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Algorithm

M S Santosh Kumar

3

rd

year, BTe!h, "le!tri!al "ngineering

Indian Institute of Te!hnology, Madras

#hennai, India

mss$umi%gmail!om

AbstractThis paper provides a review on the problem of

VLSI routing and the approximate optimization algorithm that is

used in practice, the problem of finding a Minimum Steiner Tree,

to solve the problem of global routing

KeywordsRouting, Minimum Spanning Tree, Minimum

Steiner Tree, Optimization algorithms, N ! hard"

I I&TR'()#TI'&

Routing is an im*ortant *hase in the *hysi!al design of

VLSI !ir!uits This *hase !onsists of finding the layout of the

+ires !onne!ting the terminals on !ir!uit blo!$s or gates A

terminal is a lo!ation on a blo!$, ty*i!ally along one of the

edges, +hi!h needs to be !onne!ted to some other blo!$s on

the layout A net is a set of terminals that are re,uired to be

!onne!ted together A netlist is a !olle!tion of nets that are to

routed The routing space is the s*a!e in +hi!h +e are allo+ed

to *la!e the +ires and the routing s*a!e bet+een t+o blo!$s is

!alled a channel. The *roblem of VLSI routing is to !onne!t all

the nets in the netlist through +ires running in the routing

s*a!e The routing *roblem is !om*utationally -ery diffi!ult

Infa!t, it is &P.hard

/01

Be!ause of this hardness, most of

routing algorithms are a**ro2imate and a fe+ ty*i!al

sim*lifi!ations are generally made The first one is to di-ide

the *roblem into t+o *hases !alled global routing and detailed

routing. In global routing, +e ignore the e2a!t geometri!

details and only does a !oarse.grain assignment of routes to

routing regions These routes are !on-erted into e2a!t layout in

the latter *hase Detailed routing !om*letes the *oint to *oint

+iring by s*e!ifying the geometri! information and layer

assignments There are also ste*s of routing in-ol-ed in the

design of VLSI !hi*s namely Timing-Driven routing, Non-

Manhattan and clock routing. 'ur fo!us in this *a*er +ill be

the *roblem of global routing

II M)LTI 3 T"RMI&AL &"TS A&( ST"I&"R TR""S

A. Input to the algorithm

The in*ut is a netlist !onsisting of a set of nets ea!h of +hi!h is

a set of terminals In addition to the netlist, the s*e!ifi!ations

on the routing s*a!e has to be *ro-ided All this information is

ty*i!ally *ro-ided in terms of a gra*h The are t+o gra*h

models that are ty*i!ally used4 Grid graph model and Channel-

Insertion graph model. In Grid-graph model, the !hi* is

modelled as n m grid gra*h +ith -erti!es that do not belong

to the routing s*a!e li$e blo!$s are remo-ed and +ires !an be

routed along any edge of the gra*h 5e assume that the gra*h is

un.+eighted All the edges in this model ha-e the same length

In the channel-insertion graph model, -erti!es are *la!ed at all

interse!tions of the !hannels and the terminals The lengths of

the edges are no longer same

!. "teiner Trees

6i-en a gra*h 67V,"8 +ith set of -erti!es V and set

of demand *oints 7 nets in our !ase 8 (, the Steiner tree is a set

of edges that !onne!t all the demand *oints ( A minimum

s*anning tree is a tree +hi!h !onne!ts all -erti!es +ith edges

+ith minimum total +eight

The minimum "teiner tree *roblem is similar to

minimum spanning tree *roblem4 6i-en a set of -erti!es V,

find the set of edges su!h that the total edge length is

minimi9ed The only differen!e bet+een the "teiner tree

problem and the "panning tree problem is that, in Steiner tree

*roblem, not all set of -erti!es in the gra*h are in the set of

demand *oints 5e !an add e2tra intermediate -erti!es and

edges to redu!e the length of the s*anning tree The ne+

-erti!es that are introdu!ed are !alled "teiner points or "teiner

vertices. Sin!e finding MST is hard, the ty*i!al initial ste* is

to start +ith a minimum s*anning tree

C. "teiner trees in #$"I routing

In VLSI !ir!uits, +ires are to be laid do+n in hori9ontal

and -erti!al dire!tions Thus for the grid 3 model, the demand

*oints ( are the set of -erti!es on the grid and routing *roblem

is to find minimum re!tilinear Steiner tree 7MRST8 Again

MRST is &P.hard Thus in *ra!ti!e, the a**ro2imate minimum

RST is obtained by re!ti lineari9ing ea!h edge of minimum

s*anning tree It is *ro-ed that ratio of the !ost of a re!tilinear

MST to that of an o*timal RST is no greater than 0:

7;+ang<s Theorm8

/=1

;ere !ost is defined using Manhattan

distan!e as !ost7 V0, V> 8 ? @ 20 3 2> @ A @ y0 3 y> @ +here V0 and V>

are -erti!es at 720,y08 and 72>,y>8 res*e!ti-ely

Various methods for re!tilinear edges in a MST e2ist

/1/1/1/1

one turn is !alled a L.RST

/B1

, if it uses t+o.turns for ea!h

diagonal edge, it is !alled a C.RST

/B1

The one +hi!h uses

arbitrary number of turns is !alled S.RST 5e des!ribe an

o*timal S.RST for se*arable MSTs "eparabilit% here means

that any *air of non.adDa!ent edges should ha-e non.

o-erla**ing bounding re!tangles See Eigure 708

Eigure7084 The first gra*h a set of -erti!es on MST +hi!h is

not se*erable The se!ond gra*h sho+s the same set of -erti!es

on MST that are se*arable

"-ery *oint set has a se*arable MST

/01

and if the gi-en

gra*h obeys the se*arability *ro*erty, then there e2ists a

method to find an o*timal S.RST from the MST The algorithm

*ro!eeds in the follo+ing lines

#al!ulate the minimum s*anning tree of the gi-en

*oints

Then, the resultant MST is hung by one of the lea-es

of the tree

Starting at the root edge, re!ursi-ely !om*ute the

o*timal C.layouts of the sub.trees rooted at the !hildren

"a!h !ombination of o*timal C.layout is then finally

!ombined to get +hole layout The merged layout +ith

least !ost is the o*timal C.layout of the entire tree

An a**ro2imate *seudo !ode of re!ursi-ely !om*uting

o*timal C.layout is des!ribed belo+

def Z-layoutmin( z[i] , T[i] ):

# z[i] a z-layout for an edge i

# T[i] the subtree of edges hanging from

edge e

Main:

f T[i] is em!ty then return z[i]

else:

for ea"h "hild edge # in T[i]:

for ea"h Z-layoutmin z[#] of #:

Z-layoutmin( z[#], T[#] )

for all the "ombinations of Z-layout:

return minimum "ost Z-layout

D. Comple&it% Anal%sis'

The se*arable MST !an be found using *rim<s algorithm in

'7VA"8 The re!ursion !an be done in '7>

d

"8 +here d is

total no of *ossible C.RST !onfigurations for a gi-en

MST edge +hi!h is F? B So, this is *olynomial time

algorithm

(. Need )or good algorithm'

Although, the one des!ribed here gi-es the solution in

*olynomial time It doesn<t gi-e o*timal RST This method

of se,uential +ire layout !an result in -arious *roblems

li$e blo!$ing due to already laid +ires et! introdu!ing the

need to Gre.routeH the +ires es*e!ially as the in*ut gets

larger and larger and the routing s*a!e de!reases to

fa!ilitate miniaturi9ation of I#s There are other interesting

de-elo*ments in this area that are mentioned in /B1, /I1,

/J1 Detailed routing, not mentioned in this *a*er !an be

found at /K1, /0L1

R"E"R"&#"S

/01 MR6arey and (SMohnson, The re!tilinear Steiner tree *roblem,

SIAM MA**l Math,3>7=8, **J>B.J3=

/>1 M;anan, 'n Steiner<s *roblem +ith re!tilinear distan!e MSIAM

A**lMath 0=70KKB8,**>::.>B:

/31 "&6ilbert and ;'Polla$, Steiner Minimal Trees MSIAMA**l Math

0B708, **0.>K

/=1 EK;+ang,(SRi!hards,P5inter70KK>8 The Steiner Tree Problem

Annals of (is!rete Mathemati!s :3 &orthN;olland4 "lse-ier ISB& L.

===.JKLKJ.O

/:1 Steiner Tree *roblem, Routing 7ele!troni! design automation8, Minimum

S*anning Trees, 5i$i*edia, the free en!y!lo*edia

/B1 Man.Ming.;o,6o*alaKrishnan ViDayan and #K5ong, &e+ Algorithms

for the Re!tilinear Steiner Tree Problem, I""" Transa!ations on

#om*outer.AidedP(esign VolK &o> Eebruary 0KKL

/I1 LiengigM, A *arallel geneti! algorithm for *erforman!e dri-ern 3VLSI

routing , I""" transa!tions, A*r 0KKI

/J1 Kahng,ABQ$+o$.Shing Leung, "ffi!ient algorithms for the minimum

shortest *arth Steiner arbores!en!e *roblem +ith a**li!ations to VLSI

*hysi!al design

/K1 Sagar, VK, Tas$.farming of the detailed routing *roblem in VLSI design

/0L1 Andre+ BKahng, Mens Lienig,Igor L Mar$o-, Min ;u, VLSI Physi!al

(esign4 Erom 6ra*h *artionting to Timing #losure

htt*4RR-lsi!adee!sumi!heduRKLM;Rdo+nloadsRboo$R!ha*terBR!ha*B

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