HIS3931 – Oceanic Imperialism 07:30:00

11/07/2007

Power is the main theme for today with a sprinkle of movement

why did Europeans want to travel? • curiosity, they wanted to know what was out there • competition within the European powers • desire for better access to Asian goods, especially pepper o spices, drugs, and aromatics were the most profitable goods in the world. Weight per revenue (extremely profitable) • religious motivation

Trading-Post Empires • until about 500 years ago most empires were concerned with commanding land and people

o the wanted power over the people where the goods were produced • there is now empires that control trade o they control how goods move around the world o on land and sea  land was more difficult than sea o a stranglehold on the trade within a geographic region  you could take over ports  control the routes of access  able to patrol the routes of access and intersect competitors • there are some examples of the classical period of trade empires, but they did not last very long • the post empires of trade were much larger and lasted much longer

o the British empire has become the classic form of imperialism • dominant sea going empires were Spain and Portugal o 1490s – to mid 17th century o the Americas and Spain became the dominant power in the 3Americas o they were not so much conquers as they were traders • The French, the Dutch, and the English then start to become into trade countries o The Dutch have just broken free from Spanish rule o England was not a major European power  it was a small kingdom, not very powerful  but they were able to establish global power because of their increasing of their navy

 England is taking over the United Kingdom at this time o the French was just coming out of the reformation battles o These countries are termed as the fiscalmilitary states  they were much better at collecting taxes  fiscal  and waging wars  military side • Differences between the land and sea empires • (audio) o indigenes  natives, indigenous people Technology • gave Europeans a better advantage • only at this point European ships were able to compete with Asian ships

• by cracking the wind codes, they were able to establish long trade routes • Europeans now could travel to Asia by going pat the African south • 1490’s Breakthrough decade o Columbus o John Cabot  discovered direct route across the north Atlantic o Vasco da Gama  Asian oceans • Military Technology o They were able to make advances in ship firepower o Lighter guns, more mobile and could be put in ships o improvements in fortification

o there were no other ships with mounted artillery

The Indian Ocean • the Portuguese seaborne empire o direct trade with southern India o establish a base in Goa o establish a direct access with south east Asia as well o direct contact with Thailand and china o and then Japan o they took over Malacca in modern Malaysia  they were after nutmeg, cloves, aromatics o they also attacked the ships of their competitors o establish extensive bases all over Asia and Africa o Portuguese empire was feeble and shallow

 they are not coming in as empirical power but as a pest o the Portuguese were participating as shippers and traders in the existing commerce of Asia, not as dominators o most of the Portuguese lived in places not under their control and married native peoples o they were welcomed into these areas  because they enhanced the existing trade routes, they did not pose a threat o Francisco Vieira da Figueiredo  A sense of an individual of somebody that operated at this time  a poor Portuguese soldier in the east  turned to trade to make a living  Cosmopolite  somebody who could move easily and readily throughout societies

• some direct trade with Europe • European participation in commerce was of commerce within Asian commerce • in the Indian ocean region the Portuguese had a bit higher technology but the Asians had a better arms so they traded on their terms Portugal’s Rivals • English East India Company (1600) o Trade of spices and textiles • United East India Company of the Netherlands (1602) • Portuguese were defeated and the English were granted the new trading rights with India by the Mughal Emperor (Jahangir) • the Europeans were again working within the Indian commerce system and not as powerful lords

The Age of Partnership

• the Europeans are trading on the terms of those they are trading with the Europeans are not longer taking over their land

11/07/2007 07:30:00

11/07/2007 07:30:00