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Air Conditioning System

Air conditioning for people is the control of temperature, humidity, air movement and air
cleanliness, heat radiation sometimes [e.g. by chilled ceiling ], normally with mechanical
means, to achieve human thermal comfort. . See!thermal.html for thermal comfort and
related topics.

Air conditioning systems can be categori"ed according to the means by which the controllable
cooling is accomplished in the conditioned space. #hey are further segregated to accomplish
specific purposes by special e$uipment arrangement.

%n selecting a suitable air conditioning system for a particular application, consideration
should also ven to the following:&

& System constraints : Cooling load, 'oning re$uirements, (eating and ventilation
& Architectural Constraints : Si"e and appearance of terminal devices, acceptable
noise level, Space available to house e$uipment and its location relative to the
conditioned space, acceptability of components obtruding into the conditioned space
& )inancial Constraints : Capital cost, *perating cost, +aintenance cost

)or case studies, see http://arch.h,u.h,/teaching/case.htm-case

#here are four basic system categories:

1 1

Central chilled water air conditioning systems - All Air Systems
... ...

Single "one
../ ../

..1 ..1

2ariable Air 2olume
..3 ..3

4ual 4uct
..5 ..5


2 2

Central chilled water air conditioning systems - Air-and Water Systems
/.. /..

/./ /./

)an Coil
/.1 /.1

/.3 /.3


3 3

Central chilled water air conditioning systems - All Water Systems, including
cooling towers which can also be applied to systems 1, 2 above

1.. 1..

)an&coil units
1./ 1./

Central chilled water air conditioning system with fan coils and other devices
1.1 1.1

6ater cooling tower

4 3

irect e!pansion Systems [i.e. direct epansion of refrigerant, without the chilled
water cooling medium ]
3.. 3..

6indow air conditioners
3./ 3./

7nitary and 0ooftop Air Conditioners
3.1 3.1

Split type and pac,age air conditioning systems
3.3 3.3

(eat pumps

.. Central chilled water air conditioning systems & All Air Systems

An all&air system provides complete sensible and latent cooling capacity in the cold
air supplied by the system. (eating can be accomplished by the same air stream,
either in the central system or at a particular "one. All&air systems can be classified
into / categories:&

&Single duct systems
&4ual duct systems

System Advantages

.. ..

#he central plant is located in unoccupied areas, hence facilitating
operating and maintenance, noise control and choice of suitable e$uipment.

/. /.

8o piping, electrical wiring and filters are located inside the
conditioned space.

1. 1.

Allows the use of the greatest numbers of potential cooling seasons
house with outside air in place of mechanical refrigeration.

3. 3.

Seasonal changeover is simple and readily adaptable to climatic

5. 5.

9ives a wide choice of "onability, fleibility, and humidity control
under all operating conditions.

:. :.

(eat recovery system may be readily incorporated.

;. ;.

Allows good design fleibility for optimum air distribution, draft
control, and local re$uirements.

<. <.

6ell suited to applications re$uiring unusual ehaust ma,eup.

=. =.

%nfringes least on perimeter floor space.

.>. .>.

Adapts to winter humidification.

System 4isadvantages

.. ..

0e$uires additional duct clearance which can reduce the usable floor

/. /.

Air&balancing is difficult and re$uires great care.

1. 1.

Accessibility to terminals demands close cooperation between
architectural, mechanical and structural engineers.

Case studies See http://ug.arch.h,u.h,/course/intgtech1/grad!hs/pt./(2AC/inde.html ?
http://ug.arch.h,u.h,/course/intgtech1/grad!hs/pt//computer/air.html ?
http://arch.h,u.h,/teaching/cases/shingmun/shingmun.html and
http://arch.h,u.h,/teaching/pro@ect/pro@ect5>/.html ?

4istribution systems have a number of important components:
.. ..

#he Air "andling #nit is a cabinet that includes or houses the central
furnace, air conditioner, or heat pump and the plenum and blower assembly
that forces air through the ductwor,.
/. /.

#he Supply uctwor$ carries air from the air handler to the rooms in a
house. #ypically each room has at least one supply duct and larger rooms may
have several.
1. 1.

#he %eturn uctwor$ carries air from the conditioned space bac, to the
air handler. +ost houses have only one or two main return ducts located in a
central area.
3. 3.

Supply and %eturn &lenums are boes made of duct board, metal,
drywall or wood that distribute air to individual ducts or registers.
5. 5.

#he uctwor$ is a branching networ, of round or rectangular tubes
generally constructed of sheet metal, fiberglass board, or a fleible plastic and
wire composite material located within the walls, floors, and ceilings. #he
three most common types of duct material used in home construction are
metal, fiberglass duct board, and fle&duct.
:. :.

'le!-duct is installed between the register and plenum bo, or plenum bo
and air handler, usually in a single, continuous piece. 6hile fle&duct has
fewer seams, the inner lining and outer insulated covering can tear or be
pinched closed. Also longer fle&duct runs can restrict the flow of air? proper
design and installation is very important.
;. ;.

Aoth metal and (iberglass duct board are rigid and installed in pieces.
)iberglass duct board, li,e fle&duct, is made of an insulation material. 4ucts
are built of sections of the duct board. #he seams in the duct board should be
carefully sealed with mastic or high $uality duct tape.
<. <.

%ectangular metal duct, especially the ,ind used for plenums and larger
trun, runs, is often insulated on the inside with fiberglass duct liner. %f it is not
insulated on the inside, metal ducts should be insulated on the outside using a
fiberglass batt with an attached metal foil vapor retarder. #he insulation should
be at least two inches thic,, and the vapor barrier installed on the outside of
the insulation facing away from the duct.
#he seams in the insulation are usually stapled together around the duct and
then taped. All of the seams should be sealed before insulation is installed. All
return and supply ducts located outside the conditioned space, in attics,
crawlspaces, or basements, for eample, should be sealed and insulated.
=. =.

uctwor$ )oints @oin pieces of ductwor,.
.>. .>.

*lbows are manufactured pieces of duct used for turns.
... ...

+oots connect ductwor, to registers.
./. ./.

%egisters and ,rilles are the coverings for duct openings into the
)ig .b. shows the control of chilled cooling coil and fan

#hese are components will bring about:&

&(eat balance: #he amount of heat etracted out of the air conditioned room Bby the
cooling system, ehaust air systems, building lea,age, must be e$ual to the amount of
heat generated inside the room Bby human being, electrical appliances, etc.C and
transferred into the room Bby conduction through the building envelope, radiation via the
glass, hot air lea,age into the room through gaps in windows, doors, fresh air introduced
into the room, etc.C i.e. #otal ,6 going into room D #otal ,6 going out of the room.
&Air balance: #he mass flow rate of the air going into the room D #he mass flow rate of
air going out of the room. )resh air coming into the room : /.5 l/s per person, non&
smo,ing, 5 l/s per person for smo,ing accommodation, good indoor air $uality B%AEC is

1-1 1-1

Single .one System

#he all&air single&"one air conditioning system is the basic central system which can
supply a constant air volume or a variable air volume at low, medium or high
pressure. 8ormally, the e$uipment is located outside the conditioned space but can
also be installed within the conditioned are if conditions permit. #ypical applications

&Space with uniform loads
&Small spaces re$uiring precision control
&+ultiple systems for large areas
)ig ...

1-2 1-2

%eheat System

#he reheat system is a modification of the single&"one system. %t provides:&

&'one or space control for areas of une$ual loading.
&(eating or cooling of perimeter areas with different eposures.
&Close control for process or comfort applications. %n the reheat system, heat is added
as a secondary process to either preconditioned primary air or recirculated room air.
#he heating medium can be hot water, steam or electricity.

Advantages : Closely controls space conditions

4isadvantages : Fpensive to operate
)ig ../

1-3 /ariable Air /olume System

#he variable air volume system compensates for varying cooling loads by regulating
the volume of cooling air supplied through a single duct.


Simple 2ariable Air 2olume B2A2C

Simple 2A2 systems typically cools only and have no re$uirement for
simultaneous heating and cooling in various "ones.

)ig ..1a
BbC 2ariable Air 2olume G 0eheat

%t integrates heating at or near the terminal units. %t is applied to systems
re$uiring full heating and cooling fleibility in interior and eterior "ones.
(eating is turned on when the air flow reaches a predetermined minimum.

)ig ..1b


aC aC

6hen combined with a perimeter heating system, it offers
inepensive temperature control for multiple "oning and a high degree of
simultaneous heating&cooling fleibility.

bC bC

Capital cost is lower since diversities of loads from lights,
occupancy, solar and e$uipment of as much as 1>H are permitted.

cC cC

2irtually self&balancing.

dC dC

%t is easy and inepensive to subdivide into new "ones and to handle
increased loads with new tenancy or usage if load does not eceed the
original design simultaneous pea,.

eC eC

8o "oning is re$uired in central e$uipment.

fC fC

Iower operating cost because

)ans run long hours at reduced volume
BiiC BiiC

0efrigeration, heating and pumping matches diversity of
BiiiC BiiiC

7noccupied areas may be fully cut&off

bC gC

0educed noise level when the system is running at off&pea, loads.

cC hC

Allows simultaneous heating and cooling without seasonal

1-4 ual uct System

#he dual&duct system employs two air ducts to supply cold air and warm air to a
miing terminal unit which proportions the cold and warm air in response to a
thermostat located in the conditioned space. #he system is well suited to provide
temperature control for individual spaces or "ones.

)ig ..3

Advantages Bin addition to those common to all air systemsC

.. ..

Systems with terminal volume regulation are self&balancing.

/. /.

'oning of central e$uipment is not re$uired.

1. 1.

%nstant temperature response is achieved because of simultaneous
availability of cold and warm air at each terminal unit.

3. 3.

8o seasonal changeover is necessary.


.. ..

%nitial cost is usually higher than other 2A2 systems.

/. /.

4oes not operate as economically as other 2A2 systems.

1-0 1ulti-2one System

#he multi&"one system applies to a relatively small number of "ones served by a
single, central air&handling unit. 4ifferent "one re$uirements are met by miing cold
and warm air through "one dampers at the central air handler in response to "one

)ig. ..5

Advantages Bin addition to those common to all&air systemsC

.. ..

Fasy to balance.

/. /.

Air transmission and distribution is simplified.

/. Central chilled water A/C systems & Air&and&6ater Systems

An air&and&water system is one in which both air and water Bcooled or heated in
central plant roomC are distributed to room terminals to perform cooling or heating
function. #he air side is comprised of central air conditioning e$uipment, a duct
distribution system, and a room terminal. #he supply air, called primary air, usually
has a constant volume which is determined by:

.. ..

#he ventilation re$uirement.

/. /.

#he re$uired sensible cooling capacity at maimum cooling load.

1. 1.

#he maimum sensible cooling capacity following changeover to
the winter cycle when chilled water is no longer circulated to the room

#he water side consists of a pump and piping to convey water to heat transfer
surfaces within each conditioned space. #he water is commonly cooled by the
introduction of chilled water from the primary cooling system and is refereed to as
the secondary water loop. %ndividual room temperature control is by regulation of
either the water flow through it or the air flow over it.

2-1 3nduction System

#he inducting system is designed for use in perimeter rooms of multi&storey, multi&
room building that may have reversing sensible heat characteristics. %t is especially
adapted to handle the loads of s,yscrapers with minimum space re$uirements for
mechanical e$uipment.

%n the induction system, ducted primary air is fed into a small plenum chamber where
its pressure is reduced by means of a suitable damper to the level re$uired at the
no""les. #he plenum is acoustically treated to attenuate part of the noise generated in
the duct system and in the unit. #he primary air is then delivered through no""les as
high velocity @ets which induce secondary air from the room and over the secondary

%nduction units are usually installed at a perimeter wall under a window. Some hotel
rooms are provide with induction coils.

)ig. /..

#he induction system employs air ducts to convey treated air with higher pressure
levels and of the right ad@ustable $uantities to various cooling/heating coil units.
#hese coil units are built in with induction no""les such that when high pressure air
goes through them, air room the room is inducted across the fin surface of the water&
circulated coils. #his inducted air stream is either cooled or heated after passing
through the coil, and then mied with the air coming out of the no""le. #he right
$uantity of high pressure air is ad@usted automatically in response to a thermostat
located in the conditioned space. #he system is well suited to provide temperature
control for individual spaces or "ones.


.. ..

%ndividual room temperature control.

/. /.

Separate sources of heating and cooling for each space available as
needed to satisfy a wide range of load variations.

1. 1.

Iow distribution system space re$uired as a result of reducing the
air supply by use of secondary water for cooling and high velocity air design.

3. 3.

0educed si"e of central air handling e$uipment.

5. 5.

4ehumidification J filtration performed in a central plant room
remote from conditioned space.

:. :.

*utdoor air supply is positive.

;. ;.

+inimal maintenance re$uired for individual induction units which
have no moving parts, i.e. no fans

<. <.

Air duct dimensions are smaller than 2A2 systems or CA2 systems

=. =.

'oning of central e$uipment is not re$uired.

.>. .>.

8o fan comes together with the coil, ma,ing the conditioned space


.. ..

Iimited to perimeter space.

/. /.

#he primary air supply is usually constant with no provision for

1. 1.

8ot applicable to spaces with high ehaust re$uirement.

3. 3.

(igher energy consumption due to increased power re$uired by the
primary pressure drop in the terminal units.

5. 5.

Controls tend to be more comple than for all&air systems.

:. :.

A low chilled water temperature is needed to control space humidity

;. ;.

Seasonal changeover is necessary.

<. <.

%nitial cost is usually higher than fan coil systems.

2-2 'an-Coil System

#he fan&coil system is similar to the inducting system, with the induction unit
replaced by the fan&coil unit. #he basic elements of the fan&coil units are a finned&
tube coil and a fan section. #he fan section recirculates air continuously from within
the perimeter space through the coil which is supplied with either hot or chilled water.
Auiliary air may be delivered to the conditioned space for dehumidification and
ventilation purposes.

)ig /./a

)ig /./b

Advantages Bin addition to those for induction unitsC

.. ..

System can be operated with the primary air turned off.

/. /.

#he air velocity is fairly constant regardless of the primary air

1. 1.

Krimary air can either connect directly to fan&coil unit or supply the
room separately.

Case studies See http://ug.arch.h,u.h,/course/intgtech1/grad!hs/pt./(2AC/inde.html ?
http://ug.arch.h,u.h,/course/intgtech1/grad!hs/pt//computer/air.html ?

2-34 5wo-pipe Systems

%n two&pipe systems for induction coil, fan&coil or radiant panel systems, the water
distribution circuit consists of one supply and one return pipe. #he secondary water
is cold in summer and intermediate seasons and warm in winter. #he primary air
$uantity is fied and the primary air temperature is varied in reverse proportion to
outside temperature to provide the necessary amount of heating during summer and
intermediate seasons. 4uring winter cycle operation, the primary air is preheated and
supplied at about .>C to provide a source of cooling.

)ig /.1

.. ..

7sually less epensive to install than four pipe systems.


.. ..

Iess capable of handling widely varying loads or providing widely
varying choice of room temperature than four&pipe systems.

/. /.

Cumbersome to change over.

1. 1.

+ore costly to operate than four&pipe systems.

2-4 4 5hree-pipe Systems

#hree&pipe systems for induction coil, fan&coil and radiant panel systems have three
pipes to each terminal unit, a cold water pipe, a warm water pipe and a common
return. #hese systems are rarely used today because they consume ecess energy.

)ig /.3

2-04 'our pipe Systems

)our&pipe systems have a cold water supply, cold water return, warm water supply
and warm water return. #he terminal unit usually has two independent secondary
water coils, one served by hot water, the other by cold water. #he primary air is cold
and remains at the same temperature year&round.

)ig /.5a
)ig /.5b
Advantages Bas compared with two&pipe systemsC

.. ..

+ore fleible and adaptable to widely varying loads.

/. /.

Simpler to operate B8o summer&winter changeover and primary air
reheat scheduleC.

1. 1.

(igher efficiency due to lower operating costs.


.. ..

(igher initial cost.

1. Central chilled water air conditioning systems & All&water Systems

All&water systems are those with fan&coil, unit ventilator, or valance type room
terminals with unconditioned ventilation air supplied by an opening through the wall
or by infiltration. Cooling and dehumidification is provided by circulating chilled
water through a finned coil in the unit. (eating is provided by supplying hot water
through the same or a separate coil.

System Advantages

.. ..

)leible and readily adaptable to many building module

/. /.

Krovides individual room control.

System 4isadvantages

.. ..

8o positive ventilation is provided unless wall openings are used.

/. /.

8o humidification is provided.

1. 1.

Seasonal change over is re$uired.

3. 3.

+aintenance and service wor, has to be done in the occupied areas.

3-1 'an-coil units

A fan&coil unit basically consists of a finned tube coil, a filter and a fan section. #he
fan recirculates air continuously from the space through the coil, which contains
either hot or chilled water.

)ig 1..a

)ig 1..b

Ceiling Building Services in 2/F
Staff area,
Dept. of Architecture, Knowles
Building HK
)ig 1..c

3-2 Central chilled water air conditioning system with (an coils and other devices

%n this system, the following circuits do not mi with each other, and heat echange is
performed via various metal surfaces:&
&the chilled water circuit G nominally ./ deg .C entering water chiller, ; deg. C
leaving chiller, i.e. nominally ; deg .C entering fan coil units [)C7] /air handling
unit[A(7] /primary handling unit[KA7]& for treating fresh air, ./ deg. C leaving
these devices G chilled water pumps move water through this circuit G C(. 6. )&
chilled water flow ?
& C(. 6. 0& chilled water flow return.
&refrigerant circuit G refrigerant compressors move the refrigerant through this circuit
&cooling water circuit & nominally 15 deg .C entering water cooling tower , 1> deg. C
leaving cooling tower, i.e. nominally 1> deg .C entering condenser of chiller
assembly, 15 deg. C leaving condenser of chiller assembly G Condenser water pumps
move condenser water through this circuit. See attached diagram and See

3-2 Water cooling tower

A water cooling tower cools the water entering it from 15 deg. C to 1> deg. C
nominally. #he warmer water is sprayed inside the cooling tower admidst the stream
of an upward air flow produced by the fan at the top of the tower. #he air stream
going out carries water particles. #hese water particles should not be ta,en into
buildings, to avoid Iegionnaire disease to occur. Condenser water pumps move
condenser water through this circuit. 6ater in this circuit has to be treated. #here is
water loss to atmosphere in using cooling towers. )or cooling towers, see , and

3. 4irect epansion Systems

[i.e. direct epansion of refrigerant, without the chilled water cooling medium ]

4-1 irect e!pansion Systems [i.e. direct epansion of refrigerant , without the chilled
water cooling medium ] &6indow Air Conditioners

A window unit is an encased assembly designed primarily for mounting in a window,
through a wall, or as a console. #hese units are designed for comfort cooling and to
provide delivery of conditioned air to a room either without ducts or with very short
ducts. #hey include a prime source of refrigeration, dehumidification, means for
circulating and cleaning air, and may also include means for ventilating, and/or
ehausting and heating.

)ig 3..a

)ig 3..b

)ig 3..c

)ig 3..d

%n a window air conditioner, the indoor unit and outdoor unit of the split system is put
into one single unit. #he refrigerant compressor now is part of the machine locating at
the window area. Since this compressor gives out most noise, among other
components, the window unit will ma,e the room acoustically inferior to other air
conditioning systems. )resh air echange for the room can be provided by :&
&B.C setting the LventilatorM switch of the window air conditioner to LopenM position
&B/C installing a ventilating etract fan in the room to etract room air to outside G
caution& not to oversi"e the fan
&B1C naturally lea,ing of air in and out of the room
See!html/recrefr.htm and!html/recroom.htm

4-2 irect e!pansion Systems [i.e. direct epansion of refrigerant , without the chilled
water cooling medium ] &7nitary and 0ooftop Air Conditioners

)ig 3./

#hese are commonly air&cooled units.

#he units are the floor G standing type designed for installation
outdoors or on the roof.

A supply air duct and a return air duct are to be connected to the
cooling unit.

Application: )or general air conditioning of stores, residences,
schools, offices, etc. particularly suitable for single flat building with
etensive floor areas.

A remote controller should be installed on an easily accessible wall,
incorporating a temperature selection switch J thermostat.

A case study o( installing large unitary air conditioners (or a church
6 See photos and diagrams 7
&church building built in .=35&.=5>, with no air conditioning
&Air conditioning added to the church in .==> with minimum interior change G only
small portions of the windows inside the church hall were changed for fitting supply
air grilles and return air louvers
& the large unitary air conditioners were supported by s mild steel frame from the
ground, detached from the church hall building, giving practically no structural
loading problem and machinery vibration problem to the church hall
&the fan power and the grilles were selected to prevent the use of distributing dir
ducting inside the church hall.
& 1 large unitary air conditioners were installed respectively to serve the front, middle
and rear part of the hall, allowing partial operation of the hall with minimum use of
air conditioning
&fresh air mies with return air before going through the air conditioner. Kart of the
cooled air coming out of the air conditioner will ehaust into the entrance hall before
leaving the church building.

4-3 irect e!pansion Systems [i.e. direct epansion of refrigerant , without the chilled
water cooling medium ] & Split type and pac,age air conditioning systems

pac,age air conditioning systems & )actory assembled Bfloor
mountingC pac,age, placed indoor, containing direct epansion coil, controls,
fan and compressor, with the condenser remotely placed outdoor ? commonly
used in (ong Nong for restaurants, cafO shops, factories, etc

)ig 3.1a

)ig 3.1b

split air conditioning systems & )actory assembled Bceiling
mountingC indoor unit of fan and direct epansion coil, controls, with the
condensing unit [i.e. compressor and condensing coil ] remotely placed
outdoor ? commonly used in (ong Nong for cafO shops, small offices, some
domestic units, etc
Case study G see http://arch.h,u.h,/teaching/pro@ect/pro@ect1>/.html

4-3-1- 5he basic concepts o( a split air conditioning system 6 Small system7

a- A split air conditioning system consists of an indoor unit and an outdoor unit
connected together by refrigerant pipes. #he refrigerant circulates between these /
units [i.e. / parts of the system] to ta,e heat from indoor to outdoor, by firstly having
heat of the room air absorbed into the refrigerant via an air&refrigerant heat echanger
which is the indoor unit, then conveying the heat to the outdoor unit for disposal. See!html/reccent.htm

b- 5he indoor unit comprises a finned coil and a fan which is driven by an electric
motor. 0efrigerant is circulated inside the finned coil to the outside unit and then bac,
to the indoor unit. #he fan pulls or pushes air around the outer surfaces of the coil
inside the indoor unit, ta,ing warm air from the room and in@ecting cooled air into the
room in summer. #he refrigerant has no direct contact with air. So the heat of the
room air is transferred into the refrigerant in the indoor unit. %nside the coil,
refrigerant evaporates, and the indoor unit is therefore commonly called an
evaporator by the engineers. #he indoor unit is wall&mount or ceiling mount unit.
See http://www.dai,

c- 5he outdoor unit
#he refrigerant then ta,es the heat from the indoor unit to the outdoor unit, which is
commonly called a condensing unit- [ i.e. a unit for refrigerant to condense] %n an
air&cooled outdoor unit, heat echange occurs in the same way as the indoor unit.
(owever, the outdoor unit contains a refrigerant compressor, in addition to having a
finned coil and motor&driven fan. #he refrigerant does not have direct contact with
air. 0efrigerant going through this outdoor coil is losing its energy across the metal
surface of the coil to the atmosphere, as outside air is drawn pass the surface of the
finned coil by the fan. Ay passing through this finned coil, the outside air is heated
up, by normally about 5 deg. rise in temperature. #he outside air passing through the
outdoor unit is an open circuit. #hat is, air path is not recirculated.
See http://www.dai,

#he refrigerant compressor, which usually is installed inside the outdoor unit, is
pumping the re(rigerant through the indoor unit and the outdoor unit- 6 %n the
split system therefore the compressor G generating noise when pumping refrigerant&
is located outdoor , inside the outdoor unit7 5he re(rigerant ta$es up energy as it
goes through the indoor unit, and re8ects energy to the outside atmosphere as it
goes through the outdoor unit- *nergy re8ected is the sum o( the energy ta$en
indoor plus the energy consumed by the compressor in pumping the re(rigerant
through the re(rigerant circuit- 5his re(rigerant circuit is a closed circuit, and i(
pipe 8oints are well installed , no lea$age o( re(rigerant should occur-

d- Air circuits (or the indoor environment- #he air passing through the indoor unit
is cooled, say to .5 deg. C, before recirculated bac, to the room. A large part of air
heated up in the room, say to /5 deg. [ 8ote : 4esign room temperature is /1 deg C
in general for human comfort ] then goes bac, to the indoor unit for cooling. A
small part of room air is etracted to outside by an ehaust fan, with an amount of
fresh outside air coming in to replenish this amount ehausted. 8ow this ma,e up air
can be supplied by connecting a small air duct from an eternal opening to the indoor
unit. See diagram attached

e- Single splits and multiple splits
-single split G one indoor unit is connected to one outdoor unit by insulated copper
refrigerant pipes
-multiple splitsG several indoor units are connected to one outdoor unit by insulated
copper refrigerant pipes
See http://www.dai,
See also for a design guide

(- *nergy saving options

%f heat re@ection in the outdoor unit is ta,en care by cooling water , there would be a
saving of 1>H of energy. %n urban areas,. cooling water can be provided by fresh
water cooling towers. #he water cooling tower can be placed at the top of a building,
with a pump drawing water from it to circulate the condensing water to the outdoor
units of the split system. After ta,ing up heat from the outdoor unit, with an increase
of unusually 5 deg. C, condensing water is circulated bac, to the cooling tower for
cooling again. *f course the finned coil f the outdoor unit has to be replaced by a
water 9cooled condenser. See Lwater cooling towerM below.

Another efficient option is to have a few additional valves and controls added to the
basic split system to ma,e it to serve as a heat pump system in winter. #hat is, the
refrigerant will do a reverse @ob in ta,ing heat from outside , and re@ecting it to the
indoor environment. #hus the refrigerant goes through a reversed cycle by ta,ing heat
from outside and re@ecting heat to the room. *ne unit of energy for pumping the
refrigerant will cause 3 units of energy to be ta,en from outside, i.e. ,totally 5 units of
energy, into the room. )or heat pumps, see http://www.spec&, , , , ,

g- A variant o( split air conditioning system - A pac$aged system
%f the refrigerant compressor of the outdoor unit of the split air conditioning system is
installed together with the indoor unit, it is called a pac,aged system. #he
compressor now is put indoor, ma,ing the machine less $uite than the split system.
(owever this will allow a larger cooling capacity for the indoor unit, which then will
be floor&mount usually. A pac,aged system is needed if the outdoor unit, now called a
condenser, is put on the roof top, with the indoor unit a few floors below.

h. 4irect epansion air conditioning e$uipments consist of factory&matched
refrigeration cycle components for inclusion is air&conditioning systems which are
field designed to meet the needs of the user. #he following list of variations is
indicative of the vast number of types of unitary air conditioners presently available.

.. ..

Arrangement: single or split.
/. /.

(eat re@ection: air&cooled, evaporative condenser, water&cooled.
1. 1.

7nit eterior: decorative for in&space
applications, functional for e$uipment room and ducts,
weatherproofed for outdoors.
3. 3.

Klacement: floor standing, wall&mounted, ceiling
suspended, roof&mounted.
5. 5.

%ndoor air: vertical upflow, counterflow,
hori"ontal, =>Q and .<>Q degree turns, with fan, or for use
with forced air furnace.
:. :.

Iocations: %ndoor & Fposed with plenums or
furred in ductwor,? concealed in closets, attic, crawl spaces,
basements, garages or e$uipment room.
6all & Auilt&in, window, transom.

*utdoor &0ooftop, wall&mounted or on ground.

4-4 "eat &umps

#he term Rheat pumpS, as applied to a year&round air conditioning system, commonly
denotes a system in which refrigeration e$uipment is used in such a manner that heat
is ta,en from a heat source and given up to the conditioned space when heating
service is wanted, and is removed from the space and discharged to a heat sin, when
cooling and dehumidification are desired.

(eat pumps for air conditioning service may be classified according to

aC aC

type of heat source and sin,.

bC bC

(eating and cooling distribution fluid.

cC cC

#ype of thermodynamic cycle.

dC dC

#ype of building structure.

eC eC

Si"e and configuration.

3.1.. Air&to&Air (eat Kumps

#he air&to&air heat pump is the most common type of heat pumps. %t is particularly
suitable for factory&built unitary heat pumps, and has been widely used for residential
and commercial application. Air is used as the heat source and heat sin,. Ftended
surface, forced convection heat transfer coils are normally employed to transfer the
heat between the air and the refrigerant. 6hen selecting or designing an air&source
heat pup, two factors in particular must be ta,en into consideration:

.C .C

the variation in temperature eperienced in a given locality.
/C /C

the formation of frost.

3.1./ 6ater&source (eat Kumps

#he water&source heat pump uses water and air as the heat source or heat sin,
depending on the mode of operation. 6hen cooling, water is used as the heat sin,,
and the heat pump operates as a water&cooled air conditioner. 6hen heating, water is
used as the heat source and the e$uipment operates as a water chiller.

#he water&source heat pump is suitable for many types of multi&room buildings,
including office buildings, hotels, schools, apartment buildings, manufacturing
facilities and hospitals.


.. ..

Affords opportunity for energy conservation by recovering heat
from interior "ones and/or waste heat and by storing ecess heat from
daytime cooling for night time heating.

/. /.

8o wall openings re$uired.

1. 1.

Ionger epected life than air&cooled heat pumps.

3. 3.

Iower noise level because condenser fans are eliminated.

5. 5.

Fnergy for the heat pumps can be metered directly to each tenant.

:. :.

#otal life cycle cost fre$uently compares favourably to central
systems when considering relative installed cost, operating costs, and system


.. ..

Space re$uired for boiler, heat echanger, pumps and heat re@ector.

/. /.

(igher initial cost than for most other multiple&pac,aged unit

1. 1.

0educed air flow can cause the heat pump to cycle cutout. 9ood
filter maintenance is imperative.