Empire and U.S.


02/08/2007 07:30:00

Guantanamo Bay • We get it from the Spanish American War • The Platt Amendment. 99 year lease in 2001 was up. • After WWII we get to keep the base in perpetuity Embedded Histories – America in a World of Empires • US is born out of Empire • The Founding Fathers thought of the US as existing within a world of Empires o They want to be one of those empires o They speak about becoming an empire o Not the same sense of empire, however.  Continental expansion o In the late 19th century is becomes an issue about land across the oceans, before then it’s just land through the continent • Ideology o Foreign policy in which empire is present o National greatness o The desire to being a great power o Racialized view of the world  It isn’t until the 1960s that racism is being challenged o Gendered view of the world o Christian Civilizing mission

 Founding fathers not so much  By 1920-30, it becomes a powerful force  Missionaries go from America to the middle east o Economic and Political development model  they are free land holders and they should have political rights under British rule  by the early 19th century land holders are surpassing land holders in Britain o Ambivalence toward Revolutions  they don’t really like the French revolution  they don’t like the radicalization of the French revolution in the 1790s  they start to be scared about the racial system, and the revolution of Haiti, and that it could happen in the southern states Contact o The US is unique o pre-independence the US is a settler colony from many different European nations o the settlers outnumber the indigenous people very quickly o by 1820 80% of the population of all the continental US is European descent Power o Economic and Military power  Growth rates compared to the other parts of the world  <2% for other European nations  >4% for the US o empire of liberty or for liberty

be free, or push liberty around the world do you want a highly centralized power that can create armies and navy Early American Tensions • The American Multiplication Table and the Wicked Factions o Every generation the population is doubling o you need more land in order to sustain this many people o Madison comes up with the idea of the Wicked Factions  the biggest threat are the wicked factions  more and bigger factions fighting for limited resources  in order to deal with it is by having more land  land will separate the factions and to do that you need a strong federal gov’t o Madison and Hamilton  They talk about empires in official documents and how to protect American democracy  this fundamental idea leads to the continental expansion o 1803 Louisiana Purchase  doubles the size of the United States in one shot • Continental Expansion o Two ways to get resources out and in o the Mississippi river and the great Lawrence river o Andrew Jackson is concerned with native removal policies • Washington Farewell Address  

o You need to avoid entanglement alliances  Avoiding formal alliances with European powers  they want to be pushed by treaties to do things with them or for them o is not about isolationism is about being a different kind of power • The Monroe Doctrine (1823) o Europeans stay there and US stays here o they had no way to challenge that o primarily directed toward the British  British power is going into the pacific  the Americans are concerned with the British having an empire in the Atlantic and the pacific ocean o it is also directed toward Russia o against formal colonialism in the Caribbean Transition: From the Old Foreign Policy to the New (1840s to 1870s) • The Meaning of Land o when industrialization kicks in, land is less important o now economic growth is not by what you grow, but by what you manufacture • The Meaning of a Great Power o they believe they will be an empire, but by the mid 19th century having an Empire is a defining characteristic of a being a Great Power • The Searches for Markets o on the positive side  the domestic market is huge

 its ability to consume its own good o on the negative side  how to get goods from New York to Kansas  ships to other countries help out The Civilizing Mission o by the 1860s Americans are founding schools all over the middle east o Syria, Iran, Turkey had over 40,000 students in American schools o William Henry Seward  bought Alaska  Sec. of State for Lincoln  Production and Westward Moving Empire  we need to find a way to move the products  how to maximize their time as a global power o The Pacific Rim  Alaska, Hawaii o Railroads and a Central American Canal  How to get a canal that will make shipping easier  he starts to look into the Panama Canal  45 years later, after he dies the Panama Canal is created o Frederick Jackson Turner and the American Frontier  Historian that gave an address about the frontier

what happens when we run out of land in the continental US  he begins to think if its possible to have a new frontier beyond the US o Alfred Thayer Mahan – “The Influence of Sea Power Upon History”  Naval strategist  argues against the notion that oceans are barriers  Oceans has Highways of Commerce and the Two-Ocean Navy  allow for goods to be moved back and forth  shipping routes become crucial  we only had a small Atlantic navy  he makes the push for a Two-Ocean navy  The Significance of Industry  The need for the navy is because of the industrial need for shipping goods and protect those goods  without the industry there is no need for the navy o Josiah Strong and the Civilizing Mission  Sold over 175,000 books in the first year in 1890. “Our Country”  In 1909 “Our World”  he's reaching a massive audience when it was not easy to do so o The situation by the 1890s  Economics  The US is the biggest economy in the world since the 1870s  one of the most volatile in the world 

• massive ups and downs • growth and depressions over and over again  Demographics  until about 1910 population keeps accelerating  from 1890 to 1910, 20 million people migrate to the US • plus natural growth The Spanish/American/Cuban/Philippine War and American Imperialism • we acquire Guam, Puerto Rico, Philippines and Cuba • the ideology o business interests  sugar production in Cuba  Philippines and Guam could be a great place to protect the seas for American enterprises o Race, Gender, and the Civilizing Mission o Platt Amendment (1902) o The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine  it will now be US policy to intervene in Latin America to protect US business interests o Teddy Roosevelt as Personification of the Ideology  Speak softly and carry a big stick  rough and tumble intellectual What happens when the US pulls back from the formal control • Cuba and others gain control • US and economic power is taking off • today the US has about 23% of world total output • Pact-o-mania o NATO and others • open door principle of economics is crucial in the US • If the US has a fair opportunity it can beat any other economic power in the world

02/08/2007 07:30:00

02/08/2007 07:30:00