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part of Aker

2008 Aker Solutions


Drying of natural gas
Thomas Frde, October 21, 2010
Troll A
Slide 2 2008 Aker Solutions part of Aker
Layout
1. Introduction/motivation
2. Industrial examples
3. Theory drying
Dehydration
4. Summary
Slide 3 2008 Aker Solutions part of Aker
Background
Explanations
Raw natural gas; gas produced
from the well
Sour natural gas; contains
hydrogen sulfide H
2
S or carbon
dioxide CO
2
Sweet natural gas; contains little
sulfur and carbon dioxide
Rich natural gas; contains larger
quantities of higher hydrocarbons
Wet natural gas; is saturated with
water vapor under natural
conditions
Petroleum technology volume 1-2 chapter 13 natural gas
Introduction
Krst Statoilhydro photo
Slide 4 2008 Aker Solutions part of Aker
Introduction
Gas specifications
Gas and liquid contracts usually contain the following basic considerations:
Gas
1. Minimum, maximum and nominal delivery pressure
2. Maximum water content (expressed as a dewpoint at a given pressure or
concentration)
3. Maximum condensable hydrocarbon content (expressed as a
hydrocarbon dewpoint )
4. Allowable concentration of contaminants (H
2
S, carbon disulfide)
5. Minimum and maximum heating value
6. Cleanliness (allowable solids concentration)
Liquid
1. Quality of product (expressed as vapor pressure, relative or absolute
density)
2. Specification (color, concentration of contaminants)
3. Maximum water content
Introduction
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Motivation
Treating
Water must be removed
Solid hydrates with hydrocarbons or hydrogen sulfide
Slugs in pipeline
Corrosive H
2
S and CO
2
Petroleum technology volume 1-2 chapter 13 natural gas, Natural gas production processing transport A.Rojey et.al
Introduction
Hydrogen sulfide (H
2
S) must be
removed
Toxic and corrosive
Often done centralized treatment
plants
Nitrogen
No heating value
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Motivation
Flow configurations
Principal sketch natural gas, well to consumer
Well-stream from sub-sea/platform to shore (LNG; Snhvit, gas export; Troll and Ormen Lange)
Platform with full gas processing gas export (Sleipner)
Sleipner
snhvit
Troll, ormen lange
Troll
Introduction
Off shore platform
processing
Pipe line
Pipe line to europe
LNG
1: Off shore to land, pipe line demands
2: Export pipe line, demands
3: LNG composition demands
Refinery and
petrochemicals
4: Condensate composition
demands
Slide 7 2008 Aker Solutions part of Aker
Motivation
Typical north sea natural gas composition
Major components (mol percentage dry gas) in some north sea gas reservoirs
It can be seen from the table, that Troll produced very lean gas.
Other fields contains more CO2 and heavy components.
Introduction
1 Petroleum technology chapter 13 * hydrocarbons
A Well stream, B Pipeline stream
Saturated
Saturated
Saturated
Saturated
Saturated
H
2
0
1-10
3
0.15
4.13
1.51
Propane
0-1
0.38
7.9
12.4
0.31
Other
*
0-5
-
He
0-3
0.49
-
H
2
S
8.6 83 3.42 1.6 Sleipner
B
0.47 24.8 65.8 0.38 South-east
asian field
8.70 71.08 3.36 0.32 Kristin
A
1-15
3.53
Ethane Methane CO
2
N
2
75-99
92.69
0-30 0-15 Typical [1]
0.22 1.74 TrollA
A
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Industrial
examples
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Natural gas processing
Principal sketch natural gas processing route
Industrial
Slide 10 2008 Aker Solutions part of Aker
Industrial examples
Troll, Kolsnes onshore plant
Industrial
Simplified flow sheet Troll onshore gas treatment plant Kolsnes
Slide 11 2008 Aker Solutions part of Aker
Industrial examples
Principal sketch Troll, MEG
*
System
Industrial
Background:
Troll is located in the north part of the North Sea, about 65 km west of Kolsnes
Ocean depth is above 300 meter
The field is divided into Troll east and Troll west
2/3 of the recoverable gas reserve is located in the east
* Monoethylene Glycol (MEG) also called ethylene glycol (EG)
Slide 12 2008 Aker Solutions part of Aker
Troll
Dehydration system
Feed gas from
slug catchers
Inlet gas
separator
(Pressure, BARG)
<Temperature, Celcius>
(90)
<5>
(89.5)
<-5.1>
(67)
<-21>
(69.4)<-20.2>
Condensate
and Glycol
(69)<-20.2>
(68.5)
<-11.7>
(78.4) <-0.7>
Lean gas to pipeline
compressors
Turboexpander
Suction drum
Dewpoint
separator
MEG
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Principal sketch Kristin
All processing offshore
Kristin is a high pressure field (900 in the well, choke sea bottom to 350 bar)
Ocean depth is about 350 meters
Gas is transported to Krst
Economic choice of technology; takes advantage of high well pressure and existing single phase
pipe-line to Krst
Full processing offshore to meet existing pipe-line spec (105 cricondenbar) inlet pipeline pressure
211 bar and 50 degrees Celsius
Gas is delivered at Krst at 100 bar
Industrial
Q

Slide 14 2008 Aker Solutions part of Aker


Kristin
Liquid separation system
Sketch of Kristins liquid separation system
Inlet
separator
2nd stage
separator
3rd stage
separator
1st stage
recompressor
2st stage
recompressor
3st stage
recompressor
To Dehydration system
<Temperature, Celcius>
(Pressure, BarA)
<112>
(87)
<120>
(26)
<74>
(2.15)
<30>
(1.7)
<30>
(7)
<26>
(25)
To condensate
storage
Inlet wet
gas
p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e


r
e
d
u
c
t
i
o
n

P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
in
c
r
e
a
s
in
g

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Kristin
Separation re-compressor package
From separator
To separator
Out of recompressor Compressor
separator
Sketch of Kristins separator recompression system
Slide 16 2008 Aker Solutions part of Aker
Principal sketch Kristin
All processing offshore
Kristin is a high pressure field (900 in the well, choke sea bottom to 350 bar)
Ocean depth is about 350 meters
Gas is transported to Krst
Economic choice of technology; takes advantage of high well pressure and existing single phase
pipe-line to Krst
Full processing offshore to meet existing pipe-line spec (105 cricondenbar) inlet pipeline pressure
211 bar and 50 degrees Celsius
Gas is delivered at Krst at 100 bar
Industrial
Q

Slide 17 2008 Aker Solutions part of Aker


Kristin
De-hydration (TEG) system
Sketch of Kristins dehydration system
TEG: Triethylene glycol
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Snhvit
Principal sketch
Industrial
Slug
catcher
Inlet
separation
MEG
Recovery
Condensate
treatment
Feed from
pipeline CO
2
Removal
CO
2
De-
hydration
Mercury
Removal
Natural gas
liquefaction
To
pipeline LNG
storage
LPG
storage
Condensate
storage
Fractionation
First developed field in the Barents sea
Ocean depth of 300-350 meters
A gas field with condensate and an underlying thin oil zone
Choice of technology: Make LNG, no existing gas lines to Europe
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Snhvit dehydration system
Molecular sieve
Snhvits molecular sieve
Hot Oil
Regeneration
gas
Dry gas
(pressure, barA)
<Temp, Celsius >
(64.9) <26.6 >
(63.0)<230>
(64.0)
<27.6 >
(63.7)
<27.5 >
(63.2) <233.0 >
Wet gas
Regeneration gas
Example of
Molecular sieves
Slide 20 2008 Aker Solutions part of Aker
Summary
Introduction, industrial examples and pipeline
These points have been discussed/explained:
General facts about natural gas
The dehydration system at:
Troll (onshore), MEG injection and dehydration by cooling
(turboexpanders)
Kristin (offshore), dehydration by absorption (TEG system)
Snhvit (onshore), dehydration by adsorption (molsieve)
Some of the issues related to transport of natural gas in pipelines
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Dehydration
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Natural gas processing
Principal sketch of a natural gas processing plant
Dehydration
Slide 23 2008 Aker Solutions part of Aker
Dehydration
Natural gas is commercially
dehydrated in one of three ways
1. Absorption (Glycol dehydration)
2. Adsorption (Mol sieve, silica gel, or activated
alumina)
3. Condensation (cooling) (Refrigeration
with glycol or methanol injection)
Four glycols are used for dehydration
and/or inhibition
1. Monoethylene Glycol (MEG) also
called ethylene glycol (EG)
2. Diethylene glycol (DEG)
3. Triethylene glycol (TEG)
4. Tetraetylhene glycol (T
4
EG)
Dehydration
Absorption and refrigeration with hydrate inhibition is the most common dehydration
process used to meet pipeline sales specifications
Adsorption processes are used to obtain very low water contents required in low
temperature processes, for example LNG
TEG is most common in absorption systems
MEG is most common in glycol injection systems
Dehydration is the process of removing water from a gas and/or liquid
Slide 24 2008 Aker Solutions part of Aker
Absorption
Dehydration
Slide 25 2008 Aker Solutions part of Aker
Absorption
Dehydration
Natural gas is dried by absorption,
often in a countercurrent scrubbing
unit
A liquid having a strong affinity for
water is used as an absorbent
A good absorbent should have:
1. Strong affinity for water
2. Low cost
3. Non corrosive
4. Low affinity for hydrocarbons and
acid gases
5. Thermal stability
6. Easy regeneration
7. Low viscosity
8. Low vapor pressure at the contact
temperature
9. Low tendency to foam
Absorption
Dehydration
TEG
DEG
TEG
TEG
Vapor pressure
25 C
Freezing point
C
Viscosity (25 C)
Molecular
weight
T
4
EG DEG MEG
-13 - -7 TEG T
4
EG MEG
17- 49 T
4
EG DEG MEG
62 194
T
4
EG DEG MEG
Increasing values
Basic glycol properties
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Basic glycol dehydration unit
Simplified flow diagram for a glycol dehydration unit. from the GPSA Engineering Data Book, 11th
ed.
Absorption
Dehydration
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The glycol dehydration unit
Wet gas (no liquid water) enter bottom
of absorber and flows
countercurrent to the glycol. Lean
glycol enters at the top
Absorber internal
Tray
Bubble cap
Valve
Sieve
Packing
Berl Saddle, Raschig Ring
Reactor
One, two pass trays
Bubble Cap
Bearl Saddle
Valve tray
Sieve tray
Bubble Cap tray
Absorption
Dehydration
Maximize
Contact area
and time
Gas/glycol
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Absorber design
Design parameters
Purity demand
Working temperatures
Working pressure
Choice of absorbent
Design procedure
Mass balance circulate enough glycol to
absorb the water in the gas
Gas rate tank diameter (flooding)
Equilibrium analysis number of equilibrium
stages
Real analysis, have to take into account the
reaction kinetic and contact time between
glycol and gas. Gives number of actual trays
Dryer glycolhigher concentration
differences higher reaction kinetic
higher efficiency more expensive and
heavier glycol regeneration system
Higher glycol circulation ratehigher
concentration differences higher reaction
kinetichigher efficiencyhigher pressure
drop more expensive and heavier pumps
Principal sketch assuming:
Mass transfer are controlled by
resistance on the gas side
Straight operation and equilibrium
lines of mol fraction water in the gas
phase
stages actual of No
stages EQ of No
.
.

Absorption
Dehydration
Mol fraction water
in glycol
M
o
l

f
r
a
c
t
i
o
n

w
a
t
e
r

i
n

g
a
s

Bottom of
tower
Top of tower
G
ly
c
o
l
f
lo
w
G
a
s

f
l
o
w
E
Q

lin
e
O
P

l
i
n
e
Y
b
*
Y
b
Y
t
*
Y
t
Y mol frac. Water
gas phase
Y* EQ mol frac.
Water gas phase
Slide 29 2008 Aker Solutions part of Aker
Glycol dehydration unit
Working principle
Minimum tray spacing 610 mm
Flooding, foaming
Typical profiles of the mol fraction of
water in glycol as a function of tower
height. For tray and structural
packing
Typical profiles of the mol fraction of
water in gas as a function of tower
height. For tray and structural
packing
Discrete and continues concentration profile
Equilibrium assumption
Absorption
Dehydration
Slide 30 2008 Aker Solutions part of Aker
Glycol regeneration
Alternatives
A) Open stripping loop
B) Closed stripping loop
C) Cold finger
Increased
temperature
A) Any inert gas is suitable. Theoretically best to insert
stripping gas between re boiler and surge tank
B) A closed stripping loop, isooctane can be used.
Vaporizes at re-boiler temperature and condenses and
can be separated from water in a three phase separator.
High stripping gas rates with little venting of
hydrocarbons. Glycol cons> 99.99% (w/w) has been
achieved.
C) A cold finger is inserted into a bucket in the
surge drum vapor space. A TEG mixture rich in
water condenses out. This mixture is taped off.
H
2
O partial pressure is lowered and lean glycol
concentration is increased. 99.5-99.9 % (w/w)
glycol has been achieved.
Absorption
Dehydration
Rich TEG
Re boiler
Heat
Exchanger
A; Stripping gas
A; Wet stripping
gas
Water
B; stripping
gas
TEG unit
Cool
Heat
still
column
Slide 31 2008 Aker Solutions part of Aker
Glycol regeneration
Component
Reboiler:
Temperature should not exceed 204 C (TEG) due to
degradation.
Some degradation of glycol in contact with heat
transfer surface maximum heat flux rates.
Heat provided with direct fired fire tubes immersed in
the bath, hot oil, steam or electric resistance heating.
Stripping Colum:
Can be trayed or structural packed. Stripping gas
lowers the partial pressure of H
2
O in the gas phase,
and more water can be absorbed by the gas (Raoults
law).
Surge drum:
Retention time >20 min
Be able to hold all the re-boiler glycol, to allow repair
or inspection of the re-boiler heating coil.
Flash tank:
Used to remove light hydrocarbons,
CO
2
, H
2
S. Operation pressure 15% of
the contactor operating pressure.
Filters:
Captures chemical impurities and solid
particles. Pressure drop is measured
and used as a replacing criteria.
Absorption
Dehydration
Slide 32 2008 Aker Solutions part of Aker
Glycol absorption
Pros and cons
Pros
Low initial cost
Low pressure drop across absorption towers
Recharging of towers present no problems
Materials that would cause fouling of some
solid adsorbents can be tolerated in the
contactor
Cons
Suspended matter, such as dirt, scale, and iron
oxide may contaminate glycol solutions
Overheating of solutions may produce both low
and high boiling decomposition products
The resultant sludge may collect on heating
surfaces, causing some loss in efficiency, or, in
severe cases, complete flow stoppage
When both oxygen and hydrogen sulfide is
present, corrosion may become a problem
because of the formation of acid material in the
glycol solution
Liquids such as water, light hydrocarbons or
lubrication oils in inlet gas may require
installation of an efficient separator ahead of
the absorber. Highly mineralized water entering
the system with inlet gas may, over long
periods crystallize and fill the re-boiler with solid
salts
Foaming of solution may occur with a resultant
carry-over of liquid. The addition of a small
quantity of antifoam compound usually
remedies this problem
Absorption
Dehydration
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Dehydration by
cooling
Slide 34 2008 Aker Solutions part of Aker
Refrigeration system
A refrigeration system lowers the
temperature of a fluid or gas below that
possible when using air or water at
ambient conditions.
Refrigeration systems are used for
Removing of water
Chilling natural gas for NGL
extraction
Chilling natural gas for
hydrocarbon dew-point control
LPG product storage
Natural gas liquefaction (LNG)
Refrigeration processes:
Mechanical refrigeration
Compression (uses energy in form of work
to pump heat)
Absorption (use energy in form of heat to
pump heat, ammonia systems)
Expansion refrigeration
Valve expansion (Joule Thompson)
Turbine expansion (Turbo expander)
Natural gas liquid fractions as a function of
temperature at atmospheric pressure
Dehydration by
cooling NGL
recovery
Slide 35 2008 Aker Solutions part of Aker
Refrigeration cycle
Principal thermodynamic path
A-B,E cooled by heat exchange with the process gas.
B-C Natural gas is cooled by heat exchange with the refrigeration cycle. The gas temperature is lowered at
constant pressure.
E-F Natural gas is cooled by isentropic (constant entropy S) expansion through a turbine (turbo expander), EF
actual path.
B-D Natural gas is cooled by isenthalpic (constant enthalpy) expansion through a valve (Joule Thompson).
Dehydration by
cooling NGL
recovery
Thermodynamic path
Liquid recovery by refrigeration
Slide 36 2008 Aker Solutions part of Aker
Principal sketch of a
refrigeration cycle
Refrigeration is achieved by vaporization at relatively low refrigerant pressure.
The refrigerant can be a propane or sometimes a halogen of the Freon type.
Dehydration by
cooling NGL
recovery
Natural
gas
Slide 37 2008 Aker Solutions part of Aker
Turbo expander cycle
(Troll gas)
Dehydrated
gas
Condensate
and Glycol
Lean gas to pipeline
compressors
Turboexpander
Suction drum
Dewpoint
separator
Turbo expander process for
NGL extraction
Phase envelope based Troll, dehydrated gas
1 Feed gas
1-2 Gas-gas heat exchanger
2-3 Suction drum
3-4 Turbine expander
4-5 Dewpoint separator
5-6 Gas-gas heat exchanger
6-7 Compression
A hydrate inhibitor (MEG) is
often injected upstream of the
heat exchanger, if the gas is un-
hydrated
Dehydration by
cooling NGL
recovery
-10
10
30
50
70
90
110
-170 -140 -110 -80 -50 -20 10 40
Temperature [C]
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

[
B
a
r
]
Path turbo expander
Feed gas phase envelope
Path joule thompson
1 2
3
4
5
6
7
Slide 38 2008 Aker Solutions part of Aker
Joule Thompson cycle
(Troll gas)
Inlet gas
Condensate
and Glycol
(69)<-20.2>
Lean gas to pipeline
compressors
Turboexpander
Suction drum
Dewpoint
separator
Phase envelope based on Troll, dehydrated
gas
Joule Thompson process
for NGL extraction
1 Feed gas
1-2 Gas-gas heat exchanger
2-3 Suction drum
3-4 Valve expander
4-5 Dewpoint separator
5-6 Gas-gas heat exchanger
A hydrate inhibitor (MEG) is
often injected upstream of the
heat exchanger, if the gas is un-
hydrated.
Dehydration by
cooling NGL
recovery
-10
10
30
50
70
90
110
-170 -140 -110 -80 -50 -20 10 40
Temperature [C]
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

[
B
a
r
]
Path turbo expander
Feed gas phase envelope
Path joule thompson
1 2
3
4
5
6
Slide 39 2008 Aker Solutions part of Aker
Dehydration by
adsorption
Slide 40 2008 Aker Solutions part of Aker
Dehydration by adsorption
Adsorption describes any process where gas molecules are held on
the surface of a solid by surface forces. Adsorbents may be
divided into two classes.
Species is adsorbed due to physisorption and capillary
condensation
Species is adsorbed due to chemisorption (not much used in
natural gas processing)
A sorbent must have the following properties:
1. High adsorption capacity at equilibrium
2. Large surface area
3. Easily and economically regenerated
4. Fast adsorption kinetics
5. Low pressure drop
6. High cyclic stability (kinetic and capacity)
7. No significant volume change (swelling shrinking)
Dehydration
by sorption
Slide 41 2008 Aker Solutions part of Aker
Dehydration by adsorption
The commercial available sorbents can be divided into three broad categories:
1. Gel
A granular amorphous solid (silica gel (SiO
2
), alumina gel Al
2
O
3
)
2. Alumina
Hydrated form of aluminum oxide Al
2
O
3,
activated by drying off part of the hydrated water
adsorbed on the surface
3. Molecular sieves
Alkali metal crystalline aluminosilicates, very similar to natural clays
Example of sorbents:
Silica gel (Gel type)
Outlet gas water content down to 10 ppm (v/v) and dew point -60 C can be achieved
Regenerated between 120 and 200 C
It adsorbs hydrocarbons, which are desorbed during regeneration
Silica gel is destroyed by free water which causes the granules to burst, and react with bases
Activated alumina Al
2
O
3
Outlet gas water content <1 ppm (v/v), outlet dew point -73 C can be achieved
Heavy hydrocarbons are adsobed but can not be desorbed during regeneration
Molecular sieves (zeolites)
Outlet gas water content down to 0.03 ppm (v/v) , outlet dew point -100 C
Water is adsorbed in a micro porous structure
The presence of carbonyl sulfide (COS) and carbon disulfide (CS
2
) should be avoided
The adsorbent must be replaced frequently (about every three year)
The water content in the feed must be low
Dehydration
by sorption
Slide 42 2008 Aker Solutions part of Aker
Principal sketch
Adsorbent system
http://www.uop.com/objects/96%20MolecularSieves.pdf
Flow sheet of a basic two tower adsorption system with regeneration
Molecular sieves
Dehydration
By sorption
R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

O
p
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
Process gas
Regeneration gas
Regeneration gas Process gas
Slide 43 2008 Aker Solutions part of Aker
Adsorption
Concentration profiles
Active
Zone
Mass transfer
Zone
Equilibrium
Zone
Dry gas
Wet gas
Variation of adsorption zones with time and height Schematic view of reactor bed with adsorption zones
Equilibrium zone: Sorbent is saturated with water.
Mass transfer zone: All the mass transfer takes place in this zone.
Active zone: The sorbent has its full capacity for water, contains only residual
water left from regeneration cycle.
Dehydration
by sorption
Slide 44 2008 Aker Solutions part of Aker
Adsorption
General point and re-generation
Design parameters
Number of adsorption units
regeneration time
Gas velocity and allowable
pressure drop diameter
Good internal flow distribution avoid
channeling
Proper pre-treating of the gas
Degradation due to loss of
effective surface area
Degradation due to blockage of
small capillary or lattice
openings
Proper heat loss management
(insulation internal/external)
optimize regeneration
Proper heat recovery
Possible to replace adsorbent
Principal sketch of reactor temperature during
regeneration
T
0
-T
A
heating of the reactor
T
A
-T
B
evaporation and breaking of surface
forces
T
B
-T
C
removing of heavy contaminants
and residual water
T
C
Cooling, heat recovery phase
Dehydration
by sorption
Slide 45 2008 Aker Solutions part of Aker
Summary dehydration
Different dehydration technologies have been discussed
Absorption
Glycol system
Trayed towers
Structural packing
Concentration profiles
Design guide lines
System components
Cooling
System
Compressor cooling
Turbo expander
Joule Thompson
Adsorption
Concentration profiles
Design guide lines
System component/operation
Slide 46 2008 Aker Solutions part of Aker
CO
2
capture
technology
Slide 47 2008 Aker Solutions part of Aker
CO
2
capture from energy related sources
Combustion
Fossil fuel
Flue gas
Air
Energy
CO
2
separation
CO
2
N
2
,O
2
Gasification/
reforming
Fossil fuel
H
2
, CO
2
Air/O
2
Steam
Energy
CO
2
separation
CO
2
H
2 Combustion
Air
N
2
,O
2
, H
2
O
Energy
CO2 capture from large scale power plants is yet
to be implemented
Slide 48 2008 Aker Solutions part of Aker
Overview CO2 capture technologies*
Separation
t ask
Process Streams Postcombusti on capture Oxyfuel Combust ion capture Pre-Combustion Capt ure
CO2/CH4 CO2/N2 N2/O2 CO2/H2
Capture
technologies
Current Emergi ng Current Emergi ng Current Emergi ng Current Emergi ng
Solvents
(Absorption)
Physi cal
sol vents
Chemi cal
Solvents
Improved
solvents
Novel
contacting
equipment
Improved
design of
processes
Chemi cal
sol vents
Improved
solvents
Novel
contacting
equipment
Improved
design of
processes
n. a.
Biomimetic
solvents, e.g.
hemoglobine-
derivatives
Physical
sol vent
Chemi cal
sol vents
Improved chemical
solvents
Novel contacting
equipment
Improved design of
processes
Membranes Polymeri c
Ceramic
Facilitated
transport
Carbon
Contactors
Polymeric
Ceramic
Facilitated
transport
Carbon
Contactors
Polymeric
Ion transport
membranes
Facilitated
transport
Polymeric
Ceramic
Palladium Reactors
Contactors
Soli d
sorbents
Zeolites
Activated
carbon
Zeolites
Activated
carbon
Carbonates
Carbon based
sorbents
Zeolites
Activated
carbon
Adsorbents for
O2/N2
separation
Perovskites
Oxygen
chemical
looping
Zeolites
Activated
carbon
Alumina
Carbonates
Hydrotalcites
Silicates
Cryogeni c
Ryan-
Holmes
process
Liquefaction
Hybrid
processes Dist il lat ion
Improved
distillation
Liquefaction Hybrid processes
Separation
t ask
Process Streams Postcombusti on capture Oxyfuel Combust ion capture Pre-Combustion Capt ure
CO2/CH4 CO2/N2 N2/O2 CO2/H2
Capture
technologies
Current Emergi ng Current Emergi ng Current Emergi ng Current Emergi ng
Solvents
(Absorption)
Physi cal
sol vents
Chemi cal
Solvents
Improved
solvents
Novel
contacting
equipment
Improved
design of
processes
Chemi cal
sol vents
Improved
solvents
Novel
contacting
equipment
Improved
design of
processes
n. a.
Biomimetic
solvents, e.g.
hemoglobine-
derivatives
Physical
sol vent
Chemi cal
sol vents
Improved chemical
solvents
Novel contacting
equipment
Improved design of
processes
Membranes Polymeri c
Ceramic
Facilitated
transport
Carbon
Contactors
Polymeric
Ceramic
Facilitated
transport
Carbon
Contactors
Polymeric
Ion transport
membranes
Facilitated
transport
Polymeric
Ceramic
Palladium Reactors
Contactors
Soli d
sorbents
Zeolites
Activated
carbon
Zeolites
Activated
carbon
Carbonates
Carbon based
sorbents
Zeolites
Activated
carbon
Adsorbents for
O2/N2
separation
Perovskites
Oxygen
chemical
looping
Zeolites
Activated
carbon
Alumina
Carbonates
Hydrotalcites
Silicates
Cryogeni c
Ryan-
Holmes
process
Liquefaction
Hybrid
processes Dist il lat ion
Improved
distillation
Liquefaction Hybrid processes
* From IPCC special report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage, 2005
Slide 49 2008 Aker Solutions part of Aker
Selcetion of CO2 capture technology
http://www.uop.com/gasprocessing/6010.html
Slide 50 2008 Aker Solutions part of Aker
Typical CO2 absorption loop
Amine
Absorber
Feed
Gas
KO Drum
Product
Gas
KO Drum
Feedgas
Product gas
Lean-Rich
Exchanger
Water
Make Up
Water Wash
Pumps
Rich Solvent
Flash Drum
Flash gas
Lean Sol.
Cooler
(CW)
Carbon
Filter
(Lean Sol)
Amine
Regen-
erator
HP Lean
Pump
LP Lean
Pump
Regen.
Reboiler
(LPS)
Acid Gas
Condenser
(CW)
Regen.
Reflux
Drum
Reflux
Pump
Acid gas
Slide 51 2008 Aker Solutions part of Aker
Summary of presentation
These points have been discussed/explained:
General facts about natural gas
Industrial dehydration examples
The different mechanism in gas/liquid separation
Different dehydration technologies
Absorption
Cooling
Adorption
Sour gas removal