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A biodiversity action plan (BAP) is an internationally recognized program addressing

threatened species and habitats and is designed to protect and restore biological systems. The
original impetus for these plans derives from the 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity
(CBD). As of 2009, 191 countries have ratified the CBD, but only a fraction of these have
developed substantive BAP documents.
The principal elements of a BAP typically include:
(a) preparing inventories of biological
information for selected species or habitats; (b) assessing the conservation status of species
within specified ecosystems; (c) creation of targets for conservation and restoration; and (d)
establishing budgets, timelines and institutional partnerships for implementing the BAP.
endangered species
A fundamental method of engagement to a BAP is thorough documentation regarding individual
species, with emphasis upon the population distribution and conservation status. This task, while
fundamental, is highly daunting, since only an estimated ten percent of the worlds species are
believed to have been characterized as of 2006,
most of these unknowns being fungi,
invertebrate animals, micro-organisms and plants. For many bird, mammal and reptile species,
information is often available in published literature; however, for fungi, invertebrate animals,
micro-organisms and many plants, such information may require considerable local data
collection. It is also useful to compile time trends of population estimates in order to understand
the dynamics of population variability and vulnerability. In some parts of the world complete
species inventories are not realistic; for example, in the Madagascar dry deciduous forests, many
species are completely undocumented and much of the region has never even been
systematically explored by scientists.
A species plan component of a countrys BAP should ideally entail a thorough description of the
range, habitat, behaviour, breeding and interaction with other species. Once a determination has
been made of conservation status (e.g. rare, endangered, threatened, vulnerable), a plan can then
be created to conserve and restore the species population to target levels. Examples of
programmatic protection elements are: habitat restoration; protection of habitat from urban
development; establishment of property ownership; limitations on grazing or other agricultural
encroachment into habitat; reduction of slash-and-burn agricultural practises; outlawing killing
or collecting the species; restrictions on pesticide use; and control of other environmental
pollution. The plan should also articulate which public and private agencies should implement
the protection strategy and indicate budgets available to execute this strategy.
Specific countries;- Some examples of individual countries which have produced
substantive Biodiversity Action Plans follow. In every example the plans concentrate on plants
and vertebrate animals, with very little attention to neglected groups such as fungi, invertebrate
animals and micro-organisms, even though these are also part of biodiversity. Preparation of a
country BAP may cost up to 100 million pounds sterling, with annual maintenance costs roughly
ten percent of the initial cost. If plans took into account neglected groups, the cost would be
higher. Obviously costs for countries with small geographical area or simplified ecosystems have
a much lesser cost. For example the St. Lucia BAP has been costed in the area of several million
pounds sterling.
tion Towns (also known as transition network or transition movement) is a grassroots
network of communities that are working to build resilience in response to peak oil, climate
destruction, and economic instability.

Transition Towns is a brand for these environmental and social movements founded (in part)
upon the principles of permaculture, based originally on Bill Mollisons influential
Permaculture, a Designers Manual published in 1988.
The Transition Towns brand of
permaculture uses David Holmgrens 2003 book, Permaculture: Principles and Pathways
Beyond Sustainability.
These techniques were included in a student project overseen by
permaculture teacher Rob Hopkins at the Kinsale Further Education College in Ireland. The term
transition town was coined by Louise Rooney
and Catherine Dunne. Following its start in
Kinsale, Ireland it then spread to Totnes, England where Rob Hopkins and Naresh Giangrande
developed the concept during 2005 and 2006.
The aim of this community project is to equip
communities for the dual challenges of climate change and peak oil. The Transition Towns
movement is an example of socioeconomic localisation. In 2007, the UK-based charity
Transition Network was founded to disseminate the concept of transition and support
communities around the world as they adopted the transition model.
A community project is a term applied to any community-based project. This covers a wide
variety of different areas within a community or a group of networking entities. Projects can
cover almost anything, including the most obvious section of concern to any community, the
welfare element. Welfare community projects would for example be, a locally run and locally
funded orphanage; a Christmas dinner kitchen for the homeless. Another important sector of
importance to the community would be charity. Charitable projects in the community can
include, but are not limited to, ecological charities concerned with either the maintenance of
green spaces, or in some cases, the prevention of the reduction/removal of green spaces. An old
clothes collection service would also be a community-based charity project. One important
subdivision of community projects, and at times overlooked, is those of an economic nature such
as . The highlight of economic community projects is what is known as Transition Towns. Most
economic community projects are designed at creating some sort of economic autonomy.
It begins when a small collection of motivated individuals within a community come together
with a shared concern: how can our community respond to the challenges, and opportunities, of
Peak Oil and Climate Change?

All community projects are different in some way; the size and scope of these projects is
determined firstly by the community they cater to. The term community is defined as