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Guantanamo Bay • We get it from the Spanish American War • The Platt Amendment. 99 year lease in 2001 was up. • After WWII we get to keep the base in perpetuity Embedded Histories – America in a World of Empires • US is born out of Empire • The Founding Fathers thought of the US as existing within a world of Empires o They want to be one of those empires o They speak about becoming an empire o Not the same sense of empire, however. Continental expansion o In the late 19th century is becomes an issue about land across the oceans, before then it’s just land through the continent • Ideology o Foreign policy in which empire is present o National greatness o The desire to being a great power o Racialized view of the world It isn’t until the 1960s that racism is being challenged o Gendered view of the world o Christian Civilizing mission
Founding fathers not so much By 1920-30, it becomes a powerful force Missionaries go from America to the middle east o Economic and Political development model they are free land holders and they should have political rights under British rule by the early 19th century land holders are surpassing land holders in Britain o Ambivalence toward Revolutions they don’t really like the French revolution they don’t like the radicalization of the French revolution in the 1790s they start to be scared about the racial system, and the revolution of Haiti, and that it could happen in the southern states Contact o The US is unique o pre-independence the US is a settler colony from many different European nations o the settlers outnumber the indigenous people very quickly o by 1820 80% of the population of all the continental US is European descent Power o Economic and Military power Growth rates compared to the other parts of the world <2% for other European nations >4% for the US o empire of liberty or for liberty
be free, or push liberty around the world do you want a highly centralized power that can create armies and navy Early American Tensions • The American Multiplication Table and the Wicked Factions o Every generation the population is doubling o you need more land in order to sustain this many people o Madison comes up with the idea of the Wicked Factions the biggest threat are the wicked factions more and bigger factions fighting for limited resources in order to deal with it is by having more land land will separate the factions and to do that you need a strong federal gov’t o Madison and Hamilton They talk about empires in official documents and how to protect American democracy this fundamental idea leads to the continental expansion o 1803 Louisiana Purchase doubles the size of the United States in one shot • Continental Expansion o Two ways to get resources out and in o the Mississippi river and the great Lawrence river o Andrew Jackson is concerned with native removal policies • Washington Farewell Address
o You need to avoid entanglement alliances Avoiding formal alliances with European powers they want to be pushed by treaties to do things with them or for them o is not about isolationism is about being a different kind of power • The Monroe Doctrine (1823) o Europeans stay there and US stays here o they had no way to challenge that o primarily directed toward the British British power is going into the pacific the Americans are concerned with the British having an empire in the Atlantic and the pacific ocean o it is also directed toward Russia o against formal colonialism in the Caribbean Transition: From the Old Foreign Policy to the New (1840s to 1870s) • The Meaning of Land o when industrialization kicks in, land is less important o now economic growth is not by what you grow, but by what you manufacture • The Meaning of a Great Power o they believe they will be an empire, but by the mid 19th century having an Empire is a defining characteristic of a being a Great Power • The Searches for Markets o on the positive side the domestic market is huge
its ability to consume its own good o on the negative side how to get goods from New York to Kansas ships to other countries help out The Civilizing Mission o by the 1860s Americans are founding schools all over the middle east o Syria, Iran, Turkey had over 40,000 students in American schools o William Henry Seward bought Alaska Sec. of State for Lincoln Production and Westward Moving Empire we need to find a way to move the products how to maximize their time as a global power o The Pacific Rim Alaska, Hawaii o Railroads and a Central American Canal How to get a canal that will make shipping easier he starts to look into the Panama Canal 45 years later, after he dies the Panama Canal is created o Frederick Jackson Turner and the American Frontier Historian that gave an address about the frontier
what happens when we run out of land in the continental US he begins to think if its possible to have a new frontier beyond the US o Alfred Thayer Mahan – “The Influence of Sea Power Upon History” Naval strategist argues against the notion that oceans are barriers Oceans has Highways of Commerce and the Two-Ocean Navy allow for goods to be moved back and forth shipping routes become crucial we only had a small Atlantic navy he makes the push for a Two-Ocean navy The Significance of Industry The need for the navy is because of the industrial need for shipping goods and protect those goods without the industry there is no need for the navy o Josiah Strong and the Civilizing Mission Sold over 175,000 books in the first year in 1890. “Our Country” In 1909 “Our World” he's reaching a massive audience when it was not easy to do so o The situation by the 1890s Economics The US is the biggest economy in the world since the 1870s one of the most volatile in the world
• massive ups and downs • growth and depressions over and over again Demographics until about 1910 population keeps accelerating from 1890 to 1910, 20 million people migrate to the US • plus natural growth The Spanish/American/Cuban/Philippine War and American Imperialism • we acquire Guam, Puerto Rico, Philippines and Cuba • the ideology o business interests sugar production in Cuba Philippines and Guam could be a great place to protect the seas for American enterprises o Race, Gender, and the Civilizing Mission o Platt Amendment (1902) o The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine it will now be US policy to intervene in Latin America to protect US business interests o Teddy Roosevelt as Personification of the Ideology Speak softly and carry a big stick rough and tumble intellectual What happens when the US pulls back from the formal control • Cuba and others gain control • US and economic power is taking off • today the US has about 23% of world total output • Pact-o-mania o NATO and others • open door principle of economics is crucial in the US • If the US has a fair opportunity it can beat any other economic power in the world