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# 10-04-2014

Abdul Jabbar 12 MN 40
Group # 03
Mechanical Properties of Rocks
Group members
Abdul Jabbar 12 MN 40
Saqib Ali 12 MN 36
Abdullah 12-11 MN 88
Teacher Name
Sir Agha Shafi Jawaid Pathan
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ROCKS
1. Engineering design properties .
Uni-axial compressive strength ( E and ).
Tensile strength of rocks.
Shear strength of rocks. Shear strength of rocks.
Tri-axial- Cohesion and internal angle of friction.
2. Index properties.
3. Intrinsic properties.
Uni-axial compressive strength
A compressive strength is the stress required to rupture a
specimen in compression.
The compressive strength is the capacity of a material or
structure to withstand (resist) the compressive forces.
The rock sample is unconfined at its side while the load is
applied vertically until failure occurs. In this case, the applied vertically until failure occurs. In this case, the
compressive strength is called unconfined compressive
strength (uni-axial compressive strength).
In a uni-axial strain test, a cylindrical specimen is loaded
axially.
As the axial load is applied, the material (typically rock or
concrete) tries to expand.
Uni-axial compressive strength
It is one of the most important mechanical properties of rock
material, used in design, analysis and modelling.
In this test, a standard specimen is gripped between the jaws
movable and fixed jaw, and load is applied.
The compression in the specimen The compression in the specimen
is measured by extensometer.
Standard conditions for Ucs
D = core diameter of specimen
= Uni-axial compressive strength

c
= P / ( /4 X D
2
)

c
= Uni-axial compressive strength
Core diameter of 32-75mm
H/d ratio is 2.5 -3.0
Minimum number of tests 10 -20.
Uni-axial Compressive Strength: ISRM Standard Terminology
Ucs < 5 MPa Very Low
Ucs_ 5 25 MPa Low
Ucs_ 25 50 MPa Moderate
Ucs_ 50 100 MPa Medium
Ucs_100 250 MPa High
Ucs > 250 MPa Very High Ucs > 250 MPa Very High
Uni-axial compressive test
Modes of failure of rocks in Ucs
CRUMBLING SHEAR SLABING STRESS PATTERN CONICAL FAILURE
Factor affecting the ucs of rock
Ucs decreases with increasing H/d ratio of specimen.
Ucs decreases with increasing moisture % of specimen.
Ucs decreases with increasing relative humidity of specimen.
Ucs increases with increasing density of specimen.
Low strain rate shows lower Ucs of the specimen.
Low porosity rock has high strength.
Strength decreases with increases in slenderness.
Strength decreases with increase in size of specimen.
Types of Curves
Stress Stress
Linear (Igneous) Convex (sandstone)
Strain Strain
Stress stress
Concave (Shale , limestone ) S shaped (Coal, Rock salt)
Strain Strain
Brazilian Test
It is an indirect tensile test, that consists of applying diametric
Compressive stress to the sample.
Tensile stress will be induced in the lateral direction or
F
P = Load at failure (MN)
D = Diameter of the disc (m)
t = Thickness of the disc (m)

t
= Tensile strength of rock

t
= 2P/D t
F
F
Brazilian test
Minimum diameter NX core (54 mm)
H/d ratio of 0.5:1
curved jig with spherical seating.
A rate of deformation of 64 mm/ minute A rate of deformation of 64 mm/ minute
is recommended.
Shear strength of rock specimen
The stress or load at which a material fails in shear.
The internal resistance of a body to shear stress, typically
including a frictional part (called Angle of internal friction )
and the part independent of friction (called cohesion C).
The most important parameter for planning and designing of
underground and surface mines. underground and surface mines.
There are two (02) methods of shear strength determination:
Direct Shear testing.
Tri-axial compression test.
Direct shear test
A specimen is placed in a shear box.
A confining stress is applied vertically to the specimen, and the
upper ring is pulled laterally until the sample fails.
After applying the normal force, the shear force is applied
horizontally.
After rupture, the shear force can continue to be applied to
obtain the residual strength values.
normal stress
Rock specimen fracture plane
Shear Rrr
stress
Direct shear test
This force causes a shear failure (fracture) along the juncture
between the box sections.
Direct Shear Box assembly for 60mm x 60mm x 25mm thick
specimen
Several specimens are tested at various confining stresses to
determine the shear strength parameters, the rock cohesion (c) determine the shear strength parameters, the rock cohesion (c)
and the angle of internal friction, commonly known as friction
angle (). Normal stress
Rock specimen
fracture plane
Shear Shear
stress
Direct shear test
Core diameter of 25-50mm.
H/d ratio 2.0-3.0.
Minimum no of tests 5-10.
Direct shear test
For a single shear test
A = Area of cross section
=Shear force

1
= Shear strength

1
= /A

1
= Shear strength
For a double shear test
A = Area of cross section
=Shear force

1
= Shear strength

1
= /2A
Punch test
A cylindrical specimen of 150mm diameter and 150mm height.
The test specimen is placed in a clamp such that its upper and
lower surfaces are supported.
A punch type shear tool with a 25.4 mm (1 in) diameter is bolted
to the specimen and a load is applied to the punch

1
= Shear strength
= Shear force at failure along
the shear plane
t= Thickness of disc specimen
D= Diameter of the punch

1
= /D t
Punch test
For a double punch
platens of the machine and is compressed by two steel
punches placed parallel to the top and bottom of end surfaces.
Tri-axial test
A cylindrical rock core is placed in a cell, subjected to all around
(confining) pressure by hydraulic oil acting through a thin
impermeable membrane, and loaded axially to failure.
The specimen is enclosed in an impregnable, airtight flexible
membrane is placed between two hardened spherical seated
platens. platens.
Confining pressure
3
is applied and held constant during the
test by means of a cell hydraulic fluid.
Axial stress
1
is then applied and continuously increased until
failure occurs.
Tri-axial test Parameters
Testing machine capacity 150- 250 MN.
Hoek and Franklin type tri-axial cell.
The cell pressure range is equal to
1700 - 3800 kPa).
Flexible membrane : Flexible membrane :
Rubber tubing 1.6 mm thick wall
and 40-60 Duro hardness.
Cohesive strength and internal
Angle of friction ()
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