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Globalisation has been held responsible for its massive impact on the environment. Increased
consumption leads to an increase in the production of goods, which in turn puts stress on the

Globalization has also led to an increase in the transportation of raw materials and food from
one place to another. Earlier, people used to consume locally-grown food, but with globalization,
people consume products that have been developed in foreign countries. The amount of fuel that is
consumed in transporting these products has led to an increase in the pollution levels in the
environment. It has also led to several other environmental concerns such as noise pollution and
landscape intrusion.

Transportation has also put a strain on the non-renewable sources of energy, such as gasoline.

The gases that are emitted from the aircraft have led to the depletion of the ozone layer apart
from increasing the greenhouse effect.

The industrial waste that is generated as a result of production has been laden on ships and
dumped in oceans. This has killed many underwater organisms and has deposited many
harmful chemicals in the ocean. The damage caused to ecosystem from the oil that spilled from
one of the leaking containers of British Petroleum in 2010 is just one of the examples of the threat
globalization poses to the environment.

Due to globalization and industrialization, various chemicals have been thrown into the soil
which has resulted into the growth of many noxious weeds and plants. This toxic waste has
caused a lot of damage to plants by interfering in their genetic makeup. It has put pressure on
the available land resources. In various parts of the world, mountains are being cut to make way
for a passing tunnel or a highway. Vast barren lands have been encroached upon to pave way for
new buildings. While humans may rejoice on the glimmer with these innovations, these can have
long-term effects on the environment.

Various studies over the years, have found that plastic is one of the major toxic pollutants, as it is
a non-biodegradable product. However, plastic is of immense use when it comes to packaging
and preserving goods that are to be exported. This has led to increased use of plastic, causing
widespread environmental pollution.

Sustainability Methods
Sustainable development development which meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
- Introduce strict controls on pollution emissions
- Regulate disposal of waste
- Ration scarce resources such as water or air through systems of tradable licences
- Bans on traffic in certain areas
- Increases on taxes on petrol
- Fines for firms who pollute the environment
- Subsidies to firms who produce in an environmentally friendly way
- Encouragement of public transport
- Minimum working ages in the UK
- Sign international agreements designed to safeguard the environment
o 1987 Montreal Protocol (phase out production of CFC chemicals, a major contributor to
the destruction of the ozone layer)
o 1997 Kyoto Protocol (reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 5.2% from 1990 levels
between 2008-2012)
In 1987 the Brundtland Commission on Environment and Development defined sustainable
development as: development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the
ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The current Government supports the
concept of sustainable development and focuses on four main objectives set out below:
(1) Social progress which recognises the needs of everyone: Everyone should share in the
benefits of increased prosperity and a clean and safe environment. Needs must not be met by
treating others, including future generations and people elsewhere in the world, unfairly.
(2) Effective protection of the environment: We must limit global environmental threats, such
as climate change to protect human health and safety from hazards such as poor air quality and
toxic chemicals and to protect things which people need or value, such as wildlife, landscapes and
historic buildings.
(3) Prudent use of natural resources: We need to make sure that non-renewable resources
are used efficiently and that alternatives are developed to replace them in due course. Renewable
resources, such as water, should be used in ways that do not endanger the resource or cause
serious damage or pollution.
(4) Maintenance of high and stable levels of economic growth and employment, so that
everyone can share in high living standards and greater job opportunities. Growing interest in the
impact of economic activity on our natural and man-made resource base has led to the
development of concepts such as ecological footprints and carbon footprints.
Negative externalities from production social cost > private cost