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FINALTERM EXAMINATION
CS301- Data Structures
Question No: 1 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please coose one


__________ only removes items in reverse order as they were entered.
! "tack
! Queue
! Both of these
! None of these
Question No: # ( Marks: 1 ) - Please coose one


ere is a small function definition!
void f"int i# int $%&
'
i ( 1)
% ( *)
+
Su,,ose that a main ,ro-ram has two inte-er varia.les / and y# which are -iven the value 0.
0hen the main ,ro-ram calls f"/#y&) 1hat are the values of / and y after the function f finishes2
! Both / and y are still 0.
! / is now 1# .ut y is still 0.
! $ is still %& 'ut ( is no) #*
! / is now 1# and y is now *.
Question No: + ( Marks: 1 ) - Please coose one


Select the one FALSE statement a.out .inary trees!
! E,er( 'inar( tree as at least one no-e*
! 3very non-em,ty tree has e/actly one root node.
! 3very node has at most two children.
! 3very non-root node has e/actly one ,arent.
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Question No: . ( Marks: 1 ) - Please coose one


3very 456 is _________________
! Binary 0ree
! Com,lete Binary 0ree
! None of these
! /inar( "earc Tree
Question No: 0 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please coose one


Searchin- an element in an 456 tree ta%e ma/imum _______ time "where n is no. of nodes
in 456 tree&#
! 6o-*"n71&
! 6o-*"n71& -1
! 1*.. Lo1#n
! 1.88 6o-*n
Question No: 2 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please coose one


Su,,ose that we have im,lemented a priority queue .y storin- the items in a hea,. 1e are now
e/ecutin- a rehea,ification downward and the out-of-,lace node has ,riority of 9*. 0he node:s
,arent has a ,riority of ;*# the left child has ,riority <* and the node:s ri-ht child has ,riority 8*.
1hich statement .est descri.es the status of the rehea,ification.
! 0he rehea,ification is done.
! 0he ne/t ste, will interchan-e the two children of the out-of-,lace node.
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! 0he ne/t ste, will swa, the out-of-,lace node with its ,arent.
! 0he ne/t ste, will swa, the out-of-,lace node with its left child.
Question No: 3 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please coose one


Su,,ose you im,lement a hea, "with the lar-est element on to,& in an array. Consider the
different arrays .elow# determine the one that cannot ,ossi.ly .e a hea,!
! ; 8 < 9 3 * 1
! ; 3 8 * 1 9 <
! ; 8 9 3 < * 1
! 3 + 2 . # 0 1
Question No: 4 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please coose one


=f there are *3 e/ternal nodes in a .inary tree then what will .e the no. of internal nodes in this
.inary tree2
! *3
! *9
> *1
22
6esson ? *;"the num.er of internal nodes is N# the num.er of e/ternal nodes will .e N71.)
Question No: 5 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please coose one


=f there are N e/ternal nodes in a .inary tree then what will .e the no. of internal nodes in this
.inary tree2
! N -1
! N71
! N7*
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! N
Question No: 1% ( Marks: 1 ) - Please coose one


1hich one of the followin- is N@0 the ,ro,erty of eAuivalence relation!
! Befle/ive
! Symmetric
! 0ransitive
! Associati,e (lesson no +.)
Question No: 11 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please coose one


0he definition of 0ransitivity ,ro,erty is
! Cor all element / mem.er of S# / B /
! Cor all elements / and y# / B y if and only if y B /
! For all ele6ents $& ( an- 7& i8 $ R ( an- ( R 7 ten $ R 7 (lesson no +.)
! Cor all elements w# /# y and D# if / B y and w B D then / B D
Question No: 1# ( Marks: 1 ) - Please coose one


Enion is a _______ time o,eration.
! 9onstant ( lesson : +0 ;a1e 11)
! Folynomial
! 3/,onential
! None of the -iven o,tions
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Question No: 1+ ( Marks: 1 ) - Please coose one


1hich of the followin- is N@0 a correct statement a.out 0a.le 4D0.
! =n a ta.le# the ty,e of information in columns may .e different. yes
! A ta'le consists o8 se,eral colu6ns& kno)n as entities* "6esson ? 3G ,a-e 1 &
! 0he row of a ta.le is called a record.
! 4 maHor use of ta.le is in data.ases where we .uild and use ta.les for %ee,in-
information.
Correct 4 ta.le consists of several columns# %nown as fields.
Question No: 1. ( Marks: 1 ) - Please coose one


=n the worst case of deletion in 456 tree reAuires _________.
! @nly one rotation
! Botation at each non-leaf node
! Botation at each leaf node
! Rotations e<ual to lo1# N (lesson : #+)
Question No: 10 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please coose one


Binary Search is an al-orithm of searchin-# used with the ______ data.
! "orte- (lesson : +5)
! Ensorted
! etero-eneous
! Bandom
Question No: 12 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please coose one


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1hich of the followin- statement is correct2
! 4 0hreaded Binary 0ree is a .inary tree in which every node that does not have a left
child has a 0B34D "in actual sense# a lin%& to its =N@BD3B successor.
! 4 0hreaded Binary 0ree is a .inary tree in which every node that does not have a ri-ht
child has a 0B34D "in actual sense# a lin%& to its FB3@B3DB successor.
! A Trea-e- /inar( Tree is a 'inar( tree in )ic e,er( no-e tat -oes not a,e a
ri1t cil- as a T=REA> (in actual sense& a link) to its INOR>ER successor*
! 4 0hreaded Binary 0ree is a .inary tree in which every node that does not have a ri-ht
child has a 0B34D "in actual sense# a lin%& to its F@S0@BD3B successor.
Question No: 13 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please coose one


By usin- __________we avoid the recursive method of traversin- a 0ree# which ma%es use of
stac%s and consumes a lot of memory and time.
! Binary tree only
! Trea-e- 'inar( tree "lesson ? *; ,a-e 3&
! ea, data structure
! uffman encodin-
Question No: 14 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please coose one


1hich of the followin- statement is N@0 true a.out threaded .inary tree2
! Bi-ht thread of the ri-ht-most node ,oints to the dummy node.
! 6eft thread of the left-most node ,oints to the dummy node.
! 0he left ,ointer of dummy node ,oints to the root node of the tree.
! Le8t trea- o8 te ri1t-6ost no-e ;oints to te dummy no-e*
Lecture # 28 "The left pointer of this node is pointing to the root node of the tree while the ri-ht ,ointer is seen
,ointin- itself i.e. to dummy node. 0here is no ,ro.lem in doin- all these thin-s. 1e have ,ut the address of dummy
node in its ri-ht ,ointer and ,ointed the left thread of the left most node towards the dummy node. Similarly the ri-ht
thread of the ri-ht-most node is ,ointin- to the dummy node. Now we have some e/tra ,ointers whose hel, will
ma%e the nextnorder routine function ,ro,erly.I
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Question No: 15 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please coose one


Consider a min hea,# re,resented .y the followin- array!
11#**#33#99#<<
4fter insertin- a node with value 88.1hich of the followin- is the u,dated min hea,2
> 11#**#33#99#<<#88
! 11#**#33#99#88#<<
! 11#**#33#88#99#<<
! 11#**#88#33#99#<<
Question No: #% ( Marks: 1 ) - Please coose one


Consider a min hea,# re,resented .y the followin- array!
3#9#8#;#<
4fter callin- the function deleteJin"&.1hich of the followin- is the u,dated min hea,2
! 9#8#;#<
! 8#;#<#9
! .&0&2&3
! 9#8#<#;
Question No: #1 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please coose one


1e can .uild a hea, in ________ time.
! Linear (lecture : +% ;a1e 4)
! 3/,onential
! Folynomial
! None of the -iven o,tions
Question No: ## ( Marks: 1 ) - Please coose one


Su,,ose we are sortin- an array of ei-ht inte-ers usin- Auic% sort# and we have Hust finished the
first ,artitionin- with the array loo%in- li%e this!
* < 1 ; K 1* 11 10
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1hich statement is correct2
! Te ;i,ot coul- 'e eiter te 3 or te 5*
! Te ;i,ot coul- 'e te 3& 'ut it is not te 5*
! 0he ,ivot is not the ;# .ut it could .e the K
! Neither the ; nor the K is the ,ivot.
Question No: #+ ( Marks: 1 ) - Please coose one


1hich formula is the .est a,,ro/imation for the de,th of a hea, with n nodes2
! lo1 ('ase #) o8 n
! 0he num.er of di-its in n ".ase 10&# e.-.# 19< has three di-its
! 0he sAuare root of n
! n
Question No: #. ( Marks: 1 ) - Please coose one


Su,,ose you im,lement a Jin hea, "with the smallest element on to,& in an array. Consider the
different arrays .elow) determine the one that cannot ,ossi.ly .e a hea,!
! 18# 1G# *0# **# *9# *G# 30
! 18# *0# 1G# *9# **# 30# *G
! 18# *9# 1G# *G# 30# *0# **
! 12& #.& #%& +%& #4& 14& ##
Question No: #0 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please coose one


1hile Hoinin- nodes in the .uildin- of uffman encodin- tree if there are more nodes with same
freAuency# we choose the nodes _______.
! Ran-o6l(
! 0hat occur first in the te/t messa-e
! 0hat are le/ically smaller amon- others.
! 0hat are le/ically -reater amon- others
Question No: #2 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please coose one


Consider the followin- ,ara-ra,h with .lan%s.
4 LL.LL.. is a linear list where LLLLL and LLLL ta%e ,lace at the
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same end . 0his end is called the LL.LLL.
1hat would .e the correct fillin- the a.ove .lan% ,ositions2
! "i& Aueue "ii& insertion "iii& removals "iv& to,
! "i& stac% "ii& insertion "iii& removals "iv& .ottom
! (i) stack (ii) insertion (iii) re6o,als (i,) to;
! "i& tree "ii& insertion "iii& removals "iv& to,
Question No: #3 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please coose one


4 .inary tree with 33 internal nodes has _______ lin%s to internal nodes.
! 31
! +# (n-1 links to internal no-es)
! 33
! 88 "*n lin%s&
A binary tree with N internal nodes has N+1 external nodes.
Pro;ert(: A binary tree with N internal nodes has 2N links:
N-1 links to internal nodes and N+1 links to external nodes.
Question No: #4 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please coose one


1hich traversal -ives a decreasin- order of elements in a hea, where the ma/ element is stored
at the to,2
! ,ost-order
! level-order
! inorder
! None o8 te 1i,en o;tions
Question No: #5 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please coose one


1hat reAuirement is ,laced on an array# so that !inary search may .e used to locate an entry2
! 0he array elements must form a hea,.
! 0he array must have at least * entries.
! Te arra( 6ust 'e sorte-* (lecture : +4)
! 0he array:s siDe must .e a ,ower of two.
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Question No: +% ( Marks: 1 ) - Please coose one


1hich of the followin- is a non linear data structure2
! 6in%ed 6ist
! Stac%
! Queue
! Tree (lecture : 11 ;a1e .)
Question No: +1 ( Marks: 1 )


=f a Binary 0ree has N internal nodes what are the no. of e/ternal nodes in it.
Sol. 6esson ? *;"the num.er of internal nodes is N# the num.er of e/ternal nodes will .e N71.)
Question No: +# ( Marks: 1 )


1hat is meant .y Symmetry in eAuivalence relations2
Sol. Symmetry in eAuivalence relations mean for all elements / and y# / B y if and only if y B /
Question No: ++ ( Marks: # )


ow hea, sort wor%s to sort a set of data.
Question No: +. ( Marks: # )


ow we can a,,ly Cind o,eration on elements com.ined throu-h Enion o,eration.
Question No: +0 ( Marks: + )


ow we can use conce,t of eAuivalence relations to -enerate a JaDe.
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Question No: +2 ( Marks: + )


"u;;ose )e are sortin1 an arra( o8 ei1t inte1ers usin1 a so6e <ua-ratic sortin1 al1orit6*
A8ter 8our iterations o8 te al1orit6?s 6ain loo;& te arra( ele6ents are or-ere- as so)n
ere:
# . 0 3 4 1 + 2
@ic state6ent is correctA (Note: Our selectionsort ;icks lar1est ite6s 8irst*)
A* Te al1orit6 6i1t 'e eiter selectionsort or insertionsort*
/* Te al1orit6 6i1t 'e selectionsort& 'ut it is not insertionsort*
9* Te al1orit6 is not selectionsort& 'ut it 6i1t 'e insertionsort* (9orrect)
>* Te al1orit6 is neiter selectionsort nor insertionsort*
E* None o8 tese*
Question No: +3 ( Marks: + )


ow many leaf and non-leaf nodes are ,resent in a com,lete .inary tree if its de,th is ; 2
Solution!
6eaf nodes ( *M;(1*G
Non-leaf nodes (1*;
Question No: +4 ( Marks: 0 )


=f we insert a new element into an 456 tree of hei-ht 9# is one rotation sufficient to re-esta.lish
.alance2 Nustify your answer.
Question No: +5 ( Marks: 0 )


@rite -o)n te 9BB co-e 8ro6 "election "ort Al1orit6*
Question No: .% ( Marks: 1% )


Consider the followin- data!
te cat in te at
a& Build freAuency ta.le for the a.ove data.
.& Create a uffman tree to determine the .inary codes for each
character.
c& 1hat will .e the code of each letter2
a&
9aracter Fre<uenc(
c 1
i 1
n 1
e *
a *
h 3
t 9
s, 9
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c)
9aracter 9o-e
c 0000
i 0001
n 0010
e 0011
a 010
h 011
t 10
s, 11
Question No: .1 ( Marks: 1% )


Su,,ose we have .uild a S%i, list .Now we want to add and remove items from the list .Oive
4l-orithms for insert (ite6) and -elete (ite6) methods of the S%i, 6ist.
"olution:
1hen we are -oin- to insert "add& an item "x"#& into a s%i, list# we use a randomiDed al-orithm.
1e send the item in a ,air.
insert
0o insert an item "x# o& into a s%i, list# we use a randomiDed al-orithm!
P 1e re,eatedly toss a coin until we -et tails# and we denote with i the num.er of
times the coin came u, heads
P =f i h# we add to the s%i, list new lists Sh71# L # Si 71# each containin- only the
two s,ecial %eys
P 1e search for x in the s%i, list and find the ,ositions p0# p1 # L# pi of the items
with lar-est %ey less than x in each list S0# S1# L # Si
P Cor j 0# L# i# we insert item "x# o& into list Sj after ,osition pj
-elete
0o remove an item with %ey x from a s%i, list# we ,roceed as follows!
P 1e search for x in the s%i, list and find the ,ositions p0# p1 # L# pi of the items
with %ey x# where ,osition pj is in list Sj
P 1e remove ,ositions p0# p1 # L# pi from the lists S0# S1# L # Si
P 1e remove all .ut one list containin- only the two s,ecial %eys