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ENS/ELT466
TelecommunicationSystemsLab
Fall2013
Week3 Sept.17
PleaseturninLabReport#2now!
Oscillators
TelecommunicationSystemsLab(ENS466)
Fall2013
Week3 Sept.17
9/19/2013
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TheCosineWave
Muchofcommunicationsengineeringisbuiltaroundthecosinesignal,givenby:
Here,A istheamplitude,f isthefrequency,| isthephase,and e= 2tf istheangular
frequency.Thecosinefunctionisperiodic,repeatingitselfexactlyaftereveryperiod
T = 1/f.TheunitoffrequencyistheHertz(Hz),equivalenttosec
1
.
( ) cos(2 ), also written
( ) cos( ) or ( ) cos[( / ) ]
s t A ft
s t A t s t A t T
t |
e | |
= +
= + = +
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
0 1 2 3 4 5
s
(
t
)
t (sec)
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
0 1 2 3 4 5
s
(
t
)
t (sec)
A =1
f =1Hz
| =0
A =1
f =5Hz
| =0
Oscillators
Theoscillatorisafeedbackcontrolsystemthatproducesanoscillatingoutput
(becomesunstable)onlyifthemagnitudeoftheloopgainis1(Barkhausen
criterion). Mathematically,
A(s)1
Oscillatorsareelectroniccircuitsthatgenerateperiodicsignals:cosinewaves,square
waves,triangularwaves,pulsetrains,etc.Theyareusedtogeneratecarriers,clock
signals,andtestsignals.
Feedbacknetwork
Amplifier
Barkhausen criterion
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PhaseinOscillators
Foranoninvertingamplifier (i.e.,positiveinputvoltageswingcausesapositive
outputvoltageswing),sinusoidaloscillationisenabledwhenthephaseshiftthrough
thefeedbacknetworkiszero.Therefore,thefrequencyofoscillationmaybesetby
controllingthephaseresponseofthefeedbacknetwork.
Feedbacknetwork
Amplifier
Willoscillateatfrequencywhere
phaseangleof|(s)=0
AsingleRCelementyieldsbetween0and90phaseshift.Soatleasttworeactive
elementsarenecessarytomakeasinusoidaloscillator.
LCOscillators
AnLCoscillatormaybemechanicallytunedwithanadjustablecapacitororinductor.
LCoscillatorshavebecomelesspopularbecauseinductorstendtobebulkyandare
verydifficulttobuildintoanIC.
Atradiofrequencies,theclassicsolutionistouseanLCresonantcircuitcontaining
bothacapacitorandaninductor.TheColpitts oscillatorisshownbelow
Amplifieroutput
Feedbackpath
LCresonantcircuit
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CrystalOscillators
Quartzcrystaloscillatorsprovidetheclocksignalsinyourwatch,yourcellphone,and
practicallyeverypieceofdigitalelectronicstoday morethantwobillionare
manufacturedannually,accordingtoWikipedia.
Forafixedfrequencyoscillatorwithgreatstabilityandfrequencyprecision,quartz
crystaloscillatorsrule.Quartzis piezoelectric,meaningthatelectricfieldscause
mechanicalmotionandviceversa,sothattheacousticresonancesofthecrystal
createelectricalresonancesthatcanreplaceanLCcircuit andthecrystalsare
typicallyjustafewmminsize.
Quartzcrystalequivalentcircuit QuartzcrystalColpitts oscillator
WienBridgeOscillator(1)
Thetransferfunctionofthefeedback
loopisgivenby:
Foraudiofrequencieswhereinductorswouldbetoolarge,twoRCstagescanbe
arrangedforzerophaseshiftfeedback,asinthisWienbridgeoscillator.
2
1 2
( )
O
V Z
s
V Z Z
|
+
= =
+
Here,s isthecomplexfrequency
parameterusedinlinearcircuit
theory.ExpressingZ
1
andZ
2
interms
ofR
1
,R
2
,C
1
,andC
2
,allowsustofind
thecomponentvaluesneededto
achievezerophaseshiftatour
desiredoperatingfrequency.
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WienBridgeOscillator(2)
Asshowninthisweeksassignmentnotes,bychoosingR
1
=R
2
=R andC
1
=C
2
=C,the
transferfunctionmaybeexpressedas:
( )
2
( )
1
3
O
V RC
s
V
RC j RC
|
e
e
+
= =
| |
+
|
\ .
For| tohaveaphaseofzero,itmustbereal
thefactormultiplyingj mustbezero.
( )
2
0
1 1
0 =
2
RC f
RC
e
e t
=
Bysettingthemagnitudeof| tobe1,we
find:
=2
f
i
R
R
Duetothenonidealpropertiesofrealcomponents,R
f
/R
i
willprobablyneedtobe
slightlygreaterthanitsidealvaluetoachieveoscillation.
SteadyStateOperation
Iftheloopgainisslightlylessthan1,oscillationwilldieout.Iftheloopgainisslightly
greaterthan1,theamplitudeofoscillationwillkeepincreasing.
( ) 1 A s | <
( ) 1 A s | >
Inpractice,asteadystate condition
happenswhenthesignallevelislarge
enoughtostartoverloadingtheamplifier.
If||(s)| istoolarge,theresultwillbe
severeclippingofthecosinewave.So
||(s)|shouldbejustlargeenoughto
causestableoscillation,butnolarger.
steady-state
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RelaxationOscillators
ElectronicrelaxationoscillatorsareeasilymadeusingRCcircuitswithoutany
inductorsorcrystals.Becauserelaxationoscillationisintrinsicallyanonlineareffect,
itisbestunderstoodinthetimedomain.
Relaxationoscillatorsoccurwhenaphysicalsystemispushedgraduallyawayfromits
equilibriumposition,thenabruptlysnapsback.Examplesaboundineverydaylife,
includingthescreechoftireswhenacarbrakesandthesustainednotesofaviolin.
RelaxationOscillatorFrequency
Theanalysisinthehandoutmakesseveralsimplifyingassumptions,includinginfinite
gainandnotimedelayintheopamp,sotheactualfrequencyobservedmaydiffer
somewhatfromthetheory.
Theoperatingfrequencyoftherelaxationoscillatoriscomputedbyconsideringthe
chargingtimeoftheRCcircuitandthereferencevoltagesetbytheresistivevoltage
dividerattheopampoutput,asexplainedinthehandout.
2
1 2
R
R R
o =
+
1 1
2 ln
1
T RC
f
o
o
+ | |
= =
|

\ .
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Summary
Oscillatorsareusedtogenerateperiodicsignalsforcarriers,clocksignals,andtest
signals.
TheBarkhausen criterionstatesthatthemagnitudeoftheloopgainmustbe1
forthefeedbacksystemtooscillate.
Inasinusoidaloscillatorbasedonlinearcomponents,thephaseshiftaroundthe
feedbackloopmustbezero.
LCoscillators,whichuseaninductorandacapacitortocreatearesonantcircuit
thatsetstheoperatingfrequency,areusedforhighfrequencyRFdesigns.
Crystaloscillators,whosefrequencyissetbysoundwaveresonancesina
piezoelectriccrystal,areincludedinvirtuallyalldigitalelectronics.
Electronicrelaxationoscillators,whosefrequencyissetbythechargingtimeofan
RCcircuit,aresimpleandinexpensive,foruseinnondemandingapplications.
Relaxationoscillatorsareinherentlynonlinearsystems,sotheyarebestanalyzedin
thetimedomain,ratherthanthefrequencydomain.
LabReports(1)
LabreportsforENS/ELT466shouldbewritteninthestyleofindustryinternaldocuments
(ratherthanscientificresearchpapers).Suchlabreportsarewrittentopresentmanagement
withanswerstotechnicalquestionsinsupportofdecisionmaking,ortodocumentprocedures
andknowledgeforuseinfutureprojects.
ForENS/ELT466,Isuggestorganizingthereportsin5or6sections:
Objective abrief (oneortwosentences)outlineofthetopicsaddressedandthemethods
used.
Introduction oneortwoparagraphsexplainingwhythetopicsareimportantandhowthe
answerswillinformusaboutcommunicationsystemsandotherelectronicapplications.
Procedures/Methods astepbystepdescriptionofhowthestudywasconducted.The
lengthofthissectionmayvaryfromweektoweek.
Results&Discussion thissectiondescribesyourobservations,referringtofiguresand
tablesasnecessary,anddiscusseswhatthoseobservationsmean.
Conclusions learningsfromthestudyarepresentedhere.Usuallyoneortwoparagraphs,
theConclusionsarethetakehomemessagesforthereader.
References listsworkbyothersusedincompletingtheexperimentorreport.Youneed
notlistthelabhandoutsorlecturenotes,butshouldincludeotherreferencesyou
consulted(e.g.,librarybooks,Wikipedia,).Youmightnothavereferencesinevery
report.
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LabReports(2)
Labreports,likealltechnicaldocuments,shouldbewrittenwithyourreadersneedsinmind.
Theyshouldtellreaders(i)whatwasstudied;(ii)howthestudywasdone,inenoughdetail
thataskilledworkercouldrepeatit;(iii)whatresultswerefound;and(iv)whatcanbelearned
fromthoseresults.
Reportsshouldbeconcise (i.e.,brief,complete,andwellorganized),theyshouldbeaccurate,
andtheyshouldbereadable (i.e.clear,grammatical,freeoftypographicalerrors).
Gradingcriteria:
20pointsaregrantedforcompletingthelabandhandinginalabreport.Theremaining80
pointsareassignedaccordingtothequalityofthelabreport,asdescribedbelow
Content(32pts) shouldbecomplete,correct,andappropriate
Writing(24pts) shouldbeclearandgrammatical
Organization(16pts) shouldhaveheaders/sectionsasneeded,withaclearlogicalflow
Presentation(8pts) shouldbeneatandhaveminimaltypographicalerrors
Anoteaboutfigures.Figuresareusedtopresentdatadirectlytoyourreaders,buttheyare
not asubstituteforanarrative(text)sectiononResults.Eachfigureortableshouldbe
numbered(Romannumeralsfortablesandregularnumbersforfigures),andeachshouldhave
acaptionbrieflydescribingit.Thetextsectionwillrefertothefigurebynumber,explaining
whattolookforineachone.
ENS466/ELT466 Assignmentsdue9/24
LabReport:
Labreport#3willcoverAssignment2.1;itisdueatthebeginning ofclasson9/24
HomeworkAssignment:
2problemsandsomereadingaboutthe555timerchip.Seethehomework
assignmentsheetpostedonBlackboard.
Dueatthebeginning ofclasson9/24
9/19/2013
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Week3:Backups/Alternates
TelecommunicationSystemsLab
(ENS466)
Fall2013
Week3 Sept.17