HIS3931 – Classical Precedents09/07/2007 07:28:00

Speaking about discussion sections Main themes for today • power and ideology

The Classical Greek and Hellenistic period • Hellenistic o derived from the Greek o not pure Greek Significance of long-term influence of Greek culture and political forms • tremendous • aristocracy, theocracy, and democracy • empire building Greek society • Identities o Romans coined the term Civilization  the root of it civitas  “of the citizens”

 used it to distinguish themselves from the inferior people living outside the cities  they had a proud sense of themselves compared to outsiders o they used the term barbarian to distinguish the outsiders  their tongues sounded like gibberish to them • Slavery o Important to the economy o acquired mainly as a result of war o Athens  some slaves were used for household services and mining  about 270k in 5th century 2Athens  80-100k were slaves o Sparta and others also used slaves  Helot (un-free labor)

 Agricultural work and vastly outnumbered the citizens of Sparta by a ratio of 10:1 o System was oppressive  However, slaves could gain money on their own Greek Empire Building • By the 5th century o all along turkey, black sea, northern Africa and southern France and Spain • Northern Africa o The Greeks set colonies in order to relieve the high populations in the current colonies and cities o also provided grain supplies and wine and cooking oils • From the mid 5th century o Threats from the Persian Empire

o an alliance of the most powerful Greek citystates defeated Persian and spread the Empire of Athens o Rise of Athens  naval league, headed by an Athenian  Athens was the authoritarian over the allies and the colonies  Athens received lots of resources from those colonies and allies, however, it also accounted for tensions in the future  Establishment of settlers and extraction of resources o After the initial cooperation between Sparta and Athens they go into war  The Peloponnesian Wars  Sparta wins

 Since Athens was so powerful this leaves a great void of power, this leads the Macedonian Empire • Macedonian Empire o Persian became Alexander The Great’s primary target  Comes back to Egypt and Babylon  The Persian Emperor runs away and Alexander follows him into India  Once in India he had some battles  After 7 years the armies and his generals were tired and made Alexander turn back o Alexander The Great  A new kind of warfare  wars aimed at conquest

 the Greeks viewed themselves as posing their will to the world through conquest  Did not rule directly  he rules primarily through locals (Satraps)  becomes a feature of all the following empires, however, there were some differences here and there  The elision of knowledge and power  bringing together knowledge and power  it is important to know about the cultures of the people he is encountering  it wasn’t just about taking the army and conquering but also about learning

 The people were focused more on Alexander than on the Empire  he ordered to be worshipped as God • the same happened with Caesar, Napoleon and Hitler  Universalism and Cosmopolitanism  Universalism • something without limits  Cosmopolitanism • the encountering of the different cultures and toleration of those differences  Alexander was the first Emperor with Universal ambitions • He wanted the empire to expand throughout the world • he did not want to make a universal Greek culture

• he rejected Aristotle and follow Greeks o he wanted to reunite east and west o encouraged inter-marriage of the cultures • embrace diversity

Talking points on the Alexander Movie • the attitude of his soldiers toward him • “we are in a new world” • Alexander died before he realized his vision o the subsequent empires did have some kind of universalism and cosmopolitanism (pg. 13 in the book)

The Empire of Alexander • short-lived

• used locals for power • and was primarily focused on him, thus his death killed the empire

The Roman Empire • by the 5th century BCE the Romans began to define a separate existence • had their own alphabet based on the Greeks • Republic and Citizens o Citizenship  You had the right to serve in a elite military unit and got paid more to do so  the right to inherit from other roman citizens  the right to marry other roman citizens  could hold office in the imperial administration  could be spared of harsh punishment

 if roman you had a different trial and punishments than outsiders  this were the rights of all roman citizens no matter rich or poor  this distinctions become very important over time o slavery was one of its basic features  spread steadily as agriculture became increasingly commercialized  brought in from Spain, Africa, Germany, all over the empire  worked in mines, often under brutal conditions  large agricultural estates  the roman economy became dependent on slaves  this need for labor helped the policy of expansion

• Roman Expansion and Crisis o Strong army  Used the army to gain control of central Italy  next moved down to southern Italy o Reasons for expansion  To establish their reputations they went to war and take over lands (consuls)  they needed slaves  they wanted to be safe and wanted a little “buffer zone” • Punic wars o Roman v. northern Africa o a series of three wars o in the third war they decided to completely destroy carthage  spread salt in the fields of carthage  made slaves of anybody left alive

• Slavery treatment of conquered peoples o “thorough and ruthless” o in the 2nd and 1st century BCE at least 2 million people were slaves in the roman empire o In the mid 4th century  Rome began to grant citizenship to lands over their power • In the metropole o A lot of economic tension o slave revolts • These problems led to the Empire of Augustus Empire of Augustus • Adopted son of Julius Caesar • Octavian (previous name) • absolute master of the roman world • maintained the expansion of war • he chose the name Caesar Augustus for specific reasons

o it distinguish himself from his predecessors • created new institutions o tolerance for local autonomy  a shift from the republic period where local regions did not have much power  the preservation of existing local leaders  no creation of elaborate bureaucratic system o military organization  the threat of force was always there  planned, systematized, and standardized  in new areas they maintained large outposts  a lot of times the army generals were the local political leaders o systematic law  over-arching system throughout the empire

 greatest intellectual achievement  legacy of international law  relationship between the people and the state  the idea of just and unjust wars  the extension of citizenship  conquered areas could have their people become Roman citizens  “Civis Romanus Sum” • I am a Roman Citizen  full access to roman law  in 212 AD all free inhabitants of the empire were given roman citizenship  this led to a cosmopolitan policy that was key to the longevity of the empire

 the Romans granting these citizenship policies thought that the empire would reach the whole world • by 180 AD the empire began it’s long decline o the empire was too large to maintain

The Roman Model • a “model empire” • pg. 19 - Rome has provided most of the culture from it’s point on Housekeeping things

09/07/2007 07:28:00

09/07/2007 07:28:00