= A . U ( t
em
- t
r
) ........ eqn. 4.2
where, Q
= f ( t
eo
- t
em
) ........ eqn. 4.3
where Q
= Heat gain through wall at time ( +)
= time lag in hours (see CIBSE guide A (2006) Table 3.49 to 3.55)
t
eo
= sol-air temperature at time specified (
o
C) (Table 5.36 to 5.38)
t
em
= 24 hour mean sol-air temperature (
o
C) (Table 5.36 to 5.38)
f = decrement factor (see CIBSE guide A (2006) Table 3.49 to 3.55)
Therefore the Solar Gain through a wall at time ( + ) is;
Q
+
= A . U ( t
em
- t
r
) + f ( t
eo
- t
em
) ........ eqn. 4.4
where, Q
+
= heat gain through wall at time + (Watts)
= time lag in hours (see CIBSE guide A (2006) Table 3.49 to 3.55)
A = area of wall (m
2
)
U = overall thermal transmittance (W/m
2
o
C)
t
em
= 24 hour mean sol-air temperature (
o
C) (Table A8.3)
t
r
= constant dry resultant temperature (
o
C) In practice room dry bulb is used.
f = decrement factor (see CIBSE guide A (2006) Table 3.49 to 3.55)
t
eo
= Sol-air temperature when Tabulated cooling load (q
sg
) is at a maximum (
o
C) (Table A8.3)
5.0 Heat Gain Through Roof
The heat gain through a roof uses the same equation as for a wall as shown below.
Q
+ Roof
= A U [( t
em
- t
r
) + f ( t
eo
- t
em
)] ........ eqn. 5
6.0 Ventilation and/or Infiltration Gains
Heat load is found from;
Qsi = n . V (t
o
- t
r
) / 3 ........ eqn. 6
where Q
si
= Sensible heat gain (W)
n = number of air changes per hour (h
-1
) (see note below)
V = volume of room (m
3
)
t
o
= outside air temperature (
o
C) Can be obtained from CIBSE guide Table A8.3.
t
r
= room air temperature (
o
C)
Infiltration gains should be added to the room heat gains.
Recommended infiltration rates are 1/2 air change per hour for most air-conditioning cases or 1/4 air change
per hour for double glazing or if special measures have been taken to prevent infiltration.
Ventilation or fresh air supply loads can be added to either the room or central plant loads but should only be
accounted for once.
Total Room Load From Heat Gains
Q
total
= Q
g
+ Q
sg
+ Q
int.
+ Q
+ Wall
+ Q
+ Roof
+ Q
si
Q
total
= A
g .
U
g
(t
o
- t
r
) 1. Sensible Glass
+ F
c .
F
s
. q
sg
. A
g
2. Solar Glass.
+ Q
int.
3. Internal
+ A.U [( t
em
- t
r
) + f ( t
eo
- t
em
)] 4. Walls
+ A.U [( t
em
- t
r
) + f ( t
eo
- t
em
)] 5. Roof
+ n . V (t
o
- t
r
) / 3 6. Ventilation
........ eqn. 7
In the majority of cases, by far the greatest external fluctuating component is the solar heat gain through the
windows.
Therefore, it will be this gain which determines when the total heat gain to the room is a maximum.
Heat gains may be calculated and displayed in table form as shown below.
Heat Gain from Watts %
1. Sensible transmission through glass
2. Solar gain through glass
3. Internal
4. External walls
5. Roof
6. Ventilation
Total 100%
Heat gain per m
2
floor area =
Heat gain per m
3
space =
EXAMPLE 1
The room shown below is to be maintained at a constant environmental temperature of 21
o
C for a plant
operation of 12 hours per day.
The room is on the intermediate floor of an Library located in London latitute 51.7
o
N. The internal
construction is lightweight demountable partitions, lightweight slab floors and suspended acoustically treated
ceilings.
Calculate the maximum sensible cooling load in the room in July
The outside air temperature (t
o
) may be found from CIBSE guide Table A8.3. for July 23
rd
. The maximum
value ocurrs at 15.00 hrs. and is 24.5
o
C.
DATA:
Occupants = 100
Infiltration = 0.5 air changes per hour
Building classification = lightweight.
External wall 'U' value = 0.45 W/m
2o
C, internal insulation.
External wall colour = light.
External wall decrement factor f = 0.65
Glass type & 'U' value = clear 6mm, single, U = 2.80 W/m
2o
C
Window blinds = light slatted blind open.
Lighting = 30 Watts / m
2
floor area
Heat gain from machinery and equipment = 4000 Watts
NOTE: It should be noted that this total heat gain is used to size central plant items such as Chillers,
Condensers and Cooling Towers.
Cooling coils are sized usually with a pschrometric chart.
Answer
Areas:
Area of window = 1.2 x 1.7 = 2.04 m
2
.
Total area of glass = 2.04 x 12No. windows = 24.48 m
2
.
Area of glass facing South = 12.24 m
2
.
Area of wall facing South = 22.0 m x 4.0 m high = 88 m
2
less glass = 88 - 12.24 = 75.76 m
2
.
Floor area = 22 x 14 = 308m
2
.
Room volume = 308 x 4 = 1232 m
3
.
Gains:
1. Sensible transmission through glass Q
g
= A
g
U
g
(t
o
- t
r
)
Q
g
= 24.48 x 2.8 (24.5 21)
Q
g
= 239.9 Watts
2. Solar Gain through glass Q
sg
= F
c
F
s
q
sg
A
g
where:
Q
sg
= Actual cooling load (W)
F
c
= Air point control factor (Table A9.15 for Clear 6mm, single, lightweight building gives 0.91)
F
s
= Shading factor (Table A9.15 for Clear 6mm, single, open light slatted blinds,lightweight
building gives 1.0 )
q
sg
= Tabulated cooling load (A9.15 for July 23
rd
, orientation South, 12.00 hours gives maximum
of 252 W/m
2
)
A
g
= Area of glass facing South (m
2
)
(Maximum is at 12.00 hrs) Q
sg
= 0.91 x 1.0 x 252 x 12.24
Q
sg
= 2806.9 Watts
3. Internal Q
int.
= Q
int.
Q
int.
= Lights (30 W/m
2
x 308) + 4000 W + People (100 x 100)
Q
int.
= 9,240 + 4,000 + 10,000
Q
int.
= 23,240.0 Watts
4. External wall Q
+Wall
= A U [( t
em
- t
r
) + f ( t
eo
- t
em
)]
where,
Q
+
= heat gain through wall at time + (Watts)
A = area of wall facing South (m
2
)
U = overall thermal transmittance given in question as 0.45 W/m
2
o
C.
t
em
= 24 hour mean sol-air temperature (
o
C) (Table A8.3 gives 22.5
o
C for light
coloured wall facing South)
t
r
= constant dry resultant temperature (
o
C). Room dry bulb of 21
o
C is given.
f = decrement factor for wall is given as 0.65.
t
eo
= Sol-air temperature when Tabulated cooling load (q
sg
) is at 12.00 hrs. gives
36
o
C (Table A8.3)
Q
+Wall
= 75.76 x 0.45 [( 22.5 21) + 0.65 ( 36 22.5)]
Q
+Wall
= 34.092 [ 1.5 + 8.775 ]
Q
+Wall
= 350.3 Watts
5. Roof Q
+Roof
= Nil for intermediate floor.
6. Ventilation Q
si
= n V (t
o
- t
r
) / 3
Q
si
= 0.5 x 1232 (24.5 21) / 3
Q
si
= 718.0 Watts
7. Q
total
= Q
g
+ Q
sg
+ Q
int.
+ Q
+Wall
+ Q
+ Roof
+ Q
si
Q
total
= 239.9 + 2,806.9 + 23,240.0 + 350.3 + 0 + 718.0
Q
total
= 27,354.1 Watts
The results are shown in the table below.
Heat Gain from Watts %
1. Sensible transmission through glass 239.9 0.9
2. Solar gain through glass 2,806.9 10.3
3. Internal 23,240.0 84.9
4. External walls 350.3 1.3
5. Roof 0 0
6. Ventilation 718.0 2.6
Total 27,354.1 100%
Heat gain per m
2
floor area = 88.8 W/m
2
Heat gain per m
3
space = 22.2 W/m
3
EXAMPLE 2
The room shown below is to be maintained at a constant environmental temperature of 21
o
C for a plant
operation of 12 hours per day.
The room is on the intermediate floor of an Office Block located in London.
The internal construction is lightweight partitions, concrete hollow slab floors and suspended ceilings.
Calculate the maximum sensible cooling load in the room in July.
DATA:
Occupants = 80
Lighting = 35 Watts / m2 floor area
Infiltration = 1.0 air changes per hour
Outside air temperature (t
o
) = 26
o
C.
Building classification = lightweight.
External wall surface texture = dark.
External wall thickness = 300mm, internal insulation, decrement factor is 0.27.
Light slatted blinds = Assume open
Heat gain from machinery and equipment = 3000 Watts
Answer
Areas:
Area of window = 1.2 x 1.7 = 2.04 m
2
.
Total area of glass = 2.04 x 10No. windows = 20.4 m
2
.
Area of glass facing South West = 10.2 m
2
.
Area of wall facing South West = 18.0 m x 3.0 m high = 54 m
2
less glass = 54 - 10.2 =
43.8 m
2
.
Floor area = 18 x 16 = 288m
2
.
Room volume = 288 x 3 = 864 m
3
.
Gains:
1. Sensible transmission through glass Q
g
= A
g
U
g
(t
o
- t
r
)
Q
g
= 20.4 x 5.8 (26 21)
Q
g
= 591.6 Watts
2. Solar Gain through glass Q
sg
= F
c
F
s
q
sg
A
g
(Maximum is at 15.00 hrs) Q
sg
= 0.91 x 1.0 x 278 x 10.2
Q
sg
= 2580.4 Watts
3. Internal Q
int.
= Q
int.
Q
int.
= Lights (35 W/m
2
x 288) + 3000 W + People (80 x 100)
Q
int.
= 10,080 + 3,000 + 8,000
Q
int.
= 21,080.0 Watts
4. External wall Q
+Wall
= A U [( t
em
- t
r
) + f ( t
eo
- t
em
)]
(dark faade) Q
+Wall
= 43.8 x 0.45 [( 27 21) + 0.27 ( 51.5 27)]
Q
+Wall
= 19.71 [ 6 + 6.615 ]
Q
+Wall
= 248.6 Watts
5. Roof Q
+Roof
= Nil for intermediate floor.
6. Ventilation Q
si
= n V (t
o
- t
r
) / 3
Q
si
= 1.0 x 864 (26 21) / 3
Q
si
= 1440.0 Watts
7. Q
total
= Q
g
+ Q
sg
+ Q
int.
+ Q
+Wall
+ Q
+ Roof
+ Q
si
Q
total
= 591.6 + 2,580.4 + 21,080.0 + 248.6 + 0 + 1,440.0
Q
total
= 25,940.6 Watts
The results are shown in the table below.
Heat Gain from Watts %
1. Sensible transmission through glass 591.6 2.3
2. Solar gain through glass 2,580.4 9.9
3. Internal 21,080.0 81.3
4. External walls 248.6 1.0
5. Roof 0 0
6. Ventilation 1,440.0 5.5
Total 25,940.6 100%
Heat gain per m
2
floor area = 90.1 W/m
2
Heat gain per m
3
space = 30.0 W/m
3
The heat gain in the previous example was 88.8 W/m
2
floor area and the total was 27,354.1 Watts .
Therefore there is a slightly lower overall heat gain for this example (25,940.6 Watts) but the gain per m
2
floor area is slightly higher (90.1 W/m
2
) than in the previous example.
EXAMPLE 3
The Restaurant shown below is to be maintained at a constant environmental temperature of 22
o
C for a plant
operation of 12 hours per day.
The Restaurant area is on the ground floor of an Single storey building located at 51.7
o
N.
The internal construction is lightweight partitions, concrete hollow slab floors and suspended ceilings.
Calculate the maximum sensible cooling load in the Restaurant area in July.
DATA:
Occupants = 70
Lighting = 22 Watts / m
2
floor area
Infiltration = 1.0 air changes per hour
Outside air temperature (t
o
) = 28
o
C.
Building classification = lightweight.
External wall surface texture = dark.
External wall - 105mm Brick, internal 50mm EPS insulation, 100mm lightweight aggregate
concrete block,
13mm dense plaster, cavity wall.
Windows - Double glazed internal shade, clear 6mm glass, light slatted blinds assume
open
Roof - use information from section 2(d) in Table A3.54.
Heat gain from equipment = 2000 Watts
Answer
Areas:
Area of window = 1.4 x 2.0 = 2.8 m
2
.
Total area of glass = 2.8 x 10No. windows = 28.0 m
2
.
Area of glass facing South = 14.0 m
2
.
Area of wall facing South = 14.0 m x 3.0 m high = 42 m
2
less glass = 42 - 14 = 28.0 m
2
.
Floor area = 14 x 10 = 140 m
2
.
Ceiling area = Length x 2(Rafter length inside)
Rafter length inside = 0.5 x room width / cos roof pitch
= Rafter length inside = 0.5 x 5 / cos
30
0
.
= Rafter length inside = 0.5 x 5 / 0.866
= 5.774 metres
Ceiling area = 14 x 2 (5.774) = 161.7 m
2
.
Room volume = 140m
2
x 3 + ( 14 x 5 x 2.9 ) = 623 m
3
.
Gains:
1. Sensible transmission through glass Q
g
= A
g
U
g
(t
o
- t
r
)
Q
g
= 28.0 x 2.8 (28 22)
Q
g
= 470.4 Watts
2. Solar Gain through glass Q
sg
= F
c
F
s
q
sg
A
g
(Maximum is at 12.00 hrs) Q
sg
= 0.91 x 0.95 x 252 x 14.0
Q
sg
= 3,050.0 Watts
3. Internal Q
int.
= Q
int.
Q
int.
= Lights (22 W/m
2
x 140) + 2000 W + People (70 x 100)
Q
int.
= 3080 + 2,000 + 7,000
Q
int.
= 12,080.0 Watts
External wall
Find decrement factor (f) from Table A3.54.
Using wall data given above the wall is type 8(e) and the decrement factor is 0.43, time lag is 8.6
hours, U value 0.43 W/m
2o
C.
(dark faade) Q
+Wall
= A U [( t
em
- t
r
) + f ( t
eo
- t
em
)]
Q
+Wall
= 28 x 0.22 [( 26 22) + 0.43 ( 48 26)]
Q
+Wall
= 12.32 [ 4 + 9.46 ]
Q
+Wall
= 165.8 Watts
Roof
Find decrement factor (f) from Table 3.54, use information from section 2(d).
The decrement factor is 0.89, time lag is 2.9 hours, U value 0.22 W/m
2o
C.
Q
+Roof
= A U [( t
em
- t
r
) + f ( t
eo
- t
em
)]
Q
+Roof
= 161.7 x 0.22 [(26 22) + 0.89 (48 26 )]
Q
+Roof
= 35.6 [ ( 4 + 19.58 ) ]
Q
+Roof
= 838.8 Watts
6. Ventilation Q
si
= n V (t
o
- t
r
) / 3
Q
si
= 1.0 x 623 (28 22) / 3
Q
si
= 1246.0 Watts
7. Q
total
= Q
g
+ Q
sg
+ Q
int.
+ Q
+Wall
+ Q
+ Roof
+ Q
si
Q
total
= 470.4 + 3,050.0 + 12,080.0 + 165.8 + 838.8 + 1,246.0
Q
total
= 17,851 Watts
The results are shown in the table below.
Heat Gain from Watts %
1. Sensible transmission through glass 470.4 2.6
2. Solar gain through glass 3,050.0 17.1
3. Internal 12,080.0 67.7
4. External walls 165.8 0.9
5. Roof 838.8 4.7
6. Ventilation 1,246.0 7.0
Total 17,851.0 100%
Heat gain per m
2
floor area = 127.5 W/m
2
Heat gain per m
3
space = 28.7 W/m
3
Types of Heating And Cooling Coils
Fin & Tube Heat Exchangers
Fin and tube heat exchangers are used extensively for heating and cooling air. They consist of one or more
rows of finned tubes connected to headers and mounted within a sheet metal casing with flanged ends
suitable for duct mounting.
The heating elements are normally manufactured with copper tubes, with the extended surfaces, or fins,
being of aluminium or sometimes copper. The most common type of finning arrangements are the spirally
wound and the rectangular fin.
Heating coils may be used with hot water or steam as the heat transfer media whilst frost pre-heaters usually
have electric heating elements. Cooling coils are classified as being either of the water or the direct
expansion type depending on the media flowing through the tubes.
A heating coil is shown below.
In water coils, hot or chilled water or brine circulates through the tubes of the coil either emitting or
absorbing sensible heat as the air flows over the fins attached to the outside surfaces. Usually the flow of
water and air are in opposite directions to each other, this being known as counter-flow heat exchanger. This
configuration gives maximum heat transfer.
Direct Expansion Coils (Evaporator Coils)
In the direct expansion coil (DX), or evaporator, a refrigerant evaporates inside the tubes of the coil, as
shown below.
Latent heat is absorbed by the air stream from the refrigerant as the refrigerant evaporates. With this type of
coil, as with steam, there is no distinction made between parallel and counter-flow since the surface
temperature is more uniform owing to the refrigerant in the tubes boiling at a constant temperature.
When direct expansion coils are used they become the evaporator of the refrigeration cycle, and may be
termed either dry or flooded. In the dry DX coil only a sufficient quantity of refrigerant is introduced to
operate in the predominantly vapour state. In the flooded DX coil most of the coil is filled with liquid
refrigerant and although this is more efficient, it is not used so much in air-conditioning since the additional
refrigerant is expensive.
REFRIGERATION CYCLE WITH DIRECT
EXPANSION COIL
Heat Rejection
Condenser
Evaporator
Compressor
Expansion
valve.
Refrigeration
pipework
Air On
Air Off Coil
DX coil as
evaporator
Evaporator coils come in a variety of shapes and sizes, depending on the type of installation, the amount of
cooling capacity needed, and the manufacturer. They are constructed of aluminium finned copper tubing.
The copper tubing runs perpendicular to the aluminium fins, making U-turns back and forth until the desired
coil size is achieved. Added cooling capacity without an increase in length and width is accomplished by
adding more rows of copper tubing.
All evaporator coils must have a drain pan to collect the water that condenses as the air flowing across the
coil cools. The water can drain away by gravity or be pumped away.
The cooling effect that takes place inside the coil requires a pressure drop in the refrigerant. This drop can be
accomplished in a number of ways: capillary tube, piston or orifice, or thermostatic expansion valve.
A capillary tube is a thin copper tube of predetermined length into which the compressed liquid refrigerant is
pumped. The length of the tubing causes the pressure drop and subsequent cooling effect of the refrigerant.
A piston or orifice blocks the flow of refrigerant and forces it through a tiny hole, creating the needed
pressure drop.
A thermostatic expansion valve meters the flow of refrigerant to meet the cooling demand of the coil. It
determines this demand by way of a sensing bulb attached to the outlet tube on the coil. Because it can meter
the flow to meet demand, the expansion valve can keep the coil at optimum cooling potential.
Because the cooling coil is an integral part of the air distribution system, its geometry size, number of
rows, fin spacing, and fin profile contributes to the airside pressure drop and affects the sound power level
of the fans. (Fan power needed to circulate air through the duct system may warrant extra sound attenuation
at the air handler.)
Water Removal
Moisture in air can condense in the air stream or when the air impinges upon a solid cool surface. This can
happen at sharp bends where water collects in a puddle at the lower surface on the ductwork. A drain can be
fitted on vertical sections of ductwork to remove water that has collected. Ducts can also be insulated in
areas where condensing moisture is likely to occur.
In hospitals and other situations water in ducts is to be avoided since bacteria can multiply in warm moist
conditions.
Droplet separators have been developed to remove water droplet carry-over from cooling coils. They consist
of a media that can absorb the water droplets and transport them down through the material to the drainage
section.
The system shown below uses a glass-fibre-based material and the droplet separator works best with air
velocities between 0 and 4 m/s.
The media is so efficient that it can arrest 100 litres of water per cubic metre of media.
Some droplet separators are produced as cassettes to ensure easy handling. several cassettes can be linked
together to achieve the desired surface area.
Heat Transfer in Cooling Coils
Chilled-water cooling coils are finned-tube heat exchangers consisting of rows of tubes (usually copper) that
pass through sheets of formed fins (usually aluminium). As air passes through the coil and contacts the cold
fin surfaces, heat transfers from the air to the water flowing through the tubes.
The following equation quantifies the heat-transfer process:
Q = U A LMTD
Where,
Q = amount of heat transferred, Btu/hr (W)
U = heat-transfer coefficient, Btu/hr ft F (W/m K)
A = effective surface area for heat transfer, ft (m)
LMTD = log-mean temperature difference across the coil surface, F (C)
Increasing any one of these variables (heat-transfer coefficient, surface area, or log-mean temperature
difference) results in more heat transfer.
Arguably the most effective way to improve heat-transfer performance is to increase the log-mean
temperature difference (LMTD). In the context of a chilled-water cooling coil, LMTD describes the
difference between the temperatures of the air passing across the coil fins and the water flowing through the
coil tubes:
LMTD = (TD
2
TD
1
) / ln (TD
2
/ TD
1
)
Where;
TD
1
= leaving-air and entering-water temperature difference at the coil (C)
TD
2
= entering-air and leaving-water temperature difference at the coil (C)
One way to increase LMTD is to supply the coil with colder water.
Heat-transfer coefficient, Q = U A LMTD
Also called U-value or thermal transmittance value, the heat-transfer coefficient describes the overall rate of
heat flow through the coil. Three factors determine this rate:
Airside film coefficient describes the barrier (resistance to heat transfer) between the passing air stream
and the fin surfaces
Waterside film coefficient describes a similar barrier between the inside surfaces of the copper tubes and
the circulating fluid
Thermal conductance describes the rate at which heat flows through the aluminium fins and copper tubes
of the coil
System designers can do little to affect thermal conductance, but they can alter the film coefficients.
Increasing the rate of airflow reduces heat-transfer resistance on the air side of the cooling coil. Likewise,
increasing the water velocity reduces the waterside resistance to heat transfer.
Fin geometry can improve the overall heat-transfer coefficient, too, by lessening the airside film coefficient.
Like velocity, fin geometry can be specified as part of the design of the HVAC system. For comfort-cooling
applications, coil fins are usually stamped into waveforms resembling corrugated cardboard. These
waveforms create turbulence in the passing air stream, which lessens the resistance to heat transfer. More
exaggerated waveforms produce more turbulence.
Turbulent water flow, like turbulent airflow, also reduces resistance to heat transfer. And, like fin geometry,
it can become an important criterion for coil selection. Waterside turbulence can be created by metal ribbons
or helical wires inside the tubes. Called turbulators, these devices create eddies as the water flows across
them.
Both methods of improving the heat-transfer coefficient (increased velocity and turbulence) create higher
pressure drops, which can mean additional fan or pump power.
Coil surface area, Q = U A LMTD
The third determinant of heat transfer is the coils surface area. Typically, fin spacing for comfort heating or
cooling ranges from 24 to 50 fins per metre. Spacing the fins closer together multiplies the surface area by
permitting more fins per linear unit. Although the airside pressure drop may increase, adding fins extends the
available surface area without affecting the overall size of the coil.
Adding rows of tubes also increases the heat-transfer surface area. Most coils are constructed with same-end
connections, so rows are usually added in pairs. The weight and cost of the coil increase accordingly, but the
airside pressure drop may not. (Wider fin spacing often accompanies the decision to add rows.)
The best way to extend the surface area for heat transfer is to decrease the face velocity of the coil, that is,
face area relative to airflow:
face velocity = airflow / face area
Face velocity can be reduced in one of two ways: by increasing the size of the coil or (paradoxically) by
reducing the required airflow. Selecting a physically larger coil increases the initial investment in the coil
and the air handler, and may also enlarge the air-handler footprint ... seldom desirable outcomes. So, how can
we reduce the required airflow without sacrificing coil capacity?
Improving Coil Performance
Lowering the supply air temperature reduces the amount of air required for sensible cooling and saves fan
energy. From our review of the heat-transfer equation, we know that: less airflow increases airside film
resistance, which reduces heat-transfer coefficient U; and requires colder air, which decreases LMTD.
To compensate for the negative effects on coil performance that accompany less airflow, we must find a way
to increase U (heat-transfer coefficient) and/or A (surface area). In other words, we must select a cooling coil
with better-than-average heat-transfer characteristics.
Increase U
Recall that turbulent flow reduces the film resistance to heat transfer. Choosing a fin configuration with a
more pronounced waveform and/or adding turbulators inside the coil tubes will improve the heat-transfer
coefficient.
Increase A
Any additional increase in heat-transfer capacity must be achieved by physically increasing the available
surface area; that is, by:
Adding rows
Adding fins
Increasing the physical size of the coil (which will increase the initial costs of the coil, air handler, and
airside accessories).
PSYCHROMETRY CHAT
INTRODUCTION
The aim of this section of the notes is to allow students to size air conditioning plant such as cooling coil,
heater battery and humidifier.
The notes are divided into several sections as follows:
PSYCHROMETRY FOR AIR CONDITIONING
THE PSYCHOMETRIC CHART
EXAMPLES OF PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES
AIR CONDITIONING PLANT FOR SUMMER & WINTER
BASIC PROCESSES
TYPICAL AIR CONDITIONING PROCESSES
ANNOTATION AND ROOM RATIO
SUMMER AND WINTER CYCLES
EXAMPLES
The first section deals with Psychrometry for air conditioning and discusses some properties of moist air.
A simplified psychometric chart is shown for familiarisation, and some examples of how to find air
properties are provided.
A diagram of an air conditioning system is shown in schematic form in the section entitled AIR
CONDITIONING PLANT FOR SUMMER & WINTER.
Before sizing takes place the student should also understand the processes that take place in air conditioning
systems.
There are four basic processes for summer and winter air conditioning systems.
The following basic processes are explained:
1. Mixing
2. Sensible Cooling and Heating
3. Cooling with Dehumidification
4. Humidification
The section on Typical Air Conditioning Processes shows winter and summer schematic diagrams and
psychometric charts.
There are some more details that may be useful to the designer of air conditioning systems.
Further information is as follows:
Annotation
Room ratio
When the processes have been superimposed onto a psychometric chart then calculations may commence.
These are as detailed in the following sections of the notes.
Summer and Winter Cycles
1. Summer cycle psychometrics
2. Summer cycle calculations
3. Winter cycle psychometrics
4. Winter cycle calculations
5. Duct and Fan gains..
The final section is seven examples of plant sizing using psychometric charts.
Psychrometry for Air Conditioning
Psychrometry is the study of air and water vapour mixtures.
Air is made up of five main gases i.e.
Nitrogen 78.03%, Oxygen 20.99%, Argon 0.94%, Carbon Dioxide 0.03%, and Hydrogen 0.01% by volume.
The Ideal Gas Laws are used to determine psychometric data for air so that the engineer can carry out
calculations.
To make life easier a chart has been compiled with all the relevant psychometric data indicated.
This is called the Psychometric Chart.
A typical chart is shown below.
Air at any state point can be plotted on the psychometric chart.
The information that can be obtained from a Psychometric Chart is as follows:
Dry bulb temperature
Wet bulb temperature
Moisture content
Percentage saturation
Specific enthalpy
Specific volume.
The following is a brief description of each of the properties of air.
1. Dry bulb temperature
This is the air temperature measured by a mercury-in-glass thermometer.
2. Wet bulb temperature
This is the air temperature measured by a mercury-in-glass thermometer which has the mercury bulb wetted
by gauze that is kept moist by a reservoir of water.
When exposed to the environment the moisture evaporates from the wetted gauze, which gives a lower
reading on the thermometer.
This gives an indication of how dry or how moist the air is, since in dry air the water will evaporate
quickly from the gauze, which depresses the thermometer reading.
3. Moisture content
This is the amount of moisture in air given in kg of moisture per kg of dry air e.g. for room air at 21
o
C dry
bulb and 15
o
C wet bulb, the moisture content is about 0.008 kg/kg d.a.
This is a small mass of moisture ( 0.008 kg = 8 grams) per kg of dry air or 9.5 grams per cubic metre of air.
4. Percentage saturation
The Percentage saturation is another indication of the amount of moisture in air.
This is the ratio of the moisture content of moist air to the moisture content of saturated air at the same
temperature.
When air is saturated it is at 100% saturation and cannot hold any more moisture.
5. Specific enthalpy
This is the amount of heat energy (kJ) in air per kg.
If heat is added to the air at a heater battery for example, then the amount to be added can be determined
from Specific enthalpy change.
6. Specific volume
This is the volume of moist air (dry air + water vapour) per unit mass.
The units of measurement are m
3
per kg.
Also specific volume = 1 / density.
THE PSYCHOMETRIC CHART
The six properties of air previously discussed can be shown on one chart called a Psychometric Chart.
One of the purposes of the Psychometric Chart is to size heater batteries, cooling coils and humidifiers.
A simplified Psychometric Chart is shown below.
This chart is only for demonstration purposes.
If accurate assessments are to be carried out use a C.I.B.S.E. chart.
USING THE PSYCHOMETRIC CHART
If any two properties of air are known then the other four can be found from the psychometric chart.
Examples of Psychometric Properties
EXAMPLE 1
Find the moisture content of air at 25
o
C dry-bulb temperature and 25
o
C wet-bulb temperature.
Referring to the chart below, a vertical line is drawn upwards from 25
o
C dry-bulb temperature until it
intersects at 25
o
C wet-bulb temperature.
This intersection point happens to be on the 100% saturation line.
The intersection point is highlighted and a horizontal line is drawn to the right to find the corresponding
moisture content.
The moisture content is therefore 0.020 kg/kg dry air.
EXAMPLE 2
Find the specific volume and wet-bulb temperature of air at 20
o
C dry-bulb temperature and 50% saturation.
Referring to the chart below, a vertical line is drawn upwards from 20
o
C dry-bulb temperature until it
intersects with the 50% saturation curve.
The intersection point is sometimes referred to as the state point.
The specific volume is found to be 0.84 m
3
/kg and the wet-bulb temperature is 14
o
C
EXAMPLE 3
Find the specific volume, percentage saturation and moisture content of air at 15
o
C dry-bulb temperature and
10
o
C wet-bulb temperature.
Referring to the chart below, a vertical line is drawn upwards from 15
o
C dry-bulb temperature until it
intersects with the 10
o
C wet-bulb temperature line.
This intersection is the state point.
The specific volume is found to be 0.823 m
3
/kg, the percentage saturation 52% and the moisture content
0.0054 kg/kg d.a.
EXAMPLE 4
Find the specific volume, wet-bulb temperature, moisture content and specific enthalpy of air at 35
o
C dry-
bulb temperature and 30% saturation.
Referring to the chart below, a vertical line is drawn upwards from 35
o
C dry-bulb temperature until it
intersects with the 30% saturation curve.
This intersection is the state point.
The specific volume is found to be 0.883 m
3
/kg, the wet-bulb temperature is 22
o
C, the moisture content
0.011kg/kg d.a. and the specific enthalpy 65 kJ/kg.
Air Cond. Plant for Summer and Winter
In the summer time when cooling is required by the air conditioning plant it will be necessary to
operate the cooling coil, reheater and possibly other plant as well.
In winter time the preheater and reheater battery will probably be on to provide warm air to
overcome heat losses.
Other plant may be switched on as well.
These plant items are shown in the diagram below.
The photographs below show some plant items.
Basic Air Conditioning Processes
1. MIXING
Where two air streams are mixed the psychometric process is shown as a straight line between two air
conditions on the psychometric chart, thus points 1 and 2 are joined and the mix point 3 will lie on this line.
Two air streams are mixed in air conditioning when fresh air (m
1
) is brought in from outside and mixed with
recirculated air (m
2
).
The resulting air mixture is shown below as (m
3
).
The mixing ratio is fixed by dampers.
Sometimes, in more sophisticated plant, modulating dampers are used which are driven by electric motors to
control the mixture of air entering the system.
The diagrams below show mixing of two air streams.
By the conservation of mass formula:
m
1
+ m
2
= m
3
By the conservation of energy formula:
m
1
h
1
+ m
2
h
2
= m
3
h
3
where: m = mass flow rate of air (kg/s)
h = specific enthalpy of air (kJ/kg) found from psychometric chart.
Basic Air Conditioning Processes
2. SENSIBLE COOLING AND HEATING
When air is heated or cooled sensibly, that is, when no moisture is added or removed, this process is
represented by a horizontal line on a psychometric chart.
For sensible heating:
The amount of heating input to the air approximates to;
H
1-2
= m x Cp x (t
2
- t
1
)
Or more accurately from psychometric chart:
H
1-2
= m x (h
2
- h
1
)
For sensible cooling:
The amount of cooling input to the air approximates to;
H
2-1
= m x Cp x (t
2
- t
1
)
Or more accurately from psychometric chart:
H
2-1
= m x (h
2
- h
1
)
where: H = Heat or cooling energy (kW)
m = mass flow rate of air (kg/s)
Cp = Specific heat capacity of air, may be taken as 1.01 kJ/kg degC.
t = Dry bulb temperature of air (
o
C)
h = specific enthalpy of air (kJ/kg) found from psychometric chart.
Basic Air Conditioning Processes
3. COOLING WITH DEHUMIDIFICATION
The most commonly used method of removing water vapour from air (dehumidification) is to cool the air
below its dew point.
The dew point of air is when it is fully saturated i.e. at 100% saturation.
When air is fully saturated it cannot hold any more moisture in the form of water vapour.
If the air is cooled to the dew point air and is still further cooled then moisture will drop out of the air in the
form of condensate.
This can be shown on a psychometric chart as air sensibly cooled until it becomes fully saturated (the dew
point is reached) and then the air is cooled latently to a lower temperature.
This is apparent on the psychometric chart as a horizontal line for sensible cooling to the 100% saturation
curve and then the process follows the 100% saturation curve down to another point at a lower temperature.
This lower temperature is sometimes called the Apparatus dew Point (ADP) of the cooling coil.
In reality the ADP of the cooling coil is close to the cooling liquid temperature inside the coil. Chilled water
or refrigerant may be the cooling liquid.
The psychometric process from state point 1 to 2 to 3 may be shown as a straight line for simplicity as shown
above with a yellow line.
The total amount of cooling input to the air approximates to;
H
1-3
= m x (h
1
- h
3
)
The sensible heat removed is:
H
1-2
= m x (h
1
- h
2
)
The latent heat removed is:
H
2-3
= m x (h
2
- h
3
)
where: H = Cooling energy (kW)
m = mass flow rate of air (kg/s)
h = specific enthalpy of air (kJ/kg) found from psychometric chart.
In the absence of a suitable psychometric chart the following formula may be used;
The sensible heat removed is:
H
1-2
= m x Cp x (t
1
- t
2
)
The latent heat removed is:
H
2-3
= m x hfg x (g
2
- g
3
)
where: H = Cooling energy (kW)
m = mass flow rate of air (kg/s)
Cp = Specific heat capacity of air, may be taken as 1.01 kJ/kg degC.
t = Dry bulb temperature of air (
o
C)
hfg = latent heat of evaporisation, may be taken as 2454 kJ/kg @20
o
C.
g = moisture content of air from psychometric chart (kg/kg dry air)
Basic Air Conditioning Processes
3.1 COOLING COIL CONTACT FACTOR
Some of the air going through a cooling coil does not come into contact with the tubes or fins of the cooling
coil and is therefore not cooled to the ADP temperature.
A mixing process therefore takes place as two air streams mix downstream of the cooling coil as shown
below.
One air stream is cooled down to the ADP and the other air stream by-passes the coil surfaces to give an off-
coil air temperature (mixed air stream) a little higher than the ADP.
This may be looked upon as an inefficiency of the coil and is usually given as the cooling coil contact factor.
The process is shown on the psychometric chart below.
The contact factor of a cooling coil may be found from;
Another expression for contact factor is;
Basic Air Conditioning Processes
4. HUMIDIFICATION
If is it necessary to add some moisture to the supply air then this is best done by injecting steam into the air
stream.
Humidification can be carried out by spraying a fine mist of water droplets into the air but this is not
recommended in rooms occupied by people due to the risk of bacteria carry over.
Dry steam may be injected from a steam supply pipe or generated in a local packaged unit as shown in the
photograph below. A disadvantage of using an existing steam supply is smells may be carried over into the
air.
The steam package unit is situated close to the air duct and is sized to meet the maximum requirements; this
is usually in winter in the U.K.
A steam pipe ( sometimes hoses are used) passes from the packaged unit to the air duct and steam at 100
o
C is
injected into the air stream via. a sparge pipe. The un-used steam is drained from the system via a condensate
tundish and drain. It is important to layout the steam pipework so that any condensate will drain back to the
unit.
The psychometric process is shown below.
See Summer and Winter Cycles section for calculation of amount of moisture added at humidifier.
TYPICAL AIR CONDITIONING PROCESSES
The schematic diagram below shows a typical plant system for summer air conditioning.
The psychometric diagram below shows a typical summer cycle.
The schematic diagram below shows a typical plant system for winter air conditioning.
The psychometric diagram below shows a typical winter cycle.
ANNOTATION
The state points on a psychometric chart may be given numbers or symbols to identify them. If symbols are
used the following system may be adopted:
ROOM RATIO
This is the ratio of sensible to total heat in the room for summer or winter.
The total heat gain (summer) or loss (winter) will be determined by adding the Latent and Sensible heat in a
room or rooms, i.e.
(SUMMER) Total heat gain = Sensible heat gain + Latent heat gain
(WINTER) Total heat = Sensible heat loss + Latent heat gain
The room ratio is used on a psychometric chart to determine the supply air state point.
A room ratio line is superimposed from the protractor on the psychometric chart onto the main body of the
chart by a line passing through the room state point R.
An example calculation is as follows:
Sensible heat gain = 9.0 kW
Latent heat gain = 2.25 kW
Total heat gain = 9.0 kW + 2.25 kW = 11.25 kW.
Room ratio = Sensible / Total heat
Room ratio = 9 / 11.25 = 0.8
The supply air state point must also be somewhere on this room ratio line to meet the room heat gain
requirements i.e. the room ratio line always passes through points R and S.
Examples of Psychometric Calculations for Summer and Winter
Example 1. SUMMER CYCLE
A room is to be maintained at 22
o
C dry-bulb temperature, 50% saturation, when the sensible heat
gain is 10.8 kW in summer.
The latent heat gain is 7.2 kW.
Determine the cooling coil and reheater outputs required by using a psychometric chart if the plant
schematic is as shown below.
DATA:
Outdoor condition is 28
o
C, 80% saturation.
The outdoor air and recirculated air ratio is 20%/80%.
The Apparatus Dew Point ADP is 8
o
C
Neglect the cooling coil contact factor.
Example 2. WINTER CYCLE
A room has a 18.0 kW sensible heat loss in winter and a 4.5 kW latent heat gain from the occupants.
Determine the supply air temperature and heater battery load using the following information.
DATA:
Indoor condition: 21
o
C dry-bulb temperature, 50% saturation.
Outdoor condition: -2
o
C d.b., 80% saturation.
The outdoor air and recirculated air ratio is 20%/80%.
No preheating or humidification takes place in this simplified example.
Procedure (Winter Cycle)
1. Draw schematic diagram of air-conditioning plant (see above)
2. Plot room condition R on psychometric chart.
3. Plot outside condition O on psychometric chart.
4. No Preheater condition P
5. Join points O and R
6. Find the mix point M by measuring the length of the line O-R
and multiply this by the mixing ratio.
On a full size CIBSE psychometric chart this measures 110mm.
The ratio of recirculated air is 0.8.
110mm x 0.8 = 88mm
Measure up the O-R line from point O by 88mm.
This determines point M .
If there is more recirculated air than outside air at the mix point, then point M will be closer to point R than
point O.
7. Find the room ratio.
This is the sensible to total heat ratio.
Neglect signs ie. the total heat for the room will be Sensible loss plus Latent gain.
Total heat = 18 kW sensible + 4.5 kW latent = 22.5 kW total.
Heat ratio = 18 / 22.5 = 0.8
Plot this ratio on the protractor, top segment, on the psychometric chart and transfer this line onto the chart
so that it passes through point R.
8. Find the supply air dry bulb temperature by calculation.
9. Plot the supply air condition S on the room ratio line.
This is on a horizontal line from point M to the right hand side
of the chart, and intersects with the RRL.
The supply air temperature is found to be 32.5oC.
SUPPLY AIR FLOW RATE
When the sensible heat loss and supply air temperature in winter are known then the mass flow rate of air is
calculated from the following formula:
Hs = ma x Cp ( ts - tr )
where:
Hs = Sensible heat loss (kW)
ma = mass flow rate of air (kg/s)
Cp = Specific heat capacity of humid air (approx.1.01 kJ/kg degC)
tr = room temperature (
o
C)
ts = supply air temperature (
o
C) ..............therefore:
ma = Hs / Cp ( ts - tr )
ma = 18 / 1.01 (32.5 - 21)
ma = 18 / 11.615
ma = 1.55 kg/s
HEATER BATTERY OUTPUT
The heater battery output is as follows:
H reheater battery = ma ( hS - hM)
where:
H reheater battery = Reheater battery output (kW)
ma = mass flow rate of air (kg/s)
hs = specific enthalpy at condition S (kJ/kg)
hM = specific enthalpy at condition M (kJ/kg)
The specific enthalpies at points S and M are shown on the psychometric chart below.
Hheater battery = ma ( hS - hM)
Hheater battery = 1.55 ( 50 - 34)
Hheater battery = 24.8 kW
Therefore the heater battery load is 24.8 kW.
Example 3. SUMMER CYCLE (Cooling Coil contact factor)
An office is to be maintained at 22
o
C dry-bulb temperature, 50% saturation in summer.
The sensible heat gain is 8.0 kW.
The latent heat gain is 2.0 kW.
Determine the cooling coil and reheater outputs required by using a psychometric chart if the plant schematic
is as shown below.
DATA:
Outdoor condition is 28
o
C, 80% saturation.
The outdoor air and recirculated air ratio is 20%/80%.
The Apparatus Dew Point ADP is 8
o
C
Procedure (Summer Cycle)
1. Draw schematic diagram of air-conditioning plant (see above)
2. Plot room condition R on psychometric chart.
3. Plot outside condition O on psychometric chart.
4. Join points O and R.
5. Find the mix point M by measuring the length of the line
O-R and multiply this by the mixing ratio.
On a full size CIBSE psychometric chart this measures 85mm.
The ratio of recirculated air is 0.8.
85mm x 0.8 = 68mm
Measure down the O-R line from point O by 68mm.
This determines point M .
6. Find the room ratio.
This is the sensible to total heat gain ratio.
Total heat = 8 kW sensible + 2 kW latent = 10 kW total.
Heat ratio = 8 / 10 = 0.8
Plot this ratio on the protractor, bottom segment, on the psychometric chart and transfer this line
onto the chart so that it passes through point R.
7. Plot the Apparatus Dew Point ADP of the cooling coil.
This is on the 100% saturation curve. The ADP is 8
0
C.
8. Join points M and ADP.
9. Find the off-coil condition W by measuring the length of the line M-ADP and multiply this by the cooling
coil contact factor..
On a full size CIBSE psychometric chart this measures 75mm.
The cooling coil contact factor is 0.8.
75mm x 0.8 = 60mm.
Measure down along the line M-ADP by 60mm.
This determines point W.
10. Plot the supply air condition S.
The reheater process will be a horizontal line from point W to point S.
Point S is on the room ratio line.
The supply air temperature is 17
o
C.
MASS FLOW RATE
When the supply air temperature has been found from the psychometric chart then the mass flow rate of air
can be calculated from the following formula:
ma = Hs / ( Cp ( tr - ts ) )
where:
Hs = Sensible heat gain to room (kW)
ma = mass flow rate of air (kg/s)
Cp = Specific heat capacity of humid air (approx.1.01 kJ/kg degC)
tr = room temperature (
o
C)
ts = supply air temperature (
o
C)
The supply air temperature is 17
o
C.
ma = 8 / ( 1.01 ( 22 - 17 ) )
ma = 1.584 kg/s
COOLING COIL OUTPUT
The cooling coil output is as follows:
Hcooling coil = ma ( hM - hADP)
where:
Hcooling coil = Cooling coil output (kW)
ma = mass flow rate of air (kg/s)
hM = specific enthalpy at condition M (kJ/kg) determined from psychometric chart.
hADP = specific enthalpy at condition ADP (kJ/kg) determined from psychometric chart
The specific enthalpies at points M and ADP are shown on the psychometric
Chart below.
Hcooling coil = 1.584 ( 50.5 - 25)
Hcooling coil = 40.4 kW
HEATER BATTERY OUTPUT
The heater battery or reheater output is as follows:
Hheater battery = ma ( hS - hW)
where:
Hheater battery = Heater battery output (kW)
ma = mass flow rate of air (kg/s)
hS = specific enthalpy at condition S (kJ/kg) determined from psychometric chart.
hW = specific enthalpy at condition W (kJ/kg) determined from psychometric chart.
The specific enthalpies at points S and W are shown on the psychometric
Chart below.
Hheater battery = 1.584 ( 36.5 - 30.5)
Hheater battery = 9.5 kW
Example 4. WINTER CYCLE (with Humidifier)
An conference room is to be maintained at 21
o
C dry-bulb temperature, 50% saturation in winter.
The sensible heat loss for the room is 17.0 kW.
The latent heat gain is 40 Watts per person (see Air Conditioning section).
Determine the preheater and reheater outputs required and the amount of moisture to be added at the
humidifier in litre/hour, by using a psychometric chart if the plant schematic is as shown below.
DATA:
Outdoor condition is -2
o
C, 80% saturation.
The outdoor air and recirculated air ratio is 50%/50%.
Maximum occupancy is 250 people.
The preheater off coil temperature is 5
o
C.
Supply air quantity is 8 air changes per hour.
Room volume is 20 x 12 x 4m high = 960 m
3
.
LATENT HEAT GAIN
The latent heat gain = heat gain per person x number of people
The latent heat gain = 40 W/person x 250 = 10,000 Watts
The latent heat gain = 10 kW
SUPPLY AIR & FRESH AIR QUANTITIES
Supply air quantity (m
3
/h) = air change rate x room volume (m
3
)
Supply air quantity (m
3
/h) = 8 x 960(m
3
)
Supply air quantity (m
3
/h) = 7680 (m
3
/h)
Supply air quantity (m
3
/s) = 7680(m
3
/h) / 3600 = 2.13 (m
3
/s)
Supply air mass flow rate (kg/s) = Supply air quantity (m
3
/s) / Specific Volume (m
3
/kg)
Supply air mass flow rate (kg/s) = 2.13 (m
3
/s) / 0.87 (m
3
/kg)
Supply air mass flow rate (kg/s) = 2.45 kg/s
The fresh air flow rate (kg/s) = 2.45 kg/s x 50% = 1.23 kg/s
WINTER CYCLE PSYCHOMETRICS
1. Draw schematic diagram of air-conditioning plant (see above).
2. Plot room condition O, M and R on psychometric chart.
3. Plot the after Preheater condition P.
The Preheater process will be a horizontal line from O to P and acts as a frost coil in this case, heating the air
to 5
o
C.
4. Join points P and R.
5. Find the mix point M by measuring the length of the line P-R
and multiply this by the mixing ratio.
The line measures 82mm long.
82 x 0.5 = 41 mm
6. Find the room ratio.
Plot this ratio on the protractor, so that it passes through point R.
Total heat is 17 kW sensible + 10 kW latent = 27kW.
Ratio is 17/27 = 0.63.
Find the supply air dry bulb temperature by calculation.
This is found by calculation because we have already calculated the mass flow rate of supply air from
information given in the question.
SUPPLY AIR DRY BULB TEMPERATURE
The temperature of supply air is calculated from the following formula:
Hs = ma x Cp ( ts - tr )
where:
Hs = Sensible heat loss from room (kW)
ma = mass flow rate of air (kg/s)
Cp = Specific heat capacity of humid air (approx.1.01 kJ/kg degC)
tr = room temperature (
o
C)
ts = supply air temperature (
o
C)
( ts - tr ) = Hs / ma x Cp
( ts - tr ) = 17 / 2.45 x 1.01
( ts - tr ) = 6.87 deg.C
( ts - 21) = 6.87 deg.C
ts = 21 + 6.87 deg.C
ts = 27.87
o
C say 28
o
C.
8. Plot the supply air condition S on the room ratio line.
9. Plot condition H on the psychometric chart.
This is vertically down from point S, and horizontally across from point M.
This is because M-H is the reheater process and thus a horizontal line and H-S is the humidification process
and is close to a vertical line if steam is used.
PREHEATER BATTERY OUTPUT (or frost coil)
The preheater battery output is as follows:
H preheater battery = maf ( hP - hO)
where:
H preheater battery = Preheater battery output (kW)
m af = mass flow rate of fresh air (kg/s)
hP = specific enthalpy at condition P (kJ/kg)
hO = specific enthalpy at condition O (kJ/kg)
Hpreheater battery = 1.23 ( 12 - 5.5)
Hpreheater battery = 8.0 kW
REHEATER BATTERY OUTPUT
The reheater battery output is as follows:
Hreheater battery = ma ( hH - hM)
where:
H reheater battery = Reheater battery output (kW)
ma = mass flow rate of supply air (kg/s)
hH = specific enthalpy at condition H (kJ/kg)
hM = specific enthalpy at condition M (kJ/kg)
Hreheater battery = 2.45 ( 42 - 27)
Hreheater battery = 36.8 kW
HUMIDIFIER OUTPUT
The amount of moisture added to the air may be calculated from the following formula:
m moisture added = ma (msS - msH)
where:
m moisture added = The amount of moisture or added or steam flow rate (kg/s)
m a = mass flow rate of air (kg/s)
m sS = moisture content at condition S (kg/kg d.a.)
m sH = moisture content at condition H (kg/kg d.a.)
m moisture added = 2.45 (0.0064 - 0.0054)
m moisture added = 2.45 (0.001)
m moisture added = 0.00245 kg/s
1 litre of water weights 1 kg, therefore;
m moisture added = 0.00245 litre/s
m moisture added = 0.00245 litre/s x 3600 = 8.82 litres/hour
Example 5 SUMMER CYCLE (air flows to be calculated)
A Lecture Theatre measures 15 m x 10 m x 6 m high.
It is to be air conditioned in summer so that the room is maintained at 22
o
C dry-bulb temperature, 50%
saturation.
Determine the cooling coil and reheater outputs required by using a psychometric chart if the plant schematic
is as shown below.
DATA:
Outdoor condition is 28
o
C, 80% saturation.
The Apparatus Dew Point ADP is 7.5
o
C.
The latent heat gain is 10.0 kW.
The sensible heat gain is 12.0 kW.
Maximum occupancy is 200 people.
The cooling coil contact factor is unknown at present and should be calculated.
Use CIBSE guide Table B2.2 and B2.3 to determine air flow rates and calculate the mass flow rate of fresh
air and supply air to the room.
The room is a non-smoking area.
MASS FLOW RATES
Information from Table B2.2 is as follows (see Ventilation section);
The recommended outdoor air rate is 8 l/s/person for non-smoking.
Information from Table B2.3 is as follows (see Ventilation section);
The recommended total air supply rate is 6 10 air changes per hour.
FRESH AIR FLOW RATE
Fresh air rate = 8 l/s/p x 200 people = 1600 l/s = 1.6 m
3
/s
The specific volume at the outside condition may be determined from a psychometric chart. It is 0.88 m
3
/kg.
Mass flow rate = Volume flow rate / specific volume
Mass flow rate (Fresh Air) = 1.6 / 0.88 = 1.82 kg/s .
SUPPLY AIR FLOW RATE
If the maximum ventilation supply air rate is taken from table B2.3 to be 10.0 air changes per hour, then the
mass flow rate can be calculated.
Volume flow rate (m
3
/h) = Volume of room (m
3
) x air change rate (ac/h)
Volume of room (m
3
) = 15 x 10 x 6 = 900 m
3
Volume flow rate (m
3
/h) = 900 (m
3
) x 10 (ac/h)
Volume flow rate (m
3
/h) = 9000 m
3
/h
Volume flow rate (m
3
/s) = 9000 / 3600 = 2.5 m
3
/s.
Mass flow rate = Volume flow rate / specific volume
The specific volume at the supply condition may be approximated at this stage from a psychometric chart. It
is 0.834 m
3
/kg.
Mass flow rate (Supply Air) = 2.5 / 0.834 = 3.0 kg/s.
FRESH AIR AND RECIRC. RATIO.
The ratio by mass is therefore;
Fresh air rate = 1.82 kg/s
Supply air rate = 3.00 kg/s
Recirculation air rate = 3.00 - 1.82 = 1.18 kg/s
The ratio of fresh air to total supply air is;
1.82 / 3.00 = 0.6, i.e. 60% fresh air and therefore 40% recirculated air.
It is not unusual to have a high percentage of fresh air in a high occupancy room such as a
Lecture theatre.
The air flows are shown on the schematic diagram below.
SUPPLY AIR TEMPERATURE BY CALCULATION
In this example the supply air temperature will be found by rearranging the following formula:
Hs = ma x Cp ( tr - ts )
where:
Hs = Sensible heat gain to room (kW)
ma = mass flow rate of air (kg/s)
Cp = Specific heat capacity of humid air (approx.1.01 kJ/kg degC)
tr = room temperature (
o
C)
ts = supply air temperature (
o
C)
Rearranging the above formula gives:
( tr - ts ) = Hs / ( ma x Cp )
( tr - ts ) = 12 / ( 3.00 x 1.01 )
( tr - ts ) = 3.96 deg.C
since tr = 22
o
C
ts = 22 - 3.96 = 18.04
o
C
ts = 18
o
C approx.
The processes can now be plotted on a psychometric chart as shown below.
1. Points O, M and R can be shown on the chart.
2. Point ADP can be indicated and lines drawn between these points as shown.
3. The room ratio line can be drawn.
4. Point S is then shown on the chart, on the room ratio line at 18
o
C.
5. A horizontal line is then drawn from point S towards the line O ADP.
6. Point W can then be found where the horizontal line W - S intersects the line O - ADP.
From the psychometric chart point W is at approximately 9
o
C dry bulb.
The heat ratio is 12 kW sensible / 22 kW total = 0.545.
The specific enthalpies are shown below.
COOLING COIL OUTPUT
The cooling coil output is as follows:
Hcooling coil = ma ( hM - hADP)
where:
Hcooling coil = Cooling coil output (kW)
ma = mass flow rate of air (kg/s)
hM = specific enthalpy at condition M (kJ/kg) determined from psychometric chart.
hADP = specific enthalpy at condition ADP (kJ/kg) determined from psychometric chart
The specific enthalpies at points M and ADP are shown on the psychometric
Chart above.
Hcooling coil = 3.00 ( 64 - 24)
Hcooling coil = 120.0 kW
REHEATER BATTERY OUTPUT
The heater battery or reheater output is as follows:
Hheater battery = ma ( hS - hW)
where:
Hheater battery = Heater battery output (kW)
ma = mass flow rate of air (kg/s)
hS = specific enthalpy at condition S (kJ/kg) determined from psychometric chart.
hW = specific enthalpy at condition W (kJ/kg) determined from psychometric chart.
The specific enthalpies at points W and S are shown on the psychometric
Chart above.
Hheater battery = 3.00 ( 36 - 26.5)
Hheater battery = 28.5 kW
Example 6 SUMMER CYCLE AND WINTER CYCLE
A Concert Hall measures 40 m x 20 m x 8 m high.
It is to be air conditioned in summer and winter.
Determine the following:
Air flow rates
Supply air temperature by calculation in summer and winter.
Cooling coil contact factor.
Cooling coil and reheater outputs in summer
Frost coil and heater battery output in winter.
Humidifier output in litres/hour.
The plant schematic is as shown below.
DATA:
Indoor condition all year - 22
o
C dB temperature, 50% saturation.
Outdoor condition summer - 28
o
C dB temperature, 80% saturation.
Outdoor condition winter - -3
o
C dB temperature, 80% saturation.
Maximum occupancy - 1000 people.
ADP of the cooling coil - 8
o
C
Fresh air requirement - 12 l/s/person
Supply air rate - 8 air changes per hour.
Frost off coil temperature - 7
o
C.
Latent heat gain - 40 W/person
Sensible heat gain in summer - 100 W/person + 20.5 kW fabric, lights, solar & ventilation gains.
Sensible heat loss in winter - 20 W/m
3
air volume (estimated)
FRESH AIR FLOW RATE
Fresh air rate = 12 l/s/p x 1000 people = 12,000 l/s = 12.0 m
3
/s
The specific volume at the outside condition may be determined from a psychometric chart.
It is approximately 0.88 m
3
/kg.
Mass flow rate = Volume flow rate / specific volume
Mass flow rate (Fresh Air) = 12.0 / 0.88 = 13.64 kg/s.
SUPPLY AIR FLOW RATE
The ventilation supply air rate is taken from table B2.3 and is given as 8 air changes per hour; the mass flow
rate can be calculated.
Volume flow rate (m
3
/h) = Volume of room (m
3
) x air change rate (ac/h)
Volume of room (m
3
) = 40 x 20 x 8 = 6400 m
3
Volume flow rate (m
3
/h) = 6400 (m
3
) x 8 (ac/h)
Volume flow rate (m
3
/h) = 51,200 m
3
/h
Volume flow rate (m
3
/s) = 51,200 / 3600 = 14.22 m
3
/s.
Mass flow rate = Volume flow rate / specific volume
The specific volume at the supply condition may be approximated at this stage from a psychometric chart. It
can be taken as 0.834 m
3
/kg.
Mass flow rate (Supply Air) = 14.22 / 0.834 = 17.05 kg/s.
RECIRCULATION AIR FLOW RATE
Recirculation air rate = Supply air rate - fresh air rate
Recirculation air rate = 17.05 - 13.64 = 3.41 kg/s
FRESH AIR AND RECIRC. RATIO.
The ratio by mass is therefore;
Fresh air rate = 13.64 kg/s
Supply air rate = 17.05 kg/s
The ratio of fresh air to total supply air is;
13.64 / 17.05 = 0.8, i.e. 80% fresh air and therefore 20% recirculated air.
It is not unusual to have a high percentage of fresh air in a high occupancy room such as a
Concert Hall.
The air flows are shown on the schematic diagram below.
HEAT GAINS
The heat gains are given as:
Latent heat gain - 40 W/person
Sensible heat gain - 100 W/person + 20.5 kW fabric, lights, solar & ventilation gains.
Latent gain = 40 W x 1000 people = 40,000 W = 40 kW
Sensible gain = 100 W x 1000 people = 100,000 W = 100 kW + 20.5 kW = 120.5 kW.
Total heat gain = 120.5 + 40 = 160.5 kW
Summer Heat ratio = sensible / total = 120.5 / 160.5 = 0.75
HEAT LOSS
The heat loss in winter is given as 20.0 W/ m
3
.
Volume of room (m
3
) = 40 x 20 x 8 = 6400 m
3
Total heat loss = 20 x 6400 = 128,000 Watts = 128 kW
Total heat (winter) = 128 + 40 (Latent) = 168 kW
Winter Heat ratio = sensible / total = 128 / 168 = 0.76
SUMMER CALCULATIONS & PROCESS
SUPPLY AIR TEMPERATURE BY CALCULATION
In this example the supply air temperature will be found by rearranging the following formula:
Hs = ma x Cp ( tr - ts )
where:
H s = Sensible heat gain to room (kW)
ma = mass flow rate of air (kg/s)
Cp = Specific heat capacity of humid air (approx.1.01 kJ/kg degC)
tr = room temperature (
o
C)
ts = supply air temperature (
o
C)
Rearranging the above formula gives:
( tr - ts ) = Hs / ( ma x Cp )
( tr - ts ) = 120.5 / ( 17.05 x 1.01 )
( tr - ts ) = 7.0 deg.C, since tr = 22
o
C, ts = 22 - 7.0 = 15.0
o
C
ts = 15
o
C
The processes can now be plotted on a psychometric chart as shown below.
1. Points O, M and R can be shown on the chart.
2. Point ADP can be indicated and lines drawn between these points as shown.
3. The room ratio line can be drawn.
4. Point S is then shown on the chart, on the room ratio line at 18
o
C.
5. A horizontal line is then drawn from point S towards the line O ADP.
6. Point W can then be found where the horizontal line W - S intersects the line O - ADP.
COOLING COIL CONTACT FACTOR
On a full size psychometric chart the length of the line from point M to point ADP is 116mm. The distance
from point M to point W is 107mm.
The cooling coil contact factor is therefore:
The specific enthalpies are shown below.
COOLING COIL OUTPUT in Summer
The cooling coil output is as follows:
H cooling coil = ma ( hM - hADP)
where:
H cooling coil = Cooling coil output (kW)
ma = mass flow rate of air (kg/s)
hM = specific enthalpy at condition M (kJ/kg) determined from psychometric chart.
hADP = specific enthalpy at condition ADP (kJ/kg) determined from psychometric chart
The specific enthalpies at points M and ADP are shown on the psychometric Chart above.
H cooling coil = 17.05 ( 71 - 25)
H cooling coil = 784.3 kW
NOTE:
The cooling coil output is very high and a lot of energy would be required to provide this amount of cooling.
The cooling coil load would probably be spread over several air handling units but the it could be examined
with a view to some reduction.
The coil output is high because the mass flow rate of supply air is high (17.05 kg/s) and the proportion of
fresh air is also high (80%).
The mix point M is at approximately 27
o
C dry-bulb so there is little advantage in recirculation in this
instance.
It would be advantageous to consider the supply airflow rate to see if a lower rate would be acceptable for
this building.
If 6 air changes per hour are used as the ventilation rate then this would reduce the mass flow rate of supply
air.
Also the engineer may consider other methods of air-conditioning a hall with a large volume such as using
partial radiant cooling where surfaces are cooled rather than air.
REHEATER BATTERY OUTPUT in Summer
The heater battery or reheater output is as follows:
H heater battery = ma ( hS - hW)
where:
H heater battery = Heater battery output (kW)
ma = mass flow rate of air (kg/s)
hS = specific enthalpy at condition S (kJ/kg) determined from psychometric chart.
hW = specific enthalpy at condition W (kJ/kg) determined from psychometric chart.
The specific enthalpies at points W and S are shown on the psychometric Chart above.
H heater battery = 17.05 ( 34 - 28)
H heater battery = 102.3 kW
WINTER CALCULATIONS & PROCESS
WINTER CYCLE PSYCHOMETRICS
The processes can now be plotted on a psychometric chart as shown below.
1. Points O, M, P and R can be shown on the chart.
2. Join points O and P and P and R.
3. Find the mix point M
The line measures 81mm long.
81 x 0.8 = 65 mm , the distance from point M to R is 65mm.
4. The room ratio is 0.76 from previous calculation. Draw RRL.
5. Find the supply air dry bulb temperature by calculation.
SUPPLY AIR TEMPERATURE BY CALCULATION
The temperature of supply air is calculated from the following formula:
Hs = ma x Cp ( ts - tr )
where:
Hs = Sensible heat loss from room (kW)
ma = mass flow rate of air (kg/s) same as summer rate for constant volume systems.
Cp = Specific heat capacity of humid air (approx.1.01 kJ/kg degC)
tr = room temperature (
o
C)
ts = supply air temperature(
o
C)
( ts - tr ) = Hs / ma x Cp
( ts - tr ) = 128 / 17.05 x 1.01
( ts - tr ) = 7.43 deg.C
ts = 22 + 7.43 deg.C
ts = 29.43
o
C say 29.5
o
C.
Plot the condition H at 29.5
o
C dB. on a horizontal line from M.
Plot condition S on a vertical line from H on the RRL.
Assume the humidity process is vertical.
PREHEATER BATTERY OUTPUT (or frost coil)
The preheater battery output is as follows:
H preheater battery = maf ( hP - hO)
where:
H preheater battery = Preheater battery output (kW)
maf = mass flow rate of fresh air (kg/s)
hP = specific enthalpy at condition P (kJ/kg)
hO = specific enthalpy at condition O (kJ/kg)
H preheater battery = 13.64 ( 13 - 3)
H preheater battery = 136.4 kW
REHEATER BATTERY OUTPUT in Winter
The reheater battery output is as follows:
H reheater battery = ma ( hH - hM)
where:
H reheater battery = Reheater battery output (kW)
ma = mass flow rate of supply air (kg/s)
hH = specific enthalpy at condition H (kJ/kg)
hM = specific enthalpy at condition M (kJ/kg)
H reheater battery = 17.05 ( 39 - 19)
H reheater battery = 341 kW
NOTE:
The heater battery load may be reduced by using other forms of heating
for some of the load, e.g. perimeter convectors or radiators.
HUMIDIFIER OUTPUT in Winter
The amount of moisture added to the air may be calculated from the following formula:
M moisture added = ma (msS - msH)
where:
m moisture added = The amount of moisture or added or steam flow rate (kg/s)
ma = mass flow rate of air (kg/s)
msS = moisture content at condition S (kg/kg d.a.)
msH = moisture content at condition H (kg/kg d.a.)
m moisture added = 17.05 (0.0074 - 0.0035)
m moisture added = 17.05 (0.0039)
m moisture added = 0.0665 kg/s
m moisture added = 0.0665 litre/s
m moisture added = 0.0665 litre/s x 3600 = 239.4 litres/hour
Example 7 SUMMER CYCLE (Duct, fan gains)
A Computer Suite Theatre measures 24 m x 10 m x 3.5 m high.
It is to be air conditioned in summer so that the room is maintained at 22
o
C dry-bulb temperature, 50%
saturation.
Determine the cooling coil and reheater outputs required.
The air conditioning system is shown schematically below.
DATA:
Outdoor condition is 27
o
C, 80% saturation.
The Apparatus Dew Point ADP is 8
o
C
The internal latent heat gain is 40 W per person, plus additional gain of 5 kW.
The internal sensible heat gain is 200 Watts per computer, 100W per person and 15 W/m
2
floor area for
lights.
The solar gain through windows is 6.0 kW
Maximum occupancy is 80 people.
Number of computers is 80.
The cooling coil contact factor is 0.8.
Duct and fans gains are 2
o
C.
Fresh air, recirculated air ratio is 20%/80%.
HEAT GAINS
Sensible - (200 x 80) + (100 x 80) + ( 15 x 24 x 10) = 27,600 Watts = 27.6 kW + solar gain 5.0 kW =
32.6 kW
Latent - (40 x 80) = 3200 Watts = 3.2 kW + other 5kW = 8.2 kW
Total heat gain = 32.6 + 8.2 = 40.8 kW
Room ratio = 32.6 / 40.8 = 0.8
MASS FLOW RATE
When the supply air temperature has been found from the psychometric chart then the mass flow rate of air
to offset heat gains can be calculated from the following formula:
ma = Hs / ( Cp ( tr - ts ) )
where:
H s = Sensible heat gain to room (kW)
m a = mass flow rate of air (kg/s)
C p = Specific heat capacity of humid air (approx.1.01 kJ/kg degC)
tr = room temperature (
o
C)
ts = supply air temperature (
o
C)
The supply air temperature is 14.5
o
C.
ma = 32.60 / ( 1.01 ( 22 - 14.5 ) )
ma = 4.3 kg/s
The processes can now be plotted on a psychometric chart as shown below.
From the psychometric chart point W is at approximately 11
o
C dry bulb.
Point D is 11
o
C + 2
o
C (duct and fan gains given in Data) = 13
o
C
COOLING COIL OUTPUT
The cooling coil output is as follows: Hcooling coil = ma ( hM - hADP)
where:
Hcooling coil = Cooling coil output (kW)
ma = mass flow rate of air (kg/s)
hM = specific enthalpy at condition M (kJ/kg) determined from psychometric chart.
hADP = specific enthalpy at condition ADP (kJ/kg) determined from psychometric chart
The specific enthalpies at points M and ADP are shown on the psychometric Chart above.
Hcooling coil = 4.3 ( 49.5 - 25)
Hcooling coil = 105.4 kW
REHEATER BATTERY OUTPUT
The heater battery or reheater output is as follows: Hheater battery = ma ( hS - hD)
where:
Hheater battery = Heater battery output (kW)
ma = mass flow rate of air (kg/s)
hS = specific enthalpy at condition S (kJ/kg) determined from psychometric chart.
hD = specific enthalpy at condition D (kJ/kg) determined from psychometric chart.
The specific enthalpies at points S and D are shown on the psychometric Chart above.
Hheater battery = 4.3 ( 33.5 - 32)
Hheater battery = 6.5 kW