n
" Count from o n e t o t en . "
( Magkuh a ) kamo gani ( duha ka s iya ) .
get you-pl . i mme di ately two li g . c hai r
" Get two chai rs r i ght away . "
( Maghamb al ) ka ( i ni ngle s ) , h a .
s pe ak you Engl i s h , huh
" Spe ak Engl i s h , huh . "
( Maghul am ) s i J o s e ( t at lo ka kaldero ) s a pi hak .
wi l l-borrow the-pers onal Jo s e three l i g . pot at-the
oppos i t e
" J o s e wi ll bo rrow three pots from the othe r s i de . "
7 . 4 2 . The Pos s e s s e d Noun Phras e . The Pos s e s s e d Noun
phras e c o ns t ruct i o n c ons i s t s o f an akon c l a s s pronoun i n
t h e f i r s t s lot and a po s s es s e d e lement i n t h e s e c ond . The
s e cond e l ement i s us ually a nomi nal but it may be other
forms t oo .
Example s
Magkap ar eho ang ( i l a edad ) .
have - s ame the the i r age
" Th e i r age is the s ame . "
Kamahalon s ang (iya pr e s yo } .
expe ns ive o f-the his p r i c e
" Ki s pri c e s a r e hig h. "
Mabudlay ang ( akon pags ul at s ang i s toryo ) .
di f fi cult the o f-me wri t i ng o f-the s t ory
" Wri t i ng a s t ory is d i f f i cult for me . "
2 0 3
7 . 4 3 . T he Exi s t e nt i al Phras e . T he pre s e nc e o f one o f
t h e Exi s t ent i al words i n the i ni t i al s lot o f t h e phras e
d i s t i ngui s hes the Exi s t e nt i al Phras e from other type s .
The word may means ' the re i s ' or ' there e xi s t s ' . The
ne gative of may i s wala ' or i t s vari ant waay. T h e l at t e r
two words s e em to b e i n fre e vari at i o n .
Example s
. . . may kwar t a . . .
the re -i s mo ney
" . . . there i s money . . . " ( o r , " . . . have money . . . " )
. . . may bali gya ' . . .
there- i s t o - s ell
" . . . there is for s ale . . . " ( or , " . . . have for s ale . . . " )
. . . may s ap at o s . . .
there- i s s ho e s
" . . . there are s ho e s . . . " ( or , " . . . have s hoe s . . . " )
2 0 4
e • e wala ' b anig . . .
there-i s -no mat
" . . . there i s no mat . . . "
. . . wala ' malut ui e e •
ther e - i s -none ri pe ne d
" . . . there i s none r ipe . . . "
7 . 44 . Re s t r i c t e d Phras e s . The next few s e c t i o ns de s c ri b
e
wi th mixed pat t e rns deri ve d by emb e ddi ng a type B phr a s e
i n the Mod i f i e r s lot o f a type C phras e . R e s t r i c t e d
phras e s ar e c l as s i fi e d as t ype C s i n c e s ub s t i t ut i on po s s i -
b i l i t i e s t i e t h e marker i n t h e mi ddle mo re t i ghtly t o the
s e c ond e lement than to th� f i r s t . I t and the word i t marks ,
there fore , func t i o n as an emb e dde d-phr a s e f i l l e r o f one o f
the s l o t s o f a type C phras e .
7 . 4 4 . 1 . Verb Compl ement Phr as e s have a verb i n the i n i t i al
s l ot o f the c ons truct i o n . The s e c ond s lot i s f i l l e d by an
Att ribut i ve phras e who s e i ntroduc e r s erves a doubl e fun c-
t i on , although i t i s an i nt e gral part of the emb e dded
phras e . I t i nt roduc e s and marks the Att r i buti ve phras e
as
s ub s t ant i val and at the s ame t ime s hows i t t o b e i n an
at tr ibut i ve relat i on t o the H e ad of the l arger phras e
i n
whi ch i t i s emb e dde d . The two parts o f the type C phra
s e
may b e s epar ate d by other e l ement s o f the s ent enc e .
Exampl e s
. . . mabakal s ang bugas . . .
buy o f-the r i c e
" . . . t o buy s ome r i c e . . . "
. . . l ihugi s ang manug- arado . . .
r e que s t o f-the plower
" . . . re que s t a plowman e v • "
. . . gi nap ab akal s ang akon ut od . . .
i s -havi ng-bought by-the my s ibl i ng
" . . . my bro t he r i s havi ng bo ught . . . "
2 0 5
( Gi napab akal ( s ang ( akon utod ) ) ) s i Juan s ang b alay .
i s -havi ng-bought o f-the my s ibl i ng the-pers onal Juan
o f-the hous e
"My brothe r i s havi ng Juan buy the hous e . "
( N agyuhom s ang hi nal i ) s i J o s e fa .
s mi l e d o f-the s udd enly the -pe r s o nal J o s e fa
" Jo s e fa s mi l e d s uddenly . "
( Nagut om s ang paglakat ) s i Pepe .
hunge re d o f-the walki ng the-pers onal Pepe
" Pepe got hungry from walki ng . "
( Magpangayo ) s i a ( s ang patawad ) .
wi ll-as k s he o f-the p ardon
"She will ask for pardon . "
206
Ipali hog ko i kaw ( mabakal s ang bugas ) .
wi ll-re que s t by-me you t o -buy of-the r i c e
" I wi l l reque s t you to buy s ome r i c e . "
( L ihugi s ang manug- arado ) ang t al amnan .
re que s t of-the plowman the fi eld
" Re ques t a plowman for the fi e l d . "
7 . 44 . 2 . Noun R e s t r i c t e d Phras e s . Th e Noun R e s t r i c t e d
phras e s a r e charact e ri z e d b y the appearan c e o f a Nomi nal
i n the i ni t i al s lot b e fore the part i c l e .
Example s
. . . li bro s ang ut od ko . . .
book o f-the s ib l i ng o f-me
" . . . book of my brothe r , . . "
. . . prut as s ang kahoy . . .
frui t o f-the t r e e
" . , . fruit o f t he t re e . . . "
. . . humot s ang luto ' nga ali mango . . .
aroma o f-the cook Part . c rab
" . . . aroma o f a c ooked c rab . . . "
I bali gy a ' ko ang ( l ibro s ang utod ko ) .
wi ll- s e ll by-me the book o f-the s ibl i ng o f-me
" I wi ll s e ll the bo ok o f my b rother . "
N agakaon s i a s ang ( prut as s ang kahoy ) .
i s - e at i ng s he of-the fruits o f-the t r e e
" She i s e a t i ng s ome o f the fruit o f t he t r e e . "
N am-it ang ( humot s ang lut o ' nga ali mango ) .
deli c i ous the aroma o f-the c o ok Part i c le c rab
" The aroma o f c ooked c rab i s del i c i ous . "
2 0 7
T he re ader wi ll no te that thi s i s t he phras e us e d to
s how pos s e s s i on .
Po s i t i onal Phra s e s cons i s t of emb e dd e d Loc ati ve
phras e s at tr i but
i ve
t o a head word . There are both
Ve rb Pos i t i o nal phras e s and Noun Pos i t i onal phras e s .
V erb Pos i t i onal Phras e s . The Ve rb Pos i t i onal
phras e has an i n fl e c t e d verb i n the i ni t i al s l ot o f the
phras e . The e l ements o f the phras e are frequent ly di s con-
t i nuous .
Example s
. . . magkadako ' s a lima ka tui g . . .
wi ll-b e - s ame- s i z e in-the five li g . year
" . . . will be the s ame s i z e i n five years . . . "
. . . i l uto ' mo s a kalayo . . .
wi ll-have -c o oked by-you on-the fi re
"
. . you wi ll c ook on the fi re . . .
"
2 0 8
. . . i pakaon s a mae s t ra . . .
wi ll-fe e d t o -t he t e a c her-female
" . . . will f e e d the t eac her . . . "
( Magdako ' l s il a ( s a l ima ka t ui g ) .
wi l l -b e- s ame -s i z e they in-the fi ve li g . ye ar
" They wi ll b e t he s ame s i z e i n five ye ars . "
( I luto ' ) mo ( s a kalde ro ) ang adobo s a kalayo .
will-have- cooked by-you i n-the pot the adobo on-the
fi re
" You wi ll c ook the adobo i n a pot on the fi re . "
( I pakaon ) mo ang adobo ( s a mae s t r a ) .
wi l l-fe e d by-you the adobo t o - the t e ac her- femal�
" S erve ( fe e d ) the adobo to the t e ac her . "
7 . 4 5 . 2 . Noun Pos i t i o nal Phra s e s are di s t i ngui s he d from
the Ve rb Pos i t i on al phras e by the appe aranc e of a nom-
i nal in t he i ni t i al s lot o f the phras e . Thi s c ons t ruc t i o n
i s al s o an i ns t anc e o f an emb e dde d L o c at i ve phras e but
here it is at tribut i ve to a noun he ad . The e l ement s o f
t hi s phras e a r e never d i s c ont i nuous .
Examp.l e s
. . . bas o ( s a lame s a ) . . .
glas s on-the t abl e
" . . . glas s on t he t ab l e . . . "
. . . kas ul at an s a pe ryodi ko . . .
wri t t e n i n-the news pape r
" . . . wri t t e n l i ne s i n the newspaper . . . "
. . . bulak s a hardi n . . .
flower i n-the garden
" . . . flower in the garden . . . "
Ki nuha niya ang ( b as o s a lame s a ) .
took by-him the glas s on-the t able
" H e t ook the glas s on the t abl e . "
Ang ( kas ulat an s a pe ryodi ko ) i ndi ' maathag .
the wri t t e n i n-the news paper not c l e ar
2 0 9
" The ( s t o ry ) wri t t e n i n the news pape r i s no t c l ear . "
S i nghut i ang ( b ul ak s a hardi n ) .
le t-be-sme l l e d t he fiowe r i n-the garden
" L et the flower in the garden b e s melle d . "
7 . 5 . Word o rder i n Phras e s . Th e order i n whi ch el ement s
o c cur wi t hi n a phras e i s fi xed for al l phras e s except
the !  phras e s . I n the � phras e the two grammat i c al
uni ts on e i t he r s i de of the part i c l e may exchange po s i -
t i ons provi de d one i s a n adj e ct i ve-li ke word .
Exampl e
2 1 0
nahulog ako s ang dunot n g a kawayan .
threw I o f-the rott e n l i g . b amboo
" The ro tte n b amboo made me fall . "
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kawayan nga dunot .
( s ame meani ng but wi t h di ffe rnt emphas i s . )
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . s a b ag-o nga balay . . .
at-the new li g . hous e . . .
" . . . at t he new hous e . . . "
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . s a b al ay nga b ag-o . . .
( s ame meaning but wi th di ffe rent emphas i s . )
8 . CLAUSES .
C l aus e s di ffe r from other c o ns t ruc t i ons i n two way s . They
have 1 ) a Predi c at e head word , and 2 ) di s t i nc t i ve � laus al
i ntonat i on c ontours . The s p e c i f i c charac t e r i s t i c s of the
intonations c annot b e i nc lude d i n t hi s grammar s in c e the i r
analy s i s i s not y e t c omple t e . They c an b e di s t i ngui s he d
from non- c laus al i ntonat i o ns i n a gene ral way , howeve r ,
by the fact that they show ut t e ranc e - c lo s i ng i nto nat i o n
whi l e al l other i ntonat i o n c ontours end wi th non-fi nal or
he s i t at i o n paus e i nt onat i on . I n t e rms o f re lat i ve pi t c h
level s , s ent e nc e - fi nal i ntonat i on us ually f a l l s t o the
lowe s t p i t ch level or r i s e s t o the h i ghe s t pi t c h le ve l .
In both c as e s the int onat i o n i n di cat e s " c los ure " o f the
ut t e ranc e . The di r e c t i on of the pi t ch change depends upon
the gr ammat i c al fe atures of the s ent e nc e and the func t i o n
o f t h e s e ntenc e i n t h e larger c ont ext i n whi ch i t o c curs .
Several types o f c laus e s c an b e di s t i ngui s h e d i n Hi l i gaynon ,
but , as with the phras es , the underlyi ng s imi lari t i e s o f
all t he c laus e s t aken as a group c an b e s hown i n only two
gene ral p at t erns . C l aus e Pat t ern A i s a bi -polar c ons t rue-
t i on cons i s t i ng o f the predi c ate as one pole and the topi c
or s ub j e c t as the other .
211
2 1 2
Predi c ate Topi c
Cl aus e Patt ern A .
The he ad word o f both the Predi c ate and Topi c uni t s may
have mo d i fi e rs .
The s e cond pattern cons i s t s o f only a Predi c at e wi th or
wi thout modi f i e rs o f the he ad word .
Predi c at e
Claus e Pattern B .
I n the s e types o f c laus e s the re i s an obl i g at ory ab s e nc e
o f a Top i c .
From the two gene ral unde rlyi n g pat t e rns i t wi l l b e not e d
that t he central unit o f a c laus e i n H i l i gaynon i s the
Pre di c at e . It - alone i s ob li gat ory t o c laus e c ons t ruc ti on
s .
Thi s i s not t o s ay , howeve r , that there are no part i al
s ente nc e s with a predi c at e delet e d . I n normal c onve r s a -
t i o n , i nc ompl e t e s ent e nc e s a r e plenti ful but they are
deri ve d from fulle r s ent e nc e s whi ch can be s uppl i e d i n
detai l .
2 1 3
Mi nor c l aus e s a r e partial c l aus e c ons truc tions whi c h r e ­
s ult from t he del e t i o n o f p art or parts o f the compl e t e
c laus e . In s ome l i ngui s t i c d e s c r i pti ons exc lamat i ons are
al s o c las s i fi e d as minor c laus e type s . I n t hi s gr ammar
exc lamat i o n words are des c ri be d as s ep arate uni t s in the
s e c t i o n on Part i c l e s ( S e c . 3 . ) .
8 . 1 . C l aus e s o f Tye A Pat t e rn . C l aus e c o ns t ruc ti ons
wh i ch are forme d along the l i ne s of Pat t e rn A ar e of b oth
ve rb al and nonverb al type s .
8 . 11 . Ve rb al C l aus e s . Ve rb al c laus e s are di s t i ngui s he d
from nonverb al c l aus e s by vi rtue of the fact that the
Pre di c at e i s mani fe s t e d by a verb al phras e , and the Topi c ,
mani fe s t e d by one o f the nomi nal phras e s , i s i n func t i onal
relat i o ns hi p t o the Predi c ate verb as i t s fo cus c omplement .
The fo cus phe nome non i s de s cr i b e d i n the s e c t i o n on Ve rb s .
8 . 1 1 . 1 . Foc us C ompl ements o f Ve rbal C l aus e s . I n the
de s c ri pt i on o f the verb s at t enti on was c al l e d to the s et
o f verb affi xes whi ch s i gnal vari e t i e s o f focus . Now
att ent i o n i s c al l e d t o the role o f the Topi c as the foc us
complement i n relati on to tho s e fo cus affi xe s .
I f a verbal phras e c an b e de s c ri be d lexi c ally as repre­
s e ntati ve o f a moment o f experi e nc e we c an al s o s ay that
2 1 4
t he var i ous nominal phra s e s repres ent part i c i pants i n th
at
expe ri e nc e as e i ther ac tor s , goals , l o c at i ons , or s ome-
thi ng e l s e . The focus i n fl e c t i o n o f the verb det e rmi nes
whi ch one o f thos e part i c i p ants i s t o be hi ghli ght e d as
the t op i c o f the c l aus e .
Nat ive s pe ake rs , howeve r , t e l l us t hat the pro c e s s i s
j us t t h e revers e o f that s et forth above . They f i r s t
de c i de wh i ch part i c i pant they want t o hi ghli ght , then
they cho o s e the approp r i ate verb focus and go on t o con-
s t ruct the res t o f the s entenc e .
Thi s has nothi ng t o do
with the phy s i c al order of the e lement s in t he c laus e ,
howeve r , s i nc e that i s det e rmi ne d by a di ffer ent phenomenon ,
Note the c orrelati on b etwe e n verb focus and the di fferent
part i c i pant s hi ghl i ghte d as t opi c i n c l aus e s o f Chart IX .
Ac tor foc us hi ghl i ghts the act or or the i n i t i at o r o f the
ac ti on . The Topi c o f a s e nt e nc e i s repre s ent e d by the
phras e i ntr oduc e d by the part i c l e �¤ Ac tor Fo cus i s
s i gnal e d i n the verb b y the � c l a s s o f affi xe s .
Go al Fo cus hi ghl i ght s the goal or ob j e ct o f the ac t i o n
whi ch i s t he n marke d by � as the fo cus compl ement to
the verb .
s uffi x .
Goal focus i s s i gnaled i n the verb by the �
2 1 5
the various nomi nal phras e s repres ent p art i c i p ant s i n
t hat expe ri e nc e as e i ther acto r s , go al s , l o c at i ons , o r
s omethi ng els e . The focus i nfle ct ion o f t h e ve rb
det e rmi ne s whi c h one o f tho s e p ar t i c i pant s i s t o b e
h i ghl i ght e d as t h e t o pi c o f t h e c l aus e .
Nati ve s p e akers , however , t el l us that the pro c e s s i s
j us t the rever s e o f that s et forth above . They f i r s t
de c i de whi ch p ar t i c i p ant t hey want to hi ghl i ght , then
they choo s e the appropi rat e verb focus and go on to
c o ns t ruct the res t o f the s ent en c e . Thi s has nothing
to do wi th t he phy s i c al order o f the e l ement s i n the
c laus e , however , s i n c e that i s det e rmi ne d by a di f-
ferent phenomenon . Not e the c orrelati on between verb
foc us and the di ffer ent part i c i pant s hi ghl i ght e d as
t o pi c i n c l au s e s of Chart I X .
Ac tor foc us h i ghl i ght s the actor or the i ni t i ator o f
the ac t i o n . The Top i c o f a s ente nc e i s repre s ent e d
b y t h e phras e i ntroduc e d b y the part i c l e ang. Ac tor
Foc us i s s i gnal e d i n the verb by the -um- c l as s o f
affixe s .
Go al Focus h i ghl i ght s the go al or obj e c t of the act i on
whi ch i s then marke d by � as the focus compl ement t o
t h e verb . Go al focus i s s i gnal e d i n the verb by the
-on s uffi x .
kumi h ad s i Puring s ang aho s s ang kut s i ly o s a l ame s a para kay N anay .
wi ll- s l i c e the -pe rs onal Puri ng o f-the g ar l i c wi th-the kni fe at-the t abl e for
the-pers onal Nanay
" Puri ng wi l l s li c e s ome g arli c wi th a kni fe at th e t ab l e for Nanay . "
Ve rb Ac tor Goal Re fer ent Ac c e s s or;
kumi had s i Pur i ne s ang aho s .
kibaran ni Puri ng ang aho s .
ki baran ni Puring s ang aho s s i Nana;. ( b )
i ki had ni Puri ng s ang aho s ang kut s i l;o . ( a )
i ki had ni Puring s ang aho s s i Nana;. ( b )
ki baran ni Puring s ang aho s ang l ame s a . ( a )
maki had ni Pur i n g s ang aho s .
makaki had s i Pur i ne.
C HART I X .
S i t uat i o nal Ro l e s o f t h e Fo cus C ompl ement .
( a ) The di s t i nc t fo cus o f t he ve rb i s i n s t rument wi th Ac c e s s ory Foc us and
l o c at i on wi t h R e fe re nt Fo c us i n t he above s entenc e s .
( b ) I n t he s e s ent e n c e s t he b e ne fac tor o f the ac t i o n i s the focus c omplement .
2 17
R e ferent Foc us highli ght s e it he r the lo c at ion or the
be ne fac tor o f the act ion , whi ch i s the n mark e d by �
as the focus c ompl ement o f t he ac t i on . The be ne fac tor
i s usually a pe rs o n , but not exc lus i vely . R e feren� foc us
i s s i gnaled by � i n the verb .
Ac c e s s ory Foc us hi gh l i ghts e i t he r the i ns t rument , c onveye d
obj e ct , or t he b e n e fac tor o f t he a c t i o n whi ch i s then
mark e d by � as the focus c ompl ement o f the ve rb . Ac ­
c e s s ory foc us i s s i gnal e d i n the ve rb by i - .
8 . 11 . 2 . D e c l arat i ve Ve rb al C l aus e s . A D e c l ar at i ve verbal
c l aus e i s d i s t i ngui s he d by the f i l l e r of the Pre di c at e .
Any ve rb phras e may o c cur i n the Predi c at e o f a D e c l ara-
t i ve verbal c laus e e xc ept t he Impe rat i ve ve rb phras e .
I nterrogat i ve and N e gat i ve c l aus e s are mo di fi c ati ons o f
the s e c l aus e s and w i l l b e di s cus s e d i n s e c t i ons 8 . 3 . and
8 . 4 .
Example s
Makapagpali mpyo na ako s ang b al ay .
c an-have - c l e ane d now I o f-the hous e
" I c an now have t he hous e c l e ane d . "
Malumpat an ko ang kanal .
c an-j ump by-me the c anal .
" I can j ump the c anal . "
2 1 8
Ipaglut o ' mo s ang pans i t a n g b i s it a .
wi ll-c ook-for by-you o f -the p ans i t the vi s i t o r
" Y o u c o o k pans i t noodles f o r t he vi s it o r . "
8 . 11 . 3 . Impe rat i ve verbal c l aus e s . I mpe rat i ve verbal
claus e s are i dent i fi e d from the format i on of the verb
i n the Unreal as pec t , or by the pr e s e nc e o f the Obl i gato ry
mo de .
Exampl e s
I lut o ' mo ang manok !
wi ll-c ook by-you the c hi c ken
" Cook the c hi c ken ! "
Maglut o ' ka s ang adobo !
be - c ooked you o f-the adob o
" C ook s ome adobo ! "
I palut o ' mo ang adobo kay Mart a !
c aus e-to-b e-c ooke d by-you the adobo by-the Marta
" Have Marta cook the adobo ! "
Paki glutuan mo ako s ang s ud-an !
wi ll-reque s t - cook-for by-you I o f-the vi and
" Ple as e have s omeone cook s ome vi and for me ! "
8 . 11 . 4 . Exi s t e nti al C laus e s . Exi s t e nt i al c laus e s are
typi fi ed as c laus e s with exi s t e nt i al phra s e s mani fe s t i n g
t h e Pre di c at e . An e xi s t e nt i al phras e has as the he ad
219
word o f the phras e the word may ' the re exi s t s ' . Whe n a
topi c appears i n t hi s c laus e ( one i s not ob li gat ory ) i t
i s an � c l as s phras e whi ch repre s ent s the one who i s
re lat e d t o the exi s t e nt a s the pos s e s s or .
Example s
May b alay s i l a .
the re-exi s t s hous e they
"They have a hous e . "
May bal i gya ' k amo nga bani g .
there-exi s t s s e l l you l i g . mat
" You h ave mat s for s ale . "
May b ani g s a katre .
t he re -i s mat on-the b e d
" There i s a mat o n t he b e d . "
May patatas s a t i endahan
there - i s potat o e s i n-the market
" There are pot at o e s in the market . "
The ne gat ive E xi s te nt i al c l aus e ut i l i z e s a di fferent
e xi s t e nt i al phras e . Thi s phras e i s i ntroduc e d by wal a '
' there i s not ' . Wala ' has a va r i ant waay. The words
s e em to b e i nt e rchangeabl e .
2 2 0
Example s
Wal a ' kami s ang patatas .
t he re- i s -not we potatoes
" We do not have any potat o e s . "
Wal a ' b ani g s a kat r e .
there- i s -not mat on-the be d
"There i s n ' t any mat on the b e d . "
Ambot , waay ako kahi bal o kay wala ' s i a nakakadto di ri .
don ' t know , not - e xi s t I knowle dge b e c aus e not -e xi s t
he was - ab l e -t o -go t o -he re
" I don ' t know , I don ' t know abo ut that b e c aus e he
di dn ' t come he re . "
S ang waay pa ang gerra madame ang bul ak di ra ' pe ro
s ubong wal a ' na .
when not - e xi s t ye t the war many the flower there but
now not-ex i s t alre ady
" Be fore the war there were many flower s the re but not
now . "
8 . 1 2 . Nonve rb al Claus e s . The various types o f nonverbal
c l aus e s may be di s t i ngui s he d on the bas i s of the type o f
phras e mani fe s t i ng t h e Pr e d i c at e .
8 . 1 2 . 1 . D e s c r ipt i ve Claus e s . The D e s c ri pt i ve c l aus e i s
di s t i ngui s he d from other type s o f Nonverbal c laus e s o n the
the bas i s o f havi ng a de s c ri pti ve phra s e man i f e s t i ng the
Predi c at e whi l e the Top i c repres ent s the thing de s c ri be d .
Exampl e s
Mabudlay ang paglut o ' s a kus i na .
hard the c ooki ng in-the k i t c hen
" Cooki ng in the ki t chen i s hard . "
Barato ang b akal ko .
cheap the buy o f-me
" The thi ng I bought was c heap . "
S agi ng ang gi n- i s ip ni ya .
b anana the counte d by-him
" Bananas are what he c ount e d . "
Mas ako ' ang l angoy niy a .
rap i d the s wi m o f-him
" H i s swimming is rapi d . "
Ang b al i gya ' mahal
t he s ell expens i ve
" The ( thi ng ) for s al e i s expens i ve . "
2 2 1
8 . 12 . 2 . Equat i onal Claus e s . The Equat i onal c laus e s are
di s t i ngui s he d on the bas i s o f having an � c l as s noun
phras e mani f e s t i ng the Pr e d i c ate s lot . That noun phras e
i s balanc ed by the � c l as s noun phras e i n the T opi c
s lot . The Pre d i c at e phras e i de nt i fi e s t he thi ng or pe rs o n
repre s ent e d by the Top i c phras e .
2 2 2
Exampl e s
8 . 2 .
Ang g i nbakal ni ya ang b ayo .
the bought by-her the dr e s s
" The dre s s i s what s he bought . "
Ang mamal i gya ' s i Fely .
the wi ll- s e l l the-pers onal Fe ly
"Fe ly i s the one who w i ll s ell . "
S i J o s e ang nagtuon s ang Math .
the-per s o nal Jos e the le arne d o f-the Math
" Jo s e i s the one who l e arne d Math . "
Kami ang i pagluto ' mo s ang pamahaw s a kus i na .
we-exc l . the wi l l - c ook by-you o f-the bre ak fas t i n­
the ki t c hen
"We are the ones for whom you wi ll c ook br e akfas t i n
t he ki t c hen . "
Ang p amahaw ang i pagluto ' mo s a kus i na .
the br e akfas t the wi l l - c o ok by-you i n-the ki t c he n
" Bre ak fas t i s what you wi l l cook i n the ki t c he n . "
C l aus e o f Tye B Patt ern . C lau s e c on s t ruc ti ons
whi ch ar e forme d on C laus e Patte rn B are di s t i ngui s he d by
the cont r as t i ve s tructure o f the Predi c ate format i ons ,
and the ab s enc e o f focus marki ng affi xes i n t he he ad word
of the Pre di c at e .
2 2 3
8 . 21 . ka- Claus es . T h e ka- c las s Predi c at e s a r e word
forms marke d by the pre s e nc e of e i t he r the ka- pre fi x
alone o r i n c onj unc t i o n wi th other affi xes whi ch are not
foc us affi xe s . The c l a s s al s o i nc ludes iga- and i nug- .
I nuglumpat s ang mat aas ni Pedro s ang nagp i t o ang
' re fe ri ' .
t i me- t o - j ump o f- a h i gh by the-pers onal Pe dro of- a
whi s t l e d the re fe re e
" When the re fe re e whi s tl e d i t was t i me for Pe dro t o
j ump h i gh . "
Kat ahom s ang bulak .
b e aut i ful of-a flower
" How b e aut i ful is the flower ! "
Katapos n iya lang s ang p agkaabo gado .
j us t - fi n i s he d by-him only o f- a l aw- s t udy
" H e j us t fi ni
-
s he d law . "
Kapalakaon kay Mari o .
fond- o f-e at i ng by-the-pers onal Mar i o
" Mar i o l i ke s t o e at . " ( or , " How muc h Mar i o e at s ! " )
I gagradwar niya s a Abri l .
t i me- for- graduat i ng o f-him i n-the Apr i l
" H e graduate s i n Apri l . "
I kalut o ' ko l ang s ang pagkaon s ang mag- abot s i l a .
j us t - c ooked by-me only o f- a food of-a to -arrive they
"I had j us t c o oke d the food when they arri ved . "
2 2 4
Kakuha niya s ang b oard s ang namatay s i a .
j us t -t o o k by-he r o f-a bo ard-exam o f-a d i e d she
" She had j us t t aken a bo ard exam when s he di e d . "
8 . 2 2 . pakig- C laus e s are d i s t i ngui s he d by the pr e s e nc e
o f t he pakig- affi x alone at tac he d to the Predi c at e he ad
wo rd . Two i l lus t r at i ons are i nc luded o f pak ig- wi th a
focus affi x to emphas i z e the c ontras t o f foc us e d and un-
focus e d c laus e s .
Paki gluto ko s i ni para s a p i e s t a .
pl e as e - cook by-me o f-th i s for t o -the fi e s t a
" Pleas e have thi s c ooke d for t h e f i e s t a . "
I ni i paki gluto ko p ara s a p i e s t a .
thi s wi l l-have- c ooked by-me for to-the fi e s t a
" I ' ll have t h i s c o oke d for t h e fi e s t a . "
Paki g dala ko s ang b as ke t kay Mr . Cruz .
pl e as e - c arry by-me o f- a b as ke t t o-the-pers onal Mr .
Cruz
" Pleas e c arry t he b as ket t o Mr . C ru z for me . "
( or , " I
_
re que s t that t he bas ket b e carr i e d t o Mr .
Cruz . " )
Ang b as ket i paki gdala ko kay Mr . Cruz .
the b as ket wi ll-b e - s ent by-me t o-the-pers onal Mr . Cruz
" I ' ll have the bas ket s ent to Mr . Cruz . "
8 . 2 3 . The t ig- C laus e s ar e di s t i ngui s he d by the pre s e nc e
o f the t ig- affi x
The affi xes o f t hi s c las s are t ig- and t ag- .
T i g-ulan n a s ubong .
s eas on- for rai n alre ady now
" It is now the rai ny s ea s on . "
T i g t i l i gang ang alas diye s .
s e as on- cook-ri c e the t i me t e n
" R i c e - c ooki ng t i me i s t e n o ' c l o ck . "
T i gkuluha s ang kalampay bwas .
s e as on-t o-get o f- a c rab t omorrow
" Tomorrow i s the t i me to get c rab s . "
2 2 5
8 . 2 4 . Pre-verb C l aus e s a r e di s t i ngui s he d by t h e pr e s e nc e
o f uninfle c t e d pre-verb s o c c urri ng t o gether wi t h other
verb s i n a compound predi c at e c o ns t ruct i on . There i s a
type o f t hi s c ompound c o ns t ruc t i o n i n whi ch a Top i c may
o c cur . Thi s parti cular c o ns t ruc t i on i llus t rated he re i s
not o f that typ e .
Gus t o ko makapag s ug i lanon kay Mr . Cruz .
want by-me able-to- c onve rs e-wi th t o-the-pe rs onal Mr .
" I want t o t alk wi th Mr . Cruz . "
Gus t o ko maglakwat s a s a Lune t a .
want by-me t o-truant at -the Luneta
" I want to play hookey at the Lunet a . "
Cruz
2 2 6
8 . 3 .
Pali hog ko nus no s s ang s alog .
re Que s t by-me t o - s c rub of-a floor
" Pl e as e s c rub the floor . " ( or , " I reque s t t hat the
floor be s c rubb e d . " )
Pali hog ni Juan mabakal s ang bugas .
re que s t by-the-pe r s onal Juan t o-buy o f-a r i c e
" Juan re Que s t s t o buy s ome r i c e . "
Negat i on o f c laus e s . Ment i on has alre ady be e n made
of the ne gat i on of Exi s t enti al c laus e s . The remai ni ng
c l aus e s are negat e d by us e o f the negat i ve i ndi ' ' no ,
not ' .
Exampl e s
I ndi ' s i a makalut o ' s ang pamahaw .
not he wi l l-be-ab le -t o - c o ok o f-the br e akfas t
" He wi ll not b e abl e to cook b r e akfas t . "
I ndi ' mo pagh ampangan ang pos poro .
not by-you play-wi th the mat che s
" Don ' t you play wi th mat c hes . "
Ne gat e d verb phras e s r e Qui re trans po s i t i on o f the pronoun
agent or ac tor to an e nc li t i c po s i t i on i mme di at ely follow-
ing the negat i ve word .
Examples
I ndi ' s i a makaluto ' s ang pamahaw?
not he abl e -t o - cook o f-the br eakfas t
" C an ' t he c ook breakfas t ? "
Indi ' mo p agdal-on ang li bro .
not by-you br i ng t he book
" Do not bri ng the book ! "
2 2 7
Impe rat i ve s are negated i n the s ame fas hi on as s t at ement s .
I ndi ' pagkuhaa ang bul ak .
not remove the flower
" Don ' t remove the flower ! "
To negat e the topi c o f a s ent e nc e the c ons truc ti on i s
var i e d , o r t r ans forme d , t o an e quat i o nal type .
Indi ' s i Jos e ang nagtuon s ang Math .
not the-pers onal Jo s e the l e arned of-the Math
" It was not J o s e who learned Math . "
Ang gi nb akal ni ya i ndi ' ang b ayo .
the bo ught o f-her not the dr e s s
" What s he bought wa s not a dre s s . "
D e s c ri pt i ve s ent e nc e s are al s o negat e d li ke s t at ement s .
I ndi ' mas ako ' ang l angoy niya .
not rap i d the s wimming h i s
" H i s swimmi hg i s not rapi d . "
2 2 8
Ang tuon niya di ' maayo .
the s t udy o f-him not good
" Hi s s tudyi ng i s not goo d . "
The ne gat i ve word i ndi ' i s o fte n s horte ne d t o di ' .
8 . 4 .
Di ' b arato ang b akal ko .
not c he ap the bought o f-me
" What I bought was not c heap . "
Int errogat i ve C laus e s . The r e are two typ e s o f
i nt e rrogat i ve c l aus e s , tho s e whi ch reque s t only a y e s o r
n o ans wer and tho s e whi ch a s k for mo re part i cul ar i nfor-
mat i o n .
8 . 4 1 . Y e s / No que s t i ons . The ye s / no que s t i ons are s impl e
or c omplex s t at ement s t r ans formed by t he s ub s t i tut i on o f
que s t i o n i nto nat i o n for s t ateme nt i nt onat i o n .
Example s
Abogado s i a ?
l awye r h e
" I s he a
i
awye r ? "
S i Ant oni o i kaw , i ndi ' b ala?
the-pers onal Ant oni o you , not que s t i o n
"You are Ant oni o , aren ' t you?
P aglutuan mo kami s ang pamahaw?
wi ll-c ook-for by-you we o f-the br e akfas t
" Wi ll you c ook s ome br e akfas t for us ? "
2 29
8 . 4 2 . Que s t i o ns with i nt e rrogat i ve s ub s t it ut e s . I n for -
mat i o n reques t i n g que s t i o ns have Que s t i o n words i n the
Predi c ate whi ch i n d i c at e t he ki nd o f i nformat i o n d e s i r e d .
Exampl e s
8 . 5 .
D i i n ang li bro?
whe re the book
"Where i s the bo ok ? "
Ano ang li bro n i Cora?
what the book o f-the-pers onal Cora
" What i s Cora ' s book ? "
Si n-o ang mae s t ro ?
who the t e acher-male
" Who is the male t e ache r ? " ( o r , " Who i s the t e ac he r ? " )
D i i n s i n a ' ang s i Imelda?
whe re there the the-pers onal Ime lda
" Who i s Imelda the r e ? " ( or , " Whe re over there i s the
one c alle d Imel da? " )
Comple x s ente nc e s . Although many s ent e nc e s are
s i mply c ons truc t e d on the c l aus e patte rns de s c ri be d above
there ar e s t i ll a l arge group of s ent e nc e c o ns t ruct i ons
whi ch have addi t i onal el ement s or mo re compl i c at e d c on-
2 3 0
s t ruc ti ons . The t radi t i onal d i s t i nc t i on between the s e
and t ho s e above i s that o f s i mpl e s entenc e s vers us c om-
pound or c omplex s entenc e s . The di s t i nc t i o n be i ng made
in t hi s grammar i s between s i mple and non-s i mple s entenc e
s t ructure s . At l e a s t two di fferent typ e s o f non-s imple
s ent e nc e s can be di s t i ngui s he d on the b as i s o f the type
of verb phras e whi ch mani f e s t s the Pre di c ate of the
s entenc e , or on the b as i s o f how s ubordi nate c l aus e s are
re l at e d to the Pr e di c at e verb phras e .
8 . 5 1 . Se nte nc e s with a Re lati ve cl aus e have a dependent
c laus e in c ons t ruct i o n with a main c l aus e l i nke d by means
o f the p arti cle �. Both c laus e s have a Predi c at e -Topi c
c ons truc t i o n .
Example s
Nas a dyahan s i a nga gi nbutong ang i s da ' .
j oyful he l i g . drew the fi s h
" He was j oyful that he dr ew i n the fi s h . "
Mas ubo s i a nga g i ns i rado ang pue rt a .
s ad s he li g . c los e d the door .
" She was s ad that the door c los e d . "
Gi nhani han ko s i a nga nahi bal-an ko ang plano ni y a .
whi s pe re d- t o by-me he l i g . knew by-me the plan o f-hi m
" I whi s pe re d to hi m that I knew his plan . "
2 3 1
S umul at s i Nanay · s a mae s t r a n g a nagamas akit ako .
wrot e the-pers onal Nanay t o-the t e acher l i g . i s -b e i ng­
s i ck I
" Nanay wrote t o the t e acher that I was s i ck . "
. . . kung nahib al-an ni ya nga ki nahanglan .
i f knew by-hi m li g . needed
" . . . i f he knew that i t was ne e de d . "
8 . 5 2 . S ent e nc e s wi th Conjo i ne d c laus e s have a depen dent
c laus e l i nke d to a mai n c laus e by means of a �onj unct i o n .
The various c onj unc ti ons are d i s cus s e d i n S e c t i on 3 . Both
cl aus e s conj o i ne d i n thi s type of s ent e nc e have a Predi -
cat e-Top i c c ons truc t i on .
Examples
Mas aylo s a b ag-o nga b al ay s i Art kay mahal ang rent a .
wi ll-move to-the new l i g . hous e the-pers onal b e c au s e
expens i ve t h e rent
" Art wi ll move to a new hous e b e c aus e the rent i s
h i gh . "
S i Mr . Reye s ang mae s t ro gani magpakamabuot ka .
th e-pers onal Mr . Reye s the t e acher s o wi l l-b e-good
you
"Mr . Reye s is the t e ache r so you mus t b e good . "
Kapag hampangan ang lagwert a , mapat ay ang bulak .
i f play- i n the yard , wi ll-di e the flower
" I f you play i n the yard the flowers wi ll di e . "
2 3 2
8 . 6 .
Pag kuhaon mo ang l ibro maupod ako .
i f wi ll-get by-you t he book wi ll-ac c ompany I
" I f you wi ll get t he bo ok I ' l l a c comp any you . "
Malumo s s i Jos e s a baybay kung i ndi ' s i a mag-aml i g .
will -drown the-pers onal J o s e at-the b e ach i f not he
c are ful
" J o s e wi ll drown at t he b e ach i f he is not c ar e ful . "
Gi nab ayad niya ang cheke s ang nag-abet ako .
i s -payi ng by-him the che c k whe n arr i ve d I
" H e was payi ng the c hec k whe n I arr i ve d . "
Gi ns i ng g i t an ko s i a para magdas i g .
s hout e d- at by-me he for to -hurry
"I s hout e d at him to hurry . "
C lau s e word order . The order i n whi ch the c l aus e -
l e ve l e lement s o c c ur i n the s ent e nc e i s fai rly free . B e -
c aus e t he phras e s ar e a l l marked by i ntroduc e rs qui t e a
bi t o f vari at i on i n order i s p ermi s s ibl e . The order o f
t he e lement s whi ch s e ems t o b e mos t frequent , b as e d on a
c ount o f s eve ral hundred c l aus e s o c c urr i ng i n i s o l at i o n ,
i s the followi ng .
Pre di c at e + I ni t i ator + Goal + Ac c e s s ory + Bene fac t o r
+ Lo c at i on
Not all o f thes e , o f c our s e , oc cur i n any s i ngle s entenc e .
2 3 3
I t i s c ommon t o fi nd thre e o r four c laus e -level e lements
i n one s ent e nc e , but more than t hat is rar e .
8 . 61 . Order o f Verb Complement s . When not a fo c us c om-
pl ement of the verb
,
the noun phras e s repres enting the
element s given above ar e i ntroduc e d by gr ammat i c al p ar­
t i c l e s i n the following order :
!-Pr e d i c at e , s ang- Init . , s ang- Goal , s ang-Ac c e s s . ,
par a s a-Bene f . , �- Lo c at i o n
I t i s p o s s ible that the s ent e nc e limit o f thre e or four
e lement s i s a s p e c i fi c e ffort to avo i d amb i guity amo ng
the three e lement s introduc e d by s ang. Whe n o c c urr i ng
i n an ac tual s ent e nc e , howeve r , one of the c laus e-level
elements i s marke d as foc us c omplement or Top i c o f the
c l aus e . Th at e lement i s i nt ro duc e d by �4 As long as
the s pe ake r has one e lement e ach for s ang, � and s a
h e c an avo i d ambi guity but when he has t o us e two s ang
phras e s i t may b e that he b e gi ns to vary the order o f the
elements i n an e ffort t o keep t he s ang phra s e s di s t i nc t .
But var i at i on i s r e s ort e d t o for the purp o s e s o f empha­
s i z i ng a part i c ular e l ement t o o .
The mo s t frequent , o r pre fe rr e d , order i s not c hanged
much j us t b e c aus e one o f the elements b e come s the fo c us
2 34
c ompl ement or Topi c o f the s ente nc e . I t i s mos t us ual
for the Top i c phras e i nt roduc e d by � to be p o s i t i one d
whe re t hat e leme nt i s normally p o s i t i o ne d whe n i t i s
not the foc us c ompl eme nt . ( S ee Chart I X . )
Lex i c al and grammat i c al part i c l e s are i n s e r t e d b etwe e n
t h e c laus e - level e l ement s ( s ome are i n c orpo rat e d i nt o
t h e phras e s di re c t ly ) .
Whe n depe ndent c l aus e s oc c ur as mo di fi e rs o f s pe c i fi c
phras e s they are us ually appended di re c t ly t o thos e
phras e s . I f the dependent c laus e i s att r ibut i ve t o the
Predi c at e verb , howeve r , i t us ually c omes e i t he r at the
end o f the mai n c laus e or at the very b e ginning b e fore
the Pre di c at e .
Exampl e s
Mangluto ' s i J o s e fa s a kas al ni Ro s a .
wi ll-c ook the-pers onal Jo s e fa at-the we dding o f-the­
pe rs onal Ro s a
" Jos e fa wi ll c o ok ( many things ) for Ro s a ' s we ddin g .
"
Gi npaluto ' ko ang s agi ng
c aus e d-t o-be - c ooked by-me the b anana
"I had the b anana c o o ke d .
"
I panglut o ' ko s ang lumpya ang kalaha ' .
w
i ll-c ook by-me
o f
-
t he lump i a the fryi ng-pan
"
I ' 11 cook lump i a i n the frying pan . "
Exa
mp
le s wi th p art i c le s :
Mapaluto ' ko � ang mang g a .
wi ll- c aus e-to-ri pen by-me s t i ll the mango
" I c an s t i ll have the mango ri pene d . "
Ginb al i gy a ' � niya ang libro .
s old emphas i s by-him the b ook
"He ac tually s old the book . "
Example s with depende nt c laus e s :
N ag s i li ng s i a nga mat arde s i a s a klas e .
s ai d he li g . late he for-the c las s
" He s ai d that he would b e lat e for c l as s . "
2 3 5
Magp akai s i p s i Jos e fa kung maleks yon s i a .
will-b e - c aus e d-to-be - s e l f i s h the-pers onal Jos e fa i f
le arns -the-le s s on s he
" Jos e fa wi ll b e come proud i f s he get s the le s s o n . "
Ikaluto ' ko lang s ang pagkaon s ang mag-abot s i l a .
j us t - c ooked by-me o nly o f-the food when wi ll-arri ve
they
" I had j us t c ooke d the food when they arri ve d . "
I lutuon ko ang pagkaon ant e s magl impyo s ang balay .
wi ll-c ook by-me the food b e fore wi ll-c le an o f-the hous e
" I wi ll cook the food b e fore c l e ani ng the hous e . "
2 3 6
8 . 62 . Em
p
�at i c wor d order . Var i ation i n word order i s
als o us e d for t�e purpo s e o f lo c al emp�a s i s o f elements
within the c laus e . Note the changes pe rmi s s ibl e i n the
followi ng s entenc e .
Examples
Ginkihad niya ang ahos s a lame s a .
1 2 3
s l i c e d by-he r t he garli c at-the t abl e
" She s l i c e d t he gar l i c a t the t able . "
Ans aho s gi nkihad niya s a lame s a .
3 1 2
S a lame s a gi nki had niya ang aho s .
1 2 3
Gi nki had niya s a lame s a ang aho s .
1 2 3
� gi nkihad ang aho s s a lame s a .
2 1 3
The meani n& o f the s e nt e nc e i s c ons t ant e xc ept for the
emphas i s given to the s pe c i fi c e lement s by movi ng out of
the
" normal" order t o an e arli er po s i t i on in the c l aus e .
It i s impo rt ant t o ob s erve the rathe r t i ght r e s t r i c t i on
on the order o f 2 t o 1 . The element 2 may ei ther pre c e de
or follow 1 but there mus t b e a c orre s ponding c hange i n
t h e form o f t h e pronoun �s e d and no other vari ant order
2 3 7
i s pe rmit t e d f o r 2 wi t h re s pe c t t o 1 . I f 2 i s a noun
phras e i ns t e ad o f a pronoun no c hange i n po s i t i o n i s
pe rmi t t e d .
Gi nki had n i Puri ng ang ahos s a lame s a .
1 2
s l i c e d by-the-pers onal Puring the garli c at-the t able
" Puring s l i c e d the garl i c at the t ab l e �
The order of 2 t o 1 i n t hi s c l aus e i s r i g i d and un c hange-
ab le .
A further re s t ri c t i o n on the po s i t i o n o f the obj e c t i s
not obs e rvabl e i n the previous i llus t r at ive s ent e nc e .
With a few c han ge s a grammat i c al ly di ffe rent s ent e nc e i s
obt ai n e d although the me ani ng i s s t i l l very s imi l ar .
Makakihad s i Puring s ang aho s s a lame s a .
1 2 3 4
c an-s l i c e the-pe rs onal Pur i ng of-the garli c at-the
t able
" Puring c an s l i c e s ome gar l i c at the t abl e . "
In th i s s e nt e nc e the obj e c t , 3 , may have a di fferent
order with r e s pe c t to 2 and 4 but i t
c annot pre c e de J .
2 38
B I BLIO GRAPHY
Bloomfi eld , L . , T agal og Te xt s wi t h Grammat i c al Analys i s .
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de la Cruz , Beato A . , and R . D avi d Paul Z or c , A Study o f
the Aklanon D i ale c t , v . I , Grammar . Kalib o , Aklan , 196 8 .
Junt ado , Loreto G . , " Numb e r C o nc ord i n Hi li gaynon and
Engl i s h . " Unpubli s he d di s s e rt at i o n . 1961 .
Mc Kaughan , H . , The I n fle c t i o n and Syntax of Maranao Verb s .
I ns t itut e o f N at ional Language , Mani la . 1 9 5 8 .
Re i d , L awre nc e A . , An I vat an Syntax , i n O c e ani c L i ngui s t i c s
Spe c i al Publ i c at i on 2 . 1 9 6 6 .
Rui z , Mac ario B . , The Behavi or o f Hi l igayno n Ve rb Root s .
I l o i l o C i ty . 19 6 8 .
Wolfende n , E . , A Re- s t at ement o f T agalog Grammar .
tute o f Nati onal L anguag e , Mani la . 19 6 1
I n s t i -
Wolff , John U . , Begi nni ng C ebuano , Yale Uni ve rs ity Pres s .
1966 .