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What is Bricks ?
Bricks are the oceramic element used in the masonary construction. Here Ceramic means derived from soil.
What are the sizes of the brick ?
According to the Indian Standard :- IS 1077 : 1992 ; There are two dimension of bricks given as
Modular Size
IA :-190X90X90
IB :-190X90X40
Non Modular Size
IIA :-230X110X70
IIB :-230X110X30
How many bricks are there in 1 CuM ?
Number of bricks in 1 CuM is exactly 594 bricks; but in the CPWD rate anlaysis it is taken as 494 ( it also include the
cement mortar to be used)
What are the various material through which bricks are made ?
What are the important property of the bricks that need to be considered ?
Following property of the bricks that need to be considered
1. It should not absorb water more thn 20% of its dry weight.
2. Its minimum crushing strength should be 105 kg/cm2
3. Also to be considered that excess alumina and silica in th clay make the bricks crack and wrap on drying.
What are fly ash bricks ?
What is the difference in strength between fly ash bricks and normal clay bricks ?
What is the bricks wall height limit ?
A slenderness ratio of L/B of 27 is to be maintained according to the NBC code. (Table 7) . For more reference , refer to SP
20 and IS 1905-1987.
What is meant by classes of brick?
Following is defined as difference classes for bricks
The common burnt clay brick shall be classified on the basis of minimum average compressive strength. Each class of bricks
shall be further divided in to two classes, first class and second class, based on tolerance and shape.
The various types of bricks when tested in accordance with I.S. 3495 (Part I) 1976 shall have minimum average
compressive strength as follows:
1. First class table moulded(TM) Chimney Kiln burnt brick/Grog or Ghol bricks 50kg/sq cm.
2. Second class TM Chimney Kiln burnt brick 35kg/
3. Second class TM. Open bhatta or pajwa burnt brick 30kg/sq cm.
4. Kumbhar bricks burnt in Pajwa 20kg/sq cm.
What are the strength of the bricks ?
The strength of the normal bricks in India vary, in North and South India. It is better some times to use , Hollow Concrete
What is the density of normal clay red brick ?
The density of the normal clay red brick is 1900 kg/m3. If we use Hollow Concrete blocks, its density is 500 kg/m3.
What are the problems faced in the brick work ?
Following are the problems faced in the brick work :-
1. Improper mixing of mortar
2. Excessive water cement ratio
3. Incorrect adjustmnt of suction rate of bricks
4. Uneven or furrowed bed joints
5. Unduly thick bed joints
6. Voids in perpend joints
7. Disturbance of bricks after laying.
What is F.P.S ?
F P S means Foot Pound Second. In the BOQ , it means, the size of the bricks should be in inches.
what is cement ?
A cement is a binder. you can think it as similar to a Glue, which has the property to bind with other materials.
What is the chemical composition of cement ?
The chemical composition of cement varies, depending on the type of cement used.
What are the different variety of cement ?
Following are the different variety of cement
1. Ordinary Portland Cement
2. Pozollona Portland Cement ( here fly ash quantity is varied)
What are the chemicals in the normal cement ?
Normal cement work with the hydration of the CaO , and with various other silicates such as Iron, Aluminium and Silicon
How is Portland Cement manufactured ?
Portland Cement is manufactured by heating limestone ( CaCO3) at 1450 degree celcius in a klin, through a process called
calcination. Through which, we get CaO, which is then blended with Gypsum to product the Portland Cement.
What is PPC ?
PPC is a blended cement, where Pozollanic material or material having latent hydraulic property are used. Some of the
pozollanic material used are
Fly Ash
Ground Granulated Blast Furnance Slag
Silica Fume
High Reactive Meta kaolin
What is meant by Grade 33, 43 and 53 cement ?
Previously Grade 33, 43, and 53 cements were available in the market. The numbers 33, 43 and 53 indicate the compressive
strength of cement after 28 days when tested as per IS: 4031-1988, eg, 33 Grade means that 28 days of compressive strength
is not less than 33 N/mm
(MPa) . Similarly for 43 grade and 53 grade the 28 days compressive strength should not be less
than 43 and 53 MPa respectively.
Note that 43 and 53 attain strength quickly and hence the heat generated during hydration process is very high and require
careful curing. (3day strengths of these cements are 16, 23 and 27 MPa and 7 day strengths are 22, 33 and 37 MPa resply). In
fact for normal applications involving M 20 to M25 grade 33 cement is sufficient and will not result in early age cracking,
provided there is sufficient curing. Higher grades are to be used with HSC.
Can one save on quantity of cement by using high-grade cement?
This is a misconception. Even if you were to use less cement, you would need to add the same quantity of water to prepare a
concrete mix. This would increase the water cement ratio, as the cement quantity has been reduced. But it is common
knowledge that when the water-cement ratio is increased, the resultant concrete tends to suffer from reduced strength and
durability. This will certainly compromise the long-term strength of your construction.
On what factors Cement ratio is dependent ?
Generally high cement ratio in concrete will increase the strenght; but it will not increase above certain optimum value;
especially for mixes having low water-cement ratio and larger maximum size aggregates.
Generally different codes envisage the following
1. maximum water-cement ratio
2. minimum cement content
3. cover thickness
4. type of cement
5. Amount of chlorides and sulphides in cement.
Other then this, cement is choosen based on two other considerations
1. sufficient alkalinity (pH value of concrete) to provide a passive environment against corrosion of steel.
2. To have sufficient volume of cement paste to overfill the voids in the compacted aggregates.
Also note that minimum cement content is based on 20 mm aggregates; for 40 mm aggregates , it should be reduced by about
10 percent, for 12.5 mm aggregate , it should be increased by about 10 percent.
What is the maximum cement content ?
The maximum cement content is limited to 530 kg/m3 for prestressed and liquid containing structure.
What is the % of fly ash that can be used in cement ?
The maximum % of fly ash, as specified in the code is 35% ; but the BIS code specified it upto 50%.
What is the cost of Scaffolding ?
Cost of scaffolding is around Rs 200 per m2
What are the different IS codes for Scaffolding ?
The different IS codes for scaffolding are
1. IS Code 14686 is the code for the shuttering work.
2. IS 4990 is also for concrete shuttering Plyboard
What are the different plywood used for shuttering ?
Following are the plyboards used for shuttering
Normal Plywood CS
With a plastic face CSC
With a film -CSFF
Do a rate analysis for shuttering for a footing of size 2.7X2.7X1 m ; or total contact area of 10.87 square meter ?
Assuming shuttering material will become unserviceable after use of 40 times.
Adding for maintenance @ 10% of cost.
Taking salvage value after full use of material @25% of cost.
Following are the things taken
Wall Form

Wall Form Panel
Corner Angle
Channel Shoulder
Double Clip

Double Clip
Single Clip
MS tube 40 mm dia
Assembly nuts and bolts
What is the difference between Shuttering and Centering ?
What is the tolerance level taken in shuttering ?
What is the sizes of plywood taken for shuttering ?
What is the design basis of Shuttering ?
Reinforcement Steel
What is the price for Reinforcement Steel ?
The price for reinforcement steel is taken online. One site that i refer is
How much labor is required for straightening, cutting, bending , binding and placing in position of Reinforcement
steel ?
For doing 100 kg of steel, we will require 1 blacksmith and 1 beldaar.
How many bars are there in different bundle of reinforcement steel ?
Estimate Weight or Number of Pcs per Bundle
Bundle Length
*No of pcs. Weight/Meter (Kgs)
* Weight of
8 36/40 20-18 0.375-0.405 86/86 +2

10 36/40 15-13 0.585-0.620 99/95 +2 3D
12 36/40 10-9 0.860-0.910 97/97 +2 3D
16 40/42 05 1.530-1.600 95/100 +2 3D
20 40/44 03 2.420-2.500 90/99 +1 3D
25 40/44 01 3.775-3.855 47/51 +1 4D
* Number of Pcs & weight of bundles may be differ from state to state

What are the different type of excavation ?
Following are the different type of excavations :-
1. Soft Soil
2. Ordinary Soil
3. Hard Soil
What are the different machinery used for excavation ?
Following are the machinery used for excavation

JCB Machine
1. JCB Machine
2. Rock Excavator L&T Case machine
3. Porclain Machine
What is the output of the Porclain Machine ?
The output of the porclain machine is calculated as 50-60 m3 / hour.
What is the output of Hydraulic Excavator ?
According to the CPWD code, the output of a Hydraulic Excavator is 20 CuM/hour for Ordinary Rock and 30 CuM/hour for
all other soil.
How is per m3 excavation costing is calculated ?
Cost of excavaion depends on the following factor
1. Type of rock
2. Depth of excavation to be done
3. Type used :- Machines or Manual labor are to be used.
For doing excavation of about 15 cm, for an area of 100 m2 ; we would require 13 labours; and approx cost would be around
Rs 4600 for 100 m2. or in cubic meter sense; it would be around Rs 400/m3 for excavation.
but for example, if we have to do with mechanical means for a depth of more then 30 cm; then we will use hydraulic
excavator. The per hour output of hydraulic excavator is 30 Cubic meter; assuming a hire charge of 8000 per day , with
loader hire charges of 5000 Rupees per day; The cost comes out to be Rs 147/ Cubic Meter.